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2

2013
1

1. 3-4
2. . ..5
3. ..6-7
4. .8-10
5. 11-14
6. 15
7. ..16
8. ()17-18
9. ..19-28
10., .29-32
11. ..33




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a1 x1 a 2 x 2 ... a n x n b ,
a i 0 .
2-

a,b,c,d,e,f - .

2 :
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-
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1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5.
6. ()


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ax + by = c, x , , b
.
. (a; b)
, x y b
.

, . . , (a; b),
. , ,

Y,

x ,

(a; b),
b Y.
,
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(1),
a, b, c

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5.
, , .
, 18 . , ?
:
, , :
4 + 2 = 18, 2 + = 9.
: = 9 2.
:

4
6

, .
: (1; 7), (2; 5), (3; 3), (4; 1).


1
.
,

.
1. ax by 1 , (a, b) 1 , ,
, .
2. ax by c , (a, b) d 1 d ,
.
3.

ax by c ,

(a, b) d 1

c d ,

a1 x b1 y c1 , (a1 , b1 ) 1 .
4.

ax by c , (a, b) 1 ,

:
x x0 c bt
y y 0 c at

0, 0 ax by 1 , t - .

ax by c .
1. a b,
(a, b) d 1 d ,
;
(a, b) d 1 c d ,
2. ax by c d ,
a1 x b1 y c1 , (a1 , b1 ) 1 .
8

3. (0, 0) a1 x b1 y 1 1
a b ;
4.
x x0 c bt
y y 0 c at

0, 0 ax by 1 , t - .
1.

407 2816y = 33.


.

1. ,
407 2816:
2816 = 4076 + 374;
407 = 3741 + 33;
374 = 3311 + 11;
33 = 113
(407,2816) = 11, 33 11
2. 11,
37 256y = 3, (37, 256) = 1
3.
1 37 256.
256 = 376 + 34;
37 = 341 + 3;
34 = 311 + 1
1 ,
3; 34
1.
1 = 34 311 = 34 (37 341) 11 = 3412 3711 = (256 376) 12 3711 =
8337 256(12)
, 37( 83) 256(12) = 1,
0 = 83 0 = 12

37 256y = 3.
9

4.
x 83c bt 83 3 256 t 249 256 t
y 12 c at 12 3 37 t 36 37 t

t - .

10


a/b

, q.

a/b

:
. ,
.
.
.

[q0; q1, q2,

a/b =

, q].

1.

.
, , ,
.

.
qk ,
[q0; q1, q2, , q], -

11

a/b

,
,

2.

: ax + by = c (1). , a b
.
(
), .

.
.

44 +

13 =

5.

n =

4.

P3 Q3 (4): P3 = 10 + 7 = 17, Q3 = 3 + 2 = 5.
12

(5).
: = 25 + 13t, y = 85 44t, t .
-

.

(1),

a, b, c

1. a/b .
2. a/b= [q0; q1,q2, ... ,qn].
3.

,
.

q0

q1

q2

Pi

q0

q0 q 1 +
1

(q0 q1+1)
q2+ q0

Qi

q1

q2 q1 + 1

... qn

4. :

+ 13 =

150.

.
1. 9/13 .
13

.
2. 9/13 = [0; 1, 2, 4].
3.

q0 = 0

q1 = 1

q2 = 2

q3 =
4

Pi

Qi

13

4.

.
,
. :
(8; 6).

14



. ,
, ,
. -
.
6.


2 3 2 2 7 .

.
2 2 2 7 .

2 7 .
7 :
7=1 7=71=-1(-7)=-7(-1). , :
1

2 7

7
1
7
,
,
.
2 1
2 7
2 1

= - 5, = - 6.
, = 13, = 6.
= 5, = 6. = - 13, = - 6.
: 5;6, 13;6, 5;6, 13;6 .

15


9. : 2+=10
:
1. : = 10-2

=
2.

10

10
-

, 1;2; 5;10

3. 8 .
=-1, = -9
=1, =9
=-2 , =-3
=2, =3

=-5, =3
=5, =-3
=-10, =9
=10, =-9

16

()

13; = 2 +

3 13
8

VI
.


.

.
. ,

19
8 13.
.
19 8 = 13.
: 8y =19x 13; 8y = 16x + 3x

y1 = 2.
81 = 3x 13 x = 2y1 2

13
.
3

1 = x 21,
3xl 21 = 13.
, .
: y1 = xl + 213 , 2 =
1

1 1.
1 22 = 13.
1, 1, 2 = t 1
.
t:
1 = 2t + 13, y1 = 3t + 13; x = 8t + 39, y = 19t + 91.
, (39 + 8t, 91 + 19t)
.
,
.
3.
,
, .
.

5x + 8y = 39.
:
1. , ,
: x = (39 8y) : 5.
: x = 7 y + (4 3y) : 5.
17

, (4 3y) : 5.
, (4 3y) 5.
z,
: 4 3y = 5z.
, ,
.
y z.
2. y = (4 5z) : 3 = 1 z + (1 2z) : 3.
, (1 2z)
: 1 2z = 3u.
4. z = (1 3u) : 2 = (1 u):2 u; 1 u = 2v.
3. u = 1 2v , .
5. . v
z, y x.
z = (1 u) : 2 u = (1 1 + 2v) : 2 1 + 2v = 3v 1,
z = 3v 1.
y = (4 5z) : 3 = (4 5(3v 1)) : 3 = 3 5v,
y = 3 5v.
x = (39 8y) : 5 = (39 8(3 5v)) : 5 = 3 + 8v,
x = 3 + 8v.
6. x = 3 + 8v, y = 3 5v
.
7. ,
, x > 0, y > 0, 3 + 8v > 0, 3 5v
> 0. v = 0.
x = 3, y = 3.
8. . (3; 3).

18

100

1.

, ,
100 , 5 ,
4, 4 ?
.
x ,
, 4z . ,

4, (1)
,

x +

15z =

300

x = 300 + 15t, z = t. ,
y = 400 19t. ,
x = 300 + 15t, y = 400 19t, z = t.
,

. t =

20 t =

21.

. 100 20 80 15 , 1
84 .
2. .
, ,
, .
19

, , . ,
, 2, 3, 4, 5 6,
, 7,
. ?
.
x . (x 1) 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,
, 60. , x 60 + 1.

60 + 1 = 7z, 7z 60=1.
,
= -2 + 7t, z = -17 + 60t, t
.
t = 1.
= 5, z = 43. , 301 .
( )
. 10 ,
16, 26.
. , ,
,
.
:
35 .
?
: ,
10- x, 16- y, 26- z. . m,
n. : mx+ n(10-x); , mx+
n(10-x)=35; : my + n(16- y); , mz+ n(26- z.)=35; : mz+
n(26- z.); : (m- n) x+10n=35 (m- n) y +16n=35 (mn) z +26n=35 , ,
: (m- n) (z - x) +16n=0 (m- n) (z - y) +10n=0
20

(m- n) (x -z ) =16 n (m- n) (y -z) =10 n : (x -z ):


(y -z)=8:5 (x -z ):8= (y -z):5. x, y, z , (x -z )
(y -z) . (x -z ): (y z)=8:5 , (x -z ) 8, (y -z)
5.: (x -z ):8= t = (y -z):5. x = z+8 t y = z+5 t , t
, , x> z (
, ). <10, z+8
t<10. z t
: z =1 t = 1. x
= z+8 t y = z+5 t, x = 9, y = 6. (m- n)
x+10 n=35 (m- n) y +16 n=35 (m- n) z +26 n=35
x, y, z, , : m =3 ., n =1
., 3 . 75 ., 1
. 25 .

20 10 ,
3, 2, 1 .
, ? ( ).
:
1 : 1 , 8 1 .
2 : 2 , 6 2 .
3 : 3 , 4 3 .
4 : 4 , 2 4 .


. ,
, 1 , - 1 4
- 1 . : ,
, , ,
, 2- 3- .
. ,
1 9 , 1 7 , 1 2 .
, . , 10 =
1 , 10 1 , 10 = 1 .
.
- , .
- , .
z - , .

21

19+1 = 17y+14+12z
19x = 12z
x = 12z/19
x, y, z , ,
z=19t
17y+13 = 228t
t (14)
x = 168
y = 187
z = 266
:
- 3 1 9 2 .
- 3 1 7 9 .
- 3 1 9 2 .

.
,
,
.
10 .
,

(, )?
: ,
n n .
, , ;
, , n2.
? , ,
6. ,
a b, .. (10 a + b), 100 a+2 a b+ b= (10 a+2 a b)10+
b. (10 a+2 a b), ,
b. 10 a+2 a b 2- .
(10 a + b), , b
. b- , ..
:0,1,4,9,16,25,36,49,64,81.
16 36- 6. , 100
a+2 a b+ b ,
6. , 6 . ,
22

, 4 . ,
2 .
.

XI
. ,
. - 30 , -20
; -50 .
.
,
; .
?
: , : = 30+,
= 20+ (50-). =,
. 30+= 20+ (50-). =20.
20 , 30 .


.
. ?
-
, .
,
. , ,
?
:
: +1=2(-1) -1=+1 , =5, =7.
5 7 .

23



. .
, , ,
,
1/5 ,
. ;
.
,
. ?
.
.
, x=5 + 1; 4 = 5b + 1; 4b = 5c + 1;
4c = 5d + 1; 4d = 25y + 1 ( ).

256 = 2101 + 15625.


.
: x = 3121
.

30 30 ,
3 , 2
1 , 2.
?
1. 7.(

13 = 2 2 + 3 2 ,
13.

24

.
.
( ) +2, B 23, ,
x .
(x + 2) 2 + (2 3) 2 = 13, x = 1,6,
= 3,6, = 0,2.

x . = x + 2, = kx 3,
(x + 2) 2 + (kx 3) 2 = 13 =2(3k-2):(k2 + 1).
A=2(k2+3k1):(k2+1), B=(3k2-4k-3):(k2+1).
.
A=+2, =23, 22+32=13
.
B (2+3) (x 3),
B, . k = 2
, A B .
, ,
.

, 3 2 ,
5 3, 7 2.
.

- (III IV .): 3
2. 140. 5
3, 63. 7 2,
30. , 233. 210
.
-. 140, 5
7, 3 2. ,
25

: 35.
. 63, 3 7,
5

3.

30.

, 233 = 140 +63+ 30 ,


n = 105l + 233.
233=2105 + 23,
n = 105k + 23, k = 0, 1, .
k = 0 , 23.

, ,
, .
.

x
, 23 = 8,
8x. x2 - 1.
, :
, ,
. ,
, :
8 (x2 - 1) + 8 = 8x3.
, , ,
, ,
. , 8x(x2 - 1) + x2 - 1
. , (2 1) 3,
, x: 8 (x2 - 1) + x2 - 1 = (2x - 1) 3, :
x= 14/13, , : 814/13 = 112/13,
: (14/13) 2 1= 196/169 1= 27/169. ,
.

26

.
1770 .
31 , 21 .
?
?

: , ,
? :
, - ,
, ,
.
.
: 28 .

,
: , ! -
, - ,-
, , ,
, , , ,
, ?
: 36

,

40
;
,
27

45 , ,
?

,
, ,
10 .
(, 600 .)
, ,
. 3,
- 5, - 6.
?
(, II .)

7 .
9 .
.
?

100
100 .
10 ,
3 , 50 . ,

, ,
.

. x .
, 62.

28

,

. 1 001 .
,
, x 3
, 5 .
.
,
. , , ,
x + y , x y

3 +
5
= 1 001.
.
1.

(3;

5)

1,

, 67 t
.
, t = 335,
29

= 1 001 + 1 005 = 4; x = 2 002 1 675 = 327, . . (327; 4).


2.
3 + 5 = 1 001.
.
1. 3/5 :

2. 3/5 = [0;1, 1, 2].


3. :

q0 = 0

q1 = 1

q2 = 1

q3 =
2

Pi

Qi

4. :

30

. ,
, t, .
, t = 334 (332; 1).
.

1. 1 001
,
?
2.
?
(1) max (x + y)
. x + = 2 002 +5t 1 001 3t = 1 001 + 2t.
, max (x + y) t = 334. ,
333 , 332
3 5 .
, t = 400,
(2; 199). 2
3 199 5 , ,

201
.
3. ()

.

3
+ 5
= 1 001.

: x =

y+

xl =

31 = 1 001

+ x.
2

=x

1 = + 1,
x1 + 21 = 1 001. ,
.

x1,

1,

31

1 = t 1 .
t:
1 = 1 001 2t, , = 1001 + 3t, x = 2002 5t. ,
(2 002 5t; 1 001 + 3t)
.
, , ,
. , (332; 1)
t = 334.

32

. . . . , . ., , 1964.
. , . ., , 1965.
. . , . , 1941.
T. H. Skolem, Diophantiche Gleichungen. Berlin, 1938.
. . , . .
, 1969, . 24, 6.
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c27_0.html
http://sernam.ru/book_e_math.php?id=37
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B0%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE_%D1%83%D1%80
%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5
http://genius.pstu.ru/file.php/1/pupils_works_2013/Derkach.pdf
http://academic.ru/dic.nsf/ruwiki/11965
http://www.math.md/school/krujok/diofantr/diofantr.html
http://ua.coolreferat.com/%D0%94%D0%B8%D0%BE%D1%84%D0%B0
%D0%BD%D1%82%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%B5_%D1%83%D
1%80%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BD%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%8
F
http://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enc_mathematics/1506/%D0%94%D0%98%
D0%9E%D0%A4%D0%90%D0%9D%D0%A2%D0%9E%D0%92%D0%
AB
http://rpp.nashaucheba.ru/docs/index-518.html
http://wiki.tgl.net.ru/index.php/%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BF%D0%B8%D
0%BB%D0%BA%D0%B0_%D0%B7%D0%BD%D0%B0%D0%BC%D0
%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%82%D1%8B%D1%85_%D0%B7%D0%B
0%D0%B4%D0%B0%D1%87_%D0%BF%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%B4%
D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5_4

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