MOVEMENT OF IN AND OUT OF THE CELL Substances move in and out the cell by : 1. 2. 3.

Diffusion Osmosis Active transport

1. Diffusion Diffusion is the movement of particles within a gas or liquid from a region of high concentration to a region of lower concentration until an equilibrium is reached. Example:  Gas exchange in lung Oxygen diffuse from the inhaled air into the blood. Carbon dioxide diffuse from blood into the alveolus  Gas exchange in leaf Carbon dioxide diffuse from air outside the leaf into the leaf then to the leaf cells  Excahge in small intestine Digested food (glucose, amino acid) diffuse from small intestine into the blood in capillaries Adaptation to speed up the diffusion  Distances are short : thin walls  Concentration gradient is maintained : they are circulating, so it doesn’t reach the equilibrium  Diffusion surfaces are large : eg: folded placenta, villi of small intestine 2. Osmosis Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules from a region of higher water potential (more dilute) to a region of lower water potential (more concentrated) across a partially permeable membrane. Dilute solution : more water than other substances Concentrated solution : less water than other substances Effects of osmosis:  When a cell has more dilute solution inside than outside, the osmosis is out of the cell. Animal cell would shrival up (shrink); plant cell would be flaccid.  When a cell has more concentrated solution inside than outside it, the osmosis is into the cell. Animal cell would burst; plant cell would be turgid. 3. Active transport Active transport is the movement of substances from lower concentrated region to higher concentrated region (against the concentration gradient) which requires energy and protein carriers in membranes. Example:  Root hair cell : absorb minerals from the soil  Small intestine : maximising the absorbtion of glucose and other substances. Diffusion High  Low No energy No protein carrier Active Transport Low  High Requires energy Requires protein carriers

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful