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Raid

Raid

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raid
raid

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Published by: Shahab on Dec 03, 2013
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05/08/2014

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DSK INFOTECH

PHOTOCOPYING OF ANY PART OF THIS COURSE MATERIAL WITHOUT PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF DSK INFOTECH IS THE VIOLATION OF LAW ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. STRICT ACTIONS WOULD BE TAKEN IF ANY PERSON FOUND VIOLATING THIS LAW.

RAID
Basic Concepts RAID is an acronym standing for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. As the name implies, RAID is a way for multiple disk drives to act as if they were a single disk drive. RAID techniques were first developed by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley in the mid-1980s. At the time, there was a large gap in price between the high-performance disk drives used on the large computer installations of the day, and the smaller, slower disk drives used by the still-young personal computer industry. RAID was viewed as a method of having several less expensive disk drives fill in for one higher-priced unit. Who Should Use RAID? Those who need to keep large quantities of data on hand (such as system administrators) would benefit by using RAID technology. Primary reasons to use RAID include:
● Enhanced speed ● Increased storage capacity using a single virtual disk ● Lessened impact of a disk failure

RAID Levels The Berkeley researchers originally defined five different RAID levels and numbered them "1" through "5." In time, additional RAID levels were defined by other researchers and members of the storage industry. Not all RAID levels were equally useful; some were of interest only for research purposes, and others could not be economically implemented. In the end, there were three RAID levels that ended up seeing widespread usage:
● Level 0 ● Level 1 ● Level 5 ● Level 0 — RAID level 0, often called "striping," is a performance-oriented striped data mapping

technique. This means the data being written to the array is broken down into strips and written across the member disks of the array, allowing high I/O performance at low inherent cost but provides no redundancy. The storage capacity of a level 0 array is equal to the total capacity of the member disks in a Hardware RAID or the total capacity of member partitions in a Software RAID.
● Level 1 — RAID level 1, or "mirroring," has been used longer than any other form of RAID. Level 1

provides redundancy by writing identical data to each member disk of the array, leaving a "mirrored" copy on each disk. Mirroring remains popular due to its simplicity and high level of data availability. Level 1 operates with two or more disks that may use parallel access for high data-transfer rates when

DSK INFOTECH
PHOTOCOPYING OF ANY PART OF THIS COURSE MATERIAL WITHOUT PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF DSK INFOTECH IS THE VIOLATION OF LAW ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. STRICT ACTIONS WOULD BE TAKEN IF ANY PERSON FOUND VIOLATING THIS LAW.

reading but more commonly operate independently to provide high I/O transaction rates. Level 1 provides very good data reliability and improves performance for read-intensive applications but at a relatively high cost. The storage capacity of the level 1 array is equal to the capacity of one of the mirrored hard disks in a Hardware RAID or one of the mirrored partitions in a Software RAID.
● Level 5 — This is the most common type of RAID. By distributing parity across some or all of an

array's member disk drives, RAID level 5 eliminates the write bottleneck inherent in level 4. The only performance bottleneck is the parity calculation process. With modern CPUs and Software RAID, that usually is not a very big problem. As with level 4, the result is asymmetrical performance, with reads substantially outperforming writes. Level 5 is often used with write-back caching to reduce the asymmetry. The storage capacity of Hardware RAID level 5 is equal to the capacity of member disks, minus the capacity of one member disk. The storage capacity of Software RAID level 5 is equal to the capacity of the member partitions, minus the size of one of the partitions if they are of equal size. To Implement RAID 1) create partitions using fdisk lets say hda5,6,7,8 2) change partition system id to fd 3) update partition table using partprobe command 4) use mdadm command utility to create raid device #mdadm -C /dev/md0 –level=5 –raid-devices=3 /dev/hda{5,6,7} spare-devices=1 /dev/hda8 you can verify the raid device by using the following #mdadm –detail /dev/md0 or #cat /proc/mdstat 5) create filesystem on RAID device #mke2fs -j /dev/md0 6) mount raid device make a directory say #mkdir /data #mount /dev/md0 /data 7) add entries in /etc/fstab file /dev/md0 /data ext2 defaults 0 0 8) You can verify the size of the filesystem by using #df -h

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