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ZNANSTVENORAZISKOVALNI CENTER SLOVENSKE AKADEMIJE ZNANOSTI IN UMETNOSTI INŠTITUT ZA SLOVENSKO NARODOPISJE, LJUBLJANA, SLOVENIJA
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DI UDINE DIPARTIMENTO DI LINGUE E CIVILTÀ DELL’ EUROPA CENTROORIENTALE, UDINE, ITALIA
................................................... 115 Zmago Šmitek: Paralele med indijsko in slovensko mitologijo: sledovi skupne indoevropske dediščine ..........................39 Никос Чаусидис: Митологизираното гумно во словенската традиционална култура .................................................................................................................................................................................................. (918?)...... 173 Mirjam Mencej: Podkovana čarovnica in druge povedke o coprnicah v vzhodni Sloveniji ............................................................ 237 Bernd Gliwa: Zur Verwendung von Bilsenkraut und Hundspetersilie im Kultus – ein linguistischer Exkurs ....................................................................... 273 RECENSIONI E SEGNALAZIONI DI LIBRI ................................................................................................... FONTI E RICOSTRUZIONI .............................. 147 Michał Łuczyński: Kognitywna definicja Marzanny .................................... 273 .................................................................................. 257 RECENZIJE IN POROČILA O KNJIGAH .....7 Marjeta Šašel Kos: The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography .... slovenského a maďarského prostredia ....... 113 RESEARCH METHODS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF FOLK TRADITION ... Mejni prostori na Krasu in v Istri ........... VIRI IN REKONSTRUKCIJE......................................................................................................................... 113 METODI DI RICERCA E INTERPRETAZIONI DELLA TRADIZIONE POPOLARE ....II .......................................... Einführung............. SOURCES AND RECONSTRUCTIONS ......................... 113 Emily Lyle: Time and the Indo-European Gods in the Slavic Context ........................................................ 197 Richard Burns: Rain and Dust .........................................................25 Hans-Dietrich Kahl: Das Würzburger Sondersendrecht für christianisierte Slawen und sonstige Nichtfranken........................................................ 127 Martin Golema: Svätý Blažej ako „vlčí pastier“ v textovej tradícii z českého..................................................Vsebina Indice Contents SLOVANSKA MITOLOGIJA....................................................................Próba rekonstrukcji fragmentu tradycyjnego mitologicznego obrazu świata Słowian. 273 BOOK REVIEWS ............. 105 RAZISKOVALNΕ METODΕ IN INTERPRETACIJE LJUDSKEGA IZROČILA ............................................9 Katja Hrobat................ 217 Matej Goršič: Sampo in kirjokansi ...... Uršula Lipovec Čebron: Križišča niso nikoli sama....................... Ein Rechtstext aus der Zeit König Konrads I.......................................................................................... Luján: Procopius.......................... Edition und deutsche Übersetzung ....65 Eugenio R.................. De bello Gothico III 38..............................................7 MITOLOGIA SLAVA...................................7 SLAVIC MYTHOLOGY......................................................................17-23: a description of ritual pagan Slavic slayings? ..............
called their “corner” (Venetorum angulus). As an act of gratitude.3 In these lands. KOLOSSOURGIA 2005. in which the Roman Empire and even regions beyond are described in considerable detail. These horses proved to be a superior breed.1 His historical work. to whom the ancient Veneti used to sacriﬁce a white horse. The ancient Veneti were settled in northeastern Italy and along some of the upper Adriatic regions. too. 9–11. Strabo’s data are conﬁrmed by other literary sources. and philosophers.4 and Opitergium (present-day Oderzo) was also important. and indeed the Venetic horses were well known in the Graeco-Roman world as excellent racing horses. which had been saved from the nets of hunters by a well-to-do man. geographers. while Aquileia was founded outside their territory. Strabo from Amaseia. They are of great significance not only for the Greek-speaking parts of the Empire. titled Historical Sketches. ENGELS 1999. horse-breeding and trade in horses were two important economic activities among the Veneti. V 33. These books also contain very valuable data that Strabo took from earlier historians. was an important Greek historian and geographer of the Augustan Age. X I - 2 0 0 8 . who was himself from Patavium (present-day Padova). the capital of the former kingdom of Pontus in Asia Minor. PROSDOCIMI 1988. FOGOLARI. they had been the only inhabitants. the wolf (which may be regarded as a prototype of a ﬁgure corresponding to the Master of the Wolves) drove oﬀ a herd of unbranded horses and brought them to the stable of his benefactor. Tergeste. prior to the arrival of the Carni. Ateste (present-day Este) and Patavium were two of their major centres. most of whose works are lost. may have never belonged to the 1 2 3 4 DUECK 2000. In this passage Strabo also narrated the (aetiological) story of a wolf. but also for Italy and the western provinces. is lost and only his Geography in 17 books is preserved. 9 - 2 4 .2 Italy is described mainly in books V and VI. which Livy. as well as by archaeological and epigraphic ﬁnds.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Marjeta Šašel Kos The story One of the first more detailed descriptions of the Venetic regions is preserved in Strabo’s Geography. VENETI 2003. which came under partial Roman rule under Pompey the Great. 9 S T U D I A M Y T H O L O G I C A S L A V I C A Strabo (the Greek historian and geographer of the Augustan Age) reported that the sanctuary of the Greek hero Diomedes. was located in the area of the sacred site at the Timavus River where it ﬂows into the Adriatic.
7. It was first mentioned by Strabo as a village belonging to the Carni. BC). TERŽAN 2002. The Veneti played important economic. 16. BC). 179). TERŽAN. 31. the Julian Alps were called Venetic before the Augustan conquest (quas Venetas appellabat antiquitas). where Tolmin and somewhat later Most na Soči (Sv.7 The Veneti must have influenced more or less the entire northern Adriatic and eastern Alpine areas. 1985. 1: Map showing peoples and places mentioned in the text (computer graphics: Mateja Belak). adding that there were sacred groves of the Argive Hera and Aetolian Artemis in the near vicinity of the sanctuary. TRAMPUŽ-OREL 1984. Lucija/Santa Lucia) must have been two of the significant prehistoric settlements of a population closely related to the Veneti (Fig.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Fig.8 The story of the grateful wolf is taken from the passage in which Strabo described the worship of the Greek hero Diomedes among the Veneti. Marcel. as is proven most of all by the ‘Venetic’ inscriptions found in present-day Austrian Carinthia and Slovenia. ISTENIČ 1985. The story 5 6 7 8 Strabo. A bronze vessel from grave 14 in Idrija at Bača (1st c. BANDELLI 2001. in particular in the Soča/Isonzo valley. Veneti. particularly 149–150. The sanctuary of Diomedes and the groves of both Greek goddesses are located by Strabo in the area of the sacred site at the Timavus River where it flows into the Adriatic. and the Bohinj region.. GABROVEC 1987. southern Carinthia. and consequently political and cultural roles even outside their territory in northeastern Italy. Amm. and it is not surprising that.6 These tribes had close contacts with northeastern Italy. 178). VII 5. Vrota perhaps being the name of a goddess (from: ZAKLADI 1999. according to Ammianus Marcellinus. bearing the names Luks Mel(i)nks and Gaijos (from: ZAKLADI 1999. 1). 10 .5 it may have been situated on the territory of the Histri earlier. LO SCHIAVO. 2 C 314. a bronze tablet from grave 7/8 in Idrija at Bača (1st c. SVOLJŠAK 2001. with the inscription in the Venetic script (Laivnai Vrotai). Much archaeological material has not yet been published to date.
when set free. and the wolf. fell in with some hunters who had a wolf in their nets. 9 C 215. they would set the wolf free from the toils.11 Two sanctuaries of Diomedes have recently been discovered along the eastern Adriatic coast: the sanctuary on the island of Vela Palagruža.” The story opens some interesting and intriguing themes: such as the Greek influence in the northern Adriatic among the Veneti. some mythical parallels in the reconstructed early Slavic story about Jarilo/ St George indicate that Diomedes may have originally been some early Indo-European fertility deity. Diomedes and Antenor among the Veneti Two Greek legends are connected with the Ventic area. and the figure of the grateful wolf. where he killed a dragon and helped the inhabitants of the island in the war against the Brundisians. who was known for his fondness for giving bail for people and was twitted for this. as I was saying. 1995. the key figure in explaining this aetiological story. 321.10 According to Homer he was one of the most courageous heroes in the Trojan War. which must have been in one way or another related to the ancient sacred site at the Timavus River. at the present time. and made it a custom not to sell a mare to outsiders. and. and his successors kept not only the brand but also the name for the breed of the horses. But. in order that the genuine breed might remain in their family alone.Marjeta Šašel Kos of the wolf directly continues the reference to the sacred groves and reads in translation as follows:9 “But some mythical elements. KATIČIĆ 1994–1995. Daunus. the practice of horse-breeding has wholly disappeared. drove oﬀ a considerable herd of unbranded horses and brought them to the stable of the man who was fond of giving bail. His cult is also attested in Corcyra (present-day Corfu). 9 10 11 V 1. KATIČIĆ 1989. have been added: namely. and the man who received the favour not only branded all the mares with a wolf. and any that are being pursued by dogs are no longer pursued when they have taken refuge here. 11 . And it is said that one of the prominent men. Diomedes’ identity was double: he was the king of Argos in the epic poetry concerning the Trojan War and Thebes. but he was also a Thracian king according to the stories related to Hercules. Then the existence of a supposedly common social institution of becoming pledge for somebody. He was worshipped on both Adriatic coasts. Interestingly. he agreed to the proposal. It is not possible to say which of them is earlier. the stories of Diomedes and Antenor. 72–74 (=Illyricum. and they allow the people to approach and caress them. 380–381). and further the horse-breeding of the Veneti. The translation is taken from: JONES 1949. Furthermore. Diomedes had to leave Argos because of the infidelity of his wife and her plotting against him. that in these sacred precincts the wild animals become tame. p. of course. and agree to settle all the damage the wolf should do. since horses of that breed had become famous. particularly in Apulia where he was kindly received by the king of the Daunians. upon their saying in jest that if he would give bail for the wolf. and deer herd with wolves. but also called them the “wolf-breed” – mares exceptional for speed rather than beauty. Let us first briefly examine the presence of Diomedes and Antenor in Venetia. and possibly they were contemporaneous. both are related to the Venetic horses.
1990). Strangely.. present-day Rt Ploča) on the Hyllian Peninsula (Hyllica peninsula) south of Šibenik. ČAČE 1998. BOFFO 2000. Antenor would have led the ‘Heneti’ from Troy to Venetia. as has been noted above. Strabo cited as his sources the Greek historian Polybius (second century BC) and the Greek philosopher and historian Posidonius (second to first century BC). 4 C 212.17 In the late Roman Republic and afterwards. also KATIČIĆ 1988 (=Illyricum. the descendants of Antenor. he noted that one of the proofs for this thesis is the horse-breeding of the Veneti. an indigenous deity must have also influenced his cult. However. which is known from other sources to have been Antenor’s foundation. 8 C 214. Pyth. CUSCITO et al. 2003. where the Timavus (present-day Timavo/Timava) riemerges and then empties with seven streams into the sea.20 This source may have been writers other than Polybius and Posidonius. 160–177. ID. 1. as well as for those who sailed from Corcyra towards Spina and Atria.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography the site of the first station for navigators sailing to the north past the promontory of Garganus Mons (Gargano) in the direction of Issa (present-day Vis). VEDALDI IASBEZ 1994. which allegedly would have been founded by Aeneas. 180–181. cf. it was politically important to be of Trojan descent just like Rome. Indeed Strabo mentions that Diomedes’ sanctuary possessed a harbour.13 One of the most famous sanctuaries of Diomedes was among the Veneti at the sacred site of the broad region of Fons/Lacus Timavi. as could be inferred from Strabo. horse-breeding in Venetia was more closely linked to Diomedes. PROSDOCIMI 2001.16 Perhaps the Veneti accepted the cult of Antenor because the Greek lyric poet Pindar of the fifth century BC presented the Antenoridae as horse-driving or horse-riding heroes. the Greek geographer from the end of the second 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 KIRIGIN.. who used to sacrifice a white horse to him as late as the time of Strabo’s source for this passage. as is indicated by his citing anonymous sources: “they say”. he would have founded a kingdom after he had defeated the Euganeans. 1995). COLONNA 1998. where another sanctuary of Diomedes was recently identified and excavated.15 According to a different tradition. too. V 1. 281–283). It has been hypothesized that these were Artemidorus of Ephesus. however. 12 . as is reported by Livy. V 1.18 Strabo. one of the main characteristics of the cult of Diomedes in the eastern Adriatic. CÀSSOLA 1979 (1994.14 and where the river god himself was worshipped. BRACCESI 19972. The position of Diomedes’ sanctuary near the sea indicates that one of his roles was the familiar Adriatic role of protecting seafarers. knew of the Paphlagonian origin of the Veneti and their arrival in Venetia with Antenor. BILIĆ DUJMUŠIĆ 2002. 118–120. 63 ss.19 Homer might have alluded to this activity when he mentioned a breed of tough mules originating in the country of the Veneti (Iliad. 1989. during the imperial period.12 The second stop for the sailors heading north was the Promontory of Diomedes (Promunturium Diomedis. 1. Livy does not mention that Antenor was said to have founded his native town of Patavium. 30 ff. 5. There. See. Both Aeneas and Antenor were viewed positively and not as traitors and fugitives. However. FONTANA 1997. MORETTI 1980 (= Epigraﬁa. and even the Aquileians are referred to as the Antenoridae. When describing the sacred site of the Timavus River. It seems that Diomedes was related to the breeding of horses among the Veneti. Most interestingly. 82–86. since this was. on Antenor. Ab urbe condita. II 852).
GRASSL 2007. and were only vaguely similar to the Roman Juno. while the other belonged to the goddess called the Aetolian Artemis.25 Among the Norican Celts. her Italian/Roman equivalent. in view of sacred precincts. Aetolia. a goddess named Juno by the Romans was worshipped. Characteristic of the Greek Hera. 9 C 215. ŠAŠEL 1980 (= Opera 1992). there is hardly any doubt that she was regarded as the mistress of wild animals. since she was both the goddess of women and a civic deity. GUAITOLI 1995. in which tame and wild animals were living together. too. and marriage on the other. 1344. if they had ever indeed been Greek. Georg. WERNICKE 1895.26 which caused them to harness aurochs to the carriage because the cows had perished during the epidemics. Strabo noted that one of these sacred groves was dedicated to the goddess called by him the Argive Hera. it seems. 82–83. and any animal. Goddesses of the type of Juno. 15–16. V 1. who was originally perhaps an Aegean great goddess. The Greek influence in the Upper Adriatic area may have been stronger than is usually assumed. BEARD. may have also introduced the worship of Hera and Artemis. The goddess sent the wild beast because Oeneus had forgotten to sacrifice to her. goddesses documented under the name of Juno differed from each other greatly. Even the original role of Juno is not clear. She was also the protector of herds. and in that way was also connected with horses. no doubt this must have been her main domain in Aetolia. the Greeks who brought the cult of Diomedes to this area.21 The story of the wolf was ultimately taken from Timaeus. where even mother goddesses (Celtic goddesses worshipped in plural) were sometimes called Iunones. whose statue used to be carried to her sanctuary on a wagon driven by cows. the Roman Juno was very much influenced by the Etruscan one (a temple on the Aventine Hill was built for her after her evocatio in 396 BC. 14 ff.27 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 LASSERRE 1966. if taking refuge in these groves was safe. deer together with wolves. 133. where wild animals became tame. in particular in northern Italy. the patroness of marriage. who had in his turn used Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily (fourth to third century BC). all behaving docilely. pótnia therôn. and the story of the Calydonian boar indeed points to the widespread worship of Artemis in Aetolia. was her connection with royalty on the one hand.22 Diomedes’ sanctuary was situated near two important cult places with sacred groves. particularly from the Hellenistic period onwards. when she deserted the inhabitants of Veii in the war with Rome). 16–19. Her marriage to Zeus symbolized the natural world of plants and animals and her sanctuaries were often in fertile plains far from towns. however. III 531–533. pursued by dogs. the patroness of hunting. However. since they were very much influenced by local female divinities. PRICE 1998. Virgil referred to the custom in his description of the animal plague among the Noricans. were soon assimilated with the local cults of Venetic female deities with similar attributes. PROSDOCIMI 2001. These two goddesses. 13 .23 The nature of Artemis was polyvalent in the Greek world. were widely worshipped throughout Italy. while Artemis played an important role in the homeland of Diomedes’ grandfather Oeneus. NORTH.Marjeta Šašel Kos century BC.24 Perhaps it was not due to chance that Hera was related to Diomedes’ native country of Argos. Virgilius. Oeneus was the mythical king of Calydon. See also RADT 2003.
HANDFORD 1964. ants and bees). by an ass. for example. Grateful animals are predominantly wild.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography The wolf – a prototype of the Master of the Wolves? It is perhaps interesting (particularly in terms of ethnology and philology) to compare the story of the grateful wolf with other related stories. are first alluded to by Hesiod (eighth century BC) and must represent an old form of folklore. which happened to be big. or instinctively behaved like wolves. In three fables the wolf proved to be stupid as he was outwitted by a young goat. and classical authors who are often cited are Theophrast. which are known all over the Indo-European world since the earliest times and were transmitted orally. In general. Surprisingly. 26–36. Such stories with speaking animals. 101. with those in which a wolf is the protagonist. and only rarely domestic animals. The oldest known originate from the Near East. illustrating some important truth or moral. There is a story of a heron freeing a bone from a wolf ’s throat. MARX 1889. he falsely accused a lamb of troubling the water in a stream from which he wanted to drink. storks. but the lion devoured him. which reflects one of the oldest religious beliefs of primitive man.g. which is the protagonist of such stories even in countries where it did not live. and of doing him other damage that the lamb never had done. the majority of these stories have been taken from zoological literature. Or.30 the wolf never appears as a protagonist. but then he killed them first. horses. Their stories. These stories developed from the motif of a “helpful animal”. It seems. and was collected from various literary sources by August Marx. and some of the smaller animals (e. passing a law by which he himself did not abide. with the exception of the lion. for which the wolf showed no gratitude to the helpful bird. everything living was regarded as all-powerful and divine. therefore. 117. no story with a wolf is mentioned among the collected stories. lions. Aelian.28 Another interesting comparison is with the fables of Aesop. and by a dog. General observations concerning stories of grateful animals are as follows. A wolf won the confidence of a shepherd but eventually destroyed his flock. he became conceited and wanted to be the king of the animals. nos. 28 29 30 LINDAHL 1980. proposed a brotherhood with dogs for letting him inside the pen. Even wolf cubs. The wolf always appears as a bad character in these fables. 111. they are about local animals. The wolf in the Aesopic fables. differ greatly from each other.29 Indeed. 14 . even in the corpus of stories about grateful animals. Plutarch. our story has not even been cited in the book (which is no doubt an unintentional omission). Man should behave well towards animals. dogs. even if he had to kill them in order to survive. elephants. caused harm to the flock when they grew up. These animals may have been the incarnation of good spirits whom people worshipped because they symbolized moral precepts. that the man in the story was meant to appear as taking a great risk to guarantee for a wild animal that can show no gratitude. Animals known for their gratitude were dolphins. which may have also been in circulation in antiquity. and Pliny the Elder. upon seeing his shadow. wanted to harm a fox. snakes. Actually. reared with care and love. eagles. He further appears as a self-appointed leader of other wolves. The fact that the wolf appears in most stories as a hostile. “bad” animal. clearly indicates that to shepherds and stockbreeders wolves have always represented a great danger. and what is also interesting. A wolf disguised himself by putting on a sheepskin and was unintentionally killed by a shepherd for his supper. In his world.
pp. 231. and the winter period when the flocks are shut indoor. Hippol. I owe the reference to this book to Dr. Translation by JONES 1949. 307–309. In it Strabo mentioned that Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse (late fourth century BC). horse-breeding was one of their conspicuous economic activities for which they were widely known.34 With this passage Strabo wished to illustrate the Paphlagonian origin of the Veneti and refute the hypothesis that they would have been colonists from among the Celts from Gaul with the same name. while others say that certain of the Heneti of Paphlagonia escaped hither with 31 32 33 34 35 MENCEJ 2001. fr. the famous Sicilian tyrant. most commonly either St George or St Martin. 1. The text reads as follows:35 “Some say that the Heneti too are colonists of those Celti of like name who live on the ocean-coast. but also among the Finns. St Savo and others. Euripides. or a forest daemon. This figure could either be a wolf himself. Fr. Andrej Pleterski. Indeed. The Master of the Wolves had three main functions: that of commanding the wolves. Venetic riding-horses are first mentioned in the seventh century BC by the Greek lyric poet Alcman. but also St Nicholas. although it is often a saint. on the first day of pasturing the Master of the Wolves “shuts the mouths of the wolves” (which may correspond to St George’s Day). very well known among the Slavic peoples. since it is known that during the Olympic Games in 440 BC the “Venetic mares” brought victory to Leon from Sparta. Martin’s Day). Could it nonetheless be explained in a broader context? There is a most interesting figure in European folklore of the Master of the Wolves. 50–51. 1. Monika Kropej and Dr. CÀSSOLA 1979 (= 1994. too. as has already been emphasized. Polemon. 1131. The story of a grateful wolf is unique and represents an exception within Graeco-Roman literature. and on the last day (corresponding perhaps to St. cf.31 Beneath the elaborate folklore and customs related to this belief.Marjeta Šašel Kos They were much feared by villagers who sought to protect themselves and their livestock as best they could against attacks by wolves. and the Venetic horses are further mentioned by Euripides. he “opens them again”. 15 . since this animal never appears as grateful figure. the basic need to ward off wolves from the herds is concealed. According to the beliefs that influenced the stockbreeders’ and shepherds’ calendar. bought his competition horses in Venetia.32 they must have been well known and greatly appreciated.33 The fame of the breed finds direct confirmation also in an earlier passage of Strabo in the same book of his Geography (this one. 277). inhabiting modern Morbihan along the Atlantic ocean. V 1. as well as Austrians and Germans. who encouraged me to use it for my study. 22. and of protecting livestock and/or people from wolves. based on the Sicilian historian Timaeus). It could be hypothesized that the grateful wolf in Strabo’s story might perhaps have been some kind of a prototype of a figure corresponding in certain ways to the Master of the Wolves: a wolf who could protect a herd of wild horses from other wolves and bring it safe to his benefactor. 4 C 212. of allotting food to them. summer and early autumn. This actually signifies two periods of the shepherds’ year: outdoor pasture over the late spring. The Venetic horses Strabo’s story of the grateful wolf is notably an aetiological story closely connected with the trade in horses among the Veneti.
1. 16 .. He distinguished himself by owning such good horses. 6. A year earlier the consular army under 36 37 38 39 40 41 Dionys. This is important information from his own lifetime. Diodorus of Sicily reported that “Dionysus sent to the contest several four-horse teams. too. However. Strabo added that by his time horsebreeding among the Veneti had already become extinct. and.40 and the question may be asked whether the Veneti exported their horses to their neighbours. that is. Diodorus. which were by far superior to all others in swiftness”. was limited. Burials of horses in the Iron Age Altino cemetery of “Le Brustolade”. nor – even worse – as an ally of Sparta and possibly of the Persians. except on special occasions. but it is not known how much older. TURK 2005. Such a situation occurred. 14. not the actual drivers or riders. Homer. Dionysius. Dionysius competed with four-horse chariots during the Olympic games in 388 BC. who publicly exposed his policy as hostile to Greek freedom. cf. therefore he sent to Olympia a festive embassy. for example. After having told the story of the grateful wolf. and consequently not only did the fame of the Henetian foal-breeding reach the Greeks but the breed itself was held in high esteem by them for a long time. and it is not possible to conclude when exactly the breeding ceased. 29 f.36 Nonetheless. passim. although this is only a terminus ante quem.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Antenor from the Trojan war. Hal. which means that the breeding of good horses was still very prestigious. Obviously it was older than the rule of Dionysius the Elder of Syracuse. as testimony to this.37 The period of origin for the breeding of white (?)38 horses among the Veneti cannot be established with certainty.41 Perhaps some horses – no doubt prestigious ones – found in the graves of the Iron Age inhabitants of Dolenjska originated from Venetia. however. since the owners of the horses. adduce their devotion to the breeding of horses – a devotion which now. has wholly disappeared. 91. in the sanctuary of Zeus. indeed. neither as a composer of tragedies (his verses were also recited in the course of the games).39 The breeding of the Venetic horses most probably flourished in the time of the so-called “Situla Art” in Dolenjska (Lower Carniola). older than the fourth century BC.” At Olympia. The “Venetic” horseman appearing on the Slovenian passports and identity cards is erroneously regarded as a Venetic (and proto-Slovenian) horseman. the tyrant of Sicily. whence the breed of the wild mules. on the instigation of the orator Lysias (next in fame to Demosthenes). The Romans did not allow the export of these horses.’ Again. The Olympic games were for him an occasion of enhancing his reputation and winning more recognition in Greece. The tyrant did not enjoy a good reputation in Greece. Lys. the export of horses from Italy. led by his brother Thearides. for example. recalls this fact: ‘From the land of the Heneti. By the time when the Roman rule extended over Venetia. collected his stud of prizehorses from here. quite possibly the Venetic horses. HROBAT 2007. 109. Strabo mentioned that the Veneti sacrificed a white horse to Diomedes. from the fact of their ancient rivalry in the matter of producing mares for mule-breeding. in 170 BC. his winning horses became well known and appreciated in Greece for a long time as excellent race-horses. are dated from the end of the sixth century BC onwards. Depictions on the decorated bronze buckets and buckles also show horses. although formerly it was prized among them. his tent was attacked by the spectators. particularly not in Athens. received the glory in these contests. GAMBACURTA 2003. see supra.
e. Unfortunately it was not possible to prevent the harm done to the peoples through whose territory Longinus and his soldiers were returning. it is well known from archaeological contexts what a great role horses played among the Veneti.44 This privilege was regarded as a great advantage and the horses in question were most probably Venetic horses. which occurs in several Venetic inscriptions.10. 333.. Miscalculating the great distance between Aquileia and Pella. except its neck and coat. but most of all the right to import horses since their export was otherwise forbidden. ŠAŠEL KOS 1997. as well as two horses with horse equipment. This function may be interpreted either in social or socio-economic terms. 8 = Strabo. made the consul stop his march immediately. as thick as the tail of a colt. 17 . who added that along with them an animal of unusual form also inhabited these mountains. Polyb. See URBAN 2000.42 Longinus had been allotted the province of Cisalpine Gaul (northern Italy) but wanted to win glory and booty in Macedonia in the war against Philip V. that elks lived there around AD 400: JAMNIK 2004. which were similar to that of a boar. Borut Toškan.45 This description corresponds well to an elk. KRIVIC 1985. the capital of the Macedonian kingdom. Interestingly. This kingdom may have been the Norican kingdom. 43. Strabo took these data too from Polybius. 34. Livy called Cincibilus the king of the Celts (rex Gallorum). it is now known. 7–9. 293. 5. by devastating their lands and hunting for slaves. I owe this reference to Dr. with costly gifts including two golden necklaces.g. ŠAŠEL KOS 1998. This happened after the consul had been recalled by the Senate from his march to Macedonia and had to return. and Atria (Adria). where other literature is cited. such as here mentioned wild horses. Alpini populi (probably the Taurisci inhabiting present-day Slovenia). Altinum (Altino). indicates a ‘master of the horse’.47 The Alps at that time were partly populated by animals different from the present-day ones. since even horse cemeteries and relatively frequent horse burials have been discovered to date in the area of Patavium (Padua). DOBESCH 1980. IV 6. aurochs.Marjeta Šašel Kos Gaius Cassius Longinus caused great damage to the Iapodes. The Senate. RIEDEL 1982. 43. it has therefore been assumed that commerce in horses must have been highly developed among the Veneti.46 and its existence in the third century BC and also in a later period has been archaeologically confirmed. and elks. five silver vessels. who were his brother’s allies. Below the chin the animal had a hard protuberance about a span long. who had been informed about this by the Aquileians. The representatives of those peoples complained in the Senate about the devastation.43 In this delicate situation the Senate sent an embassy of two most distinguished senators to Cincibilus and his brother. See. 5. wild horses as well as aurochs (the wild progenitor of modern cattle) are known to have been living in the Alps. with hairs growing at the end.48 The great importance of horses in Venetia seems to be well confirmed also by epigraphy since the Venetic word ekupetaris. Histri. although it is not noted in the sources under this name. some of them became locally extinct.10 C 207–208. Its outward appearance closely resembled that of a stag. GAMBACURTA 2003. in the first case corresponding to the Roman 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Livy. 1 ff. whom I also thank for a discussion about the (wild) horses. BOLOGNESI 1998–1999. and Carni. In the prehistoric and Roman periods. and the brother of the Celtic king Cincibilus came to protest on behalf of the Alpine peoples. reared in the immediate neighbourhood of the Celtic kingdom(s) in the Alps. Livy. he took provisions for 30 days and guides to show him the way across the Balkans. through 14C dating.
Thus they are found at Most na Soči. as for example at Bled. I owe this reference to Dr. from: TURK 2005. Particularly instructive in this respect is the scene on the decorated bronze belt buckle from Vače (end of sixth to fifth century BC) representing two warriors in different attire on different horses 49 50 51 52 53 MARINETTI 2003. and. a member of the upper class. possessing a horse. whom I thank very much for his comments on the horse in archaeology.49 In general it can be observed that Iron Age horse burials are also not rare in the area bordering the regions inhabited by the Veneti. DULAR 2007.52 However. As yet unpublished. preserved by Strabo. Borut Toškan. on decorated “Situla Art” objects from the early Iron Age horses are depicted in different ways. i. Indeed. owned by warriors and members of the ruling class as a status symbol.53 That would make the historical kernel of the story. additional horses from wild populations were incorporated into the domestic herds. 39 ﬁg. at least theoretically plausible.The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography Fig.50 but also elsewhere. BöKöNYI 1993. the latest genetic studies of horses seem to indicate that the taming and breeding of horses was much older and much more complex than has hitherto been believed. used as working horses. and it has been postulated that two groups (types) could be distinguished: the taller and more prestigious eastern group. As Marsha Levine concluded: “The genetic data appears to suggest that as the knowledge of horse breeding spread. personal communication of Dr. to a breeder of horses. as well as in other parts of Slovenia. 25 ff. 2: Bronze belt buckle from Vače (end of 6th to 5th century BC. Libna.51 Much has been written about the origin of the horses in the northern Adriatic and sub-Alpine regions. where the Iron Age population was related to the Veneti. LEVINE 2006: citation on p. thus forming the regional mtDNA clusters”. 58). 18 . Pristava. as well as a smaller group. p. Novo Mesto). Magdalenska Gora. of western origin. 199. ordo equester. in the second case. Andrej Pleterski. particularly in the cemeteries belonging to the Dolenjska Iron Age hillforts (Stična.e. which has often been noted.
Fontana (Studi e Ricerche sulla Gallia Cisalpina 13). originating from the same broad area as the white Venetic horse known from Strabo) was cross-bred with Spanish. 46–47 and fig.55 although he seems to be in a losing position. or a duel between two heroes from local legends. eds. Andrej Pleterski.59 I would very much like to thank Andrej Pleterski for his valuable comments on my paper.Cividale. and notably also in northern Italy among the Veneti. 19 . the army. New York. Both breeds of horses are attested archaeologically at the Iron Age Dolenjska sites. Summarized by BöKöNYI 1993. Powell. E. in: Grčki utjecaj na istočnoj obali Jadrana / Greek Inﬂuence Along the East Adriatic Coast (Proceedings 54 55 56 57 58 59 For another drawing of the same buckle see ZAKLADI 1999. 13–38. ibid. where such breeding is attested. Bandelli. DOLENC 1980. in: Iulium Carnicum: centro alpino tra Italia e Norico dalla protostoria all'età imperiale. Melbourne 1998. It shows – among other things – how the breeding of horses must have been important at that time in Italy. I would like to thank for this opinion Prof. 2). Napolitan. perhaps the warrior on the left. It is most interesting to note that in the second half of the sixteenth century. Rather than to assume this represents a duel between “a Thracian and a local Illyrian warrior”. G. Religions of Rome. 29–30 settembre 1995. and the Spanish riding school.. G.Marjeta Šašel Kos (Fig.57 or – much more plausible – between a warrior from Etruria or Venetia and a “Lower Carniolan”. S. and the smaller horse is currently regarded as a more or less local type. bearing the sun symbol of the swastika (indicating the colour white?). and quite different from the other. the scene may be interpreted as a contest between the “princes” within the same region. too. BöKöNYI 1993. citing the explanation of T. it does not seem to be entirely clear which of them is the winner.54 The warrior on the left is riding a taller horse with better equipment. PRICE.56 The attire and weapons of both horsemen. Could it be assumed that one of them. Vol. The Archaeological Excavations on Cape Ploča. Roma 2001. NORTH. M. along these lines the riders should better be explained as a Scythian and a ‘Lower Carniolan’.. I: A History. S. Atti del Convegno. Literature BANDELLI. Arta Terme . The horse on the right is slightly smaller and “wilder” looking. the autochthonous Karst horse (i. was in possession of a Venetic horse? The way in which the political incident concerning the misconduct of the army of Gaius Cassius Longinus was handled is most instructive. He still holds one spear in his left hand. J. F. For a short discussion see TURK 2005. G. BEARD. Neither ‘Thracian’ nor ‘Illyrian’ is plausible.. are well documented in the Dolenjska graves. and Arab horses to produce a breed of fast (mostly white) horses – the Lipica horses or Lipizzaners – intended for the court of Vienna. he is now holding an axe. and his story about the grateful wolf.58 Indeed. Veneti e Carni dalle origini alla romanizzazione.e. 11. 146. Cambridge. 40.. Indeed this could be confirmed by the data in Strabo’s Geography. BILIĆ DUJMUŠIĆ. while the warrior on the right has already discarded both of his and wounded his opponent’s horse.
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Nikolaj. Kr. da so že na olimpijskih igrah leta 440 pr. tako v pripovedih slovanskih kot germanskih narodov. Zanimivo je. Diomeda so častili tako vzdolž zahodne kot vzhodne obale Jadrana in njenega neposrednega zaledja. vendar je bilo zaradi ženine nezvestobe in spletk njegovo življenje ogroženo in zateči se je moral na italsko stran Jadrana h kralju Davnije Davnu. Človek si je živali želel napraviti sebi naklonjene.Marjeta Šašel Kos Pripovedka o hvaležnem volku in venetskih konjih v Strabonovi Geografiji Marjeta Šašel Kos Grški zgodovinar in geograf iz avgustejskega časa. 'venetske kobile' prinesle zmago 23 . da na prvi dan paše na prostem Gospodar volkov »zapre gobce volkov« (kar je povezano z Jurjevim). Gospodar volkov je imel tri glavne naloge: volkovom je zapovedoval. Postavljena je v kontekst svetih krajev v območju izvira in izliva reke Timave pri Venetih (sl. kar odraža eno najstarejših oblik verovanja primitivnega človeka. veljal je za zaščitnika pomorcev. ki so se izkazali za odlično raso. ki ga je nek premožni mož rešil iz zank lovcev. blizu svetih gajev argivske Here in etolske Artemide. čeprav jih je moral tudi ubijati. ki pomaga'. sv. Gospodar volkov je lahko volk. Mož je pristal. Te živali si je verjetno predstavljal kot utelešenje dobrih duhov in jih častil. v tej vlogi pa nastopajo tudi sv. Martin. če bi bil porok tudi volku. ki nastopa tudi tam. ne domače. novi lastnik jim je vtisnil žig s podobo volka.. Strabonova zgodba je etiološke narave in želi razložiti nastanek vzreje konj in trgovine s konji pri Venetih. Martina). Zgodba o hvaležnem volku je izjemna v grško-rimski književnosti in tudi sicer nima vzporednic. da volk nikdar ne nastopa kot hvaležna žival. Njihov sloves je ščasoma naraščal. lahko pa je tudi gozdni duh ali svetnik. se ponuja zanimiva primerjava z motivom 'Gospodarja volkov'. ne eksotične. ki je dobro znan v evropski folklori. jim določal hrano in ščitil živino na paši in ljudi pred volkovi. njemu posvečeno svetišče so odkrili na Veli Palagruži in na Rtu Ploča (Promunturium Diomedis) južno od Šibenika. Hvaležne živali so predvsem divje. Strabon Timava sicer ne omenja. ko lirski pesnik Alkman prvič omeni venetske konje. Tudi pri Venetih je imel svetišče v neposredni bližini Jadranske obale ter. Savo in drugi. omenja jih tudi Evripid in znano je. Strabonov volk bi morda utegnil biti nekakšen prototip 'Gospodarja volkov'. Te zgodbe so se razvile iz motiva 'živali. Po reji konj so bili v grškem svetu znani najmanj od 7. stoletja pr. kjer sicer ne živi. Človek je bil namreč znan po tem. sv. Kr. nam je v svojem opisu Italije ohranil zanimivo zgodbo o hvaležnem volku. 1). posebej pogosto npr. pač pa kult grškega heroja Diomeda. Živinorejci in pastirji so verjeli. Strabon. na zadnji dan paše »pa jih spet odpre« (kar je bilo povezano s praznikom na sv. in predvsem lokalne. kot pravi Strabon. kjer so v antiki častili boga Timava. Diomed je bil kralj Argosa. volk pa mu je v njegovo stajo iz hvaležnosti prignal čredo divjih konj. da je lahko preživel. Če jo želimo umestiti v širši kontekst. pri katerih je oboje igralo pomembno ekonomsko vlogo. Jurij ali sv. da je bil pripravljen vsakomur iti za poroka. ki je imel v bližini izlivov Timave v Jadransko morje svoje svetišče in ki so mu imeli navado žrtvovati belega konja. pa so ga lovci v šali povprašali. motiv hvaležne živali pa je sicer v folklori pogost po vsem indoevropskem svetu in poznan od orientalnih tekstov in antike dalje. z izjemo leva. pa tudi med Finci. ki je v živem svetu okoli sebe povsod občutil navzočnost božanskega. Žrtvovanje belega konja je bilo Strabonu iztočnica za zgodbo o hvaležnem volku. ker so simbolizirale moralne nauke. kamor se je vrnil po padcu Troje.
sta upodobljena bojevnika na različnih konjih. po prvi bi oseba s tem nazivom pripadala višjemu družbenemu razredu. izjemo so npr. oz. Diodor s Sicilije pa pravi: »Dionizij je poslal na tekmo nekaj četverovpreg. Zgolj kot zanimivost naj še omenim. Libni in Novem mestu. Kr. Da bi se oddolžil za zločinsko ravnanje Longinove vojske. da so Rimljani nadzorovali izvoz konj. kjer je živelo sosednjim Venetom sorodno prebivalstvo. iz 5. Znano je tudi. da gre za dve vrsti konj. Kr. Strabon omenja. 2). tako npr. ni povsem jasno. medtem ko so za delo uporabljali manjšo raso konj zahodnega porekla. je rimski senat poslal k oškodovanemu keltskemu kralju odposlanstvo. stoletja domačega kraškega konja (ki je torej izviral iz istega širšega območja kot beli venetski konji iz okolice reke Timave) oplemenitili s španskim. napolitanskim in arabskim konjem ter vzgojili slovitega hitrega lipicanca. še v 2. kar bi potrjevalo zgodovinsko jedro Strabonove zgodbe o volku. ki mu je pripeljalo poleg drugih dragocenih daril tudi dva konja s popolno konjsko opremo. zanimivo pa je. temveč tudi na Pristavi pri Bledu in na Dolenjskem. stoletja pr. da so bili konji venetski. Kr. da so v drugi polovici 16. Kako to funkcijo ustrezno razložiti. jih načeloma niso dovolili izvažati. Kr. levi je nekoliko višji in elegantnejši. čeprav je dobil v upravljanje severno Italijo (imenovala se je Cisalpinska Galija). kar po vsej verjetnosti pomeni. ter naziv ekupetaris. konje višje in bolj prestižne vzhodne rase. ki bi ustrezal rimskemu viteškemu stanu. Na bronasti pasni sponi s konca 6. da je na levem konju upodobljen sončni simbol v obliki svastike. ne le v Mostu na Soči. Upodobitev bi si morda lahko razložili kot dvoboj dveh jezdecev v religioznem kontekstu nagrobnih ali kakšnih drugih kultnih iger. ki je pogost na venetskih napisih in pomeni 'gospodarja konjev'. kot so doslej mislili. da je bila vzreja konj starejša in veliko bolj zapletena. da so občasno v domače črede konj vključevali lokalne divje konje. V tistem času je bila Venetija že pod rimsko oblastjo in podarjena konja sta bila verjetno venetska. ki so predstavljali statusni simbol. ker sta možni tako družbena kot družbeno-ekonomska razlaga. stoletju pr. Magdalenski Gori. Tedaj je namreč rimski konzul Gaj Kasij Longin z območja Akvileje prodiral z vojsko proti Makedoniji. Altina in Atrije (Adrije).The story of the grateful wolf and Venetic horses in Strabo’s Geography svojemu lastniku Leonu iz Šparte. kar je veljalo za zelo prestižno darilo. desni nižji in bolj divjega videza (sl. Na pomembno vlogo konj med Veneti kažejo številni konjski pokopi. Na olimpijskih igrah leta 388 pr. pa je s svojimi venetskimi konji v tekmi štirivpreg zmagal mogočni sirakuški tiran Dionizij Starejši. Kam so Veneti še izvažali svoje konje poleg Grčije in Sicilije? Zelo verjetno tudi k veljakom železnodobnih gradišč na Dolenjskem in drugod po Sloveniji. da je levi jezdec jahal belega venetskega konja. Vse kaže. napravili v primeru večjega političnega incidenta leta 171 pr. ki so po hitrosti daleč prekašale vse druge«. v Stični. Senatski odposlanci so ga dohiteli in odpoklicali. po drugi pa bi šlo za rejca konj. da bi si pridobil slavo v vojni proti makedonskemu kralju. Tudi na območju današnje Slovenije so bili odkriti posamezni pokopi konj v železni dobi. Raziskave kažejo. kjer bi moral tudi ostati. Vendar pa zadnje genetske študije kažejo. da gre za belega konja. Belega konja so Veneti žrtvovali Diomedu in ni povsem izključeno. 24 . zlasti v območju Patavija (Padove). so imeli člani vladajoče elite in bojevniki. konzul pa je na povratku pustošil ozemlje rimskih zaveznikov.