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Fading trong thng tin v tuyn 1. Fading l g?

Fading l hin tng sai lc tn hiu thu mt cch bt thng xy ra i vi cc h thng v tuyn do tc ng ca mi trng truyn dn. Cc yu t gy ra Fading i vi cc h thng v tuyn mt t nh:

S thng ging ca tng in ly i vi h thng sng ngn S hp th gy bi cc phn t kh, hi nc, ma, tuyt, sng m...s hp th ny ph thuc vo di tn s cng tc c bit l di tn cao (>10Ghz). S khc x gy bi s khng ng u ca mt khng kh. S phn x sng t b mt tri t, c bit trong trng hp c b mt nc v s phn x sng t cc bt ng nht trong kh quyn. y cng l mt yu t dn n s truyn lan a ng. S phn x, tn x v nhiu x t cc chng ngi trn ng truyn lan sng in t, gy nn hin tng tri tr v giao thoa sng ti im thu do tn hiu nhn c l tng ca rt nhiu tn hiu truyn theo nhiu ng. Hin tng ny c bit quan trng trong thng tin di ng.

Trch dn 1 bi vit ca thy bnh d th : 1. Pha-inh ch c hi ch sao li c li? Pha-inh l s thng ging mt cch ngu nhin tn hiu ti im thu. Ch cn ni th ny l bn thy ngay thi: Gia mt knh khng c pha-inh (nh knh hu tuyn chng hn) v mt knh c pha-inh (nh knh v tuyn trong bu kh quyn gn mt t, trong pha-inh l mt yu t c tnh cht c hu) th knh khng c phainh phi tt hn knh c pha-inh ch? Knh khng c pha-inh th tc ng ti cht lng tn hiu ch cn c tp m nhit AWGN (nn gi l knh Gaussian) v l knh c xem l tt nht trong cc loi knh (trng hp knh Gaussian rt hn hu mi gp trong thc t vi cc knh v tuyn, khi ch c mt tia LOS gia my thu v my pht, khng c cc tia ph do phn x, nhiu x, khc x - h s Rice K ca knh rt ln). 2. Nh ni, pha-inh l mt yu t c tnh cht c hu i vi cc knh v tuyn trong bu kh quyn gn mt t, khi knh c pha-inh d x l nht l knh pha-inh phng (flat fading) v pha-inh phng c th khc phc d dng nh AGC (Automatic Gain Control) v phainh khi khng gy ra ci hin tng khn nn nht trong truyn dn tn hiu s l ISI do mo tuyn tnh tn hiu gp phi vi cc knh c pha-inh chn lc theo tn s (selective fading) rt thng gp vi cc knh c bng thng tn hiu rng (c rng bng tn hiu ln hn rng bng kt hp - hay nht qun theo cch dch ca cc thy bn bu in - coherent bandwidth of the channel). Mch san bng (Equalizer), hay cn bng theo cch gi bn bu in, lc ch c trch nhim b sa ISI gy bi tri tr m thi. Tc l pha-inh phng ch l loi pha-inh t kh chu nht trong cc loi pha-inh ch khng c ngha l pha-inh phng th khng gy hi g, li cng khng phi l tt cho truyn dn tn hiu. Fading l mt nguyn nhn gy mo tn hiu (mo tnh): http://tongquanvienthong.blogspot.com/2012/02/meo-tuyen-tinh-va-meo-phituyen_29.html tuyn

2. Phn loi fading - Fading phng - Fading chn lc tn s - Fading nhanh - Fading chm Cc khi nim bng tn v bng thng c th xem y Chng c phn loi theo chu k ca tn hiu v bng thng ca tn hiu di nn nh sau:

Fading phng L Fading m suy hao ph thuc vo tn s l khng ng k v hu nh l hng s vi ton b bng tn hiu dng ca tn hiu. Fading phng thng xy ra i vi cc h thng v tuyn c dung lng nh v va, do rng bng tn hiu kh nh nn fading do truyn dn a ng v do ma gn nh l xem khng c chn lc theo tn s.

Fading phng do truyn dn a ng: hnh thnh do phn x ti cc chng ngi cng nh s thay i ca khc x ca kh quyn cng trng thu c u thu b suy gim v di chuyn trong qu trnh truyn dn. Trong cc h thng chuyn tip s LOS (Line-Of-Sight), s bin thin ca khc x l nguyn nhn ch yu dn n hin tng truyn dn a ng m kt qu ca n l tn hao Fading thay i theo tn s. Tuy nhin, h thng c bng tn hiu nh nn tn hiu suy hao fading a ng l nh nn c th b qua v fading a ng c xem l fading phng. i vi fading a ng, vic thc hin c nh gi bng o cng sut tn hiu thu c ti mt tn s trong bng tn hiu. c trng thng k ca fading phng a ng l phn b thi gian fading vt qu mt mc no Fading phng do hp th: L hin tng sng in t b hp th v b tn x do ma, tuyt, song m.hay cc phn t khc tn ti trong mi trng truyn dn nn cc tn hiu vo u thu b suy gim. Ni chung hin tng fading ny thay i ph thuc vo thi gian.

nh hng ca flat fading tc ng ln ton b di tn tn hiu truyn trn knh l nh nhau, do vic tnh ton d tr fading (fading margin) d dng hn (cc tn s trong bng tn u b tc ng nh nhau th ch vic tng thm pht cho tt c bng tn. Thc t th c b gi l t ng iu chnh li-AGC (Auto Gain Control) s iu chnh mc b nhiu ny) Fading la chn tn s (selective fading) Xy ra khi bng tn ca tn hiu ln hn bng thng ca knh truyn. Do h thng tc va v ln c rng bng tn hiu ln (ln hn rng knh) s chu nhiu tc ng ca selective fading.

Ni chung l i ton b bng thng knh truyn th n nh hng khng u, ch nhiu ch t, ch lm tng ch lm gim cng tn hiu. Loi ny ch yu do fading a ng gy ra. Tc hi ln nht ca loi fading ny l gy nhiu ln k t -ISI. Selective fading tc ng ln cc tn s khc nhau (trong cng bng tn ca tn hiu) l khc nhau, do vic d tr nh flat fading l khng th. Do khc phc n, ngi ta s dng mt s bin php: 1/Phn tp (diversity): khng gian (dng nhiu anten pht v thu) v thi gian (truyn ti nhiu thi im khc nhau). 2/ S dng mch san bng thch nghi, thng l cc ATDE (Adaptive Time Domain Equalizer) vi cc thut ton thch nghi thng dng l Cng p khng ZF (Zero Forcing) v Sai s trung bnh bnh phng cc tiu LMS (Least Mean Square error); 3/S dng m sa li gim BER (vn c th ln do selective fading gy nn); 4/Tri ph tn hiu (pha-inh chn lc thng do hin tng truyn dn a ng (multipath propagation) gy nn, tri ph chui trc tip, nht l vi my thu RAKE, c kh nng tch cc tia sng v tng hp chng li, loi b nh hng ca multipath propagation); 5/S dng iu ch a sng mang m tiu biu l OFDM (ci ca n ny ngy nay c ng dng khp ni, trong di ng 3G, trong WIFI, WIMAX hay trong truyn hnh s mt t DVBT...) Ni chung l fading phng do ma m v a ng (nu do hin tng a ng th ch vi cc knh bng thng hp), fading chn lc th ch yu do fading a ng v knh truyn rng (nhng nguyn nhn khc th khng r nhng khi hc th mnh ch bit l do a ng thi). Hin tng fading nhiu ng c 1 bi vit ring y Fading nhanh v fading chm. a/ Nguyn nhn: - Fading nhanh (fast fading) hay cn gi l hiu ng Doppler, nguyn nhn l c s chuyn ng tng i gia my thu v my pht dn n tn s thu c s b dch tn i 1 lng delta_f so vi tn s pht tng ng f_thu = f_pht. (c + v_thu) / (c+v_pht) => delta_f=abs[f_thu-f_pht]=abs[v/(c+v_pht)].f_pht Mc dch tn s thay i theo vn tc tng i (v) gia my pht v thu (ti cng 1 t/s pht). Do hin tng ny gi l fading nhanh. Tuy nhin, khng phi l ton b ni dung ca fading nhanh m cc hiu ng a ng (multipath) cng c th ko theo s bin i nhanh ca mc nhiu ti u thu gy ra fast fading. - Fading chm (slow fading): Do nh hng ca cc vt cn tr trn ng truyn. VD: ta nh cao tng, ngn ni, ilm cho bin tn hiu suy gim, do cn gi l hiu ng bng rm (Shadowing) Tuy nhin, hin tng ny ch xy ra trn mt khong cch ln, nn tc bin i chm. Hay s khng n nh cng tn hiu nh hng n hiu ng cho chn gi l suy hao chm. V vy hiu ng ny gi l Fading chm (slow fading) Nh vy, slow fading v fast fading phn bit nhau mc bin i nhiu ti anten thu. b/ Khc phc: bng cch tnh ton d tr fading - D tr fading che khut chun-log (d tr fading chm - Slow/Shadowing Fading Margin)

Khon ny tnh c da trn xc sut rt cuc gi cho php do fading chm gy nn, thng n l 1% theo nhiu ti liu. Lng d tr fading chm ny tnh c nu ta c c ng cong mt xc sut fading che khut (dng chun-log). Ci ng cong mt ny c c nh phng php thng k (nh o bng driving-test c c lch qun phng (zigma) hay cn gi l lch chun - standard deviation - ca bin ngu nhin mc fading che khut, v mt phn b chun c k vng bng khng hon ton xc nh c pdf ca n nu bit zigma). - D tr fading nhanh (Multipath Fading Margin) Ci ny c rc ri hn i cht. Vi cc h thng bng hp nh GSM (tc d liu trn knh thp do ch yu ch phc v dch v thoi v d liu tc thp) th multipath fading xem c l flat-fading. Khi d tr fading nhanh c th xc nh c theo phn b ca mc fading nhanh. Vi cc mi trng khc nhau, s c cc phn b khc nhau, tri t phn b chun (knh Gauss) hay Ricean (knh Rice) cho ti Rayleigh (knh Rayleigh), trong knh Rayleigh l knh ti nht, rt hay gp trong mi trng macro khu vc th. Do vy, khi tnh ton thit k v tuyn (tnh ton ph sng) ngi ta thng tnh vi trng hp xu nht l vi knh Rayleigh. Pdf (Probability Density Function - hm mt xc sut) Rayleigh ca bin ngu nhin l mc fading nhanh cng hon ton xc nh c nu c c lch qun phng zigma ca n. Ci ny (zigma) cng phi xc nh bng o lng (driving-test). T ta c th xc nh c d tr fading nhanh bo m xc sut rt cuc gi do fading nhanh gy ra thp di mt mc no , cng thng l 1%.

Mo tuyn tnh v mo phi tuyn 17:57 y l Tien Bui Duc mt tc ng No comments ca mi trng truyn ti vic truyn tn hiu

Mo tuyn tnh l mo gy ra cho tn hiu bi cc phn t tuyn tnh trn knh truyn, trong cc phn t (trong nhiu trng hp li c th xem chng nh cc h thng - n gin l xem chng nh nhng khi/block) tuyn tnh l cc phn t m php ton biu din quan h u ra theo u vo tha mn tnh cht xp chng. Nm na th c tuyn bin vo-ra l mt ng thng. Ni chung, cc phn t th ng trn cc knh (tr diode) u c th xem l cc phn t tuyn tnh, min l tn hiu li vo khng qu ln. Knh fading a ng do vy l mt phn t tuyn tnh, gy mo tuyn tnh tn hiu. Xt n cng k l th chng c phn t no l hon ton tuyn tnh c, ch l trong thc t th nu c tuyn thng th ngi ta xem n l phn t tuyn tnh thi*. Mo phi tuyn, tri li, li gy bi cc phn t phi tuyn (khng tha mn tnh cht xp chng,

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Mt im bn bit cha r na l ti my thu, ni chung khng my khi c HPA. Tn hiu li vo my thu qu nh nn cc b khuch i my thu ni chung lm vic on rt thng ca c tuyn cng tc. Do vy, ngi ta thng xem cc b khuch i my thu l cc b khuch i tuyn tnh, khng gy mo phi tuyn. *) Ni cho vui (m tht y): Chng c ci g i ny l tuyn tnh c u nh. Bn cht ca cuc sng l phi tuyn. Mt bi hc cho cc bn: Cc bn chiu chung (l hy sinh, l chm sc, l tha thit, l vn vn v vn vn nh) ngi yu mt th ngi ta yu bn mt, bn chiu chung ngi ta ba th ngi ta yu bn ba. Nhng m qun i nh, bn chiu chung ngi ta 10 hay 100 chng hn, thi n i yu ngi khc y. H h, th th l n l ch yu ng ci kh g, nh Trch dn bi ca thy bnh http://vntelecom.org/diendan/showthread.php?t=4571 HPA l vit tt ca High Power Amplifier (b khuch i cng sut ln). y l mt khi nim bn in t, i th th h s khuch i ny vi tn hiu cng ln th s cng gim (v trn th biu din h s khuch i n kiu nh ta i bc bn ln ri ri xung y, ch khng thng tuyn tnh). B Mo nh Nguyn nhn :

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Cc mch lc ch to khng hon ho Do mi trng truyn : - Dy kim loi : tn s cng cao tiu hao cng nhiu nhng tng khng u m ln nt, mp m. - Mi trng v tuyn : Fading (fading l mt yu t nh hng n truyn tin cn mo l kt qu nhn c nh, khng nn nhm ln, c t tag chung v my ci ny lin kt cht ch vi nhau)

c im nhn dng : - Mo t/h gy ISI, ISI xut hin di dng M cm im (thu) (thay v M im n bn pht) u ra mch ly mu, din tch cm im cng ln th ISI cng ln, cm im phn b quanh im pht v khng ph thuc vo bin ca tn hiu pht. Xut hin y l xut hin trn my Vector Analyzer xem thm biu din vector tn hiu s .

Khc lp c dy :

phc

S dng mch san bng thch nghi ATDE Phn tp M chng nhiu (m knh: cc m pht hin, m sa li) Truyn dn a sng mang Tri ph (CDMA chng mo bng my thu RAKE )

Mo phi tuyn nh Cc ngun gy mo


ngha

nh

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Cc mch khuch i cng sut nh (mo phi tuyn c th b qua) Cc mch khuch i cng sut ln (HPA) Mch trn (mixer) s dng diode Mch hn bin

Tc ng i vi cc loi tn hiu (xem thm) - Vi FSK v PSK : t nhy cm, thm ch cn c tnh s dng phn t phi tuyn nng cao cht lng h thng (n gin l mo lm bin i bin , hn bin pht l xong) - Vi tn hiu AM, nht l m-QAM th bin mang tin nn gy nh hng nhiu

Gy mp dng chm sao tn hiu M rng ph tn v gy tp m phi tuyn Gy ISI phi tuyn

c im nhn dng Quan st bng Vector Analyzer nh trn gii thiu th cc cm im tn hiu c trng tm b dch chuyn khi im tn hiu l tng (bn tn hiu pht), v ci ny tn hiu bin ln th cng b dch chuyn mnh v din tch cm im cng ln. v thy thy Bnh ni l thng bin b gim 1 t v quay theo chiu ngc kim ng h 1 on. Bin php khc phc

S dng BO (back off) ti u S dng mo trc (Pre Distortion) : tng ca gii php ny l trc khi a tn hiu vo b HPA th cho tn hiu qua mt mch mo trc PD gy mo ngc li (sau b mo s trit tiu l va). Thc t ch b c mo bc 3 -> gi l Cubic PD, c th thc hin bng gc (Data Predistortion), IF, RF.

S dng quay pha ph ti u (Optimum Additional Phase-Shift) : mo phi tuyn lm dch chuyn im tn hiu nn phng php ny l quay pha theo s quay ca mo (Xem c im nhn dng trn), quay qu nhiu th c khi cn mo thm, quay qu t th khng sa c my nn c 1 im ti u nn gi l quay pha ph ti u. Nh trn ni th phng php quay pha ny quay theo s quay pha ca mo bin , v c v ch khc phc c s quay cn vic gim bin th khng khc phc c.

Phn tp 16:30 Tien Bui Duc No comments Phn tp l mt phng php dng trong vin thng dng nng cao tin cy ca vic truyn tn hiu bng cch truyn mt tn hiu ging nhau trn nhiu knh truyn khc nhau u thu c th chn trong s nhng tn hiu thu c hoc kt hp nhng tn hiu thnh mt tn hiu tt nht. Vic ny nhm chng li fading v nhiu l do nhng knh truyn khc nhau s chu fading v nhiu khc nhau. Ngi ta c th s dng m sa li FEC (forward error correction) cng vi k thut phn tp. Li dng vic truyn trn nhiu knh m ta c c li phn tp, thng c o bng dB. Chnh xc th:

Phn tp (diversity) l k thut gip cho pha thu (trong thng tin di ng l MS hoc BTS) ci thin cht lng tn hiu thu b suy gim do fading nh vic kt hp tn hiu thu a ng n t cng mt ngun pht. Phn tp c thc hin ti c MS ln BTS tu cng ngh c th 2. Phn loi phn tp: Theo cch thc trin khai: (1) phn tp pht (2) phn tp thu Theo k thut phn tp: (1) phn tp khng gian Space Diversity (path diversity hoc angle diversity (2) phn tp tn s Frequency Diversity (3) phn tp thi gian Time Diversity (4) phn tp phn cc Polarization Diversity 3. ng dng phn tp?

K thut phn tp no c ng dng tu thuc vo cng ngh (mng GSM khc CDMA). V d trong mng CDMA th c th coi vic tri ph cha ng Frequency Diversity trong ; ri Soft Handoff hay Softer Handoff l Space Diversity (ti BTSs) & Time Diversity (ti MS); ri vic s dng Bipolar antenna l Polarization Diversity (va phn tp pht - ti MS, va phn tp

thu - t MS). V pha MS trong CDMA th vic s dng cc Rake Reciver chnh l Time Diversity, hay Interleaver/Convolver cng l Time Diversity...

nh ngha loi phn tp chnh sau y:

Phn tp khng gian: tn hiu c truyn trn nhiu ng khc nhau. Trong truyn dn hu tuyn, ngi ta truyn trn nhiu si cp. Trong truyn dn v tuyn, ngi ta hay s dng phn tp ng ten, chng hn nh phn tp pht (transmit diversity)/phn tp thu (receive diversity) l phn tp trn nhiu ng ten pht/ng ten thu. Nu cc ng ten t gn nhau khong vi bc sng th gi l phn tp gn (microdiversity). Nu cc ng ten t cch xa nhau th gi l phn tp xa (macrodiversity).Hoc ni cch khc t cc antenna cch nhau mt khong, thng l vi bc sng c th thu c tn hiu theo cc ng khc nhau. Phn tp theo thi gian: nu truyn tn hiu (cng mt tn hiu nh) ngoi khong coherent time th ta c th to ra 2 tn hiu c lp ==> gain tng ln 3dB

Nhc im ca vic pht phn tp theo thi gian: bn pha thu phi ch 1 khong thi gian x l tn hiu ==> vi cc ng dng thi gian thc th vic nn trnh

Phn tp tn s: tn hiu c truyn trn nhiu tn s khc nhau hoc trn mt dy ph tn rng b tc ng bi fading la chn tn s (frequency-selective fading). phn tp phn cc: pht tn hiu trn cc nhnh c tnh phn cc khc nhau (ci ny s chia nh tn hiu v tn hiu phi chia u cho cc nhnh) ==> cht lng thu s gim

S dng phn tp trong antenna l mt k thut tin tin v li ch ca n cng kh ln, s dng 2 anten pht c th tng ln 3dB. vic dng phn tp trong antenna (v d nh MIMO) nhm 2 mc ch chnh: 1, tng tc pht 2, gim BER V sao tng tc pht: Theo cng thc dung lng ca shannon th dung lng t l thun vi bng thng v SNR, tng dung lng th ta c th tng BW (bng thng thng c nh ri) hoc tng cng sut (SNR), nhng thng tng cng sut th thng ch tng n mt mc no th n s bo ho (ci ny ng ta chng minh c ri). ngi ta thy rng tng dung lng th phi c mt h s no na khc vi BW v SNR khi tng n ln th dung lng C cng tng theo, v khi dng phn tp antenna th ngi ta thy sinh ra ci h s , khi dng phn tp thu ngi ta thy ci h s sinh ra trong hm log nhn vi SNR ( trong cng thc shannon), tuy nhin v n nm trong hm log nn gain ca n l khng ng k, v khi ngi ta dng phn tp c pha thu v pha pht th ng ta thy ci h s nhy ra bn ngoi (hay nh), v tng h s

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4. V cng thc Shannon: C=B*log2(1+S/N) Trong : C: capacity (bits/second) B: bandwidth (Hertz) S: signal power (Watt) N: noise power (Watt) Theo cng thc C=B*log2(1+S/N) th C ph thuc vo B v S/N ratio Trong CDMA B ln (1.25MHz) nn S/N thng nh (h thng CDMA truyn tn hiu di mc nhiu, ln trong nhiu, ch cn cng sut pht (S) nh -> cng ngh "xanh" Trong GSM, B nh (200KHz) nn S thng ln C th: Mean Power Max Power GSM: 125mW 2W CDMA: 2mW 200mW V sao gim BER(Bit Error Rate): khi ta s dng nhiu antenna th xc sut tt c cc knh u xu l nh, do vy xc sut ta thu c tn hiu tt tng ln, do ta c th chn lc tn hiu tt t cc antenna khc nhau. Ngun http://vntelecom.org/diendan/showthread.php?t=1008 B xung thm : Vn ci mng ny mnh khng nghin cu k nhng phn in nghing gch di trn cc bn c th xem gii thch r hn 1 t y http://tongquanvienthong.blogspot.com/2012/02/hethong-khong-day.html Cc phng php kt hp tn hiu thng gp: B t hp theo kiu qut v la chn (Scanning and Selection Combiners: SC) qut v la chn nhnh c t s CNR tt nht; b t hp vi cng li (Equal-Gain Combiners: EGC); B t hp vi t s ti a (Maximal Ratio Combiners: MRC). Phng php kt hp MRC cho php ci thin xc sut li tt nht.

H thng khng dy (SISO, SIMO, MISO, MIMO) 14:11 Tien Bui Duc 3 comments

Cc h thng thng tin khng dy c th c phn loi thnh 4 h thng c bn l SISO, SIMO, MISO v MIMO

H thng SISO H thng SISO l h thng thng tin khng dy truyn thng ch s dng mt anten pht v mt anten thu. My pht v my thu ch c mt b cao tn v mt b iu ch/gii iu ch. H thng SISO thng c dng trong pht thanh v pht hnh, v cc k thut truyn dn v tuyn c nhn nh Wifi hay Bluetooth. Dung lng h thng ph thuc vo t s tn hiu trn nhiu c xc nh bi cng thc Shanon C=log2 (1+SNR) bit/s/Hz

H thng SIMO Nhm ci thin cht lng h thng, mt pha s dng mt anten, pha cn li s dng a anten. H thng s dng mt anten pht v nhiu anten thu c gi l h thng SIMO. Trong h thng

ny my thu c th la chn hoc kt hp tn hiu t cc anten thu nhm ti a t s tn hiu trn nhiu thng qua cc gii thut beamforming hoc MMRC (Maximal-Ratio Receive Combining). Khi my thu bit thng tin knh truyn, dung lng h thng tng theo hm logarit ca s anten thu, c th xp x theo biu thc sau C=log2 (1+N.SNR) bit/s/Hz

H thng MISO H thng s dng nhiu anten pht v mt anten thu c gi l h thng MISO. H thng ny c th cung cp phn tp pht thng qua k thut Alamouti t ci thin cht lng tn hiu hoc s dng Beamforming tng hiu sut pht v vng bao ph. Khi my pht bit c thng tin knh truyn, dung lng h thng tng theo hm Log ca s anten pht v c th c xc nh gn ng theo biu thc sau C=log2 (1+N.SNR) bit/s/Hz

H thng MIMO H thng MIMO l h thng s dng a anten ti c ni pht v ni thu. H thng c th cung cp phn tp pht nh vo a anten pht, cung cp phn tp thu nh vo a anten thu nhm tng cht lng h thng hoc thc hin Beamforming ti ni pht v ni thu tng hiu sut s dng cng sut, trit can nhiu. Ngoi ra dung lng h thng c th c ci thin ng k nh vo li ghp knh cung cp bi k m ho thut khng gian-thi gian nh V-BLAST. Khi thng tin knh truyn c bit ti c ni pht v thu, h thng c th cung cp phn tp cc i v li ghp knh cc i, dung lng h thng trong trng hp t c phn tp cc i c th xc nh theo biu thc sau C= log2 (1+NT.NR.SNR) bit/s/Hz

Dung lng h thng trong trng hp t c li ghp knh cc i c th xc nh theo biu thc sau C=min(NT,NR).log2(1+SNR) Ch thch: log2 (X) l log c s 2 ca X. Reference Ta-Sung Lee, Department of Communication Engineering National Chiao Tung University, bi ging MIMO Techniques for Wireless Communications, 2006 Ngun http://www.deeforum.net/forum/index.php?topic=53.0 bit/s/Hz

Nhn trn cng c th thy lun v sao mimo anten thng l 2x2 4x4 n gin v : C=min(NT,NR).log2(1+SNR) bit/s/Hz

d 2x4 2x8 th khi chn min (2,4) =2 (gi tr nh nht trong 2 s) ; min(2,8) =2 , tc dng khng hn g 2x2, nn ti u nht th 2 bn bng nhau.

Truyn dn a sng mang (Multi carrier Transmission) 20:49 Tien Bui Duc No comments

Xem trc mo tuyn tnh, phi tuyn Mch ATDE rt hu dng nhng khng phi l vn nng, nu di tn dng truyn (W) ln -> IBPD (InBand Power Difference) ln n mc ATDE khng b ni -> ISI ln. Khc phc : Chia lung tin thnh N lung con (kh nh) , mi lung con iu ch 1 sng mang con (sub carrier) -> W mi sng mang nh li -> chnh lch khng qu ln -> ATDE li b tt. c - Tn ph (mi sng mang con cn phi C bao nhiu knh con cn -> Ch s dng trong trng im : cch nhau mt khong bo v) by nhiu cp thu pht hp bt kh khng

Sau ny c mt k thut khc phc c c 2 nhc im ny v thm ch cn tit kim ph hn na, l OFDM.