Deàmr ˆpeZagIta

mu¹¡mna pãkaSnI
www.mukto-mona.com

mUl pãbÉW * hW ircaàh hikns (pãePsr, A¤ePaàh †ˆinBaiàsiF)
Anubad*W mu¹¡mna pãkaSnIr pQ ŸTekW bnYa VHemd, jaeHd VHmd, AiBij‡ ray
(hW ircaàh hiknesr …† pãbÉiF †„erjIet sàbpãTm Free Inquiry mYagaijenr 24naÜar BluYemr 5 naÜar †suY
Ÿt "What Use is Religion?' iSrnaem pãkaiSt Hy| pãkaSekr Anumit saepeQ pãbÉiF ba„lay Anubad kra
Hl| ba„la Anubaedr ÷¹Ô sÚpUàNrœep mu¹¡mna (www.mukto-mona.com) kàtâk s„riQt| mu¹¡mnar puàb Anumit
bYiterek … rcnar sÚpUàN, ATba V„iSk pãkaS sÚpUàN ŸbV†nI bel gNY Heb| DnYbad| )

Vmaedr carpaeS Dàmcàcar naem ik
ApirsIm Apcy† na kra Hy - …kjn
harˆ†nibd iHeseb Deàmr …† lagamHIn
ApbYiytar idkiF Vmaek Baibey
Ÿtael| pãkáit AtYÇ» imtbYyI, Ÿs pãitiF
muûeàtr, pãitiF pa† pysar iHesb raeK,
ngnY Apcyekw ŸCeR Ÿdy na| Ÿkan bnY
pãaNI Zid tar ÷Babgt kareN AàTHIn
ApãeyajnIy kaej bYó» Taek, pãakáitk
inàbacn (Natural Selection) ifk†
tar ŸTek ŸZagYtr Ÿkan pãitÃÆdIek
ŸbeC Ÿny ŸZ b„SbâiÁ …b„ iFek Takar
kajek† ŸbSI §r›tÔ ide¬C| pãkáit
AàTHIn iblaistaek pãSãy Ÿdy na| Zidw
…t ýpñBaeb Vmra sbsmy ta ŸdKet pa† na, pãkiá t ikǼ tar …† inàmm gitet†
…igey cel|
ikCu paKI VeC Zara ipƒpRar basay paKa huibey idey øan (Anting) ker - ŸdKel
men Heb ŸZena ipƒpeR§elaek idey tara taedr paKa Vº¡mN krae¬C| Hyeta ba …r

ipCen paKa ŸTek jIbanu eJeR ŸPlar mt Ÿkan ÷aóùYgt karN reyeC: ikǼ, …†
Drenr kaejr VedO Ÿkan ˆpkairta VeC ikna ta sÚpeàk Ÿkˆ iniëct ny| teb
…† Drenr Ainëcyta …kjn harˆ†nibdek …sb kàmkae¸r ipCen Ÿkan Baela
karN Taketw paer - ta iniëctBaeb ibSaÔs kra ŸTek ibrt kret paer na|
manux naemr iÃpdI jIbra Dàmcàcar ipCen pãcur smy bYy ker, bYy ker pãcur sÚpdw|
mDYZueg St St bCr Der As„KY manuexr Sãemr ibinmey caàc§ela iniàmt HeyeC|
mDYZug …b„ Ÿrƒensar smykar AiDka„S ŸmDa† bYiyt HeyeC pibº DàmIy s„gIt …b„
icºkæp rcnay| Kub† kaCakaiC VerkiF Deàmr pãit VnugtY pãkaeSr ApraeD Hajar
Hajar - …mnik lQ lQ manuxek AtYacaerr sÚmuKIn Het HeyeC, mâtuYbrN kret
HeyeC| DàmpãaN manuexra taedr Ÿdbtaedr jnY pãaN ideyeC, HtYa kereC, ˆpbas
kereC, icrk™martÔ brN kereC, …mnik smajcUYtw HeyeC|
ibiBÊ ibxey ˆeLKeZagY paàTkY Taka sÿe¹w, páiTbIet …mn Ÿkan smaajbYbóùa en†
ŸZKaen Ÿkan na Ÿkan Drenr smy …b„ AàT ApcyI, ibeÃx sâiñkarI, b„SbâiÁeraDkarI
DàmIy Vcar Anuîfaenr Aió»tÔ ŸdKa Zay na| …† ibxyiF harˆ†nbaed ibSaÔsI ŸZ karw
jnY …kFa bR rkemr DaƒDar mt| Vmra ŸZBaeb paKIedr AYiÆF„ …r ˆeÀSYFa
Anuman keriC, Dàmw ik harˆ†nbadIedr samen …k† Drenr cYael² ˆpóùapn ker
na - Zar Anurœp …kFa ŸZOi¹¡k bYaKYa Ÿdwya Vj Kub† pãeyajn? Vmra Ÿkn pãaàTna
kir, Ÿkn† ba Vmra …t jaƒkjmkpUàN DàmIy Vcar Vcrn paln ker Vmaedr
saraFa jIbn† ˆ‡sàg ker Ÿd†?
DàmIy VcrN tKin harˆ†nbaedr maTabYTa Hey daRay ZKn ta AÄut ekan bYitº¡m
na Hey bûlBaeb ÷Ikát …kiF bYapaer pirnt Hy| Vpatdâiñet, Dàm saàbjnIn, …b„
ìDumaº ibiBÊ smaej …r ibiBÊ rœp VeC bel† smsYaiF Vpna-Vpin dUr Hey Zaeb
na| Baxar mt† Dàm mUlt saàbjnIn …b„ A‚leBed …† ibSÿaesr tartmYw AtYÇ»
lQYnIy| …† pãbeÉr ŸbSIrBag pafk† sÿIkar krebn ŸZ Vmaedr meDY sba† Daiàmk
nn| ikǼ tarprw Dàm manb smaej sàbjnsÿIkát: Ÿpaxak pirDaenr ik„ba Kabar
pirebSenr rIitr mt† pãetYkiF smaej ibeSx DàmIy rIitw pãcilt reyeC; …mnik
Zara Dàmcàca kern na, taraw ŸsFaek samaijk inym iHeseb† Ÿmen celn| taHel pãSÈ
He¬C, Vsel† Dàm ifk ik kaej laeg?
DàmIy ibSÿas ŸZ manuxek ŸFnSnjint (stress-related diseases) AsuK eTek mui¹¡
idet paer- …† DarNariFr ipCen Ÿtmn Ÿkan pãmaN Kuej pawya Zay na| ikǼ …Fa

sitY Helw Vmaedr Abak Hwyar mt ikCu Takeb na| ha¹¡aredr icik‡sar …kFa
lQnIy A„S† He¬C sÿaÇ»na …b„ VSÿas pãdan| Vmar ha¹¡ar maTay Hat builey
icik‡sa kern na, ikǼ Aenk smy† men Hy ŸZ tar ŸóFeTaeôap pRa buiÁdIÐ
ŸcHarar VSÿas baNI ìen† Vmar ŸCaFKaeFa Aenk AsuK Baela Hey igeyeC| ŸragIr
mn rQar jnY imTYa wxuD Ÿdwyar bYapariF (placebo effect) sba† jaenn| Aenk
smy wxuDIy §nablIHIn …†sb nkl biR (dummy pills) ŸKey† ŸdKa Zay ŸragIra
Bal Hey Zay| Ÿs† jnY† ntun wxueDr Fäayaelr smy påYiseba bYbHar kra Hy|
påYisebar mt ŸHaimypYaiT wxueDw Ÿrag Ÿser ˆfet ŸdKa Zay, ATc ŸHaimwpYaiT wxuD
otrI krar smy …§elaek …t† patla ker ŸPla Hy ŸZ taet Ÿrag saraenar Ÿkan
ˆpadan† Vr AbiSñ Taek na|
Dàmw ik, påYisebar mt†, menr ŸóFäs kimey manuexr Vyu baiRey Ÿtael? Hyeta ker,
ikǼ t¹ÔiFek s„SybadIedr saeT prIQay ˆpNIt Het Heb Zara men kern Aenk
ŸQeº† Dàm ASaiÇ» Ÿta kmay† na br„ baiRey Ÿtael| Vmar met Deàmr mt …kiF
ibSal …b„ saàbjnIn …kiF ibxyek bYaKYa krar jnY …iF …kiF AtYÇ» duàbl t¹Ô|
Vmaedr pUàbsurIedr menr ASaiÇ» kimey taedrek dIàGjIib krar maDYem Deàmr
ˆ‡pi¹ HeyiCela bel Vim men kir na| …† Drenr iTwrI Deàmr mt …eta bR …kiF
bYaparek bYKaYa krar jnY VedO ZeTñ ny|
AnYanY t¹Ôguela … sÚpiàkt harˆ†nIy bYaKYa sÚpeàk ŸmaeFw wyaikPHal ny bel
men Hy| ˆdaHrN iHeseb nIecr kTa§il ibebcna kra Zak| "Dàm mHaibSÿ sÚpeàk
Vmaedr ŸkOtUHelr inbâi¹ GFay …b„ mHaibeSÿ Vmaedr Abóùaenr ibxyiF tuel Der',
ik„ba "Dàm saÇÔ»nadayk| manux mâtuYek By pay …b„ Dàm Vmaedr VSÿóù ker Vmra
Amr Takeba|'… smó» kTay mnó»a tai¹Ôk stY Taket paer, ikǼ … §il kKena† har
ˆ†nIy bYaKYa Het paer na| … kTaiF† iöeBn ip„kar ˆeLK kereCn tar "mn ŸZ
Baeb kaj ker' (How the Mind Works, Penguin, 1997) b†etW

"....…iF Ÿkbl pãeSÈr † jnM Ÿdy ŸZ mn Ÿkn …mnBaeb ibkiSt Heb ŸZKaen
taek ýpñ imTYar VSãy inet Heb| brP SItl pirebeS …kjn manux men
men 'Vim ˆx—tay ViC' Babel† Vram paeb na; Ÿtmin is„eHr mueKamuiK
…kjn manux is„Hek Kregas kæpna krel† tar menr smó» BIit dUr Hey
Zaeb na|' (pâòa 555)|

mâtuY By sÚpiàkt harˆ†nIy te¹Ôr ÷rœpiF Hwya ˆic‡ … rkmW "prkael ibSÿaesr
bYapariF §r›tÔ Hairey ŸPel ZKn† …Faek prIQar mueKamuiK Het Hy|' … ibxyiF
stY, ik„ba imTYa Het paer| ATba Het paer- …iF manisk cap …b„ ŸragIr mn
raKar jnY imTYa ‹xD sÚpiàkt VerkiF t¹ Ô- ikǼ Vim Ÿs ibxey ibSd bYaKYay
…Kn Zai¬C na| Vmar mUl b¹¡bY He¬C, …kjn harˆ†nibedr sbsmy … rkm Baeb†
pãSÈ ˆ¾apn kra ˆic‡|
Ÿkan Ÿkan manux ibSÿaesr saeT
…kmt ŸpaxN kern …b„ Ÿkˆ
Ÿkˆ iÃmt ŸpaxN kern- …mn sb
mnó»ai¹Ôk b¹¡bY Ÿkbl maº
ta‡QiNk, Ÿkan cURaÇ» bYaKYa ny|
…kjn harˆ†nibd iHeseb Vim
cURaÇ» pãSȧilr bYapaer† VgãHI|
harˆ†nibdŸdr kaeC ta‡QiNk
Vr cURaeÇ»r paàTekYr bYapariF
ŸbS §r›tÔpUàN| ta‡Q iNk pãSȧil
VmaedrŸk
SrIribdYa
(physiology) Vr mió»ï-A„g
ib¯aenr
(neuroanatomy)
idek Daibt ker| ta‡Qink ˆ¹er
Bul ikCu Ÿn†, …§il §r›tÔpUàN,
…b„ ob¯aink|
ikǼ Vmar kaeC VgãeHr ibxy He¬C harˆ†nIy cURaÇ» bYaKYar bYapariF| ib¯anIra Zid
kKena mió»eï "sâiñkàta ŸkÆÅ' namk Ÿkan ikCur VedO sÉan pan, Vmar mt
harˆ†nibedr kaeC tKn ij¯asar ibxy HebW "sâiñkàta ŸkÆÅ' iF Ÿkn ibkiSt
HeyeC| Ÿkn Vmaedr Ÿs† smó» pUàb pur›x Zara b„Sgt nIitr (genetics) bedOlet
"sâiñkàta ŸkÆÅ' ŸpeyeC, tara Ÿkn iFek Taket ŸpereC taedr pãitpeQr tulnay,
Zaedr mió»eï "sâiñkàta ŸkÆÅ' ibkiSt Hyin? cURaÇ» harˆ†nIy pãSÈguil ikǼ mió»ï
ib¯aenr ta‡QiNk pãeSÈr tulnay ŸbSI Bal, gBIr ik„ba ib¯ansÚmt ny| tbuw Vim
…Kaen …† pãSÈguil† Velacna kriC|

Ÿkˆ Ÿkˆ AiBeZag kereCn, cURaÇ» bYaKYar ibxyiF Vsel dlgt baCa† te¹Ôr†
(group selection theories) AnY rœp| dlgt inàbacn …kiF ibtiàkt DarNa
ŸZKaen bla Hy harˆ†nIy inàbacn bYi¹¡r smnÓey gift dl ŸTek baCa† ker Taek,
Vbar saDarN harˆ†nIy t¹ ÔAnuZayI ŸdKa Zay …iF Ÿgaiòr mDYkar bYi¹¡ pàZay ŸTek
baCa† ker Taek| ˆdaHrN÷rœp bla Zay - Ÿkmibãj ibSÿibdYaleyr nâ-t¹Ôibd
(anthropologist) kiln ŸrniÒˆ Darna ŸpaxN kern ŸZ KãIöan Dàm iFek ŸTekeC
…k Drenr dl gt baCa†eyr maDYem karN taƒra inejedr meDY ibSÿó»ta …b„
ÙatâtÔSIl Balbasar ibxyiF laln ker| Vemirkan ibbàtnbadI ŸhiBh såwyanw
…k† rkmte¹Ô ibSÿasI|
dlgt baCa† t¹Ô Deàmr ŸQeºw ŸZ kaj kret paer ŸsiFr …kiF kaæpink ˆdaHrN
idi¬C| Dra Zak- …kiF ˆpjait AtYÇ» praº¡mSalI ZueÁr Ÿdbta ba ‰Sÿer ibSÿas
ker| paSapaiS VerkiF ˆpjait SaiÇ» w prmsiHxu—tar Ÿdbtay ker, ik„ba taedr
VedO Ÿkan Ÿdbta ba ‰Sÿr Ÿn†| pãTm dliF iÃtIy delr ibr›eÁ ZueÁ jylaB
kereC| … ŸQeº ŸZ sb ŸZaÁara ibSÿas kereC ŸZ ZueÁ "SHId' Hel tara srasir ÷eàg
ŸpOƒeC Zaeb, tara ŸbiS saHiskta w menabelr saeT ZuÁ kreb …b„ inejedr pãaN
ibsàjn idet k™iËt Heb na| kaej† …mn …kiF ˆpjaitr VÇ»WegaºIy baCa†ey
iFek Takar sÝabna AiDk; tara tKn praijt ˆpjaitr gbaid pì iCiney Ÿneb,
taedr ó½Ielakedr luF ker ˆpptþIet pirnt kreb| …† rkm ˆpjait º¡manÓey
b„SbâiÁ kret Takeb, …k† obiSñ sÚpÊ nUtn jaitr jnM Ÿdeb Zara Ÿs† …k†
ZuÁbaj Ÿdbta, ba ‰Sÿer ibSÿasI| …Kaen pafekr ŸKyal raKa ˆic‡ - Vim Za bliC
ŸsiF ikǼ "ZuÁ baj Dàm iFek Taek' blar ca†et Vlada| AbSY† ŸsiF iFek Takeb,
ikǼ …Kaen Vsl ibebcY ibxy He¬C- Ÿgaº Zara ZueÁr Ÿdbtay ibSÿasI tara† iFek
Taek|
dlgt baCa† t¹Ô iney ŸjaRaela rkemr Vpi¹ reyeC| Ÿs§il sb K¸aena …†
pãbeÉr piriDr ba†er| gaiNitk mehl ŸdiKeyeC - ibeSx ikCu Abóùar pirepãiQet
dl gt baCa† t¹Ô kaj kret paer| blabaûlY, ˆpjaitr Ÿgaeºr ŸQeº Dàm Ÿs†
ibeSx Abóùar ŸpãiQet kaj kereC| …iF …kiF AtYÇ» mjadar t¹Ô ikǼ …Kaen Vim
… ibxey ibxd bàNnay Zab na|
Dàm ik Ÿkan saÚpãitk bYapar? Vmaedr jIN (b„Sgit ˆpadaenr …kk) ŸbiSr Bag
pãeyajnIy pãakáitk inàbacn pãiº¡ya sÚpÊ ker ŸPlar pr ik …r ˆÄb HeyeC? Deàmr
sàbbYaipta …† te¹Ôr ŸZ Ÿkan srlIkrenr ibr›eÁ Abóùan Ÿny| tTaip, …iFr …kiF

bR idk reyeC ŸZiF Vim …Kaen tuel Drb| Vmaedr pUàbpur›xedr meDY dlgt baCa†
ba inàbacn pãiº¡yar maDYem ŸZ obiSñ§il óùan ker ineyiCl ŸsiF pãkát pãó»aeb Dàm ny|
…r AnYanY ˆpkairta iCl, …iF GFnaº¡em Vjek Vmaedr samen DàmIy VcrN
iHeseb pãtIyman He¬C| DàmIy Vcar-Vc reNr bYapariF Ÿkbl tKin Vmaedr kaeC
ýpñ Heb, ZKn Vmra pãSÈiFek AnYBaeb ˆpóùapn kret sQm Hb|
murgI … ŸQeº ˆdaHrN Het paer| sbl murgIedr duàbl murgIek Ÿfakraenar bYapariF
('pecking order')Aenek† lQY ker Takebn| …†'dlgt pãBabSalIta'
('dominance hierarchy')r DarNaiF pãTm murgIedr meDY† Vibïát HeyiCl|
pãitiF murgI iSeK Ÿny ŸkaniFek Ÿs lRa†ey Haraet pareb …b„ ŸkaniF taek
Haraenar Q mta raeK| ŸZ del …† "pãBabSalIta' supãitiîft Hey igeyeC ŸsKaen
pãkaSY lRa† ŸdKa Zay na blŸl† cel| …rkm gã›epr AÇ»àBu¹¡ pakaepa¹¡Baeb Vsn
gaRa murgIra, Gn Gn dl bdl kra AnYanY duàbl murgIedr ca†et ŸbSI ihm paeR| …
bYapariFet dlgt pãBabSalItar ˆdaHrN ŸdKa Zay; ikǼ …iF Ÿkan VdàS
harˆ†nbad ny; karN, …iF …kiF dlgt bYapar| dlgt ˆ‡padnSIltar bYapariF
Hyeta káxŸkr kaeC §r›tÔpUàN; ikǼ A÷aBaibk Ÿkan bYitº¡m CaRa pãakáitk inàbacn
te¹Ôr ŸQeº …r Ÿkan ˆpeZaigta Ÿn† blŸl† cel|"dlgt pãBabSalIta' t¹ÔiF
iFek Takar s„gãaem ktFuk™ mUlYban?'- …kjn harˆ†n ibedr kaeC … pãeSÈr Ÿkan
§r›tÔ Ÿn†| … ŸQeº sifk pãSÈiF Hwya ˆict : "bYi¹¡ pàZaey Si¹¡SalI murgIr
ibr›ÁacarN ker iFek Takar s„gãaemr mUlY kt Fuk™, ik„ba AepQakát duàbl murgIedr
ŸTek Vlada Hey na Takar Qit taek ktFuk™ Ÿpaxaet Hy?' har ˆ†nbaed pãas„igk
pãSȧilek …mnBaeb bYi¹¡ pàZaey iney ŸZet Heb Zaet ŸsKaen b„Sgt obiSeñYr
iBÊta (genetic variations) ŸdKa Zay| …Kaen Vlada Vlada Baeb …k …kiF
murgIr marmuKI pãbN tar ibxy iF §r›tÔpUàN, Ÿkn na pãtYkiF murgIr meDY b„Sgt
obiSeñYr iBÊta VeC| ikǼdl gt pãBabSIltar ŸQeº b„Sgt obiSeñYr iBÊta
(genetic variations) ibxyiF VbaÇ»r, Ÿkn na - delr Ÿkan jIN (gene) en†|
ta VeC Ÿkbl bYi¹¡ pàZaey|
ˆperr ˆdaHrN idey Vim …Fa† ŸbaJaet cai¬C ŸZ Dàmw dlgt pãBabSIltar mt
…kiF ibxy Het paer| "iFek Takar s„gãaem Deàmr BUimka kt Fuk™?' …† pãSÈiF† Hyt
Bul| Vmar met sifk pãSÈiF Hwya ˆict: "bYi¹¡ pàZaey manuexr meDY ŸZ sb bYbHar
ba mnó»ai¹Ôk VcrN lQY kra Zay - ŸZ §ilek iniàdñ pirióùitet Vmra Dàm bil;
iFek Takar s„gãaem …§ilr §r›tÔ kt Fuk™?' sifk ˆ¹r ŸKaƒjar Veg Vsel pãSÈiFek
sifk Baeb daƒR kraena Kub† jr›rI| harˆ†nibdedr meDY Zara Ÿkbl Deàmr iFek

Takar karN ŸKaƒjar meDY† bYó» reyeCn, tara Vsel Bul pãSÈ ker Zae¬Cn| …r bdel
br„ Vmaedr pUàbpur›xedr smy ŸTek cel Vsa …mn ikCu ibbàtnSIl ibxy iney Baba
ˆic‡ ŸZ§ela taƒedr smy Dàm iHeseb ibebict na Helw prbàtIet sBYtar pirbàtenr
saeT saeT DàmIy ˆpadan iHeseb KuƒiF ŸgeR beseC|
Vim …† pãbeÉ murgIedr Ÿfakraenar Dara iney ikCu ˆdaHrN Haijr keriC| Vsel …
bYapariF Vmar iTisesr …ekbaerr mUl ibxy; ta† …k† ibxey VerkiF ˆdaHrN
Ÿdwyar ŸlaB samlaet pariC na bel pafkedr kaeC Qma Ÿcey ini¬C| meTra ZKn
pã°Ôilt V§enr ˆpr Jaipey peR, …Faek Ÿkˆ ŸsãP duàGFna bel men kern na|
ŸdKel men Heb tara ŸZn ˆRet ˆRet V§en VtMaûit ide¬C| …Faek Vmra mTedr
"VtMibnaSI VcrN' iHeseb gnY kret pair Vr ibisMt Het pair …† ŸBeb ŸZ
harˆ†nIy pãakáitk inàbacn ikBaeb …mn …kiF VtMibnaSI kajek smàTn kret
paer! Vmar kTa He¬C …† smsYaiF ŸTek …kFa buiÁdIÐ ˆ¹r VSa krar Veg
pãSÈiFek br„ Guirey ntun ker ŸlKa ˆic‡| …Fa ŸmaeFw VtMaûit ny| Vsel
AniBepãt paàSÿpãitiº¡yar PlaPl iHeseb† Vmra …† VpatW VtMaûitr bYapariF
ŸdeK Taik|
káiºm Vela§ela Vmaedr raetr dâSYpeF Ait saÚpãitk s„eZajn| …r Veg raetr
Vela blet ìDu caƒd Vr taraedr† ŸbaJaeta| Velar …† ˆ‡s§ela pãay AsIIm
dUretÔ Takar kareN …edr kaC ŸTek Vela …es ŸpOƒŸCay smaÇ»ral peT, Pel otrI
Hy …k VdàS idkdàSn Zǽ| VkaeSr …† Velak ˆ‡s§elaek pte˜ra srl peT
clbar jnY bYbHar ker Taek| pt˜edr øayutǽguela …kiF srl inym AnusrN ker
AiBeZaijt HeyeC - ""…mn Baeb pT cl ŸZn, Vela …es Ÿtamar ŸcaeK 30 ihgãI
Ÿkaen VGat ker|'' ŸZeHtu pt˜edr ŸcaK§ela ŸZOigk (pu²aiQ), …† bYaparFa …kFa
ibeSx Drenr wmaiFihyaemr (pu²aiQr ŸkeÆÅ …k Drenr ibeSx iFˆb) jnY Kub†
sHayk|
ikǼ …† Velak idkdàSnZǽiF Velar ˆ‡s§elar AsIm dUretÔ Takar ˆpr Kub gBIr
Baeb inàBrSIl| Zid ta na Taek, teb Velak riSMguela smaÇ»ral r†eb na, br„
AenkFa sa†ekelr cakar Ÿýpak§elar mt ibBaijt Hey Zaeb| ŸZ øayutǽ w† iºS
ihgãIr saDarN inyem ABYó» Hey ŸgeC, ŸsiF mTek …kiF lgairdimk siàpl peT
Ÿfel V§enr iSKar ˆpr iney ŸPleb| S'Ÿy S'ey mT ZKn pãitidn caƒd ba tara ba
duerr SHerr Velar ˆpr inàBr ker inKutBaeb idk inàny ker clet Taek tKn
Vmra ta Vr ŸKyal kir na| Vmra ìDu ŸdiK mT§ela V§enr idek Jaipey preC,
Vr ta ŸdeK Vmra Bul pãSÈ ker ŸZet Taik - 'Ÿkn sb mT§ela VtMHuit idey

celeC?'
…† iSQa§elaek manuexr DàmIy bYbHaerr ŸQeºw pãeyag kra Zay| As„KY manux,
…mnik Ÿkan Ÿkan jaygay Stkra …kSjn manux, …mnsb ibSÿas Ÿpaxn ker Za ìDu
ob¯ainkBaeb pãmaNeZagY teTYr† pirpiÇù ny, VerkiF pãitÃÆdI Deàmr saeT tar
iberaiDtaw AtYÇ» pãkF| tara ìDu dâ•Baeb ibSÿas† ker na, …r ipCen pãcur smy …b„
pãacuàZ bYy ker, jIbn dan ker, …mnik HtYaw ker| Vmra Aenek ta ŸdeK ibisMt
H†, ifk ŸZmn ibisMt H† meTr VtMbil Ÿdwya ŸdeK| Vmra Babet Taik, "ekn'? |
ikǼ Vmar met Vmra …eQeºw Bul pãSÈ kriC|
Het paer, Vjek Vmra ŸZ DàmIy Vcrn§ela ŸdiK ta intaÇ»† Ÿkan …k smeyr
manuexr Ÿkan …k manisk pãbntar duàBagYjnk AiBbYi¹¡, ikǼ Hyeta Ÿs† smey …r
Ÿkan ˆpeZaigta iCl| pãSÈ He¬C …† manisk pãeyajniF ik Het paer? …ibxey Vim
…kiF pãó»ab idet ca†, ikǼ pãó»abiF Ÿdwyar Veg pirïar ker bel Ÿnwya pãeyajn
ŸZ …iF …kiF ˆdaHrN maº| Aim men kir, … ibxey …kiF ibeSx Ÿkan isDaeÇ»
ŸpOƒCaenar Veg Vmaedr sifk pãSÈiF Kuej Ÿbr kra Aenk ŸbSI jr›rI|
Vmar …† suiniàdñ pãkæpiF He¬C iSìedr iney| AnY ŸZ Ÿkan pãjaitr Ÿcey Vmra,
iFek Takar jnY, pUàbbàtI pãjenMr AiB¯tar ˆpr Aenk ŸbiS inàBr ker Taik|
t¹ÔgtBaeb, iSìra inejr AiB¯ta ŸTek† iSeK inet paer ŸZ ndIet k™mIr Takel
ŸsKaen satar kaFet Hy na| ikǼ …Fa ifk ŸZ iSìmió»eï "bRra Za bel ta ibSÿas

kera, iptamatar kTa ŸSan, mur›ibÕra ZKn §r› giÝrBaeb ikCu bel ta pãSÈkra CaRa†
Ÿmen cl' - …†Drenr ikCu inym baDa VeC bel ta ŸTek Vmra Aenk baRit

suibDaw Ÿpey Taik|

ŸCaFeblay ô™elr DàmZajekr iSKaena Ÿs† By„kr ˆpedeSiFr kTa Vim kKn†
Bulebana| …Faek Vsel By«r bel men HeyeC prbàtIkael : Ÿs smey DàmZajk
ŸZBaeb ŸceyiCeln Vmar iSì-mió»ï ŸsBaeb† ˆpedSiF gãHN keriCela| …kdl
osenYr Ÿrl la†enr paeS k™ckawyaj krar …kiF gæp beliCeln Vmaedr|
…ksmy taedr Ÿntar dâiîF AnY ikCuet Vkiàxt Hwyay itin osnYedrek Tamar
ˆpedS idet Buel Zan| osnYra ibnabaekY VedS Ÿmen inet …t† ABYóù iCl ŸZ
tara maàc kret kret clman ŸFäenr mueK igey peR| Zidw …Kn Vim gæpiF Vr
ibSÿas kir na, ikǼ ny bCr byes ifk† ibSÿas keriClam| ZajkiF ŸceyiCeln Vmra
ŸZn osnYedr …† pãSÈatItBaeb VedS Ÿmen clar rIitek, ta Zt † AeZOi¹¡k† ŸHak
na Ÿkn, …kiF VdàS iHeseb Ÿmen Ÿn†| …b„ sitY kTa blet ik Vmra Ÿs smey

…Faek …kFa §n bel† men krtam| Vim tKn Vsel† Babtam daiytÔ paln kret
igey clÇ» ŸFäenr mueK pRar s‡saHs Ÿkanidnw Vmar Heb ikna|
suiSiQt osnYedr mt kiÚpˆFarekw Za bla Hy tara ta† ker Taek|
Programming Language …r maDYem taedrek Za ineàdS Ÿdwya Hy tara
V¯abaHI Ÿgalaemr mt† ta paln kret Taek| …kidek kiÚpˆFar Vmaedr
pãeyajnIy Aenk kaj ker Ÿdy, AnYidek, …† VnugetYr AinbaàZ pirnit iHeseb
Karap inàedSablIekw Ÿs …k†Baeb paln kret Taek| ŸkaniF Baela ineàdS Vr
ŸkaniF Karap ineàdS kiÚpˆFar ta buJet paer na| osnYedr mt taraw ìDu ineàdS
paln ker Zay|
…† pãSÈatIt baDYtar Pel† kiÚpˆFar Ba†raesr iSkaer pirnt Hy| Karap ˆeÀSY
iney ŸlKa …kiF Ÿpãagãam ZKn kiÚpˆFarek tar iBter ilipbÁ sb ifkanar tailka
pafaet ineàdS Ÿdy tKn Ÿs Ÿta ta paln ker†, AnY sb kiÚpˆFar Zaedrek Ÿs …†
ŸpãagãamiF pafay taraw kajiF …ekr pr …k AnugtBaeb sÚpadn kret Taek|
…†Baeb† AtYÇ» Å›t gitet Ba†ras§ela CiRey peR| …mnBaeb Ÿkan kiÚpˆFar
banaena sÝb ny Za Vmaedr kaejr Ÿblay Anugt Takeb ikǼ Ba†raesr samen duàbl
Heb na|
Vmar ˆperr bYaKYa Zid ŸbaDgmY Hey Taek, taHel inëcy† Vpnara †it meDY†
iSìmió»ï …b„ Deàmr mDYkar ŸZagsUºiF Vibïar ker ŸPeleCn| pãakáitk inàbacn (
Natural Selection) …kiF iSìr icÇ»aDaraek …mnBaeb† otir ker Zaet Ÿs ma
baba …b„ Ÿgaeºr mur›ibÕedr kTa ibna iÃDay ibSÿas ker| …b„ …† ibeSx §NiF†
AbectnBaeb taek Vbar manisk Ba†raesr Vº¡menr iSkaer pirnt ker|
iSìmió»ï - BaelaBaeb Ÿbec Takar pUàb Sàt iHeseb - baba ma …b„ mur›ibÕedr ibSÿas
kret bel| …r AinbaàZ pirnit iHeseb† "ibSÿaskarIr' peQ Bal ˆpedS …b„
Karap ˆpedeSr meDY paàTkY krar Ÿkan ˆpay Taek na| iSìr peQ bueJ Ÿnwya
AsÝb ŸZ "ndIet saƒtar ŸkeFa na, k™mIr ŸKey ŸPleb' …kiF Baela ˆpedS ikǼ
Vbar "pUiàNmar smy Cagl bil na idel SsYHain GFeb' …kiF Karap ˆpedS| duiF
ˆpedS† tar kaeC …k†rkm Baeb ta‡pàZmy| duiF ˆpedS† …eseC …mn …k
ibSÿasI Ÿlaekr kaC ŸTek Zaek SãÁa …b„ Bi¹¡ kra iSeraDaàZ|

pâiTbI, mHaSUnY, onitkta, …b„ manbpãkáit sÚpeàkw …k† kTa pãeZajY| Vbar ZKn
…† iSìiF† bR Hey wef,tar inejr ŸCelemey Hy, Ÿs tKn saÔBaibkBaeb† taedrek
Vrw sucar›Baeb …†sb iSQay iSiQt ker Ÿtalar Ÿcña ker|
…† mehl AnuZayI, Vmra ŸdKet pa†, pâiTbIr ibiBÊ A‚el ibiBÊ rkemr iBi¹HIn
ibSÿaesr Dara purxanuº¡imkBaeb ibkiSt Het Taek| …† AeZOi¹¡k ibSÿas§ela Hy
…elapataaiRBaeb (randon drift) DIer DIer CiRey peR ATba harˆ†nIy inàbacenr
mt Ÿkan …k gitet ibkiSt Het Taek, …b„ AbeSex Vmra ŸZ rœpiF ŸdKet pa†
ta tar Vid rœp ŸTek ibbiàtt Het Het VenkKain bdel ŸgeC| …k†Baeb Baxaw
pàZaÐ smy …b„ ŸBOgilk bYbDaenr kareN tar mul ˆ‡s ŸTek ser ŸZet ŸZet
lQnIyBaeb iBÊ rœp DarN ker| …k† ijinx ŸdKa Zay Dàemr ŸQeºw, iSìmió»ïek
sHej† Caƒec Ÿzel banaena Zay bel† Dàm b„S prÚpray …kjn ŸTek Verkjenr
kaeC º¡magtBaeb ibó»âit laB kret Taek|
harˆ†nIy inàbacn iSìmió»ïek …mnBaeb† otrI ker Zaet tara mur›ibÕedr AÉBaeb
ibSÿas ker; icÇ»aDaraek …mnBaeb† s„gift ker ŸZn ba¬cara …kidek Anukrn pãbN
Het, AnYidek §jb, rœpkTa …b„ Deàm ibSÿas kret pãbâ¹ Hy| b„Sgitk inàbacn†
(genetic selection) Vmaedr mió»ïek …Baeb otrI kereC …b„ …Kan ŸTek†
non genetic …k b„SgtnIitr ˆÄb HeyeC - Za ŸTek Hyeta ntun …k Drenr
mHamarI ik„ba non genetic (b„SgtnIitr ADIn ny …rkm) …k harˆ†nIy
inàbacenr iBi¹ otrI Heb| Vim men kir Dàm …min …k dlgt GFna Zaek non
genetic mHamarI …b„ harˆ†iny inàbacenr s„imSãn idey bYaKYa kra Zay| Vmar
…† pãkæp Zid ifk Hey Taek, taHel bYi¹¡gtBaeb manuexr Ÿbec Takar jnY …mnik
taedr jIenr jnYw Deàmr Ÿkan Buimka ba ˆpkarIta Ÿn†| …r Zid Ÿkan ˆpkarIta
ŸTek† Taek ta manuexr pãeyajen ny, ta ìDu† Deàmr inejr iFek Takar pãeyajen|
* Richard Dawkins is the Charles Simonyi Professor of the Public Understanding Of
Science at Oxford University. One of the most influential scientists of our times,
Dawkins "climbs mental Everest," the Times Educational Supplemental has proclaimed.
The author of bestsellers such as The Selfish Gene and The Blind Watchmaker, Dawkins
has been called " one of the most incisive science writers alive"(New York times Book
Review) .
pafekr mtamt pafenar ifkanaW
mm_publication@yahoo.com,
mukto-mona@yahoogroups.com

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