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Unit 6 Notes: Moles Atoms are very, very small.

As a result, its not very practical to do chemical reactions by counting out the number of atoms or molecules that will be reacting, because well be counting for a very long time! Youve seen this before, because when working with a large number of objects, its frequently handy to use units that are easier to work with. 2 shoes = 1 pair 12 eggs = 1 dozen 144 pencils = 1 gross 500 sheets of paper = 1 ream 6.02 x 1023 atoms or molecules = 1 mole

The idea behind moles is the same as the idea behind dozens, except that the number is much bigger. Definition: 1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 of anything. 6.02 x 1023 is referred to as Avogadros number

Mole calculations: How do you count out a mole of atoms? You dont. Even if it were possible to count out individual atoms in a reasonable period of time, the equipment we have only measures grams. As a result, we need to be able to convert between atoms/molecules, moles, and grams. Dimensional analysis is the method used for conversions; that is when we draw the t-chart and insert conversion factors.

Use the diagram below with the t-chart method of doing calculations to help you convert between grams, moles, and molecules/atoms.

1 mole

6.023 x 10


atoms molecules form u.

(MM) g
periodic table

Handy hint: In conversion factors, always write 1 in front of moles!

Quick recap of the t-chart method: 1. Make a T 2. Put what youve got in the top left 3. Put the units of what youve got in the bottom right 4. Put the units what youwith want infirst the few): top right Examples: (Go overof the T-chart the 5. Put in the conversion factors How many grams are in 2.1 moles of Be? (18.9) 6. [If needed, add another step to get to where youre going] 7. Multiply the molecules stuff on the top together divide byx the stuff on the bottom. How many are in 6.3 moles and of CH ? (3.79 1024 molecules)

How many molecules are there in 11.1 grams of carbon dioxide? How carbon atoms are in the 11.1 grams of carbon dioxide? How many oxygen atoms are in 11.1 grams of carbon dioxide?

Finding Molar Mass Molar mass (also called molecular weight or molecular mass): The weight of one mole of a chemical compound. The unit is g/mol. For elements, the mass of one mole of atoms is called the atomic mass and is found on the periodic table.

How to calculate the molar mass of a compound: For elements, the molar mass is the same thing as the atomic mass. For chemical compounds, its the sum of the masses of all of the atoms in the molecule. Example: NaCl Na: Cl: 23 grams x 1 atom = 23 grams/mol 35 grams x 1 atom = 35 grams/mol Total: 58 grams/mol

More examples: o MgCl2 o Fe(OH)2 o Be3(PO4)2 94 g/mol 90 g/mol 217 g/mol

For these last two examples, the molar mass for compounds like this is found by multiplying everything in the parentheses by the number outside the parentheses.

Notes: Percent composition: In a previous unit we learned to calculate percent composition for abundance of isotopes. In this unit we will learn to calculate percent composition by mass of elements in a compound. The equation is: Percent composition of X = (mass of element X mass of compound) x 100%

Examples to solve: o Al(OH)3 Al: 34.6%, O: 61.5%, H: 3.8%

o K2S

K: 70.9%, S: 29.1%

Notes: Empirical and Molecular Formulas Once you have a percent composition of a chemical compound, its possible to figure out the molecular formula. Heres how, using the example of a compound with a molar mass of 28 grams/mol in which the percent composition of the components are as follows: C: 85.7% H: 14.3% 1) Assume you have 100 grams of the chemical. This serves to convert the percentages into grams. In our example, we now have 85.7 grams of carbon and 14.3 grams of hydrogen. 2) Figure out how many moles of each element you have in the compound. Using the T-chart method we talked about before, we can determine that there are 7.14 moles of carbon and 14.3 moles of hydrogen. 3) Find the empirical formula of the compound by finding the ratio of the number of moles of elements.

Review: Empirical formulas are reduced versions of the molecular formula. For example, a compound that has an empirical formula of BH may have a formula of B2H2, B3H3, etc. In a practical sense, this means that we should divide the number of moles of each element by the smallest answer for number of moles. Since the smallest number is 7.14 moles, well divide both values by 7.14. carbon: 7.14 / 7.14 = 1 hydrogen: 14.3 / 7.14 = 2

Empirical formula: C1H2 Handy hint: If the problem gives you the empirical formula, you can start at the next step!

Continued on next page 4) Divide the experimentally determined molar mass by the molar mass of the empirical formula. 5) For our compound, the molar mass of the compound is 28 grams/mol (this was given in the problem). For the formula CH2, the molar mass is 12 + 2 = 14 grams/mol. 28 / 14 = 2

Multiply the coefficients in the empirical formula by the number you found in step 4 to find the molecular formula. CH2 x 2 = C2H4, which is our answer!

More examples: Find the molecular formula of a compound with a molar mass of 142 g/mol and a percent composition of 43.7% P and 56.3% O. P2O5 Find the molecular formula of a compound with an empirical formula of HO and a molar mass of 34 g/mol. H2O2 Find the molecular formula of a compound with a molar mass of 92 g/mol and a percent composition of 30.4% N and 69.6% O. N2O4