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Select four formative assessments from 75 Practical Strategies for Linking Assessment, Instruction and Learning. Describe the assessments that you selected and attach the assessment. (4 pts) How did you choose the assessment technique and the content assessed? (4 pts) What standards did the assessments address? (4 pts) Formative Assessment 1: Every Graph Tells a Story (pg. 82) For this formative assessment, students show how well they can make sense of graphic representations. For this specific activity, students not only create a story of a graph, but also create the graph themselves, helping them practice their graphing skills and ability to interpret graphs. Assessment: On the SMART Board presentation: Students should work with their shoulder partners. Duplicate the following table on a blank sheet of paper: x 0 1 2 3 4 5 y

Directions: Students will use the TI-inspiress Random Generator feature to fill in random numbers for each y value. Since students are working in pairs, each pair should end up with a different table. Have students then graph these coordinates, and come up with a scenario or story that would result in this graph. Students should make sure to title their x and y axis based on the story they write. Reasoning: I chose this assessment because I felt like it was a perfect fit for the section we were covering on interpreting graphs. It gives students the opportunity to be creative, while still testing their ability to interpret and understand graphs. It also helps me as a teacher to see whether students understand the relationship between the two variables in terms of a situations context.

Benchmark: MACC.912.F-IF.2.4: For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity.

Formative Assessment 2: Matching Cards (pg. 123) This formative assessment is a modification of Matching Cards rather than matching cards, students will match sides of tangrams to create one shape. The rest of the design for the formative assessment remains the same. Assessment: On the SMART Board presentation: Directions: Students should work with their shoulder partners to complete 3 different sets of tangrams. On some of the sides of each tangram inequalities are written. Some of them are solved, such as x > 2, and others are not. Students are to match up sides of the tangrams with equivalent inequalities. Start with the addition/subtraction set. Once you have completed the tangram, show me and if it is correct, you may start on the next tangram. Reasoning: This formative assessment helps students practice identifying equivalent inequalities in an engaging way. The modification from matching cards to creating a tangram presents the same activity in a more novel, engaging way. It also quickly allows the teacher to identify if students have correctly matched the inequalities based on the shape of the students tangrams. By having students work on this activity in pairs, students also get the chance to verbalize their reasoning and share their strategy for solving the tangram with their partner. Benchmark: MACC.912.A-REI.2.3: Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable.

Formative Assessment 3: Pass the Problem (pg. 145) For this formative assessment, students will be put in groups of 4, and will be given the Functions Rule Worksheet (attached below). Each student will start of with one of 4 problems. Each problem is split into 4 different parts. Each student will do one of the four parts of each of the four problems. Students will start off with part a, complete it and pass it to the person to their left. After passing the problem, they will check the work for part a of the person before them, and then complete part b. This will continue until all 4 parts have been completed, and all 4 questions are complete. These directions will be given verbally and in chunks to not overwhelm students. First students will be told to just work on part a of the question in front of them. After students have worked on this part for 2 minutes, the next step of directions will be given. Assessment: attached below.

Functions Rule! Worksheet Maggie currently owns 200 songs in her iTunes collection. Every month, she adds 15 new songs. Answer the following questions for how many songs Maggie has after a certain amount of months. 1. Write a function rule for the above situation.

Months

1 2 3 4 5 3. Graph the function rule written in #1

Songs Owned

When Zach gets into a taxi, the meter starts at $3.30. After that initial fee, the taxi meter will add $2.40 for each mile the taxi driver drives. Answer the following questions for how much Zach will pay based on how many miles the taxi driver drives. 1. Write a function rule for the above situation.

Miles

1 2 3 4 5 3. Graph the function rule written in #1

Cost

4. How much will Zach owe if the taxi driver takes him from the airport to his home, which is 20 miles? Explain.

Alex has a saving account with $2000. He then gets a job and earns $40,000 per year, and spends $37,000 of it per year, putting the rest into savings. Answer the following questions for how much Alex will have saved based on how many years he has worked at his job. 1. Write a function rule for the above situation.

Years

1 2 3 4 5 3. Graph the function rule written in #1

Money in Savings

4. How long will Alex need to work at this job and continue saving that much money before he has saved $20,000? Explain.

Autumn goes to the fair with $40. Each ride costs $2. Answer the following questions for how much money Autumn will have left based on how many rides she has gone on. 1. Write a function rule for the above situation.

Rides

1 2 3 4 5 3. Graph the function rule written in #1

Money Left

4. How many rides will Autumn have ridden if she spends all her money? Explain.

Reasoning: I chose this assessment because it helps students review a variety of different ways to represent the situations presented in the problems with an equation, a table, and a graph, and shows students how these different representations are related. It also allows students to collaborate with other students on a single problem, and determine whether they agree or disagree with another students answer and thought process. Students are also given time at the end to make sure they all agree with the answers to each problem, and then display their answers as a class and make suggestions for any other modifications to classmates answers. This also allows myself as a teacher to hear students though processes and to see if students really understand the relation between each of these parts of the problem. Benchmark: MACC.912.F-BF.1.1: Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. (a) Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. (b) Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. (c) Compose functions. For example, if T(y) is the temperature in the atmosphere as a function of height, and h(t) is the height of a weather balloon as a function of time, then T(h(t)) is the temperature at the location of the weather balloon as a function of time.

Formative Assessment 4: Always, Sometimes, or Never True (pg. 57) For this formative assessment, students identify if 4 statements with concepts dealing with rate of change are always, sometimes, or never true, and explain their reasoning. Assessment: In their Student Companions: There are 4 always, sometimes, or never statements in the student companion on the concept of rate of change, such as a ratio is a rate, and a rate is a ratio. These statements help identify how well students understand the concepts essential for rate of change. Directions: Students should work in their groups of four, using round robin to answer the questions, starting with student 1 for the first question and ending with student 4. We will then discuss all 4 statements as a class. Reasoning: I chose this assessment because it is good at revealing whether students overgeneralize or undergeneralize a concept in math. It also is interesting to hear students reasoning for whether a statement is true or not students may have the correct response, but their reasoning may be flawed. I feel that all the discussions generated by these statements are very beneficial for revealing how well students understand these concepts. Benchmark: MACC.912.S-ID.3.7: Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data.

2. Administer the assessment and collect student artifacts. How many students and which grade level did you assess? (1 pt) What accommodations did you make for students with different learning styles and needs? (1 pt) When all students were present, there was 24 students in grades 7 and 8 (the majority are grade 8). The questions were displayed both visually and discussed verbally to accommodate students with different learning styles and needs. The goal of all these formative assessments was to allow students an opportunity to share their mathematical thinking and understanding in different ways, such as through writing or in a class discussion.

3. Select 1 of the assessments and develop a detailed rubric for scoring the assessment. Use the appropriate content rubric to help you develop the rubric for your assessment. (6 pts). Formative Assessment Pass the Problem Rubric:

Levels Explanation of the levels Typical student responses at each level of reasoning on part 4 of one of the questions (since part 4 pulls from the first 3 parts) 1. Students provide the correct function rule, completed table, and graph of the function rule for the first 3 parts. 2. Students answer the last question based on results from the first 3 parts. That means identifying how to get the answer using the equation, the table, and the graph, and seeing how these all relate. 3. Example response: How long will Alex need to work at this job and continue saving that much money before he has saved $20,000? Explain. Alex will need to work 6 years before he has saved up $20,000. If you put in 20,000 into the function rule, and solve for y (if y is years), you get y = 6, so he would need to work 6 years. You can also get 6 years by looking at the graph, and looking at the y axis at $20,000 And seeing where the graph of our function rule is at y = 20,000. Finally, if you add one more row to the table, at 6 years the money in savings would be 20,000, so you can get 6 years that way as well. 1. Students provide the correct function rule, completed table, and graph of the function rule for the first 3 parts. 2. Students answer the last question based on results from 1 of the 3 parts. That means identifying how to get the answer using either the equation, the table, or the graph,

Extended abstract

Analytical

whichever they choose. 3. Example response similar to the example above, only instead of including all 3 explanations for part 4, only getting the correct answer of 6 years using one of the three parts either the function rule, the table, or the graph. Quantitative Students can identify mathematical ideas in a quantitative way but cannot integrate these mathematical ideas during the task. 1. Students provide the correct function rule, completed table, and graph of the function rule for the first 3 parts. Students might not see how different function rules are equivalent for example, with question 3 that the function rule 40,000 37,000 + 2,000x is the same as 3,000 + 2,000x. Students might also be missing labels for their axes on their graph. 2. Students answer the last question based on results from 1 of the 3 parts. That means identifying how to get the answer using either the equation, the table, or the graph, whichever they choose. Their explanation might not be as clear as a response that warrants analytical. 3. Example responses for part 4 The answer is 6 years because when you plug in 6 for x you get 20,000. The answer is 6 because when you find 20,000 on the graph it goes down to 6 on the x axis. 1. Students may be missing the correct function rule, completed table, and graph of the function rule for the first 3 parts. Students might not see how different function rules are equivalent for example, with question 3 that the function rule 40,000 37,000 + 2,000x is the same as 3,000 + 2,000x. Students might also be missing labels for their axes on their graph. 2. Students answer the last question correctly,

Transitional

but do not provide an explanation of how they arrived at their answer. 3. Example response for part 4 The answer is 6 years. Idiosyncratic This level is based on subjective reasoning with unrelated data and is affected by subjective beliefs and personal experiences. 1.Students are missing the correct response for one or more of the first 3 parts. 2. Students answer the last question incorrectly or provide faulty reasoning for how they got their answer. 3. Example responses for part 4 (not an actual student response) It would take him 1 year since he makes $40,000 each year.

4. Analyze student results using the rubric. Describe in detail how the students responded to the assessments and how they performed. (3 pts) Include actual samples of student work. (3 pts) The above rubric could be used to grade the functions rule activity, and includes examples of student responses. Students for this activity overall did fairly well, the majority scoring analytical on the rubric. I attribute this high success rate due to the fact that students were working in their groups of 4, and were checking each others work. One group was able to score extended abstract on two of the questions because they had identified how you can use any of the sections in parts 1-3 to answer the last question, which was one of the goals of the assignment. There were also groups that would have fallen on the transitional level on the rubric for a question, but who ended up receiving quantitative or analytical because of the assistance from other members in the group. Each group member kept one of the four questions to keep in their notebooks as evidence of the activity.

5. Reflect on student understanding based on results obtained using the rubric. Were you surprised at how the students performed on your assessments? (2 pts) What do you know about the thinking patterns of the students in your class after having performed the assessment that you didnt know beforehand? (6 pts) I was really excited to see how well students performed on this assessment. For the most part, all students understood how to complete each of the four parts of the question, that is, the majority of the students were able to write a function rule, complete the table, graph the function rule, and answer the application question based on the scenario and their work in the first 3 parts. The areas that I found my students had difficulty with were when students wrote equivalent function rules for the first part, and being able to identify that they were actually the same function rule. For the graph, many students needed reminders about labelling the graph and how to properly scale the graph. When we put up student work on the overhead and discussed it as a class, asking for any suggestions, each time students made suggestions on how the graph needed an improvement whether it be to fix the scaling, add labels, or title the graph. This surprised me a bit since I have reminded them so many times during class to do these things, but it was good to discuss them again as a class, and hear students making the recommendations on how the graphs needed fixing. No students had trouble with the part that involved completing a table, unless the prior student had an incorrect function rule. If this was the case, every time the student doing part 2 caught the mistake, and so the mistake didnt carry over to part 3. Most of the class discussion was on part 4, and how to use the first 3 parts to come up with the correct answer. It was great hearing different students suggest different ways to find the correct answer based on their preferences of using the graph, function rule, or table, and showing students who didnt learn during the activity that all 3 ways are correct.

6. Address how the assessment will inform your instruction and address student needs. Discuss the instructional implications stemming from the assessment (i.e., how will the results alter the way that you teach the class now that you have more information about how they think)? (6 pts) Overall, I am incredibly happy with how this assessment went. Some changes I would make if I did this assessment again is to add an actual presentation part at the end of the activity, so students have to actual verbalize their thought process. Students could still have a discussion on the reasoning, and make suggestions to improve the responses, but I feel like it would be better to have all group members contribute to a verbal explanation of their answers. This also made me realize how many of my students still struggle with graphing function rules, and how I would need to go through more examples not only of graphing function rules, but how to read the graphs as well. An answer of The answer is 6 because when you find 20,000 on the graph it goes down to 6 on the x axis does not show sufficient understanding of how to read a graph of the function rule. Finally I think this also showed how it would be beneficial to talk about equivalent function rules, and how you can have more than one function rule or equation that refers to the same set of data.

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