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2

2.1
(Power plant)
(Generator)

2
- (Transmission system )
- (Distribution system)

2-1 typical electrical power grid


: www.howstuffworks.com/power.htm

2.1.1
2.1.1.1 (Substation)

2.1.1.2 (High Voltage Distribution)



2-2

- (Main Line Distribution)
3
- (Branch Line Distribution)
2
1 (Single Phase) 3 (Three Phase)
2.1.1.3 (Transformer)

380 (Line to Line) 220 (Line to
neutral)
2.1.1.4 (Low Voltage Distribution)

Main line

Single phase
branch Line

Three phase
branch Line

substation

Dropout fuse
cutout

Three phase
transformer

Single phase
transformer

2-2
: www.pea.co.th
2-2

230
115 (Power Transformer)
33 22





2.1.1.5 (protective devices)




(protective Relay) (Recloser)
(Circuit Breaker)
(Overcurrent Relay)

(Overvoltage Relay) (Undervoltage Relay)



10
()


3
(Coordination)
2.2 (Symmetrical Component )

3 3
2-3

2-3 Symmetrical component of an unbalanced system of voltages


: V. Gosbell, S. Perera, V. Smith, 2002
- (Positive-sequence components) 3
(phasors) 120
- (Negative-sequence components) 3
120

10

- (Zero-sequence components) 3
(in phases)

Va = Va1+Va2+Va0 ; Va
Vb = Vb1+Vb2+Vb0 ; Vb
Vc = Vc1+Vc2+Vc0 ; Vc

; Ia
Ia = Ia1+Ia2+Ia0
Ib = Ib1+Ib2+Ib0
; Ib
Ic = Ic1+Ic2+Ic0
; Ic
( balance system)
2-4
(unbalance system)
2-5

2-4
: V. Gosbell, S. Perera, V. Smith, 2002

2-5
: V. Gosbell, S. Perera, V. Smith, 2002

11



2.3

2.3.1
2-6, 2-7 2-8

2-6
: , 2546

2-7
: , 2546

12

2-8
: , 2546
2.3.2

Voltage Sag


2-1

2-1 Ability of Manufacturing and Process Industries to Voltage Dips
Plant
Problem
Paper mills
Speed of paper, about 20m/sec, breaker of web and plant
restart.
Textile mills
Major design flaws and loss production.
Steel mills
High speed strip, wire, bar forming, wire rod wrapped around
roller.
Newspaper printing
Loss of papers; no chance to recover sales.
Petrochemicals
Loss of process and process contamination; purging with
steam.
: PowerCon 2000 Perth 7th December 2000 Developments in Power Quality

13




2-9

2-9
: PowerCon 2000 Perth 7th December 2000 Developments in Power Quality
2-9
75-80% Photoelectric Emergency
Stop 65-70% Undervoltage Relay 60% Personal
Computer 50% PLC
(Voltage Unbalance) 1



(induction motor)
(rotor)
(stator) (loss)

14

2.3.3 IEEE 1159-1995

IEEE Std. 1159-1995 (Recommend Practice for Monitoring Electric Power


Quality) 2-2
2-2 : IEEE Std 1159-1995
Type of PQ Phenomena
Magnitude
Duration
Short Duration RMS Variations
Instantaneous
0.5-30 cycles
Interruption
< 0.1 pu
Sag
0.1-0.9 pu
Swell
1.1-1.8 pu
Momentary
0.5-3 seconds
Interruption
< 0.1 pu
Sag
0.1-0.9 pu
Swell
1.1-1.8 pu
Temporary
3 seconds 1 minute
Interruption
< 0.1 pu
Sag
0.1-0.9 pu
Swell
1.1-1.8 pu
Long Duration RMS Variation
Interruption
< 0.1 pu
> 1 minute
Undervoltage
0.1-0.9 pu
Overvoltage
1.1-1.8 pu
0.5-2%
Steady state
Voltage Imbalance
: IEEE Std 1159-1995, IEEE Recommended Practice for Monitoring Electric Power
Quality, IEEE Press, 1995
IEEE 1159-1995

15

- Short Duration RMS Variations


Instantaneous 0.5-30 cycles
2
(1) (Sag)
0.1-0.9 pu (per unit)
(2) (Swell)
1.1-1.8 pu
- Long Duration RMS Variations Magnitude
1 3
(1) (Interruption)
0.1 pu
(2) (Undervoltage)
0.1-0.9 pu
(3) (Overvoltage)
1.1-1.8 pu
- (Voltage Unbalance)
0.5-2
2.4



2-10

16

2-10 Short circuit


:http:// www.littlefuse.com/PwrGard-Fuseology.pdf
2.4.1 2
2.4.1.1 (Symmetrical Faults)
3

(Three Phase Fault)
2.4.1.2 (Unsymmetrical Faults)

3
- Single Line to Ground Fault

- Double Line to Ground Fault

- Line to Line Fault

17

Ia

Ib

Ic

2-11 Three Phase Fault


Ia

a
b

Ib

Ic
2-12 Single Line to Ground Fault
Ia

a
b

Ib

Ic
2-13 Line to Line Fault
Ia

a
b
c

Ib
Ic

If

2-14 Double Line to Ground Fault

18

Single Line to Ground Fault


2-15 2-16

2-15
: http://www.littelfuse.com/PwrGard-Fuseology.pdf

2-16
: PowerCon 2000 Perth 7th December 2000 Developments in Power Quality
2-15 2-16


2.4.2
2-17 2-18
2 (DC component)

19


(first cycle)

2-17 decaying dc offset is present in current signal


: C.-S. Chen, C.-W. Lui, J.-Z. Yang

2-18 decaying dc offset is not present in current signal


: C.-S. Chen, C.-W. Lui, J.-Z. Yang 2002
2.4.3 2
2.4.3.1 3
- (Heating) (I)
(t) I2t

- (Magnetic stress)
(I2) I=100,000
(Bus bar) 7,000 lb/ft

20

- (Arcing)

2.4.3.2





2.5
3
2-19
DSP

Stage III

Comm

A/D

Storage

CT
PT

Stage I

Signal conditioner Stage II

2-19 power quality monitoring equipment scheme


:Rafale A. Flores, State of the Art in the Classification of Power Quality Events, An
Overview
1 (sensor)
(Current Transformer :CT) (Potential or Voltage
Transformer : PT) (ratio)

(Saturation)

21

CT PT
- (Insulation level)
- (Frequency)
- (Transformer ratio)
- (Class of accuracy)
(CT ratio)

(1)
(2) CT burden (Zb) (Load)

(3) X/R

(Flux Density)
(Secondary) (Distortion)
(Harmonic)
CT Burden

5,589 X= 0.39827 R = 0.04286
X/R = 9.29 2-3 CT C400, 1500 : 5
2-4 2-5 Accuracy class CT PT

2-3 Maximum Current to Avoid Saturation

: J. Roberts, Stanley E. Zocholl, G. Benmouyal, 2003

22

2-4 Accuracy Class for protective CT (IEC standard)

:R. shamar, 2002


2-5 Accuracy Class for protective PT

: R. shamar, 2002
2 Signal conditioner
A/D (noise)
3 4
- Analog to Digital (A/D)
(continuous) (discrete)
(sampling) (sampling rate)
(fundamental frequency) A/D
(1) input signal
6 6
3
3

23

(2) Sampling rate

Sampling rate = 2f
f = fundamental frequency
Aliasing 2-20

2-20 Aliasing
:http://ww.feh.eng.ohio-state.edu/Labs/DataAcquisitionSystem/ Lab 1 - Data Acquisition
Fundamentals.ppt
(3) Throughput (Hertz per channel)

(4) Range 5
10
(5) Resolution (bit )

- Resolution 8 bit 8 28 = 256
Input Range 5
10/256 = 0.03906
- Resolution 12 bit 12 212 =
4096 Input Range 5
10/4096 = 0.00244

24

(6) Data transmission A/D


Differential Single ended 2-21
2-22

2-21 Single ended data transmission


:http://www.biomath.rug.ac.be/classes/lv/lesson1.pdf

2-22 Differential data transmission


: http://www.biomath.rug.ac.be/classes/lv/lesson1.pdf
- Digital Signal Processing (DSP)
A/D 2.5
- Storage
- Communication

25

2.6

(Periodic Signal)
50 (Hz)
2.6.1
2.6.1.1 Root Mean Square (RMS)



2.6.1.2 Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT)
(Stationary state)

(Impluse) (Transient)
2.6.1.3 Least Squares (LS)
DFT

2.6.1.4 Kalman Algorithm
(Initial information)

2-6 3
RMS

26

2-6 Characteristics of the discussed algorithm


Speed
Removal of
System
Accuracy
Accuracy
Decay DC information during the after the first
offset
required
first cycle
cycle
--no
-++
DFT*
~
++
no
~
+
LS*
+
~
yes
+
Kalman
++ excellent
+ good
~ average - poor
--bad
* Assume the sampling windows be one fundamental cycle
: Fan Wang. 2003, Power Quality Disturbance and Protective Relay, Thesis for the degree
of doctor of philosophy. Department of Electric Power Engineering Chalmers University
of Technology Gutenberg, Sweden
DFT


DFT

2.6.2 (Haft cycle)
(Full cycle) DFT
2

(Overcurrent relay) DFT
inrush current

27

Vk = 1.5sin(t + /4)

Real (R) Imaginary (I)


X[k] = R + j I
N-1

R = 2( x(n) .sin(2nk/N))/N
n=0
N-1

I = 2( x(n) .cos(2nk/N))/N
n=0

Magnitude = (R2 + I21/2


Angle = tan-1 (I/R)

(2-1)

(2-2)
(2-3)
(2-4)

x(n) Sampling n
N = 16 800 Sampling/sec 1
800 50 Hz
1 50 1
800/50 = 16 ()
N= 8
k = 1
2-7 x(n) 800 Sampling/sec
x(0)
x(1)
x(2)
x(3)
x(4)
x(5)
x(6)
1.061
1.386
1.5
1.386
1.061
0.574
0
x(8)
x(9)
x(10)
x(11)
x(12)
x(13)
x(14)
-1.061
-1.386
-1.5
-1.386
-1.061 -0.574
0

x(7)
-0.574
x(15)
0.574

28

Vk =1.5sin(wt+45)
2
1.5
1

1.061

1.386 1.5 1.386

1.061
0.574

x(n)

0.5

0
-0.5 1
-1
-1.5

0.574

0
8

9 10 11 12 13 14 -0.574
15
-0.574
-1.061
-1.061
-1.386-1.5 -1.386

16

-2
n

2-23 Vk 1 cycle
-
x(n) n = 0-15 2-7 N=16 (2-1) (2-2)

X(1) = 1.0608+j1.0608
Magnitude = (1.06082 + 1.06082 1/2
= 1.5002
Angle = tan-1(1.0608/1.0608) = 44.99
-
x(n) n = 0-7 2-4 N = 8 (2-1) (2-2)

X(1) = 0.865024999- j0.202939646


Magnitude = (0.8650249992 + 0.2029396462 1/2
= 0.888511536
Angle = tan-1(-0.202939646/0.865024999) = -13.20

29


DFT
2.7

PSS/ADEPT (Power System Simulator Advanced Distribution Engineering
Productivity Tool) Short
circuit, Power flow, Motor starting, Capacitor placement, Protection coordinate


Positive sequence
resistance, Positive sequence reactance, Zero sequence resistance, Zero sequence reactance

(Double) (Single)

Single
Line to Ground (pickup current)

end2
1408 A

120A
1.6km.
abc

185PIC
1.5km.
abc
Ranode_Sub
4200 A

ROA1F-01
3355 A

50A
2.5km.
abc

182PIC
8.5km.
abc

ROA1F-02
1557 A

185PIC
15km.
abc

ROA1F-03
798 A

120PIC
3.4km.
abc

end1
2384 A

end3
715 A

2-24 Single Line to Ground

30

2-24 Single Line to Ground


ROA1F-01 ROA1F-02 ROA1F-03

ROA1F-01 = 2,384
ROA1F-02 = 1,408
ROA1F-03 = 715
2.8 (Geographic Information
System: GIS)
2.8.1





GIS

(Reference base data)



Global Positioning System (GPS)


2.8.2 GIS


(Graphic Data) (Numeric Data)

31

2.8.3 GIS
4
-
- (Reference Base Data)

- (Electrical Facilities Data)



(Graphic Data) (Textual Data)
- (Application Software)
2.8.4 GIS



-
-
-
-
-

-
2.8.5 GIS
GIS

GIS
2.9 SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition)
2.9.1

32

2.9.2 SCADA
SCADA

SCADA

2.9.3 SCADA 3
-

Remote Terminal Unit RTU

- Remote Terminal Unit RTU -



- RTU
UHF (Fiber Optic)
2.9.4




2.9.5 SCADA
SCADA



SCADA

33

2.10

(Modem) (Modulator-de-Modulator)
(data communication
equipment, DCE) 56 (kbit/s)

RS232 (interface)
(serial communication)
2
(1)

(modulate)

(2)

(demodulate)

(Protocol)



2.11