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Trr Mamll

Orthography

Trr Mamll
A Grammar of the Syriac Language
Volume 1
Orthography
George Anton Kiraz
9
34
2012

Gorgias Press LLC, 954 River Road, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA
www.gorgiaspress.com
Copyright by Gorgias Press LLC 2012
All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. No part
of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or
otherwise without the prior written permission of Gorgias Press LLC.
Printed in the United States of America
2012
9
ISBN 978-1-4632-0183-8
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Kiraz, George Anton.
Syriac orthography / by George Kiraz.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Syriac language--Grammar. I. Title.
PJ5423.K58 2012
492'.35--dc23
2012027231
vii
Contents at a Glance
Preface xix
1. Sources and their Historical Context 1
I. The Graphemic Inventory 29
2. Consonantal Graphemes 31
3. Vowel Graphemes 59
4. Grammatical Graphemes 91
5. Editorial, Liturgical and Musical Graphemes 115
6. Ancient Prosodic Graphemes or Accents 131
7. Numbering Systems 159
II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 175
8. Graphotactics 177
9. Writing 209
10. Ductus 227
III. Garnography, Adaptation, and Alloglottography 289
11. Garnography I: Syriac as the Target Script 291
12. Garnography II: Syriac as the Source Language 323
13. Nongarnographic Adaptations of the Syriac Script 353
14. Alloglottography 359
IV. Technological Developments 363
15. Lithography and Mimeography 365
16. Typewriters 369
17. Digital Typography 377
18. Coding Standards 387
Indices 395
ix
C Co on nt te en nt ts s
Preface xix
Plates and Credits xxv
Transcription and Transliteration xxvii
Note on Examples xxvii
Abbreviations and Symbols xxix
Bibliography xxxiii
1. Sources and their Historical Context 1
1.1. Preliminaries 2
1.2. Old Syriac Sources 8
1.2.1. The Consonantal System 8
1.2.2. The Vocalization System 9
1.2.3. Other Symbols 10
1.3. Early Manuscripts 10
1.3.1. The Consonantal System 11
1.3.2. The Vocalization System 12
1.3.3. Other Symbols 12
1.4. The Classical Grammarians 13
1.5. The Malmn 15
1.6. European Grammarians and Philologists 17
1.7. Late Manuscripts of the Received Tradition 18
1.8. Chronology of Events 19
I. The Graphemic Inventory 29
2. Consonantal Graphemes 31
2.1. The Consonantary 31
x Table of Contents
2.2. Mnemonics and Consonantal Subsets 34
2.3. Typology of Consonants 36
2.4. Grapheme Resemblance 37
2.5. Orthographic Variations and Spelling Development 40
2.5.1. lp

41
2.5.2. Waw 44
2.5.3. Y 46
2.5.4. Other Consonants 48
2.6. Homography 49
2.7. Frequency of Occurrence 53
2.8. Alphabetization 55
3. Vowel Graphemes 59
3.1. The Matres Lectionis System 61
3.2. The Pointing System 64
3.2.1. One-Point Vocalization 65
3.2.2. Multi-Point Vocalization 69
3.2.3. The Fully Developed Pointing System 70
3.2.4. Syme as an /e/ Vowel 73
3.3. Alphabetical Linear Vocalization 73
3.3.1. Jacob of Edessa 74
3.3.2. Gabriel aww 76
3.4. Greek Nonlinear Vocalization 79
3.5. Summary of Phonemic to Graphemic Relationships 83
3.6. Vowel Names 84
3.7. Orthographic Variants 87
Table of Contents xi
3.8. Frequency of Occurrence 90
4. Grammatical Graphemes 91
4.1. Phonological Graphemes 92
4.1.1. /d/ vs. /r/ Marker 92
4.1.2. Sound Deletion Markers 92
4.1.3. Schwa Markers 96
4.1.4. Fricatization Markers: Qy and Rkkk 100
4.1.5. Doubling Marker 102
4.2. Morphological Graphemes 103
4.2.1. Verbal Markers 103
4.2.2. The Plural Marker Syme 108
4.2.3. Gender Marking of the Object Pronominal Suffix 112
4.3. Lexical Markers 113
5. Editorial, Liturgical and Musical Graphemes 115
5.1. Punctuation Graphemes 115
5.2. Marking Corrections 117
5.3. Quotation Marks 118
5.4. Abbreviation Mark 119
5.5. Textual Marks 126
5.6. Liturgical and Musical Graphemes 128
6. Ancient Prosodic Graphemes or Accents 131
6.1. Marks above the Line 133
6.1.1. One-Point Marks above the Line 133
6.1.2. Two-Point Marks above the Line 138
6.1.3. Three-Point Marks above the Line 141
xii Table of Contents
6.2. Marks below the Line 142
6.2.1. One-Point Marks below the Line 142
6.2.2. Two-Point Marks below the Line 147
6.2.3. Three-Point Marks below the Line 148
6.3. Marks upon the Line 149
6.3.1. One-Point Marks upon the Line 149
6.3.2. Two-Point Marks upon the Line 150
6.4. The Prosodic Marks by Function 154
7. Numbering Systems 159
7.1. Old Syriac Numerals 160
7.1.1. Numerals in Early Inscriptions 160
7.1.2. Numerals in Manuscripts 163
7.2. Alphabetic Numerals 164
7.2.1. Early Sequential System 164
7.2.2. Early Additive System 165
7.2.3. Standard System 166
7.3. Indic and Arabic Numerals 172
7.4. Greek and Coptic Letters for Numerals 173
7.5. Cipher 173
II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 175
8. Graphotactics 177
8.1. Background 177
8.2. The Consonantal Tier 178
8.2.1. Allography, Cursivity, and Joining 179
8.2.2. Ligatures 186
Table of Contents xiii
8.3. The Grammatical Tier 192
8.4. The Disambiguation Tier 194
8.5. The Vocalism Tier 194
8.6. The Fricatization Tier 196
8.7. Well-Formedness Condition 196
8.8. Orthographic Space 198
8.8.1. Space on the Consonantal Tier 198
8.8.2. Inter-Tier Spacing 205
9. Writing 209
9.1. Medium and Writing Tools 209
9.2. Directionality 211
9.3. Scripts 214
9.4. Line Fillers 220
9.5. Writing Sequence 224
10. Ductus 227
10.1. Allographic Resemblance 228
10.2. Stroke Types 229
10.3. Graph Anatomy 229
10.4. Cursivity and Pen Lifting 232
10.5. Ductus Characteristics 233
10.6. lap

238
10.7. B 241
10.8. Gmal 243
10.9. Dla and R 245
10.10. H 247
xiv Table of Contents
10.11. Waw 249
10.12. Zayn 251
10.13. 252
10.14. 254
10.15. Y 257
10.16. Kp

259
10.17. Lma 261
10.18. Mm 264
10.19. Nn 267
10.20. Simka 269
10.21. 271
10.22. P 273
10.23. 275
10.24. Qp

277
10.25. R 278
10.26. n 279
10.27. Taw 280
10.28. Ligatures 282
10.29. Ductus of Other Graphs 284
10.29.1. Points 284
10.29.2. Lines 285
10.29.3. Greek Vowels 286
III. Garnography, Adaptation, and Alloglottography 289
11. Garnography I: Syriac as the Target Script 291
11.1. On Garnography 291
Table of Contents xv
11.2. Syro-Arabic 294
11.3. Syro-Armenian 298
11.4. Syro-Greek 304
11.5. Syro-Hebrew 306
11.6. Syro-Kurdish 306
11.7. Syro-Latin 309
11.8. Syro-Malayalam 312
11.9. Syro-Sogdian and Persian 313
11.9.1. Syro-Sogdian 313
11.9.2. Syro-Persian 316
11.10. Syro-Ottoman 319
11.11. Appendix: Syro-English in the Making 321
12. Garnography II: Syriac as the Source Language 323
12.1. Arabo-Syriac 323
12.2. Armeno-Syriac 325
12.3. Greco-Syriac 326
12.4. Hebrao-Syriac 326
12.5. Latino-Syriac 329
12.5.1. Ambrosios Transcription 329
12.5.2. Widmanstetters Transcription 331
12.5.3. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Transcriptions332
12.5.4. Standard Transcriptions and Transliterations 333
12.5.5. Liturgical Transcriptions 334
12.5.6. Computer Encoding 337
12.5.7. Library Romanization 339
xvi Table of Contents
12.5.8. Chat Alphabet 339
12.6. Malayalo-Syriac 343
12.7. Turco-Syriac 346
13. Nongarnographic Adaptations of the Syriac Script 353
13.1. Christian Palestinian Aramaic 353
13.2. NENA Neo-Aramaic 354
13.3. uroyo Neo-Aramaic 356
14. Alloglottography 359
IV. Technological Developments 363
15. Lithography and Mimeography 365
15.1. Lithography 365
15.2. Mimeography 367
16. Typewriters 369
16.1. Underwood Typewriter 369
16.2. The Adler Typewriter 369
16.3. Olympia Typewriter 372
16.4. IBM Typewriter 373
16.5. Hermes (Potential) Typewriter 373
16.6. The ujd Typewriter 374
17. Digital Typography 377
17.1. Plotter Technology 377
17.2. Bitmap Fonts: The DOS Era 379
17.3. Outline Fonts: The Windows Age 382
17.4. Open-Type Fonts 385
18. Coding Standards 387
Table of Contents xvii
18.1. Language Name Code: ISO 639 387
18.2. Script Name Codes: ISO 15924 388
18.3. Grapheme Codes: Unicode (ISO 10646) 388
18.4. Keyboard Layouts 389
18.4.1. The Standard Keyboard 390
18.4.2. The MLS Keyboard 392
18.4.3. The Windows/Meltho Keyboard 392
Indices 395
Glossary and Linguistic Terms 395
Index of Syriac Grammatical Terms 395
Graph Index 395
Word Index 395
Arabic 395
English 395
Greek 395
Syriac 395
Passage Index 395
Inscriptions Index 395
Manuscripts Index 396
Biblical Citations Index 398
Authors Cited 398
Subject Index 398
Quotations Index 398

xix
P
P
r
r
e
e
f
f
a
a
c
c
e
e

The treatment of writing and orthography in Syriac grammars is
extremely scanty, and what already exists is dated. T. Nldeke
(18361930) devotes only 13 pages to the subject in his 1898
Kurzgefasste Grammatik, undoubtedly the most cited of Syriac
grammars. Earlier, R. Duval (18391911) covered orthography in
more detail in his 1881 Grammaire. C. J. David (18291890),
Syriac Catholic bishop of Damascus and the only Eastern scholar
to compile a comprehensive grammar after Bar Ebroyo (1225/6
1286), devoted an extensive chapter to writing. Well over a cen-
tury has now passed since these accounts appeared, during which
the field of philology gradually became overshadowed by modern
linguistics. A linguistically-based field of writing systems emerged
half a century ago with the pioneering work of Gelb, followed by
Sampson, DeFrancis, Coulmas, Rogers, and Gnanadesikan, and
there is even a monograph on computational models of writing
systems by Sproat (see bibliography). This volume, the first in a

ts.

series, attempts to bring the study of Syriac writing


closer to such modern linguistic accounts, while keeping the
Syriac scholar in mind.
This is not an introductory text, and it is assumed that the
reader is already familiar with the Syriac language and its basic
grammar. It is written with the intention that it will be followed
by a volume on phonology. As such, discussion of the orthogra-
phy-phonology interface is limited to what is necessary for the
description of orthography and writing. Matters that pertain to
the phonological system are reserved for the subsequent volume.
The reader will no doubt notice that there is a discontinuity in
the examples cited from manuscripts (hereinafter, MSS) with a
xx Preface
concentration on early MSS as well as very late ones, but almost
nothing in the intervening period. For the early MSS, I have relied
on the .

.s

before me who had direct access to such MSS


(e.g. Wright, Hatch, Segal). Cited examples from late MSS are not
the result of a systematic study of such MSS; rather, observations
made while chanting on the gudo. (Fellow deacons: I was not tex-
ting; I was merely taking notes!) As for early printed books, I
have examined all the illustrations in Coakleys Typography as
well as my private rare book collection. No attempt was made to
examine other rare collections. When citing examples, I gener-
ously borrowed from earlier grammarians, who in turn borrowed
from others, this chain of citation being extremely helpful in de-
termining the history of the grammatical tradition.
The presentation here is neither diachronic nor synchronic,
but rather thematic. When possible, a diachronic account is given
to express the development of the topic at hand (e.g. the vocaliza-
tion system in Chapter 3). Chapters 9 and 10 on writing and duc-
tus, respectively, are entirely synchronic.
I have tried to be descriptive rather than prescriptive, though
I could not help but insert a few prescriptive comments here and
there! Having said that, as I rely mostly on the grammatical tradi-
tion, some statements here might implicitly be prescriptive. The
grammatical tradition does not always agree with what one finds
in the manuscript tradition.

The book is organized as follows: Chapter 1 provides prelimi-
naries and general definitions of terms used throughout the work,
as well as a chronological overview of the writing system and its
sources. Thereafter, the book is divided into four main parts:
Part I gives an account of all Syriac graphemes or symbols.
Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to segmental graphemes; i.e. graph-
emes which correspond to a phonological segment: the former
Preface xxi
presents the consonantal system, while the latter the vocalization
system. Chapter 4 presents grammatical graphemes that pertain
to phonology and morphology. Chapter 5 accounts for editorial
marks such as punctuation marks and various editorial signs, as
well as signs found in liturgical MSS. Chapter 6 explores ancient
accent signs, most of which are hardly used and whose function is
not always clear. Chapter 7 presents numbering systems.
Part II describes how the graphemes enumerated in Part I are
arranged together to form words, and how each grapheme is writ-
ten. Chapter 8, probably the only chapter to claim originality,
presents a theory of graphotactics; i.e. the rules that determine
how graphs are arranged together to formulate larger texts. Chap-
ter 9 looks at writing in general, while Chapter 10 examines writ-
ing at the graph level, and presents the ductus of each graph from
a synchronic perspective.
Part III is dedicated to garnography, the use of the Syriac
script to write other languages (Chapter 11), as well as the use of
other scripts to write the Syriac language (Chapter 12). Chapter
13 looks at the adaptation of the Syriac script to write other forms
of Aramaic. Finally, Chapter 14 discusses alloglottography, the art
of reading Syriac texts in languages other than Syriac.
Part IV deals with technological developments post movable
type including lithography and mimeography (Chapter 15), type-
writers (Chapter 16), and digital typography (Chapter 17). Fi-
nally, Chapter 18 discusses coding standards.
The book concludes with a number of indices.

I have relied on many works of the great scholars who came be-
fore me, .

. ,


to use a liturgical expression. I have not
xxii Preface
shied from citing many examples from their works,
1
and my debt
to them will be apparent to the reader.
A number of scholars contributed to sections on garnogra-
phy: Mark Dickens and Peter Zieme on Turco-Syriac (12.7), Tho-
mas Joseph on Malayalo-Syriac ( 12.6), Nicholas Sims-Williams on
Syro-Sogdian and Syro-Persian ( 11.9), Hidemi Takahashi on Syro-
Armenian ( 11.3) and Armeno-Syriac ( 12.2), and Benjamin
Trigona-Harany on Syro-Ottoman ( 11.10). When quoting from
these sections, I suggest that scholars follow the same style used
for citing chapters within a collection.
A draft of the entire work was read by Sebastian P. Brock, Lu-
cas Van Rompay, Chip (J. F.) Coakley, Andreas Juckel, Daniel
King, and Hidemi Takahashi. Their comments helped to make the
book a better one. Melonie Schmierer of Gorgias Press carefully
copy edited the final draft. All mistakes, of course, remain mine.
My unfamiliarity with Latin, French, and to a lesser degree
German has always been a ..

s.

. I am grateful to Daniel
King who translated for me Merxs Historia, and Adam McCollum
who translated for me the first part of Duvals Grammaire (parts
two and three were translated by Michael Penn and Maria Doer-
fler). I hope to repay them by publishing their translations.
Mar Emmanuel Yosip answered questions on matters pertain-
ing to the E. Syr. ductus, Mor Polycarpus Eugene Aydin on mat-
ters uroyo, Daniel Benjamin on matters E. Syr. (and provided his
elegant font Assyrian which I use for East Syriac texts), John

1
During my work on this book, my daughter Tabetha published her
first book, My Baby Brother Lucian (2010), during which she learned
about citation etiquettes, and original writing versus plagiarism.
Shocked when she saw me copying down extensive lexical entries from
J. Margoliouth for a section on orthographic variants and homography,
she rebuked ,.:


stealing from :

?
Preface xxiii
Healey on matters Old Syriac, Heleen Murre-van den Berg on
matters Neo-Aramaic, Alessandro Mengozzi on matters Garn,
and Richard Sproat on matters linguistics. Mar Awa Royel made
me aware of Syriac-into-Swy alloglottography.
Chip Coakley shared his article on the origin of the W. Syr.
vocalization system prior to its publication which resulted in a re-
write of my presentation on the topic (q.v. 174). Michael Soko-
loff shared with me lists extracted from a database version of his
Lexicon which helped me study homography (q.v. 113). David
Taylor made available his classroom handouts that pertain to
writing.
Andreas Juckel, .

, shared with me his vast


knowledge of Syriac MSS over a number of visits. Adam
McCollum provided me with numerous examples from MSS he is
cataloguing at the Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML).
Members of the hugoye-list, the discussion group of Hugoye: Jour-
nal of Syriac Studies, answered many queries. Jack Tannous, Hoda
Mitwally, Thomas Carlson, James Walters, and Lev Weitz were
very helpful in providing me with electronic versions of publica-
tions that I had no access to at the Beth Mardutho Research Li-
brary. James Walters collated Ser and E. Syr. grapheme exam-
ples from MS images for purposes of Chapter 10. My wife Chris-
tine adapted the directionality images (365, 445) from The Uni-
code 5.0 Standard (p. 47). Diane Collier made many changes to
the Serto Jerusalem font, always on short notice. An anonymous
toddler in Seat 29E on flight CO 1502 in early 2010 generously
shared with me her coloring pencils when I ran out of ink while
proofreading an earlier draft. The team at Gorgias Press ran the
operation very efficiently allowing me to indulge myself in a sab-
batical during 20102011, albeit a part-time one: Christine, Jas-
maile, Katie, Doug, Erin, Phoebe, Hoda, Mary Ann, and of course
xxiv Preface
my automation creation Flo Chart thanks for providing a pro-
ductive environment at Gorgias that allowed me to play scholar.
Various individuals and institutions provided images for the
plates: J. F. Coakley, the Beth Mardutho Research Library, the
British Library, Haluk Perk Museum, John F. Healey, HMML
(thanks to Columba Stewart and Adam McCollum), Christine I.
Kiraz, Museum fr Asiatische Kunst, and Yale University. Objects
from my private collection were photographed by Shehnaz Abdel-
jaber.
These days college kids have a nickname for every subject un-
der the sun. My wife Christine was tutoring some girls at Rutgers
University in organic chemistry, or as they called it orgo. I wanted
to be hip and cool too, so I began talking about my ortho. Work-
ing at times when I should have been giving my children some
attention, my then eight-year old daughter Tabetha, a bilingual in
Kthobonoyo and English, would often ask, sometimes in frustra-
tion:

, when is L




gonna ,s.


?, and L



+.-,.

? I dedicate this work on Syriac ortho to Tabetha


Gabriella, and my sons Sebastian Kenoro and Lucian Nurono. May
they develop enough passion for .....




.
At the Beth Mardutho Research Library, Piscataway, N.J.
June 5, 2012, Commemoration of the asyo
George Anton Kiraz

xxv
Plates and Credits
IPA equivalences, when applicable, appear in square brackets, [ ].
Pl. 1 Top. Old Syriac inscription dated A.D. 73; John F. Healey; text
translation from Drijvers and Healey 19394.
Bottom. The tomb of Nam Faiq Palak (18631930); Chris-
tine I. Kiraz.
Pl. 2 Top. Orpheus Taming Wild Animals; photograph from S. P.
Brock and D. G. K. Taylor, The Ancient Aramaic Heritage (The
Hidden Pearl: the Syrian Orthodox Church and its Ancient Ara-
maic Heritage I. Rome: 2001, 177; text translation from Healey,
A New Syriac Mosaic Inscription.
Bottom. Text of the Orpheus mosaic; John F. Healey.
Pl. 3 Old Syriac parchment dated A.D. 9 May 243; Beinecke Rare
Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University.
Pl. 4 Top. The oldest dated Syriac manuscript.
Bottom. A modern Syriac and Garn manuscript; Shehnaz
Abdeljaber.
Pl. 5 Top. Palimpsest manuscript; Shehnaz Abdeljaber; photograph
from Cureton, Fragments of the Iliad.
Bottom. Liturgical manuscript with a musical symbol; Shehnaz
Abdeljaber.
Pl. 6 The Chronicle of Michael Rabo; photgraph from G. Y. Ibrahim,
The Edessa-Aleppo Syriac Codex of the Chronicle of Michael the
Great 478 (2009); the Hill Museum & Manuscript Library,
Saint Johns University, MN.
Pl. 7 Top. Syro-Persian garnographic Psalter from the Turfan
collection; Museum fr Asiatische Kunst, Staatiche Museen zu
Berlin, Kunstsammlung Sd- Sdost und Zentralasien; thanks to
Erica Hunter, Mark Dickens, and Lilla Russell-Smith.
Bottom. Lining board; Shehnaz Abdeljaber.
xxvi Plates and Credits
Pl. 8 K -nhr arwye from a manuscript dated 1889;
Shehnaz Abdeljaber.
Pl. 9 Top. Syriac incised on metal; Haluk Perk Museum. Thanks to
Haluk Perk and zcan Geer.
Bottom. Silver Gospel cover; Shehnaz Abdeljaber.
Pl. 10 Top. Prima Elementa; Shehnaz Abdeljaber.
Bottom. Syriac print punches; J. F. Coakley.
Pl. 11 Top. The Maronite Gabriel aww invented; the Hill Mu-
seum & Manuscript Library, Saint Johns University, MN.
Bottom. In 1966 Abrohom Nuro proposed; Shehnaz Abdel-
jaber.
Pl. 12 Top. A plate from Deir al-Zafarn press.
Bottom. Lithographic edition of the m from a copy preserved
at the Venkadathu Qasheeshe Alexandrayos & Joseph Collection,
Kottayam; George A. Kiraz.
Pl. 13 ntibh [Awakening]; Shehnaz Abdeljaber.
Pl. 14 The Adler Typewriter; Shehnaz Abdeljaber.
Pl. 15 Page printed with Multi-Lingual Scholar; Shehnaz Abdel-
jaber.
Pl. 16 Puzzles; Shehnaz Abdeljaber.

xxvii
Transcription and Transliteration
IPA equivalences, when applicable, appear in square brackets, [ ].


b

[v]
g

[]
j
d

[]
h
w
z
[]
[t]
[z]
y [j]
k
[]
l
m
n
s

p
p

[f]
[s]
[d]
q
r
[]
t

[]
schwa
In addition, and are used instead of and , respectively, in
proper nouns and grammatical terms; e.g. Bar Ebroyo, maln,
Pal. Initial is omitted in kayl terms; e.g. Ap

el not Ap

el.
Note on Examples
Whenever possible examples are given with full vocalization and
rkk/qy marking for uniformity, with the understanding
that ancient MSS do not have such markings; e.g. t,.


to illus-
trate the rkk point from a MS dated 615, a time when Greek
vowels did not even exist.


xxix
Abbreviations and Symbols

1
st
= 1
st
person
2
nd
= 2
nd
person
3
rd
= 3
rd
person
abs. = absolute
act. part. = active participle
C = consonant
C
d
= dual-joining consonant
C
r
= right-joining consonant
cf. = confer, compare
co. = column
const. = construct
CT = consonantal tier
DT = disambiguation tier
E. = east
e.g. = exempli gratia, for example
emph. = emphatic
f. = folio
fem. = feminine
GT = grammatical tier
i.e. = id est, that is
illus. = illustration
impf. = imperfect
impt. = imperative
IPA = International Phonetic Alphabet
ln. = line
masc. = masculine
MS = manuscript
MSS = manuscripts
n. = note (in a cited reference to refer to a footnote)
N.p. = no place, no publisher (in bibliography)
xxx Abbreviations
opp. = opposite
p. = page
pass. part. = passive participle
perf. = perfect
Pl. = plate
pl. = plural
q.v. = quod vide, which see
RQT = rkk and qy tier
Syr. = Syriac
V = Vowel
viz. = videlicet, that is to say
vs. = versus
VT = Vocalism Tier
W. = West
WFC = well-formedness condition

P-C indicates a root or a verb whose first consonant is C; e.g.
.. is a P- verb.
-C indicates a root or a verb whose second consonant is C;
e.g. . is a - root.
L-C indicates a root or a verb whose third consonant is C; e.g.
.. is a L- verb.

< > enclose graphemic transliterations.
[ ] enclose phonetic transcriptions.
/ / enclose phonemic transcriptions.
{ } enclose morphemic transcriptions.

marks rising intonation.
marks falling intonation.

: marks a long vowel in a phonetic transcription.
Abbreviations xxxi
+ joins lexemes or morphemes forming one word.
- marks syllable boundary.
# marks word boundary.
reads rewrites, or becomes in a rewrite rule.
/ marks a context in a rewrite rule.
represents an empty string.
represents a root.
represents a consonant place holder on which a diacritic is
placed.
represents space.
* is Kleene star in regular expressions; uncanonical form.
+
is Kleene plus in regular expressions.

CAPS indicate orthographic, phonological, or morphological fea-
tures.
bold indicates a technical term.

Biblical Books. This work follows SBLs abbreviations as follows:
Gen.
Ex.
Num.
Josh.
Judg.
12 Sam.
12 Kgs.
Job
Ps.
Prov.
Isa.
Jer.
Lam.
Ezek.
Dan.
Amos
Mic.
Mt.
Mk.
Lk.
Jn.
Acts
Rom.
12 Cor.
Gal.
Col.
Jas.
12 Pet.

For English translations of Biblical verses, use was made of The
Antioch Bible when available:
xxxiii
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The beginning and foundation of orthoepy and orthog-
raphy are the written letters.
Elia of oba (9751046), Trr mamll
But this book cannot be understood unless one first
learns to comprehend the language and interpret the
characters in which it is written.
Galileo Galilei (15641642), Il Saggiatore
1. Orthography and the writing system are an integral com-
ponent of linguistic description. They interface closely with pho-
nological description, and, to a lesser extent, with morphological
and syntactic descriptions. In recent years, linguists have built on
the terminology used for phonology to describe writing systems.
Hence, in writing systems one now speaks of graphs, graphemes,
and allographs, terms coined to be conceptually analogous with
the terms phones, phonemes, and allophones of phonology, and
the terms morphs, morphemes, and allomorphs of morphology. In
typography, one speaks of glyphs and ligatures. This chapter in-
troduces the terms used in subsequent chapters ( 1.1) and provides
a discussion on the sources ( 1.2 ff.). Terms and concepts that are
confined to one chapter are introduced in that chapter.
2. Syriac is a dialect of Aramaic with a literature spanning
from the 3
rd
or 4
th
century until the present day. The earliest ex-
amples of writing come from the area of Edessa and its surround-
ings in Mesopotamia, which has led scholars to consider Syriac
the Aramaic dialect of Edessa. Later, Syriac expanded beyond this
2 Sources and their Historical Context 2.
geographical area to become the main medium of writing for
most Christians of the Middle East.
3. As noted by Coakley, Syriac is the name of a language and
of a script.
1
The script, the earliest example of which in the form
of an inscription dated A.D. 6, was used to write not only the
Syriac language, but also a wide range of Semitic and non-Semitic
languages such as Arabic, Neo-Aramaic, Armenian, Persian, Turk-
ish, Malayalam, and others. As a language, while primarily writ-
ten in the Syriac script, it has also been written in other scripts.
This book is concerned with Syriac as both a language and a
script.
1.1. Preliminaries
4. A few technical terms are used throughout the book. A
graph is the most basic unit of written language, and typically
corresponds to a letter of the alphabet, a diacritic, a punctuation
mark, or a digit. For instance, we say that the Syriac word ..
<mwm> spot, mark consists of three graphs . <m>, .<w>,
and <m>. (Angle brackets, <>, enclose orthographic trans-
literations.) In this case, the initial and final shapes of <m> dif-
fer, and, hence, are considered unique graphs.
5. A grapheme is defined at a more abstract level. It is de-
fined as the minimally significant unit in the writing system. In
the word .. <mwm>, for example, the first graph is the letter
Mm; so is the last graph. As their shapes differ, they are consid-
ered two separate graphs. But the difference in shape is merely
contextual: at the beginning of the word the shape is ., but at the
end the shape is . This is not considered a significant difference,
and for this reason it is said that both graphs, . and , are the

1
Coakley, Typography 4 n. 18.
6. Sources and their Historical Context 3
same grapheme <m>. Indeed, they are allographs of the same
grapheme realized as variants in writing.
6. Segmental graphemes pertain to graphemes that are pre-
sent in speech, viz. consonants and vowels. In Syriac writing,
however, consonants and vowels are not on equal footing. In fact,
the writing system is a consonantary;
2
i.e. texts consist primarily
of consonantal graphemes. Vowels are rarely written, and in fact
were not introduced to the writing system until much later in the
history of the language. Hence, the writing system is phonologi-
cally underspecified; e.g. .. <mrn> our Lord is read /mran/
where both vowels are lacking in the orthography.
3
(Solidi, //,
enclose phonemic transcriptions.) This consonantal feature of the
writing system may have to do with the morphological nature of
the language; viz. its root-and-pattern morphology. In such a sys-
tem, a consonantal root is rendered into many derivational forms
by the imposition of vowels; e.g. : <ktb> can be /ka/ he
wrote, /ke/ he writes, and /k/ book ABS.. It is the conso-
nants that give the common semantic specification.

2
Most grammars refer to the consonantal letters as the alphabet.
Gelb (147 ff.) argued that the West Semitic writing system, at least prior
to vocalization, is not alphabetic but rather syllabic, where each conso-
nant represents a CV syllable; so did Segal (7 & 10). However, linguists
of writing systems today all agree that our domain here is a consonan-
tary, not a syllabary.
3
This is not too far from modern usage of the English language in
the genre of texting, where omitting letters saves time and money. The
first letters to go are vowels. One finds today advertisements such as TXT
FSTR for text faster, which a few decades agoand most probably in the
future when this genre becomes obsoletewould have made no sense.
4 Sources and their Historical Context 7.
7. Consonantal graphemes are those segmental graphemes
that are part of the alphabet
4
proper; i.e. the consonantary. The
consonants are always written on the base line, right-to-left, in a
predictable order. For this reason, they are called linear ele-
ments. Chapter 1 is devoted to the consonantal system.
8. Vowel graphemes are those optional segmental graph-
emes that indicate vowels. As they are written above (supralin-
ear) or below (sublinear) the consonantal graphemes, they are
called nonlinear elements; e.g. the symbols on ..

<mran>.
Chapter 1 is devoted to the vocalization system.
9. Nonsegmental graphemes (called auxiliary marks or signs
by Gelb)
5
appear in writing but not in speech. To this category
belong punctuation and editorial marks (Chapter 5), as well as
digits and numbers (Chapter 7).
10. Syriac has a wide range of what may be called supra-
segmental graphemes; i.e. graphemes that affect speech beyond
a phonological segment. These pertain to a number of linguistic
levels that affect pronunciation. Grammatical graphemes (Chap-
ter 4), for instance, are diacritics that encode grammatical infor-
mation. Some are obligatory, such as the syme grapheme in
..s.



kings which represents morphological PLURAL (q.v. 225).
Others are optional, such as the supralinear- and sublinear-point
graphemes in :


he wrote which represent the phonological
features PLOSIVE and FRICATIVE, respectively (q.v. 210), or the
diacritical points that distinguish homographs (q.v. 237). Pro-
sodic graphemes (Chapter 6), or accent points, are very ancient
points which are also arguably supra-segmental as they mostly

4
I use the term quoted because technically an alphabet consists of
both consonants and vowels, such as the Greek and Latin alphabets.
5
Gelb 248.
12. Sources and their Historical Context 5
affect prosody. Their function cannot always be ascertained now
with clarity. They were used to instruct the reader on vocalization
and intonation, especially in Biblical texts. In earlier periods,
these and the punctuation graphemes mentioned above were in-
tertwined.
11. Graphotactics is the study of the arrangement of graphs,
(cf. with phonotactics, i.e. the study of the arrangement of sounds,
and morphotactics, of morphemes). While usually used in western
languages to express spelling rules, the term is extended here to
study the arrangement of linear and nonlinear graphs which sit
on various horizontal tiers or levels. A theory of Syriac grapho-
tactics is proposed in Chapter 8.
12. Further terms used throughout include the following: Free
graphemes occur independently, such as all consonantal graph-
emes. Bound graphemes occur only in combination with other
graphemes, such as all vowel and grammatical graphemes which
cannot stand on their own. The notion of free and bound can be
extended to graphs. A polygraph is a sequence of two or more
graphemes which represent one phoneme. There exists only one
consonantal polygraph in Greek loan words where the Syriac se-
quence .- <ks> represents the Greek phoneme //. Once in
Syriac, however, the Greek phoneme is broken into two Syriac
phonemes, /k/ and /s/, as evidenced by the application of phono-
logical processes on one of the phonemes only; e.g. applying frica-
tization on /k/ in ...-

foreigner, from Greek . A linear


grapheme and a nonlinear grapheme may together form a poly-
graph in native Syriac words, usually forming vowel phonemes;
e.g. the sequence

<w> represents the phoneme // in

..


/pm/ mouth. One may even encounter three phonemes in a
polygraph as <


> in


he (the vowel

, the Waw, and the


sublinear point for //). A polyphone occurs when a single
6 Sources and their Historical Context 12.
grapheme represents more than one phoneme (e.g. the English
grapheme <x> representing the phoneme sequence /ks/). Syriac
has no polyphones.
13. In typography, a glyph is a graphical representation of a
written symbol in a particular typeface. While every graph is a
glyph, more than one graph can form a unique glyph called a
ligature. For instance, the Ser graph sequence : <l> is
represented by the ligature t. Ligatures are of two types:
obligatory ligatures, such as Sero t, and optional ligatures,
such as for the sequence . <s>. All Syriac ligatures are
nonstructural in the sense that they are not graphemes, nor do
they have a place in the alphabetical sequence (unlike the Arabic
structural ligature , for the sequence <l>, which has a slot in
the alphabet after the letter Waw.) A sort is a piece of (typically
metal) type that represents a particular symbol which may be a
graph or a ligature. Some print types, for example, have a single
sort that combines a character and a vowel such as

.
14. As for rule formalism, a formal notation is used amongst
linguists to describe historical change, phonological processes, or
sound change. In this notation,
A B
reads A rewrites as B, or A changes into B.
6
In diachronic de-
scriptions, A usually describes an earlier form of B. Sometimes the
change is bound by contextual constraints. A context is usually
specified with the notation
A B / X___Y

6
It is more common to see the operator > instead of in the lit-
erature. However, borrowing from formal language theory, is used
here in order to avoid confusion with the grapheme markers <>.
15. Sources and their Historical Context 7
which reads A changes into B when preceded by X and followed
by Y (the slash separates the transformation from the context and
the short line where the transformation takes place). Here, X is
the preceding context, and Y the following context.
7
For instance,
in a phonological description, one may say
y / V___V
which reads the glottal stop // changes into a /y/ when pre-
ceded by a vowel and followed by a vowel as in W. Syr. .



/qoym/ where the lap

is pronounced as if it were Y. The


word boundary symbol, #, may also be used to specify context. In
such a case, /___# reads word-finally, and /#___ reads word-
initially.
15. As for dating, the entirety of Syriac literature belongs to
the Christian Era, the first dated writing being from A.D. 6. As
such, all dates are A.D. unless explicitly expressed otherwise.
When citing examples, the phrase as early as simply indicates
the earliest example I have personally encountered. A number of
dates appear throughout and are listed here for convenience:
6 is the date of the earliest dated inscription, written in
Old Syriac.
240243 is the date of the three legal parchments, also
written in Old Syriac.
411 is the date of the earliest dated literary manuscript.
7
th
century is the period around which one begins to find
distinctiveness between E. and W. Syr.
708 Jacob of Edessa dies.

7
The use of left-context and right-context for X and Y, respectively,
is avoided as these terms are more appropriate for left-to-right lan-
guages. Using them to describe right-to-left Syriac will no doubt cause
confusion.
8 Sources and their Historical Context 16.
16. As already indicated in the preface, the arrangement in
this book is neither diachronic nor synchronic but rather the-
matic. Statements regarding a particular phenomenon or rule
cannot be generalized over periods of time. The dates of examples
can sometimes, but not always, be a dating guide. The remainder
of this chapter gives a historical narrative of Syriac writing based
on the various available historical sources.
1.2. Old Syriac Sources
17. The earliest evidence of Syriac writing comes from Old
Syriac, a form of Syriac that predates Classical Syriac and is
known to us from inscriptions, mosaics, coins, and three legal
parchments. The earliest dated inscription is from the year 6,
while the parchments (three, to be exact) are from the 240s. The
following conclusions can be drawn from these texts.
1.2.1. The Consonantal System
18. The twenty-two graphemes of the consonantary are all
present in Old Syriac.
8
This period, however, differs from the later
Classical Syriac period in graphotactics and ductus.
19. In terms of allography, the graphemes <k m n> in Old
Syriac have distinct isolated and final allographs in most in-
stances. One dotless grapheme is used for <d> and <r>, viz..
20. Graphotactically, the joining properties of the graphemes
differ substantially from Classical Syriac. I have demonstrated
elsewhere
9
that graphemes were quite disjointed in the early pe-
riods of Old Syriac and became more joined together over time.

8
For a brief discussion and references to the origins of the Syriac
script, see Drijvers and Healey 12.
9
Kiraz, Old Syriac Graphotactics.
24. Sources and their Historical Context 9
Hence, one finds texts such as . s for +s ..
in the month of March, the year of
10
where the <y n> are all
disjointed (see Pl. 1). In contrast, at first glance the parchments
show a great degree of cursivity in writing, much more so than
Classical Syriac (see Pl. 3). Having said that, the graphotactics of
the parchments have not been studied in detail.
21. In terms of writing and ductus, the shape of letters differs
somewhat from one inscription to the next and varies more in dif-
ferent media types. A good description, with charts, is given by
Drijvers & Healey.
11
In general, letters are closer to Esrangel
than Ser. For example, <> is mostly like Esrangel but some-
times approximates Ser. Worth noting is the variant shape of
<m> which still exists in late MSS as (q.v. 539).
22. As for orthographic features, <> is used to represent
Semitic //; e.g. -s . ,. for ,..es twenty, + for +e
witness.
1.2.2. The Vocalization System
23. Early Old Syriac inscriptions and legal parchments exhibit
orthographic characteristics that may shed light on the early de-
velopment of the matres lectionis system, the earliest form of vo-
calization. Here, as in later Classical Syriac, the graphemes
<>, <w>, and <y> are used to mark vowels.
12
No other
marks are known in this period for vowels.
24. The grapheme <w> is often absent in words which
appear with it in Classical Syriac. In Old Syriac, one finds ..
for ..


I shall polish, .. for

..

you/she shall escape,



10
Inscription As55, ln 1.
11
Drijvers and Healey 516.
12
Drijvers and Healey 23.
10 Sources and their Historical Context 24.
.. for ..


drawing. In particular, - all is written
without <w> in the parchments and inscriptions, indicating that
- and .- must have coexisted in Classical Syriac.
25. The absence of <y> is less frequent in Old Syriac, but
one still finds , for

house, -: for

-.s.

theirs,
,.: for

,...:


pupil, and ..- for -

...

chair. These
examples occur in the inscriptions. The parchments do not seem
to have omissions of <y>.
26. The use of <> as a mater lectionis seems to have already
developed by the 3
rd
century.
1.2.3. Other Symbols
27. Old Syriac does not have any graphemes apart from the
consonantary. Even points that distinguish <d> from <r> are
absent. Syme, diacritical points, lines, etc. are all not to be
found.
28. Old Syriac, however, makes use of an ancient Aramaic sys-
tem for numerals which is discussed in 335 ff.
1.3. Early Manuscripts
29. The earliest dated Syriac MS, from 411, sheds some light
on early Syriac writing. It demonstrates that Syriac writing has
evolved far beyond Old Syriac, even taking into consideration the
fact that the 411 codex is a medium that is substantially different
from the Old Syriac media (stone, mosaic, coins, and legal
parchments). Not only is the consonantary fully developed in the
411 codex, but one now finds an additional system that augments
the consonantary: the diacritical point. It is used for various or-
thographic and grammatical purposes. Indeed, as King
13
suggests,

13
King, Elements of the Syriac Grammatical Tradition 190.
32. Sources and their Historical Context 11
this can be seen as an indication of the beginnings of the Syriac
grammatical tradition.
1.3.1. The Consonantal System
30. The twenty-two graphemes of the consonantary are car-
ried over from Old Syriac, but the graphotactics and ductus differ
substantially. In terms of allography, the dotless grapheme is
now expanded into two separate graphemes distinguished by a
point: for <d> and for <r>. It seems that this process was
gradual as there are a few cases in the 411 codex where one still
finds the dotless .
14
In the MSS of the 5
th
and 6
th
centuries, the
position of the point with respect to the body of the graph is not
fixed; e.g. ..

for ..,
15
. .

for ..,
16
ls

for ls
.
17
It is possible that the point was used in the vicinity of the
graph and was then anchored to it later on.
31. Graphotactically, by 411 the development of the joining
properties must have already halted. With the sole exception of
<s>, which is mostly right-joining in this period (but dual-
joining in later periods), the joining properties in 411 agree with
later Syriac.
32. As for the script, the only known script of this period is
what later came to be known as Esrangel. A Ser-like script
must also have coexisted, as later Ser resembles the script in
Old Syriac parchments and some early colophons.
18


14
Jones, Early Syriac Pointing 439.
15
Hatch Pl. I (fol. 40
v
, co. 1, ln. 14).
16
Hatch Pl. I (fol. 40
v
, co. 1, ln. 19).
17
BL Add. 17,126, 5
th
/6
th
century, fol. 24, ln. 4 from Hatch.
18
Healey, The Early History of the Syriac Script.
12 Sources and their Historical Context 33.
1.3.2. The Vocalization System
33. By the early 5
th
century, the matres lectionis system was
fully developed, yet readers still struggled with the lack of full
vocalization. By the time of the 411 codex, a new system had
emerged where a diacritical point was used to distinguish homo-
graphs. Jones
19
claims that most of the pointing in the 411 codex,
apart from the first 39 folios, is by a second hand. He points out
that there are a few instances in the first 39 folios where a supra-
linear point on denotes an /a/ vowel; e.g. s..

, ,.

. A
sublinear point denotes an /e/-like sound; e.g. ,.

.
34. Early MSS of the 5
th
to 7
th
centuries demonstrate an ad-
vanced usage of the diacritical point to mark vowels for purposes
of disambiguating homographs (q.v. 139 ff.); e.g. .s.

for ..s.



king opp. .s.

for ..s.


advice. By the year 600, one finds
traces of two points within one word (q.v. 147 ff.). During the
8
th
and 9
th
centuries, the use of a grapheme that is devoted en-
tirely to a specific phonemic vowel appears; e.g.

for /a/,

for
/e/, and

for // (q.v. 154 ff.). These marks are seldom used


and are only employed for purposes of disambiguation; i.e. one
never finds fully-vocalized texts. By the time of Jacob of Edessa
(d. 708), the system was still in flux; had it not been so, Jacob
would not have devised his own new vocalization system (for
which see 162 ff.).
1.3.3. Other Symbols
35. By the time of the 411 codex, the single diacritical point
was used for a few additional purposes, in even the first 39 folios.
In terms of morphological marking, syme, a pair of supralinear

19
Jones, Early Syriac Pointing 439.
40. Sources and their Historical Context 13
points, marks plurals (q.v. 225). A single supralinear point
marks the feminine ending on

(q.v. 235).
36. Lexically, the demonstrative pronoun appears in the 411
codex (in the first 39 folios) with a supralinear point,

that, to
distinguish it from the personal pronoun he which is un-
marked. In later MSS, the personal pronoun would acquire a sub-
linear point,

.
37. The first 39 folios of the 411 codex also show an early us-
age of a single point as an accent to mark pauses in readings and
intonation. The location of the point (above, below, or on the
line) is not easy to ascertain in many cases. This system of accent
marks is developed further in the MSS of the 6
th
to 8
th
centuries.
38. Another early symbol is the abbreviation mark (q.v.
255). The early MSS of the 8
th
or 9
th
century show traces of this
mark. It became common from the 10
th
century onward.
39. During the 7
th
century, the Syro-hexapla of the Old Testa-
ment and the Harqlean of the New Testament were produced.
These works used a number of signs to indicate textual choices
(q.v. 271).
1.4. The Classical Grammarians
40. The classical grammarians provide another source for our
understanding of the writing system, keeping in mind that the
grammatical genre is naturally prescriptive and does not always
agree with the manuscript tradition. (Indeed, it is this disagree-
ment that motivates grammarians to write.) The earliest known
grammarian is Joseph zy, a 6
th
century maqryn at the
14 Sources and their Historical Context 40.
school of Nisibis.
20
Another grammarian is Thomas the Deacon,
who authored a list of accent points during the 7
th
century.
41. Jacob of Edessa (d. 708) is the first to write a full gram-
mar, but of more importance for our purposes, a letter on orthog-
raphy. It is Jacob who informs us about the status of writing dur-
ing his time, especially the diacritical point system. We can con-
clude from his writings that, in addition to the one-point system
described earlier, a two-point system was used to distinguish
three-way homographs (q.v. 147). It is highly unlikely that a full
vocalization system using points existed at his time as he found
himself in a position to devise a radical vocalization system that
made use of letters on the baseline (on equal footing with conso-
nants) to indicate vowels (q.v. 162). Jacobs system was, how-
ever, hardly used.
42. Other grammarians of this period
21
include John the
Stylite, a contemporary of Jacob, whose grammar was a source
for later grammarians. Another is David bar Pawlos (8
th
/9
th
cen-
tury)
22
who wrote a treatise on the accent points, a short gram-
mar, and a poem on the alphabet. unayn bar Isaq (809873),
one of the prominent translators of the Abbasid period, also wrote
a grammar, now lost. The writings of these early grammarians
overlap with another genre of grammatical, or rather para-
grammatical, literature called the malmn (the so-called
Masora), discussed below.
43. During and post-malmn literature, in particular dur-
ing the 11
th
and 13
th
centuries, later grammarians wrote gram-

20
Becker, The Fear of God and the Beginning of Wisdom.
21
For a discussion, see King, Elements of the Syriac Grammatical
Tradition 19799.
22
Brock Dawid bar Pawlos, in GEDSH 11617.
44. Sources and their Historical Context 15
mars for the sake of writing grammars. These works are more de-
tailed and their concentration on the writing system varies. In
general, the later grammarians began their grammars with a dis-
cussion on writing: the consonants, vowels, points and other
marks. These grammarians include Elias of Tirhan (d. 1049) who,
in addition to writing a grammar, wrote three treatises on accents
and diacritics,
23
Elias bar ny (9751046) who wrote a de-
tailed grammar,
24
and Joseph bar Malkun who wrote a treatise on
points.
25
All of these grammarians were of the E. Syr. tradition.
W. Syr. grammarians include Jacob bar akko (d. 1241) who
wrote a grammar in his Book of Dialogues,
26
and Bar Ebroyo
(1225/61286) who, in addition to writing a comprehensive
grammar called eme, composed a metrical grammar.
27
eme is
the most comprehensive of all classical grammars and is the most
detailed amongst them with regards to the writing system.
1.5. The Malmn
44. During the 8
th
and 9
th
centuries, perhaps as a result of the
Islamic conquest and the rise of Arabic, a new genre of para-
grammatical works began to appear. These were mainly con-
cerned with preserving the readings and orthography of biblical
and patristic texts; i.e. the malmn tradition (so-called
Masora by modern scholarship).
28
A few MSS of the malmn

23
Teule, Eliya I of irhan, in GEDSH 141.
24
Teule, Eliya of Nisibis, in GEDSH 143.
25
Van Rompay, Ishoyahb bar Malkun, in GEDSH 219.
26
Brock, Yaqub bar Shakko, in GEDSH 43031; the grammar is
published in Merx 2*-48*.
27
Takahashi, Bar Ebroyo, in GEDSH 5456.
28
Juckel, Masora, in GEDSH 27679; on the history of the term
Masora, see Loopstra, Patristic Selections 30 ff.
16 Sources and their Historical Context 44.
exist (see Juckels list)
29
but thus far there has not been a critical
edition of their content (which is obviously an arduous task).
30

45. The MSS of the malmn constitute an important re-
source to the writing system and the phonology of the 8
th
to 10
th

centuries. The malmn is basically a list of readings from bib-
lical and patristic texts, marked with diacritical points as well as
rkk and qy points (and sometimes Greek vowels). Mar-
ginal notes give variant readings. These lists are usually appended
in the manuscript tradition with the grammatical works of Jacob
of Edessa and others. One has to be careful, however, not to over
emphasize and over generalize the role of the malmn MSS in
the wider Syriac context. Their domain is not the entire Syriac
language, but rather a subset of its literature (biblical and patris-
tic texts). The overloaded accent points used in these MSS had
already become incomprehensible by the time of Bar Ebroyo in
the 13
th
century.
46. The MSS of this period, even non-malmn MSS, show
the immergence of the Greek (W. Syr.) vocalization system (q.v.
174). While traces of the system appear in 8
th
and 9
th
-century
MSS, their systematic use, according to a recent study by Coak-
ley,
31
dates from the 10
th
century. Here too, the vowels are used
only to clarify readings.
47. While investigating the MSS of the malmn as primary
sources falls beyond the scope of the present work, the informa-
tion they provide about the writing system is indirectly presented

29
Juckel, Masora, in GEDSH 276.
30
For a discussion on the difficulty of publishing such MSS, see
Loopstra, Patristic Selections 44.
31
Coakley, When were.
49. Sources and their Historical Context 17
here through references to the works of Martin, Merx, and Segal
(see bibliography).
1.6. European Grammarians and Philologists
48. Elias bar Abraham, one of the Maronite delegates to the
Fifth Lateran Council (151217), taught Syriac to the Italian hu-
manist Theseus Ambrosius (1469ca. 1540).
32
Ambrosius then
published his Introductio (see bibliography) in 1539 where he in-
troduced, inter alia, Syriac to Europeans for the very first time.
Also during the 16
th
century, during or shortly after 1549, a
Syriac Orthodox priest called Mushe of Mardin
33
arrived in Rome.
Mushe is primarily known for his collaboration with Johann
Widmanstetter in the publication of the editio princeps of the
Syriac New Testament. Mushes hand, however, can also be seen
in Widmanstetters Prima Elementa (1555), the first Syriac primer
to be published in Europe. Mushe became the tutor of Andreas
Masius (15141573), another humanist, who then wrote the first
systematic grammar of Syriac in a western language.
34

49. The next few grammars to appear in Europe were mostly
written by Maronites and were based on the Syriac grammatical
tradition in conjunction with the European grammatical tradition.
Jirjis Amira (d. 1644), who later became Maronite patriarch,
wrote, in Latin, a significant Syriac grammar titled Grammatica
Syriaca, sive chaldaica (1596). The 17
th
and 18
th
centuries witness
grammars by C. Crininesius (1611), A. Ecchellensis (1628), J.
Acurensis (1647), C. B. Michaelis (1741), and J. D. Michaelis

32
Fiano Albonesi, Teseo Ambrogio degli, in GEDSH 1314.
33
Van Rompay, Mushe of Mardin, in GEDSH 30001.
34
Masius, Grammatica linguae Syriacae.
18 Sources and their Historical Context 49.
(1784). Acurensis (Ysif al-qr)
35
listed grammars by Burus al-
qr, Ms al-Ns, Amira, Sarks al-Rizz, Yanna al-arn,
Isq al-adrw (Sciadrensis), and Ibrhm al-qilln (Ecchel-
lensis). All of these grammars begin with a description of writing,
and their coverage of the material varies. They mostly discussed
the consonants, vowels, and some orthographic marks such as the
diacritical point, syme, and the sern. Many such early gram-
mars (which were accessible to me) have been used in this study
and are cited throughout.
50. This period also marks the systematization of the Syriac
scripts and the writing system through printing. Fully vocalized
texts begin to appear, probably more often in material printed in
the West than in contemporary Syriac MSS in the East. This may
be the beginning stages of a later tradition of publishing fully vo-
calized texts.
51. The 19
th
century produced more systematic and detailed
grammars, viz. Nldeke (1868), Duval (1881), and David (1896).
Duval and David wrote in more detail than any previous gram-
marian on the writing system. As for the complex subject of dia-
critical and accent points, the most influential work, from the 20
th

century, is that of Segal (1953). His work provided much of the
data on the vocalization and pointing systems found in the pre-
sent work.
1.7. Late Manuscripts of the Received Tradition
52. In addition to the aforementioned sources, the present
work makes use of data found in late MSS, as late as the 20
th
cen-
tury. This is primarily a result of personal familiarity with such
MSS and not a systematic study of the late tradition.

35
Acurensis .
54. Sources and their Historical Context 19
53. Finally, this work also makes use of the undocumented
received tradition. This too stems from personal affinity with the
subject matter. In a few cases when the received tradition contra-
dicts statements made by grammarians, this has been indicated in
the footnotes.
1.8. Chronology of Events
54. The following is a chronology of events based on the con-
tent of this work; i.e. events that have escaped discussion in this
work are not mentioned in the following chronology. It is hoped
that this chronology can serve as a birds eye view of the devel-
opment of the writing system over the past 20 centuries.
1
st
Century
6 Earliest known dated Syriac writing in the form of an in-
scription. Features include the use of Old Syriac numerals
[ 335], and partial matres lectionis to denote vowels [ 131
ff.].
3
rd
Century
2403 The earliest Old Syriac texts written on three parchments.
240 The earliest known example of an early alphabetical num-
bering system [ 347].
4
th
Century
Aphraha, early in the century, composes acrostics that demon-
strate the order of the alphabet [ 123].
MSS are produced mostly using vellum or parchment [ 440].
5
th
Century
Grammarians and scribes begin to compile lists of homographs,
the beginnings of the malmn (i.e. so-called Masora)
[ 113].
20 Sources and their Historical Context 54.
Symbols such as <, <
.
, , :, and \ etc. mark noteworthy quo-
tations in MSS [ 251].
Christian Palestinian Aramaic texts appear in inscriptions and
fragmentary MSS [ 457, 709].
Orthographic notes: 1. prosthetic <> is common in initial //
words [ 89]; 2. <w> is frequently present in .- and
.. [ 101]; 3. unusual instances of in the enclitic
are omitted in texts; e.g. ..... for ....


[ 420].
411 Earliest dated manuscript (in any language), written in
Syriac in Edessa (in three columns) [ 446].
Matres lectionis system fully developed [ 132].
Earliest known examples of: 1. a single point used to dis-
tinguish <d> from <r> [ 201]; 2. syme [ 225]; 3. the
fem. <h> suffix marked with a point [ 235]; 4. a single
diacritical point to disambiguate two-way homographs
[ 138]; 5. an early sequential alphabetical numbering sys-
tem (but by a later hand) [ 346].
462 Earliest known dated two-column MS [ 446].
6
th
Century
First known occurrence of the

vowel grapheme [ 150].


The alphabet of Bardaisan is used for cipher [ 367].
Orthographic notes: 1. a supralinear point on <> marks it as a
glottal stop //, while a sublinear point marks it silent
[ 202]; 2. a supralinear point on <h> marks it as /h/,
while a sublinear point marks it silent [ 203]; 3. <w> is
frequently absent in closed syllables; e.g. .. for ..



[ 98].
509 First known mention in Syriac of the quill (,.. .

)
[ 442].
510/11 Earliest known dated one-column MS [ 446].
599 First known occurrence of a rkk point [ 212].
54. Sources and their Historical Context 21
7
th
Century
Earliest known examples of: 1. two-point graphemes to distin-
guish 3-way homographs [ 147 ff.]; 2. words marked by
two vowels, each a single diacritical point [ 148]; 3. the
abbreviation mark [ 255].
Jacob of Edessa introduces linear vowels on the same footing as
consonants [ 162].
The asteriscus, obelus, metobelus and other signs introduced to
mark textual choices and origins in the Syro-hexapla and
Harqlean texts [ 271].
Orthographic notes: 1. <s> starts to move from being a right-
joining grapheme to dual-joining [ 379]; 2. <w> now
rarely appears in .- and .. [ 101]; 3. W. Syr.
introduces <y> suffix to the impf. 3
rd
fem. verbs; e.g.
.: for .:

[ 103]; 4. syme used in collective


nouns [ 229.5].
615 Rkk and qy points appear more frequently in
MSS [ 212].
666/7 Severus Sebokht dies. His writing in Syriac provides the
earliest evidence in any language of the Indian numbering
system [ 362].
8
th
Century
Earliest known examples of the

and

vowels [ 151, 152].


The Esrangel script begins to fall out of use and Ser, in W. Syr
circles, starts to replace it [ 453 ff.].
Dawid bar Pawlos composes an acrostic on the alphabet [ 123].
Earliest known attestation of Syro-Sogdian garnography in the
Turfan Oasis [ 619 ff.].
Latest known example of the Old Syriac numbers used to number
signatures [ 342].
22 Sources and their Historical Context 54.
Orthographic notes: 1. <> begins to lose its consonantal value in
W. Syr. in some phonological contexts [ 202]; 2. W. Syr.
adds <y> suffix and syme to the perf. 3
rd
fem. pl. verb;
e.g. ..

opp. earlier .. [ 102].


785 Theophilus of Edessa dies. He is the only known person to
have used Jacob of Edessas vowels [ 164].
9
th
Century
Earliest known attestation of Syro-Greek garnography [ 602
ff.].
Orthographic notes: 1. there are unusual cases where <h> of the
enclitic is omitted; e.g. .: for :

[ 420]; 2.
W. Syr. suffix <y> to the impf. 3
rd
fem., introduced in the
7
th
century, becomes more frequent [ 103].
10
th
Century
Earliest mention of the pen (...


) [ 442].
Earliest known palimpsest (lower writing dated 459/60) [ 441].
Earliest known attestation of Syro-Persian garnography in the
Turfan Oasis [ 626 ff.].
W. Syr. Greek vowels introduced around Melitene [ 174].
Esrangel is revived in ur Abdin by John of Qarmin [ 453].
932 First known dated MS written using paper [ 441].
11
th
Century
Complete Christian Palestinian Aramaic MSS (which survive to
the present day) are written [ 457].
Melkite script MSS appear [ 457].
Orthographic notes: <> introduced in W. Syr. in the middle of
the word; e.g. t

opp. t

[ 92].
1007 W. Syr. MSS begin to mark rkk and qy points in
red ink [ 215].
1046 Elias bar ny (b. 975) dies. He cites a system where
Greek is marked by two points [ 214].
54. Sources and their Historical Context 23
12
th
Century
Earliest known attestation of Syro-Arabic garnography [ 586
ff.].
13
th
Century
Turco-Syriac is used in Old Uyghur in the Turfan Oasis [ 700 ff.].
Bar Zob mentions the ng

[ 207].
1286 Bar Ebroyo dies; his two grammars are a source for Syriac
writing.
14
th
Century
Distinctive E. Syr. script is fully developed [ 455].
15
th
Century
A number of late graphemes that appear as small lines, not men-
tioned by Bar Ebroyo (d. 1286), may be dated approxi-
mately to the 15
th
century. These include: 1. the maln
[ 204]; 2. mhaggyn [ 205]; 3. marhn [ 206], and 5.
mappyn [ 208]. The E. Syr. diacritic for soft [f] may
also belong to this period [ 216].
16
th
Century
First known MS to be written in mixed scripts: Esrangel for ru-
brics and headings; otherwise, Ser [ 458].
NENA dialects are written in the Syriac script [ 713 ff.].
Earliest known examples of: 1. Syro-Armenian garnography
[ 595]; 2. Syro-Latin [ 609 ff.]; 3. Arabo-Syriac [ 637
ff.]; 4. Armeno-Syriac [ 641].
1539 Ambrosios Introductio transcribes Syriac in the Latin script
[ 650].
1555 The first Syriac primer is published by Widmanstetter,
probably with contribution from Mushe of Mardin [ 652].
24 Sources and their Historical Context 54.
1569 The symbol <*> in the Antwerp Polyglott is used to
mark verse divisions [ 273], and Arabic numbers to indi-
cate versification in the margins [ 363].
Syriac NT published in the Hebrew script to convert Jews
to Christianity [ 644 ff.].
1571 Masius writes the first grammar that uses the Pal, Pael,
and Ap

el system [ 124].
17
th
Century
The Syro-Malabar script appears in Kerala (earlier MSS, if any,
may have been destroyed) [ 457].
Earliest known examples of Syro-Ottoman [ 631] and Syro-
Malayalam [ 615] garnography.
1604 First dictionary arranged by root instead of alphabetical
order [ 124].
1610 Earliest known printed example of: 1. Syro-Arabic Garn
text [ 588]; 2. the abbreviation mark [ 258].
1611 Arabic numerals used to indicate verse numbers within
printed Syriac text as opposed to in the margin [ 363].
1625 Arabic numerals used in printed books for pagination
[ 363].
1627 Symbols such as <[ ] > are used in text editions [ 273].
1628 Alphabetical numbering system used for book pagination
[ 350 ff.].
1698 Painter David K. Ehrenstrahl dies (b. 1628). He painted
the crucifix with Syriac writing, now displayed in the
Stockholm cathedral (right altar) [ 647].
18
th
Century
1737 Gabriel aww introduces a linear vocalization system [
167 ff.].
1740 Basilios Shimun dies (b. 1695). He composed a Kurdish
poem written in Syro-Kurdish garnography [ 606].
54. Sources and their Historical Context 25
1788 Latin graphemes are mixed in Syriac texts to mark annota-
tions [ 273].
19
th
Century
First known printed books to appear in mixed script [ 458].
Malayalo-Syriac emerges in liturgical texts [ 691].
A standardized scholarly system of transcription and translitera-
tion emerges from older Germanic-like systems [ 661].
Text editions incorporate text critical symbols such as [ ] ( ) < >
etc. [ 273].
1819 Yeats transcribed Syriac in Greek letters [ 643].
1874 First known lithographic publication of a Syriac text
[ 733].
1876 C. J. David uses small circles to indicate rkk and
qy points in lieu of red ink [ 215].
1887 Cardahi uses Arabic adda to indicate doubling and sukn
to indicate the lack of a vowel [ 215].
1890 Bedjan uses the horizontally-flipped question mark, [
244].
1890s Syro-Ottoman garnography [ 631 ff.] appears in publi-
cations printed using mimeography [ 738].
<> marks the end of an interrogative sentence in
printed books [ 245].
1896 C. J. David and A. Mingana use to mark schwa in gram-
matical works [ 209].
20
th
Century
Most scholarly text editions are published in the Esrangel script,
more so than in any other script.
Arabic and European punctuation marks (coma, semi-colon, co-
lon, exclamation mark, etc.) introduced in printed texts in
the Middle East and the diaspora [ 254].
26 Sources and their Historical Context 54.
Arabic numerals used for pagination in diaspora publications
[ 363] and Indic numerals in the Middle East [ 364].
Sigla-type abbreviations, acronyms, and name initials are intro-
duced in modern texts [ 261 ff.].
Diaspora communities begin to transcribe liturgical texts in the
Latin [ 668 ff.] and Arabic [ 637] scripts.
Neologisms enter Syriac from European languages and Arabic
[ 611 ff.].
1924 The first Syriac typewriter appears [ 743].
1960s First encoding of Syriac text into digital ASCII format
[ 675].
1966 A. Nuro proposes a script reform to ease printing and
unify all the scripts [ 461].
1970s Plotter technology used to print the Gttingen concor-
dances [ 750].
1975 The Syriac Academy in Baghdad proposes alternative uni-
fication scripts [ 462].
1985 Assyrian Church of the East in Chicago commissions the
company Purdy and Macintosh to produce a phototypeset-
ting system [ 752].
1986 G. Kiraz of Alaph Beth Computer Systems designs Syriac
fonts for the DOS-based word processor Multi-Lingual
Scholar [ 757].
1989 Ashurbanipal Library in Chicago holds a conference for
the standardization of Syriac software [ 777].
1989 A. Nuro proposes a vocalization reform that returns <w>
to .- and .. [ 186].
1995 Y. Haralambous designs a Syriac module for the typeset-
ting system TeX-XeT [ 760].
1998 S. Hasso, G. Kiraz, and P. Nelson propose to the Unicode
Consortium the inclusion of Syriac in Unicode [ 771].
55. Sources and their Historical Context 27
1999 P. Nelson introduces a digital variable-length abbreviation
mark in Microsoft Windows 2000 [ 259] and implements
the first script engine that supports Syriac at the operating
system level.
21
st
Century
uroyo is written in the Syriac alphabet [ 717].
Syriac appears in chat alphabet, especially in mobile devices
[ 682].
Syriac begins to appear in sudoku games [ 361] and tattoos, the
most famous being on the arm of the singer Ricky Martin.
(I have it on good authority that the actress Angelina Jol-
lie may have a Syriac or Aramaic tattoo, the whereabouts
of which is unknown to me.)
2000 Meltho OpenType fonts are made available by Beth Mar-
dutho: The Syriac Institute [ 762], and Unicode 3.0 is
published with Syriac language support for the very first
time [ 771].
2003 Unicode 4.0 is published with additional support for the
Syriac graphemes needed for Syro-Sogdian and Syro-
persian; the proposal was submitted by N. Sims-Williams
and M. Everson.
2012 A major US-based Internet corporation (which I am pres-
ently not at liberty to name) is working on the inclusion of
Syriac in a giant multi-lingual digital font for a multi-
lingual web browsing software.
55. There are a number of graphemes that I was unable to
date. These include:
The point on -

and .

[ 240].
<

> on

from Gr. W [ 241].


< < <
.
: \> used to mark scribal errors [ 251].
28 Sources and their Historical Context 55.
<| *> or a cross-like symbols used to mark the omission
of a word or a phrase [ 249].
Small circles marking the end of readings in lectionary
MSS [ 274].
Greek or Coptic letters used to number quire signatures
[ 366]
Liturgical cross-like graphemes to mark the making of the
sign of the cross, and marks for chanting [ 275].

,.x ,i .xs.-. s s&
&.&- -sx ,.x --
29
I
I
.
.
T
T
h
h
e
e
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
e
e
m
m
i
i
c
c
I
I
n
n
v
v
e
e
n
n
t
t
o
o
r
r
y
y

Part I aims to give an exhaustive account of all
Syriac graphemes. Chapters 2 and 3 cover segmen-
tal graphemes; i.e. graphemes that correspond to a
phonological segment: Chapter 2 is devoted to the
consonantal system, while Chapter 3 gives the de-
velopment of the vocalization system.
Chapter 4 describes suprasegmental graph-
emes that provide grammatical and lexical mark-
ings such as syme that indicates PLURAL. Chapter 5
covers nonsegmental graphemes; i.e. graphemes
that do not correspond to a phonological segment
such as punctuation and editorial marks. Chapter 6
gives a catalogue of what has been traditionally
called accent points, marks that mainly affect
prosody. Finally, Chapter 7 describes various num-
bering systems.
31
2
2
.
.
C
C
o
o
n
n
s
s
o
o
n
n
a
a
n
n
t
t
a
a
l
l
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
e
e
m
m
e
e
s
s

It is not the language of the Syriacs, thereforeI mean
this Edessene speechthat does not allow them to re-
produce foreign sounds, but this system of writing of
theirs on account of its imperfection and its lack of
vowels.
Jacob of Edessa (d. 708), On Orthography
2.1. The Consonantary
56. The Syriac alphabet,
1
or rather the consonantary, consists
of twenty two consonants, each represented by a unique graph-
eme. (Vowels are not considered part of the alphabet proper and
are treated in Chapter 1.) Syriac grammarians call the consonants


signs, .

elements
2
(from Gr. ),

signs of writings,
3
or

..



signs of annunciation.
4

As the consonants are always written, as opposed to the optional
vowels, the ancient grammarians refered to them :

the
written.
5

57. Each of the consonants is assigned a name whose gender is
feminine; e.g. .. ..




Y with the vowel

.
6
The naming
system is acrophonic in that a letters name begins with that same

1
Strictly speaking, the term alphabet in writing systems refers to
full fledged alphabets that consist of both consonants and vowels such as
the Greek alphabet.
2
David 1; Duval 42; A. Hoffmann I.I.7.
3
Nestle 2.b.
4
Risius 171.
5
Duval 42.
6
Bar Ebroyo, eme, intro 3, p. 4.
32 I. The Graphemic Inventory 57.
letter. The names may vary in some grammars. Dla, for in-
stance, has a W. Syr. variant

,:


.
7
H has a variant

[sic].
8

Waw has an E. Syr. variant

.
9
Zayn has three variants: ,.

,
and

.
10
P has an orthographic variant

.
11
R has an E. Syr.
variant

R.
12
Taw has an orthographic variant

.
13
There is
also a romanized variation for : dh.
14

58. In Mount Lebanon, consonants whose name is bisyllabic
are pronounced with a second long vowel; e.g. [ola:f] (against
[o:laf]) for

, [goma:l] (against [go:mal]) for

, [dola:]
(against [do:la]) for

,:


, etc.
15
The encounter of the Maronites
with western Europeans can be seen in the pronunciation in the
Introductio by T. Ambrosio (1539) where one finds: t

(against


), .


(against .


), etc.
16

59. The consonants exist in three scripts: Esrangel, Ser,
and East Syriac (E. Syr.). The table on the opposite page gives the
consonantary in the three scripts, along with their names and
phonemic representation. (Scripts are discussed in more detail in
453 ff.)

7
Brockelmann 2; David 1; Nldeke 1.B; Nestle 2.b.
8
Abouna 29.
9
Brockelmann 2; Costaz 1; David 1.
10
Brockelmann 2; Nldeke 1.B.
11
Amira 6.
12
Brockelmann 2; David 1; Nldeke 1.B.
13
Brockelmann 2; Costaz 1; Nldeke 1.B.
14
Robinson 2.
15
David 1 n. 1.
16
Ambrosio, Introducio, fol. 9a, illus. in Coakley, Typography 154.
Acurensis, however, lists the letters without a long vowel:

, .


,
etc.
60. Consonantal Graphemes 33
The Syriac Consonantary.
E
s

r
a
n
g
e
l


S
e
r


E
.

S
y
r
i
a
c

Name Phoneme
lap




Bth :

b
Gmal .

g
Dla ,:

d
H

h
Waw

w
Zayn ,.

z
:.


(IPA [])


:



(pharyngealized [t])
Y ..


y
Kp

k
Lma ,..:



l
Mm ,..

m
Nn .

n
Semka :..


s
.


(pharyngealized [s])
Qop

..

q (pharyngealized [k])
R ..

r
n ,..

(IPA [])
Taw

t

34 I. The Graphemic Inventory 60.
60. When written in isolation, especially as numbers, a few
letters are doubled,
17
most notably Kp

, ,-, and Nn, ,. There


are cases when Nn is doubled when combined with other letters
in numbers; e.g. page number ,.. 350.
18
One also comes across
doubled Zayn, , to avoid confusion with (e.g. page ,. 447),
19

and more rarely doubled , ., to avoid confusion with (e.g.
page . 70).
20
Occasionally, Mm is also doubled, ,..
21

61. Additional graphemes, mostly adaptations of existing ones,
were introduced in later periods to assist in garnographic writ-
ing; e.g. in Syro-Arabic garnography. These are introduced
in Part III.
2.2. Mnemonics and Consonantal Subsets
62. Syriac grammarians devised mnemonics (voces memoriales
or memoria technica) to help pupils remember various subsets of
consonants. The order of the alphabet is known by the mnemonic
,... .. ,..: .. ,





/abgad hawwaz a
kalaman sapa qarat/
22
(note the doubling of <w> in
/hawwaz/ and of <> in /a/ even in W. Syr., probably an
influence from the Arabic usage of the

).

17
Arayathinal 2.3.; Costaz 6; Nldeke 1.C; Uhlemann 1.R.5.
18
Manna, Morceaux choisis de Littrature Aramenne, p. ,...
19
MS Teaneck, Phanqitho, p. ,..
20
Merx, p. ..
21
Elia of oba and .
22
Abouna 28; Acurensis , ; Ambrosio 9
v
; Amira 10; Bar Ebroyo,
eme, iv.1.3, p. 194; David 1; Nimat-allah ; Gabriel of St. Joseph
6; al-Kfarnissy 2; Kiraz, Primer 45; A. Hoffmann 7 (p. 80) gives the
variant ,..... ,. - .. ,





from Abraham Ecchellens, p.
5; Manna 7; Makdasi ; Risius 171.
127. Consonantal Graphemes 57
words according to rhyme, as is the case in some Arabic lexica
(e.g. al-Zubayds tj al-ars) is unknown in the Syriac tradition.
125. The order of the alphabet is realized at the graphemic
level, allographs having no affect on the sequence. Ligatures have
no affect on the sequence either (not even t, unlike Arabic that
has a slot in the alphabet). Similarly, nonlinear graphemes (e.g.
vowels) have no affect on alphabetization.
126. In a computational system where ordering strings is useful
for indexing and search algorithms, one must make practical
choices as to how nonlinear graphemes affect sorting and index-
ing. Additional choices, when applicable, need to be made for the
sorting order of auxiliary graphemes such as the Old Syriac dot-
less . One may choose to have them listed directly after, or ca-
nonically equivalent to their respective source forms: Garn
with , Old Syriac with or (it was placed after in Unicode,
though Unicode does not assume sorting order per se), and
Garn with .
127. Ancient grammarians such as Bar Ebroyo
145
justified the
order of the alphabet by classifying letters into different types of
sounds (q.v. 73): ,.

thin or ...


narrow, .

thick or

broad, and ...


in between. They argued that the
alphabet began with thin/narrow sounds to , followed by
thick/broad sounds to , and the in-between sounds to .
146

This idea originated with Dionysius Thrax.

~x ,.x ,i

-e .

,.i ,ix

145
Bar Ebroyo, eme iv.1.3; Sciadrensis .
146
Duval 18.
59
3
3
.
.
V
V
o
o
w
w
e
e
l
l
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
e
e
m
m
e
e
s
s

Vowel sounds are thick and thin. Again, every word,
that is, every member of a clausewhere it is thick or
broad in vowel sound, there it takes a point above;
where it is fine or thin, it takes a point below. If it is
medium, between fine and thick, and there are two
other words similar to it in spelling, it takes two points,
one above and one below.
Jacob of Edessa (d. 708), On Orthography
Now when I was in Rome I saw three Chaldeans [i.e.
Maronites] I saw them reading their Psalter without
points, and asked them, Have you points, or any signs
to indicate the vowels? and they answered me, No! But
we have been conversant with that language from our
youth till now, and, therefore know how to read without
points.
Elias Levita (14691549), Massoreth ha-massoreth
128. Syriac grammarians refered to the vowels using different
terms: ,..


beats, .

movements [of the mouth],


1
or
,.

....



movements
2
(according to Duval, on account that
they are considered movements of the auditory system in order to
produce sounds). Early grammarians called them ...

,
3
not to be
confused with the plural sign which has the same name (for
which q.v. 158).

1
David 15; Dulabani 1; Duval 42; al-Kfarnissy 3.
2
Jacob bar akko (in Merx, 4
th
question); Segal 7.
3
Acurensis ; Amira 34; Duval 75.
60 I. The Graphemic Inventory 129.
129. The earliest system of marking vowels in the Syriac con-
sonantally-biased writing system appears in inscriptions, the ear-
liest of which is from A.D. 6, and legal parchments dated 240
243. In this system, originally introduced by Aramaeans in the 9
th

century B.C.,
4
vowels were partially marked by three weak let-
ters: <>, <w>, and <y>. The early Aramaic system
applied only to vowels at the end of words, but by the time of the
Old Syriac inscriptions it had already been extended to apply in
the middle of the word as well. By the time of the 411 MS, an ad-
ditional system was in place which made use of a single diacriti-
cal point to disambiguate homographs. By the time of Jacob of
Edessa (d. 708), this system had been extended to use two dia-
critical points to disambiguate three-way homographs. Jacob,
finding a need for a more comprehensive vocalization system, de-
vised special letters to mark vowels, but did not intend for them
to be used widely (lest all the MSS of his time become obsolete).
Jacobs system was hardly used, and by the 8
th
or 9
th
century a
fully developed pointing system had appeared in which each
vowel was marked either by two diacritical points, or by a single
diacritical point in combination with a mater lectionis. In W. Syr.,
the pointing system was augmented with a symbolic system
where each vowel was marked by a nonlinear symbol (i.e. written
above or below letters) derived from Greek letters; hence, Greek
vocalization. This system, according to a recent study by Coak-
ley,
5
was developed in the 10
th
century (traces of these vowel

4
Segert, Altaramische Grammatik 6264; Cross and Freedman,
Early Hebrew Orthography; Degen, Altaramische Grammatik der
Inschriften des 10.-8. Jh. V. Chr. 2528.
5
Coakley, When were.
131. Vowel Graphemes 61
graphemes can be seen in earlier MSS).
6
The timeline of the de-
velopment of the various vocalization systems is then as follows:
A.D. Event System used
6 Earliest inscription
100 partial matres lectionis
200 240s Legal parchments
300 Matres lectionis fully developed
400 411 MS Add. 12,150 Single diacritical point
500 Two diacritical points
600 Jacob of Edessas linear system
(defunct)
700 708 Jacob of Edessa died
800
Pointing system fully developed
900 MS Vatican 152 Greek vocalization introduced
130. Each subsequent system was an augmentation to its prede-
cessor, not a replacement. Hence, in W. Syr. one finds the Greek
system alongside the pointing system, and obviously alongside the
matres lectionis system.
3.1. The Matres Lectionis System
131. The set of weak letters is known in Syriac as -..-



weak/sick signs,
7
and in Latin by the term matres lectionis, liter-
ally mothers of reading, a translation from the Hebrew gram-
matical expression .

6
Wright III, p. xxx.
7
Bar Ebroyo classifies Nn as weak but not in the sense of matres
lectionis.
62 I. The Graphemic Inventory 132.
132. Matres lectionis begin to appear in Old Syriac (for which
see 23 ff). As for Classical Syriac,
8
the 411 MS shows a fully de-
veloped matres lectionis system.
133. <> represents the following vowels, in order of fre-
quency:
A. //, primarily at the end of the word (usually, // in
the middle of a word is unmarked). Almost all emphatic nouns
end in // marked with <>; e.g. . . <n> /sn/
9
Sa-
tan, . <br> /br/ son. The following verbal forms, with
:, also end in // marked with //:
1. Act. part. sing. 3
rd
fem.; e.g.
a. Pal : /kb/ she writes.
b. Pael :. /matt/.
c. Ap

el :. /mat/.
2. Pass. part. sing. fem.; e.g.
a. Pal .: /k/ it is written.
b. Epel :,. /mekab/.
c. Pael :. /matt/.
d. Epaal :,. /mekatt/.
e. Ap

el :. /mat/.
f. Ettap

al :,. /mettat/.
3. Many of the L- forms (while is part of the root, it
loses its consonantal value); e.g.
a. Perf. sing. 3
rd
masc. . /b/ he cried.
b. Inf. .. /mek/.
c. Impt. Pael . /bakk/.

8
Brockelmann 4; Costaz 10; Duval ch. ix; Healey 8; Muraoka,
CS4H 7; Nldeke 4.A; Palacios 13; Uhlemann 2; Zschokke 3.2.
9
MS BL Add. 12,150, f. 154, co. 2, ln 40 from Hatch.
195. Vowel Graphemes 89
Greek loan words, Greek tends to be

in W. Syr. but

in E.
Syr.;
109
e.g.

...:


opp.


testament.
C. <a> vs. <e>,


opp.


chosen one, .

vs.
.

order,
110
E. Syr.

vs. W. Syr. t

mourned, E. Syr.


vs. W. Syr.

wonder.
111
In some verbs, the vowel of Pal forms
can be either <a> or <e>; e.g.

opp.

to incline,


opp.

to tread upon, ...:

opp. ...:

to chew.
D. <a> vs. <> (in /ay/ vs. //); e.g. :

..

opp. ..:



dough.
E. <a> vs. <> (in /aw/ vs. //)


opp.



sumac (or is it


?), .


opp. .


sour buttermilk. In loan
words, E. Syr. has

in place of W. Syr.

; e.g.

vs.

.:.


Paul,


vs. ..


chrism.
112

F. <> vs. <e>

t-

abstinence.
G. <> vs. <w>, e.g.

..,


opp.

...


falcon,

...


opp.

L...


incense.
H. <> vs <> E. Syr.


opp. W. Syr. ....


mercy.
I. <e> vs. <y>, e.g.

,.

opp.

,..

bottle.
195. Vocalic variations may also affect rkk and qy
pointing and in turn doubling in E. Syr.; e.g. ,.

/addam/
(with doubled /d/) opp. ,.

/am/ (with soft //) earth.



109
David 37.
110
In the late 1980s, I began to use ..

for (computer) system


reserving ..

for liturgical use (motivated by British program vs. pro-


gramme).
111
David 37.
112
David 32.
90 I. The Graphemic Inventory 196.
3.8. Frequency of Occurrence
196. It is not possible to study the frequency of vocalization as
one can for the consonantal system (q.v. 117) because most writ-
ing is not vocalized. Early MSS tended to vocalize in cases of am-
biguity alone, and even then finding a word with more than one
point is the exception rather than the norm.
113
Biblical and
malmn (Masoretic) texts tend to overvocalize. In more re-
cent MSS, E. Syr. MSS tend to be more vocalized than W. Syr.
ones.
197. It is only with printed texts that vocalization becomes
more normative. Western editions of texts tend not to vocalize,
except in cases of ambiguity. Biblical texts are the exception
where one finds fully vocalized editions. In modern printing, one
still finds that E. Syr. tends to vocalize more than W. Syr.
198. If one is to assume full vocalization, it may be possible to
find a ratio between vowels and consonants. Synchronically
speaking, syllables in Syriac are of three types: CV, CCV, and
CVC. An equal distribution of syllables, if that is indeed the case,
would yield a 5-to-3 consonant-to-vowel ratio.

i , _s - ,.x ,i

s
. .


113
Segal 6.
91
4
4
.
.
G
G
r
r
a
a
m
m
m
m
a
a
t
t
i
i
c
c
a
a
l
l
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
e
e
m
m
e
e
s
s

Every point which is small is for the vowels or syme;
it is either grammatical, or indicates rkk and
qy; it is either to mark the feminine or gender; or it
denotes silence.
Bar Malkn (fl. 13
th
century), The Net of Points
199. Grammatical graphemes are markers to various grammati-
cal levels such as phonology and morphology. Some act as lexical
markers. In physical appearance these markers consist either of a
single point, two points, or a sern L...



little line (sometimes
called L....




or .. ..



a little sern),
1
known in western
grammars as linea occultans hiding line. They are all nonlinear.
The sern-like marks seem to be late as no mention of them is
made by Bar Ebroyo in the 13
th
century (Bar Zob who flourished
in the 13
th
century mentions the ng

, 207). The sern takes


various shapes: a horizontal line above a letter, , a horizontal
line below the letter, , an oblique line above the letter,

, or an
oblique line below a letter,

.
2

200. The scope of a grammatical grapheme can range from the
base grapheme with which it is associated to the entire word. For
instance, the scope of the one-point feminine marker in -.:


to
her is local to the letter (i.e. the suffix morpheme), but the
scope of the plural marker syme is wider and covers the entire
word on which it is placed.

1
al-Kfarnissy 5.
2
David 61.
92 I. The Graphemic Inventory 201.
4.1. Phonological Graphemes
4.1.1. /d/ vs. /r/ Marker
201. The most ancient point is the one that distinguishes /d/
from /r/. While absent in all Old Syriac texts, it is mostly
developed in the 411 codex (q.v. 30).
3
In Old Syriac, one finds:
s s +. .\ .s -s . . s
..\ .s\ .\ . .s\
for
s . . -s s . s s +. .\
.\ .s\ .\ . . .s\
I, Rabbay, son of Abalm, the courier, made for myself this
house of eternity, for myself and for my children and for my
heirs, and for Ganny my son.
4

A few print types have a dotless sort, , with separate sorts
for the points.
5

4.1.2. Sound Deletion Markers
202. A one-point grapheme was introduced prior to the 7
th
cen-
tury to mark as either a glottal stop // or a mater lectionis (in
which case it is rendered silent or phonologically deleted).
6
A sin-
gle supralinear point marked as a glottal stop; e.g. at the begin-
ning of the word as in ..

/saq/ I shall ascend, ..

/emar/
7

said, after a prefix as in ..

/d/
8
of my brother, and closing

3
Nestle 6.a; Nldeke 14.
4
Drijvers and Healey, As7 (D52).
5
Coakley, Typography 61, 68 illus.
6
Segal 1013.
7
MS BL Add. 12,150, f. 47a from Segal 13.
8
MS BL Add. 14,425, f. 3b from Segal 13.
203. Grammatical Graphemes 93
a syllable as in :..:



/lmelap

/
9
to teach. A single sublinear
point marked as mater lectionis (i.e. silent); e.g. .


/m/
10
one
hundred, and in the enclitic L

/n/ as in L

L ..


/wn
n n/ and I am in you (Jn. 14.20). The increase in usage of
this point after the 7
th
century to reaffirm the consonantal quality
of // may indicate that it began to lose its consonantal value,
primarily in W. Syr. shortly after the 7
th
century.
11
In later Syriac,
this system survives only in the pronoun L

I where the position


of the point shifts to the ,; e.g.

L ..


.
12

203. Also prior to the 7
th
century, a single supralinear point
marked as /h/, while a single sublinear point rendered it silent;
e.g.


/hw/ (not to be confused with the supralinear point for
the vowel // in

/hwe/, for which see 141) vs. enclitic



/w/. In Greek loan words, a single sublinear point was used to
indicate that the letter represents Greek spiritus asper, an initial
/h/ that was dropped in pronunciation in Hellenistic Greek; e.g.
L..

/eg

mn/ prefect
13
(in the received pronuncia-
tion, the /h/ of L..


is pronounced). In later Syriac, indica-
tions of pronounced vs. silent developed in different directions.
In E. Syr., a pronounced is marked with two sublinear points as
in

/hw/,

/h/ he, and

/h/ she, while a silent


takes one sublinear point in enclitic

/w/,

//, and

//
(the points are sometimes placed under the consonant that fol-

9
MS BL Add. 14,425, f. 3b from Segal 13.
10
MS BL Add. 14,425, f. 5a from Segal 13.
11
Segal 12, 25.
12
David 68.
13
Segal 13, 26.
94 I. The Graphemic Inventory 203.
lows the or between them).
14
In W. Syr., a pronounced is
either left unmarked or marked by a single sublinear point;
15
e.g.


/hw/ (but

/hw/ for which see 141),

/h/,

/h/;
a silent takes a small line called mbaln as in


/w/,


//,

// (q.v. 204).
204. The maln ..s.

that which makes to cease is a


sern used to mark a silent consonant.
16
It is not mentioned in
either of Bar Ebroyos grammars,
17
a testimony to its late appear-
ance. In Western grammars it appears early on with Masius
(1573) where it is called, in Latin, virgula virgule.
18
In E. Syr. it
takes the form of an oblique line above the silent consonant; e.g.



/mt/ city (there are cases where it takes a similar
shape, , in words ending in <yy> as in

).
19
In W. Syr. it is
a straight line under the silent consonant; e.g. ..,.

.
20
Histori-
cally, the maln was not used with the silent verb suffixes or

14
Segal (p. 23) notes that the two sublinear points here act as a ma-
ter lectionis marker for in which case they are placed under or near the
.
15
David 68, 69.1; Nldeke 17.
16
Abouna 33; al-Abrsh et al. 24; Amira 40 ff.; Arayathinal 11;
Coakley-Robinson 3; Costaz 2021; Cowper 21.c; David 61, 65; Du-
val 151; Healey 11; A. Hoffmann 20; al-Kfarnissy 5; Kiraz, Primer 70,
211 19; Makdasi ..

(pointing mine!); C. B. Michaelis 25; J. D. Micha-


elis 16; Mingana 9193; Muraoka, CS4H 5; Nimatallah ; Nldeke
17; Palacios 32; Sciadrensis -; Thackston xxii; Uhlemann 8; Yeates
9; Zschokke 4.4.d.
17
David 61.
18
Masius 10.
19
Mosul Bible, Isa. 45.4.
20
David 65.
237. Grammatical Graphemes 113
203), though this cannot be acertained. Even if this was the
case, later markup seems to be purely morphological even when
there is no ambiguity; e.g. when the stem is plural as in -.:





her books (sing. .:



).
104

236. This point is absent in early inscriptions and the parch-
ments dated 240243; e.g. + .s\ to do with her,
105
+.
+s in the year.
106
It was fully developed by 411.
4.3. Lexical Markers
237. The original use of the diacritical point was to disambigu-
ate between lexemes (q.v. 113 ff.).
107
Common pairs are:
,.

hand opp. .

which.


wolf (with rkk


) opp.


of the father.
..

judgment opp. ..

judge.
.

these opp. .

those.

news opp.

good.
..s.

counsel opp. ..s.

king.
...

who is opp. ...

what is
..

book opp. ..


scribe.
,.



slave opp. ,.

deed.
,.s.

cause opp. ,s.

offering.
.



bird opp.

morning.

104
Segal 13.
105
Drijvers and Healey, P1 R12
106
Drijvers and Healey, P2, R14
107
Arayathinal 23; Brockelmann 6; Coakley-Robinson 2; David
68; Gabriel of St. Joseph 37; Healey 10; Kiraz, Primer 181, 211 22; C.
B. Michaelis 22; Mingana 10001; Muraoka, CS4H 6; Nimatallah ;
Nldeke 7; Sciadrensis ; Thackston xxii; Tullberg 8.1; Yeates 8;
Ungnad 3.
114 I. The Graphemic Inventory 238.
.s.

completed opp. .s.

peace.
238. A common triplet is: t..

iniquity opp. t..


unjust opp.
t..

infant.
108
Two common 4-way homographs are:


sign opp.

came opp.

comes
109
opp.

I shall come (late E. Syriac


marks

sign
110
with two sublinear points), and ,.

who? opp.
,.

from opp. ,.

Greek ,
111
and ,.

what.
239. In derivative nominals, the diacritical point sometimes
remains even when no homograph exists; e.g. ...s.

king-
dom
112
from ..s.

king opp. ..s.


counsel where there is no


such word as *...s.



.
240. The words -

and .

take a point between <kl>


and <l>, respectively, at least in late W. Syr. MSS. The point
may be a residue from the full spelling .-

and ..

. In other
words, the <w> was dropped, but its point was retained.
241. The grapheme

, from Greek , is used only in

O, to
disambiguate it from

or.
113
The diacritic sometimes appears as
, , or .
114


-. ,.x ,i

.u.- &.x .-n


s i .e

108
David 68.
109
MS BL Add. 17,176, f. 49a from Segal 22.
110
Mosul Bible, Isa. 66:19 vs. 66:15.
111
MS BL Add. 12,166, f. 159a from Segal 22.
112
MS BL Add. 12,150, f. 210a from Segal 21.
113
Amira 40; David 69; Brockelmann 8; Costaz 25; Duval 155;
al-Kfarnissy 5.; C. B. Michaelis 24; J. D. Michaelis 13; Mingana
102; Nldeke 9; Uhlemann 7.R.2.c; Ungnad 3.
114
Wright III, xxviii.
115
5
5
.
.
E
E
d
d
i
i
t
t
o
o
r
r
i
i
a
a
l
l
,
,
L
L
i
i
t
t
u
u
r
r
g
g
i
i
c
c
a
a
l
l
a
a
n
n
d
d

M
M
u
u
s
s
i
i
c
c
a
a
l
l
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
e
e
m
m
e
e
s
s

Since the chanters stood in a circle around the lectern
[g], the writing for some of them was completely up-
side down. Hence, we had to be able to read upside
down and being probably the youngest member of
the choir, I was often pushed around by the others to
take my place in the circle where I had to read upside
down!
Jabra Ibrahim Jabra (19911994), The First Well
5.1. Punctuation Graphemes
242. A few of the historical prosodic marks (which are dis-
cussed in Chapter 6), survive and are used almost exclusively for
purposes of punctuation. These are linear point-based graphemes
which consist of one to four points each:
1

A. A period-like one-point grapheme is the most common
and describes a pause usually at the end of a phrase or sentence.
B. Minor phrases and pauses are marked with two-point
graphemes in various shapes: vertical : , and slanted and . A
three-point grapheme, , , appears in MSS and a number of print
types (e.g. W36 dated 1814 and W45 dated 1836).
2


1
Arayathinal 24; Bar Ebroyo, eme 308 ff.; Brockelmann 18;
Coakley-Robinson 2; Costaz 26; Cowper 23; Gabriel of St. Joseph 39;
Healey 12; al-Kfarnissy 4.; Kiraz, Primer 67, 128, 212 2528; J.
D. Michaelis 17; Muraoka, CS4H 6; Nldeke 18; Tullberg 9; Yeates
11; Uhlemann 10; Ungnad 3; Zschokke 7.
2
Coakley, Typography 104 illus., 120 illus.
116 I. The Graphemic Inventory 243.
C. The end of a paragraph or chapter is marked with a
four-point grapheme , though paragraphing within chapters is
quite rare in MSS and is introduced later in critical editions and
modern texts. Various allographs of the four-point grapheme are
known, including . .
3

243. Linearity vs. nonlinearity is not always consistent in MSS
and printed books. The two-point grapheme in ....

can also
appear as ....


. ,
4
where one point is below the last letter of the
word, and the other is next to it.
244. Recent printed texts incorporate the western comma,
semicolon, exclamation mark, and question mark taken from Ara-
bic: the comma is , the semicolon is , the exclamation mark is
!,
5
and the question mark is (an early instance of which, from
1890, is used by Bedjan).
6
In recent texts published in Europe,
one sometimes finds the western question mark, ?. All these punc-
tuation marks are used in an ad hoc manner as no systematic sys-
tem is in place (cf. with English punctuation).
245. In the introduction to my Concordance,
7
I tried to use for
a minor pause, for a major pause equivalent to comma, : for
colon, . (point on the line) for period, and (a supralinear point)
in a conjunctive series (q.v. 289).

3
Costaz 26; Palacios 35; for variant symbols introduced in
printed books, see K -qr a(y) y -mrnye (159294),
149 from Coakley, Typography 44.
4
BFBS, Mt. 1:1.
5
Arayathinal 24.
6
Bedjan, Acta Martyrum I, vii.
7
Kiraz, Concordance I, xxv-xxxiii.
265. Editorial, Liturgical and Musical Graphemes 121
.. for

,..

his praise, , .. for

,...


in your
resurrection.
261. Sigla, where one letter represents an entire word, are in-
frequent and tend to belong to more recent times; e.g. for

...


monk or :

Dr.. Two ancient noteworthy sigla are found in


biblical MSS of the 7
th
and 8
th
centuries to mark lectionary read-
ings: for ....


reading marking the beginning of a reading, and
for ,s.

end marking its end (cf. 274).


23

262. Letter sequences are found but are rare; notable examples
are for ,.. .:


his prayer with us (used extensively in
the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Archive in Mardin),
24
and for
,. .

(used extensively in Audos dictionary).
263. Acronyms are extremely rare even in Modern Literary
Syriac. A notable example is . . . TMS, an organization estab-
lished in NJ in 1889. The acronym originally referred to Ottoman
Turkish Terakkiyt- Mekteb-i Sryn Progress of Syriac Schools
with the corresponding Syriac letters . . . . It is now known in
English as TMS (see Pl. 1).
25

264. Name initials are modern, but are quite rare; the earliest
example I found is from 1953 in the periodical Asiria where
stands for .... ,....


(d. 2001).
26

265. Sequences for proper names such as English USA or CIA,
do not exist in Syriac.

23
Brock and Kiraz, Bn p. I.
24
The archive has been digitized and a copy is deposited at the
Beth Mardutho Research Library, Piscataway.
25
Kiraz, Taw Mim Simkath, in GEDSH 397.
26
Coakley, Typography 153 illus. On , see Kiraz, Yuanon
Qashisho, in GEDSH 447.
122 I. The Graphemic Inventory 266.
266. The most common abbreviations by suspension are:
27

..

L..

(PW)
: :


(B)
..

....


(B)
.

t.


(B)
.


(M f. 222)

...


-..s



(B)
.

(B)
.


,.
,. ....


(M f. 208r)
..

-..


(B)
-..


(B)
.. -..


(B)
.. ..s...



(PW)
. .

(PW, Wiseman 178, 219 ff.)


.. ...


(B, CSD)
-

..


(Lect H)
.- -


(M f. 208r)
.- ..-

(CSD)
.- -

...

(B)
t...


/ ....



:....


(B)
,.-. ...-.

(B)
,. ..,.


(B)
... ..


.:.


(B)

27
Sources: M = MS St. Mark Syr. 31, PW = Pusey and Gwilliams
xiii, B = Brock, appendix to a forthcoming Syriac-English dictionary,
Lect = Brock and Kiraz, Bn.
Modern technical works have their own abbreviations. Audos dic-
tionary comes to mind (for a list of its abbreviations, see Unval).
279. Editorial, Liturgical and Musical Graphemes 129
C. In liturgical poems to indicate a shift in musical pat-
tern. In the following example, taken from the W. Syr. ql of
,..: -.. ....

, the mark indicates a higher pitch or


elongation in the melody on the word

...s..



; e.g.

,.,.



-..-

,. -



..

.

.. ....-.:

..

..

. ,... .. ..: L. ....






.
..... ..s. . .s...






..

,. ...s..

.....


. -..s. ....s. .....

.. ,. ....

.


I have not seen this mark in a print type. It first appears in
a digital font in 1986.
40

277. A sequence of rising points are sometimes used in MSS to
mark chant elongations; e.g. .
278. In E. Syr. liturgical hymnals (e.g. :

) two,
sometimes three, short bars are used to indicate musical elonga-
tions in chanting; e.g.






.
41

279. In W. Syr. Phanqitho MSS, the letters and in the
margin, typically in Esrangel, indicate which g is to begin
the hymn. The system may have begun in Phanqithos that
contained only odd or even stanzas, but was then extended to
complete Phanqithos.

. ,..s. ... ...: . -. ,. ,-




.. -. t .




,- ,..,. ,. ..:





. ..,. ...s.: -. . ,. .



.,. .. s. ....s. . . -.. .:.- .. ..



.....: -.,.


,...s. ,s..: ...: -.









...s.: -.: -. ,. . ,- .. ...: .-


.. ..,.


.. s. ....s. .. . ...: -.. ,. ..

,.,.


. ..: -.,.

,...s. ,s..: ...: -. ...








40
Kiraz, Alaph Beth 1214.
41
Benjamin, K -rgm 1.
130 I. The Graphemic Inventory 280.
280. A number of musical graphemes, corresponding to Byzan-
tine Neums, appear in a few Melkite MSS. A photographic repro-
duction of one such MS written in 1233/4 was reproduced by
Hussmann.
42
A Beth Gazo MS at the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal
Library, Damascus, is said to have musical notation.
43


.i s. .s si. .s ,.x ,i

. -




42
Hussmann, Ein syro-melkitisches Tropologion.
43
Dolabani et al., Catalogue des manuscrits de la bibliothque de
patriarcat syrien orthodoxe om (Auj. Damas) 576.
131
6
6
.
.
A
A
n
n
c
c
i
i
e
e
n
n
t
t
P
P
r
r
o
o
s
s
o
o
d
d
i
i
c
c
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
e
e
m
m
e
e
s
s

o
o
r
r
A
A
c
c
c
c
e
e
n
n
t
t
s
s

The Malphne said that the accent marks in the Holy
Books are beyond human comprehension; they have
been inspired by the Holy Spirit.
Bar Ebroyo (d. 1286), em
281. Prosodic marks, also called accent points by Segal and Du-
val,
1
denote prosodic features such as tone, accent, or pause
2

These were put in place to help in the recitation of biblical texts.
They mostly mark pauses and intonations. The systems used vary
from one historical period to the next, and sometimes differ be-
tween E. and W. Syr. The little known about them is derived from
historical lists and a comprehensive study of the subject by Segal.
(Segals study was preceded by Ewald,
3
Martin,
4
Duval,
5
and
Merx.
6
)
282. Syriac grammarians referred to such symbols by various
names:
7
-..

names,

...



comparisons (Jacob of Edessa),
... ..





signs of comparison (Bar Malkn), ,..


points,
... ,..




points of comparison (Bar Malkn and Bar akko),

1
Duval ch. xxix.
2
Gelb 252.
3
Ewald, ber das syrische Punctationssystem 59 ff.
4
Martin, La Massore chez les Syriens.
5
Duval, Chapter xxix.
6
Merx, Historia artis grammaticae apud Syros.
7
David 61 ff.; Segal 59.
132 I. The Graphemic Inventory 282.
.,.. .,.


symbols of points (Bar Ebroyo), or simply ..




signs.
8

283. Each of the recitation marks is given a name. In some
cases the name describes the physical position of the grapheme as
in ..s.


upper, consisting of points above the baseline, or

,.


lower, consisting of points below the baseline (but see 449 for
the direction of writing that may affect these terms). In other
cases, the name describes a mode in discourse; e.g. ..:..




interrogative or

..


commanding.
9

284. The Syriac sentence, as the ancient grammarians saw it, is
made of

clauses, which are in turn divided into


members or .:..

.

sayings. The two main clauses are the an-


terior clause called ddy ..

promise (= Gr. ), and


the following clause called prn

...

retribution (= Gr.
). In cases of short or simple sentences, the ddy con-
tains the subject and the verb, and the prn the object. The
ddy and prn are sometimes given as contexts for specific
prosodic marks.
10

285. There are many variations in MSS even for the same bibli-
cal verse. This is due to various local traditions, scribal habits,
and transmission errors. For instance, while manuscript Pet. 9 (f.
228b) has . .


the snare has been broken (Ps. 123/4:7)
with

, manuscript Add. 12138 (f. 140b) has . .




instead.
11

286. Prosodic graphemes may have allographs. For instance,
the np

consists of a small dot and a large dot, but their position



8
MS BL Add. 12,178, fol. 232.
9
Duval 163.
10
Duval 171.
11
Segal 108.
289. Ancient Prosodic Graphemes or Accents 133
with respect to each other varies; e.g. ..

Job (Add. 12138, f.


303b) where the points are positioned horizontally and the right
point is smaller in size (there are other examples where the left
point is smaller), but -..


where the points are positioned ver-
tically (in the MS the upper point is larger in size than the lower
point).
12

287. Lists of accent points are usually catalogued by their posi-
tion with respect to the base line: above the line, below the line,
or on the line. Accent marks above the line tend to mark rising
intonation, transcribed here with , while those below the line
tend to mark falling intonation, transcribed with . Marks on the
line tend to have a level intonation. An interrogative, for instance,
is marked with rising intonation, while an entreaty is marked
with falling intonation. This, however, cannot be generalized to
all marks.
288. What follows is a catalog of the prosodic (accent) points,
primarily based on Segal. It ought to be kept in mind that while
Segal based his study on ancient MSS, he mostly prescribed to
theoretical rules given by classical grammarians which do not al-
ways agree with the manuscript tradition.
6.1. Marks above the Line
6.1.1. One-Point Marks above the Line
289. Grr .


drawing out or Paraxtonos ...- (Gr.
) paroxytone ( ).
13
It is unique to W. Syr. It seems
to prolong a word in recitation, and is often used with the word
-.


whose first syllable is long; e.g. -. . ..

A lions
cub, O Judah (Gen. 49:9, Jacob of Edessa).

12
Segal 109.
13
Duval 170, 18; Segal 123, 126.
134 I. The Graphemic Inventory 290.
Jacob of Edessa introduced lp

grr s...




.


variant of grr
14
to mark words that need to be prolonged
when introduced by the conjunction and; e.g. ... ...


.

, ,.. ...



Days and months and seasons and years
you are observing (Gal. 4:10). Here, the point appears in a linear
manner as if it is a punctuation mark (cf. 245).
290. Zaw .


movement.
15
It is unique to W. Syr., and is
used to emphasize a word or clause in contrast to another that
follows; e.g. .- ,. - : ,. .:,.





Understand and
see if there is any suffering like my suffering (Lam. 1:12, Add.
12178, f. 240a).
291. Yhe -.


.
16
This was the same as the mqall-
sn, but by the time of Jacob of Edessa had become separate. See
under mqallsn ( 296).
292. Mzn ...,.


causing movement.
17
Similar to eyn (
298), it appears at the end of a clause to mark a short pause with
rising intonation. It is usually followed by one of the following:
1. A parenthetical phrase; e.g. ,., ,.. . ....:



/nry b tn / You are seeking
for Jesus the Nazarene, who was crucified (Mk. 16:6,
Add. 12138, f. 303b).
2. A subordinate or relative word or phrase, usually in-
troduced by the particle ; e.g. , ... .







and
the way of the wicked will perish (Ps. 1:6, Add.
12138, f. 303b).

14
Duval 170, 90; Segal 138.
15
Segal 122.
16
Duval 170, 26; J. D. Michaelis 17.
17
Segal 8183.
331. Ancient Prosodic Graphemes or Accents 153
330. way
64
...


leveled or zawg


or pair ( : ).
65
It
marks a pause, or a subdivision of the protasis; e.g. ..


:
,... ,. :.. ,..: .






Hypocrites, first take the beam out of
your eye (Mt. 7:5, Add. 12138, f. 303b). It is also found in the
apodosis before the final clause of a verse closed by psuq (
324). In this context, it is usually preceded by an accent with ris-
ing intonation and its function is to lower the intonation in prepa-
ration for the psuq; e.g. t


.. .. ...





.:


: <. ... -..



. / tealn pmeh dmry /
But if you will not obey, and you dispute, you will be eaten by
the sword: the mouth of the Lord has spoken (Isa. 1:20, Add.
12138, f. 303b).
Jacob of Edessa introduced ulp way .

. s.

...



variant of way for purposes of uniformity. He simply renamed
ry ta ( 331) as ulp way.
66

331. ry ta . .


:..


termination of narrative ( : ).
67

It occurs at the end of a subdivision of the apodosis and is fol-
lowed by only a few words before a psq ( 324); e.g. .


,s. ,. .. -.: ,s. . ,. . ,.. .. .s.





:
-.. ..






For the sons of God went to the daughters of men
and had children. They were heroes of old, men of renown (Gen.
6:4, Jacob of Edessa).

64
The term wy may be the origin of the modern linguistic term
schwa via Hebrew (assuming that Syr. wy gave rise to the Hebrew
term, and bearing in mind that its usage in the two languages differs).
65
Duval 170, 2; J. D. Michaelis 17; Pallacios 35; Segal 75, 113
15, 135.
66
Duval 170, 5; Segal 141.
67
Segal 13536.
154 I. The Graphemic Inventory 332.
6.4. The Prosodic Marks by Function
332. It is helpful to index the various prosodic marks by their
rhetorical function:
Address:
mp

sn ..................................... 295
Affirmative t

:
sm g

n............................... 315
Apodosis/antithesis marker:
ry ta ................................. 331
lp

taty ........................... 321


taty ...................................... 320
Appellation:
mqallsn ................................. 296
Command: See interrogative.
Demonstrative:
mawwyn............................... 294
Direct Speech Marker:
mqmn.................................... 327
Dismay:
mammrn............................... 304
Emphasis:
eyn ...................................... 299
pq................................ 300.34
zaw......................................... 290
Entreaty:
mallyn ....................... 313, 318
Enumeration:
qawm....................................... 325
Exclamation:
ely......................................... 328
mnat .................................... 311
332. Ancient Prosodic Graphemes or Accents 155
mqmn.................................... 327
pq.................................... 300.1
lp

ely.............................. 328
taty al ............................ 322
ts.......................................... 306
Faster reading:
rh.......................................... 305
Greek idiom marker:
mayyn................................ 310
Interjection:
mawwyn............................... 294
qry....................................... 301
Intonation (falling):
np

......................................... 319
mqmn.................................... 327
Interrogative:
ely......................................... 328
mnat .................................... 311
maln ................................... 297
pq.................................... 300.2
ts.......................................... 306
Jussive:
mnat .................................... 311
pq....................................... 300
Lamentation:
mnn..................................... 312
ts.......................................... 306
Mourning:
makkyn ................................ 317
New thought marker:
ely......................................... 328
mnat .................................... 311
156 I. The Graphemic Inventory 332.
Pause:
eyn ...................................... 299
bar ely................................ 323
mzn rabb............................ 293
mzn...................................... 292
n............................................ 298
psq ....................................... 324
rh.......................................... 305
rh arteh ............................. 307
rh p

seq .............................. 308


sm........................................ 314
lp

sm ............................. 314
lp

way.............................. 330
way ........................................ 330
Praise:
mqallsn .................................. 296
yhe ................................. 291
Prolongation:
grr........................................ 289
sm g

rr............................. 316
lp

grr............................. 289
zawg g

n ............................... 303
Quotation marker:
maln .................................. 309
Reprehension:
ts.......................................... 306
Stress:
rem......................................... 302
Subject divider:
ts ......................................... 306
Surprise:
mammrn............................... 304
332. Ancient Prosodic Graphemes or Accents 157
Wonderment:
mammrn............................... 304

,.x ,i s e ~.x ,.s x - .


.



159
7
7
.
.
N
N
u
u
m
m
b
b
e
e
r
r
i
i
n
n
g
g
S
S
y
y
s
s
t
t
e
e
m
m
s
s

The roots of numbers are twelve: from one to ten, one
hundred, and one thousand. All other numbers are de-
rived from them.
Bar Ebroyo (d. 1286), em
333. The earliest form of numerals appears in the Old Syriac
inscriptions and is carried over in early manuscripts.
1
Derived
from earlier Aramaic notation, this system is based on additive
and multiplicative principles. It is discussed in detail in section
7.1. Later Syriac makes use of an alphabetic numerical system
where consonantal graphemes possess numerical values. This sys-
tem is discussed in section 7.2. Arabic and Indic numerals, as well
as Greek and Coptic ones, are discussed in subsequent sections.
The chapter concludes with a brief discussion on cipher.
334. The older system was mostly used for the expression of
dates, and is later attested in quire signatures. The alphabetic sys-
tem was used for the same purpose, but extended to scientific
books (particularly mathematics and astronomy), foliation and
later pagination of MSS, pagination of prelims or front matter in
modern printed books (first attested in 1628), biblical verses (es-
pecially in later printed texts), and W. Syr. g markings ( and

1
On the nonalphabetical numerical system, see Rdiger, Die
Syrischen Zahlzeichen; Duval 1415 and pl. III; Segal, Some Syriac In-
scriptions of the 2
nd
-3
rd
Century A.D.; Haddad, Development of the
Numbers over History; Ifrah, From One to Zero 27981, 33240; Al-
Jadir, Numbers and Dating Formulae in the Old Syriac Inscriptions 3
17; Brock, Les Signatures en chiffres arithmtiques; al-Khr, Qissat
itir al-arqm 6768.
160 I. The Graphemic Inventory 334.
in Phanqitho MSS) to refer to the left or right g. There is no
evidence for the use of either of these systems in arithmetic ex-
pressions, with the exception of al-qr (Acurensis)
2
who uses
alphabetic numerals for arithmetic addition.
7.1. Old Syriac Numerals
7.1.1. Numerals in Early Inscriptions
335. The Old Syriac numerical system (called by Wright
3
arith-
metical figures) derives from an earlier Aramaic systemsuch as
that found in the Elephantine papyri of the 5
th
century B.C. The
system is present in the earliest Syriac inscription, dated A.D. 6
(As55).
4
It consists of five distinctive numerical signs that repre-
sent the numbers 1 (1), 5 (5), 10 (0), 20 (2), and 100 (9), re-
spectively. The signs are arranged from right-to-left where the
sign representing a higher number is to the right of that repre-
senting a lower number.
336. The number 1 is designated by a single vertical stroke, .
The numbers 2 to 9 are designated in an additive manner by re-
peating the sign for 1; e.g. 2 is , 3 is , , and 9 is
. The following expressions are attested in the
inscriptions corpus:
3 denoted by (1+1+1)
5 denoted by (1+1+1+ 1+1)
6 denoted by (1+1+1+1+ 1+1)
7 denoted by (1+1+1+1+1+1+1)
The strokes were sometimes grouped together for ease of count-
ing. In one particular inscription (As 37, line 1) we see the num-

2
Acurensis ,. ff.
3
Wright III, xvi n.
4
Drijvers and Healey 9394.
339. Numbering Systems 161
ber 6 represented by a+a+, where the 2
nd
and 3
rd
units, and the
5
th
and 6
th
units are linked with a horizontal stroke.
337. By the time of the Old Syriac inscriptions dated 165, the
number 5 had its own symbol, , along with . The
inscriptions corpus contains the following expressions:
5 denoted by (1+1+1+1+1)
6 denoted by (5+1)
6 denoted by (1+1+1+1+ 1+1)
7 denoted by (1+1+1+1+ 1+1+1)
We can safely assume that 7 could have also been expressed by
(5+1+1), 8 by (5+1+1+1), and nine by
(5+1+1+1+ 1), though there are no supportive examples in
the inscriptions corpus.
338. The number 10 has its own symbol, , and so does the
number 20, . This may be a remnant of an earlier vigesimal
system (where 20 was the base, as opposed to a decimal system
where 10 is the base). The number 30 is denoted by
(20+10), the number 40 by (20+20), the number 50 by
(20+20+10), and so on. The inscriptions corpus contains
the following expressions:
13 denoted by (10+1+1+1)
17 denoted by (10+1+1+1+1+1+1+1)
76 denoted by (20+20+20+10+5+1), for
the variants of 6, see above
85 denoted by (20+20+20+20+1+1+
1+ 1+1)
339. The number 100 is designated by . A multiplicative
system is used to denote 100s by placing the appropriate number
of units to the right of ; e.g. 200 is expressed by (2
100). In the inscriptions corpus, one encounters the following
expressions:
166 I. The Graphemic Inventory 350.
7.2.3. Standard System
350. The standard numeration uses the entire twenty-two let-
ters of the consonantary in order.
11
The first nine units are repre-
sented by the letters to . Nine tens are represented by the
letters to , and the first four hundreds are represented by the
letters to . The following table shows each consonant with its
numerical value:
1 7 40 100
2 8 , 50 200
3 9 60 300
4 10 70 400
5 ,- 20 80
6 30 90
351. Compound numbers are expressed by first writing the let-
ter that corresponds to the digit of the highest order of magni-
tude, then the letter that corresponds to the next digit in order of
magnitude, in descending order. Hence, hundreds come before
tens, and tens before ones. For instance, to express 365, first
comes the 300 (), then the 60 (), and then the five (),
resulting in -...
Mathematically, in a decimal system, the value is obtained
with a positional representation with the powers of 10. Hence,
decimal 365 is
3 10
2
+ 6 10
1
+ 5 10
0
= 365

11
Most grammars discuss these numbers, but not in great detail.
They include: Ambrosio 132 ff; Acurensis s. ff.; Amira 12 ff.; Ara-
yanithal 2.6; Cowper 9, Gabriel of St. Joseph 10; A. Hoffmann I.I. 8
(pp. 8182); Kiraz, Primer 12425, 192; Nestle 13; Sciadrensis ff.;
Thackston xxiii; Tullberg 3; Uhlemann 1.R.5; Zschokke 5.
367. Numbering Systems 173
,s.

,..


1907 ...


,..


.. ..:


he was born in 1907 and departed in the year 1995 to his Lord,
the Syriac portions are written right-to-left, but the digits left-to-
right.
7.4. Greek and Coptic Letters for Numerals
366. Wright informs us that The Greek or Coptic alphabet is
sometimes used instead of Syriac to number quire signatures.
34

These would take the form , , , etc. I have not seen any exam-
ples of this.
7.5. Cipher
367. The alphabet of Bardaian or

_.

provides a
method to encode text by simple one-to-one mapping. This mind
game usually appears in colophons. It first appears in Syriac in
the 6
th
century.
35
The letters of the alphabet, shown below in line
1, are interchanged with those in line 2. By simple interchange,
for instance, : becomes ...
1
2

1
2

34
Wright III, xxvi.
35
Duval 14; Wright I, 14b.
174 I. The Graphemic Inventory 368.
368. The relationship of the Bardaian letters to the correspond-
ing normal letters is numeric. In the first set, , corresponding
to ,., respectively. The sum of each pair results in 10:
(1) + (9) = 10

(4) + (6) = 10
369. In the remaining sets (except the last), any unit is first ele-
vated to the corresponding ten value; e.g. (5) is now considered
50. Then, the usual addition takes place; hence,
(now 50) + , (50) = 100
(now 60) + (now 40) = 100

(70) + (30) = 100
(80) + ,- (20) = 100
370. In the last set, the addition of each pair yields 500; e.g.
(100) + (400) = 500

(400) + (100) = 500

x , .s.s x - s.s ,.x ,i


,.s x ,. x


175
I
I
I
I
.
.
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
o
o
t
t
a
a
c
c
t
t
i
i
c
c
s
s
,
,
W
W
r
r
i
i
t
t
i
i
n
n
g
g
,
,
a
a
n
n
d
d

D
D
u
u
c
c
t
t
u
u
s
s

Part I gives an exhaustive account of all Syriac
graphemes. Part II is concerned with graphotactics,
writing, and ductus.
Chapter 8 proposes a theory of graphotac-
tics, describing the rules and conventions that gov-
ern how these graphemes are joined together to
form text. Chapter 9 gives general remarks on writ-
ing, directionality, cursivity, scripts, etc. Finally,
Chapter 10 gives a detailed account of the ductus
of Esrangel, Ser, and E. Syr. based on the re-
ceived tradition.
177
8
8
.
.
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
o
o
t
t
a
a
c
c
t
t
i
i
c
c
s
s

There is something absurd and ugly when the face or
the head of a man is found to have three ears or three
eyes or any redundant member Each individual mem-
ber should be made fit for the place which has been
prepared for it and made convenient for it by nature.
Jacob of Edessa (d. 708), On Orthography
371. In linguistics, tactics (from Greek to arrange) describes
the patterns in which the elements of a given level or stratum in a
language may combine to form larger constructions: phonotactics
in phonology is the study of the arrangement of sounds, and mor-
photactics in morphology is the study of the arrangement of mor-
phemes. It is related to syntax and syntactic, the study of the ar-
rangement of words. Broadly speaking, graphotactics is the study
of the arrangement of graphemes; i.e. the ways in which the ele-
ments of writing may be put together to make a well-formed
word. This chapter provides a theory of Syriac graphotactics by
borrowing key concepts from the framework of autosegmental
phonology.
8.1. Background
372. John Goldsmith
1
has proposed a theory of autosegmental
phonology. Its approach provides mechanisms to describe nonlin-
ear linguistic phenomena in phonology. It was later extended by
John McCarthy
2
to describe Semitic nonlinear morphology. I aim
to extend it further to describe Syriac nonlinear orthography.

1
Goldsmith, Autosegmental Phonology.
2
McCarthy, A Prosodic Theory of Nonconcatenative Morphology.
178 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 373.
373. An illustration from the domain of morphology follows: an
English word consists of a linear sequence of morphemes; e.g. un-
successful from un+success+ful. In Semitic, however, the ar-
rangement of morphemes is not linear. Consider the Syriac active
participle .


/qel/ he kills. One morpheme is the root ql
notion of killing. In McCarthys analysis the remaining segments,
and e, constitute a vocalism morpheme which indicates the
grammatical category (viz. verb) and tense (viz. active participle).
The same vocalism also appears with other verbs, and hence is
considered autonomous. As the root and vocalism are independent
of each other, the autosegmental framework represents them on
separate tiers, shown in the following diagram with a template or
pattern consisting of Cs for consonants and Vs for vowels.
(McCarthy also considered the CV pattern to be a morpheme.)
e Vocalism
| |
C V C V C Pattern
| | |
q l Root
Changing the root elements to something else, say ktb, will
change the verb to :

/ke/ he is writing, but the tense


remains intact. This multi-tier framework is attractive, as it
permits us to separate the various types of Syriac graphemes
based on space, obligatoriness, semantics, and function.
374. I propose here that the following tiers be considered for
the representation of Syriac orthography; viz.
1. Consonantal tier on which the consonants are written
on the baseline.
2. Grammatical tier on which two obligatory graphemes
are written: the syme plural marker, , and the femi-
nine object pronominal marker on

.
437. Graphotactics 207
line; e.g. ..

for ..

/we/ equal,
71
the syme in ...

for

..

of the Hebrews.
72

434. Vertically, the position of the nonlinear marks is relative
to the anatomy of the CT graph upon which it is anchored; e.g.


is low on

, higher on

, and even higher on

. In some print
types, the vertical height is constant. In digital type, MLS fonts
have a constant height, while OpenType fonts permit the vertical
placement of nonlinear graphs per linear graph; e.g.
,... .....:..,

.
435. The skilled scribe or typesetter has always had to maneu-
ver between base glyphs and nonlinear glyphs when writing or
setting fully marked texts for aesthetic purposes. OpenType tech-
nology permits a digital font designer to introduce contextual
rules. For instance, in Serto Jerusalem (version 1.3) the spacing
between and is typically as in mysteries. When fully
marked, the

almost hits the syme as in

. A contextual rule,
however, shifts slightly to the left when preceded by (marked
or unmarked) and followed by

. In this particular word, another


rule shifts the final to the left when preceded by

as the vowel is
too close to the . The result is

. A good digital type contains


dozens of spacing rules.
436. In the case of ligated multiple base graphemes, the vertical
and horizontal position of the nonlinear grapheme is based on the
ligated grapheme; e.g. the height of

on :

vs. the ligated t

.
437. The vowel graphemes do not occupy horizontal spacing on
the line; e.g.

takes the same horizontal spacing on a thin base


grapheme like

and on a wide grapheme as

. A scribe, in the

71
Patrologia Orientalis 4, 80 from Coakley, Typography, 2122.
72
Young, Shorter catechism (1853), from Coakley, Typography, 21.
208 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 437.
case of MSS, a typesetter in the case of printed type, or an algo-
rithm in the case of computer fonts, may make a base grapheme
wider for aesthetic purposes by elongating the joiner of the base
line; e.g. initial : is slightly narrower in L..:

to the fish than


L...:


due to the presence of

in the latter; otherwise, <> will


hit <l> as in : L..


.
438. The position of

with respect to and of

with respect
to varies. Some place it on the consonant preceding the vowel,
others on the mater lectionis or between the two consonants; e.g.

..

..

, and ..


, .

.

- .x s &.&- ,.x ,i
.


209
9
9
.
.
W
W
r
r
i
i
t
t
i
i
n
n
g
g

I prohibit all those who copy the books which I have
translated or composed from changing, in their own
will, anything, either in the writing or in the pointing.
Jacob of Edessa (d. 708), On Orthography
We are correct, in writing from right to left; why do you
mistake, in writing from left to right?
Bishop Yuannn (d. 1874) to Perkins
9.1. Medium and Writing Tools
439. While most Syriac documentary texts were written on
parchment (see Pl. 3) and later paper, a few texts were written on
other media.
1
Some have been set on mosaic (see Pl. 2), and oth-
ers inked onto stoneware (see Pl. 1). Texts are also found incised
into stone, wood, and metal, and a few were written on papyri.
440. Texts on vellum or parchment, made from the skin of
sheep, goats, kids, and gazelles, are found in MSS of the 5
th
to 9
th

centuries, and occur as late as the 16
th
century. Such texts tend to
be fine in earlier periods and somewhat coarse in later periods.
441. Paper appears from the 10
th
century onward. The earliest
dated example on paper is from 932 (Hatch CXVI).
2
Unlike later
European traditions, vellum and paper are rarely mixed in the
same manuscript (although missing leaves in a vellum MS were
often replaced with paper).
3
Palimpsests do exist (see Pl. 5),
though they are not common, occasionally with the second text

1
Butts, Papyri, Syriac, in GEDSH 32022.
2
Duval 2; Hatch 3, 6.
3
Wright III, xxvi.
210 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 441.
removed for a third use. The earliest datable palimpsest is MS BL
Add. 14,512, where the lower text is the Peshitta Isaiah, dated
459/60, and the upper is a 10
th
-century liturgical text.
442. Two types of pens are known:
4
the first is the quill, or

,..


pen of bird, mentioned in MS BL Add. 14,542 dated 509.
It is mentioned as late as the 10
th
century in BL Add. 17,185. The
second is the reed pen, or ...


, mentioned in the 10
th
/11
th
centu-
ries.
5
The former makes light elegant lines while the later makes
heaver lines.
6
Three nib types were historically used depending
on the scribes personal preference: square, angled (oblique), and
rounded. The nib is cut at one end of a reed, and then slit in the
middle. Parenthetically, when as a youth I was taught calligraphy
at St. Marks Monastery, Jerusalem, I was told to obtain the mod-
ern metal western nib for left-handed scribes which apparently
works better for right-handed Syriac calligraphers.
443. In terms of ink,
7

..


or .

, most MSS are in black ink.


Ornaments, rubrics, references, and some diacritical signs, are
usually written in red. Ornaments are sometimes written in other
colors such as green, yellow, violet, or blue. Gold is quite rare. A
number of formulae for making ink survive.
8
With a few excep-
tions (e.g. color editions by Bedjan, Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson),
red is usually represented in printed text by overlining.
9


4
Duval 3 with further references.
5
J. S. Assemani, Bibliotheca Orientalis I, 220.
6
Hatch 8, 9; Wright III, xxvii.
7
Duval 1; Hatch 10; Wright 1015, and index under ink.
8
Wright 581a, 1085a, 1207b and III, xb.
9
For example, Revue de lOrient Chrtien 1 (1896), no. 2, 17; illus. in
Coakley, Typography 149.
445. Writing 211
444. The medium is usually lined. One surviving technique is to
use a lining board with horizontal threads for lines and vertical
ones for margins (see Pl. 7).
10
The scribe presses the paper against
the board and the threads make the necessary marks, creating
lines and margin markers on the paper which will then fade with
time. Around 1888 or 1889, Budge witnessed a scribe using a
metal stylus to line the paper, The scribe took a sheet of the pa-
per and ruled dry lines on it with a metal stylus to mark the mar-
gins and the number of lines in the column of text to be written
upon it, and having rubbed it with [a large round] bottle [like a
whisky bottle,] he sat down and wrote whilst we looked on.
11

9.2. Directionality
445. Directionality is defined at three levels: line, page or folio,
and multipage document (codex or bound book). In Syriac each
line is usually written horizontally from right to left,
12
with the
lines ordered from top to bottom to form a page as illustrated in
the figure below
13
(but see 448 for bidirectional writing).
Consider the following paragraph (which reviewers ought
to read with amusement!), taken from the grammar of unayn
bar Isaq (809873):

10
Kiraz, Syriac 262.
11
Budge, By Nile and Tigris II, 73.
12
In inscriptions, however, one occasionally encounters texts writ-
ten vertically from top to bottom.
13
Adapted by Christine Kiraz from The Unicode Consortium, The
Unicode 5.0 Standard 47.
220 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 462.
them. This proposal also called for separated noncursive writing,
but rather than choosing one script as a model, it proposed a new
script whose letters were derived from the three existing scripts.
The academy presented four options, the first of which was
Nuros reform. The second was created by Kamlil (or Kamil)
Alqur and largely consisted of E. Syr. letters. The third proposal
by Benjamin addad proposed new shapes for the letters, most of
which had the same height and sat on the baseline, even e.
The fourth proposal was by Boutros Qasha. None of these propos-
als gained traction. Today, schools in Northern Iraq (Kurdistan
region) that teach subjects in Syriac use facing texts, one in E.
Syr. and the other in Ser.
9.4. Line Fillers
463. A number of techniques are used for line filling in MSS
and typesetting systems. One technique in MSS is to use tilde-like
symbols, or an otiose decorative stroke; e.g. ~ in MS St. Mark 31
f. 221
v
.
464. Occasionally, a punctuation mark is doubled; e.g. in
... ,: ,....







..


...:


465. In some MSS, the word is split between two lines to avoid
white space, similar to the modern Western hyphenation system,
but with no hyphenation symbol. The split is dictated by space. It
is neither syllabic nor morphemic; e.g.
1.

in BL MS 14471, f. 89
v
, ln 23:
...
.
2.

...

(f. 89
v
, ln 28) where the is in final form:
482. Writing 225
points and the other diacritical marks
58
[emphasis mine]. Theo-
retically, a scribe usually uses two pens: one for the consonantal
tier and another for the vowels. G. aww, writing in 1737,
states that the scribe is in need of two pens, one for writing (con-
sonants) and a thinner pen for the vowels (q.v. 167).
480. Tier break may take place at various points:
1. At the end of a writing group (q.v. 0); e.g. in writing L.



/nn/ fish, the tier break might take place after the right-
joining <w>. In such a case, one writes ., then the

resulting
in .

, then the L resulting in L.

, then the

resulting in L.


.
2. At the end of a word; e.g. in writing L., one writes the
consonants first, and then the vowels from right to left.
3. At the end of a larger phrase. Here, one writes elements
of the consonantal tier for the phrase or paragraph, then the vari-
ous nonlinear elements; e.g. in L. -


, one writes L. -,
and then the vowels from right to left.
481. In practice, however, the scribe writes the consonantal
and grammatical tiers for an entire page then passes over the text
one more time and adds marks of the disambiguation, vocalism,
and fricatization tiers. The scribe or typesetter may even split this
group into two by placing marks on the fricatization tier on a
third pass. Pl. 6 illustrates how scribes sometimes forget to color
abbreviation marks by red points.
482. In formal hand, the actual order of consonantal graphemes
as they are written may not always correspond to the order after
the writing is completed. One technique employed is to write a
base graph in its initial form followed by the first right-joining
graph, with a joiner line long enough to fit all intermediate me-
dial graphs; e.g. in writing ....:

clothing, one may startin



58
Budge, By Nile and Tigris II, 72.
226 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 482.
formal handwith .:, then writing the medial substring
<by> with the result ...:, finally adding at the end.

&.&- ,.x ,i ,ix .-x .ss s &


227
1
1
0
0
.
.
D
D
u
u
c
c
t
t
u
u
s
s

Handwriting is the tongue of the hand. Style is the
tongue of the intellect. The intellect is the tongue of
good actions and qualities. And good actions and quali-
ties are the perfection of man.
Ab ayyn al-Gharn (d. 1344)
483. There are two distinct types of handwriting: book hand
and documentary hand. The former is found in Syriac MSS. It is
usually clear and regular, though with variation with respect to
time, locality, and scribe. Documentary hand is quite rare. It is
found in the three legal parchments dated 240243, written in
Old Syriac, in some Classical Syriac colophons where the main
text is in Esrangel and the colophons in Ser, and in very late
letters from the 18
th
20
th
centuries.
1
It is interesting to note that
even the business documents recently discovered by Amir Harrak
2

at the Iraqi Museum (dated between the 8
th
and 12
th
centuries,
and originating from an ancient monastery near Takrit) use a
book hand. This chapter is concerned with the book hand.
484. A description of writing and the ductus, the order and di-
rection in which the constituent elements of graphs are drawn,
can be either diachronic or synchronic. A diachronic description
takes into account the development of the script with references
to time, locality, and calligraphic schools, a specialty of paleogra-

1
The largest collection is found in in Mardin, ca. 10,000 docu-
ments. These were digitized and are archived at the Beth Mardutho Re-
search Library.
2
Harrak, Syriac and Garshuni Inscriptions of Iraq.
228 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 484.
phers, for which see the study by A. Kaplan.
3
A synchronic study
consists of a functional description of the received tradition as
practiced by contemporary calligraphers. The present discussion
is synchronic, based on a personal familiarity with the received
tradition. As the synchronic tradition also varies by region, educa-
tional and cultural influences, practice, and personal choice, the
ductus presented here should be seen as an approximation.
10.1. Allographic Resemblance
485. In general, the allographs of each grapheme, within each
script, are almost identical, and differ merely by the presence of a
joining point at the base line where the adjacent letters meet.
For instance, there is little difference in the shapes of the al-
lographs of <b>. A few graphemes, however, exhibit more no-
ticeable differences in the shapes of their respective allographs,
such as the allographs of Ser < d k l m n r t>.
486. In all three scripts, the graphemes <k m n> have initial
and medial forms that differ substantially from the isolated and
final forms. This is also the case with the graphemes <l > in
Ser.
487. In Ser, the following graphemes have more substantial
difference in their allographs: <> is curly when isolated, , but
more straight when final, ; <d> and <r> have a circular cen-
ter when isolated, , which is lost in final form, , . ; <> has
an additional stroke in medial and final forms that extends from
the baseline to the top tip of the graph, , but not in initial or

3
Kaplan, Palographie syriaque; Kaplan, Les copistes du manuscrit
syriaque BL Add. 12 153. See also Coakley, Typography 416; Palmer,
The Syriac Letter-Forms.
503. Ductus 239
ing on the preceding graph and the space necessary for
justification.


An additional third horizontal stroke starting from pt 5
and moving to the right is present in some hands (e.g. 1230).
Point 2 may have a serif (e.g. 1230).
503. Ser lap

is non pen-lifting when connected to the pre-


ceding graph. The two allographs differ in ductus.
A. Isolated graph. It consists of a vertical curved
shaft. It is drawn in one stroke. The stroke begins
at pt 1 around the ascender line, and moves
downward in a curved manner passing by points
2 and 3, and finally terminates at pt 4 (the ter-
minal) just below the base line. The stroke is at its thinnest be-
tween points 2 and 3.
B. Final graph. It is drawn in one broken stroke.
It consists of a vertical straight shaft and a foot.
The stroke begins at pt 1 at the baseline as a con-
tinuation of the preceding graph, and moves ver-
tically upward to pt 3, passing by pt 2. It then
traces itself downward passing by pt 2 for the second time. At pt
4, it diverges slightly to the left and moves to pt 5 below the base
line. The portion between points 1 and 4 forms the foot. The por-
tion between points 3 and 4 forms the shaft.
Ser lap

in its final graph has a variant that creates a


counter on the shaft portion, }. In this case, after reaching pt 3,
240 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 504.
the stroke, rather than tracing itself back, moves down and to-
wards the right creating a second shaft in the form of a loop. In
this case, both shafts are more or less in the shape of an arc. This
variant is first attested in a print type in 1647.
11
This variation
also occurs in the ligature } for t.

504. East Syriac lap

is also non pen-lifting as in Ser. Both


allographs have the same ductus. Like Ser lap

, it consists of a
vertical curved shaft (but with distinct curvature) and a foot. It is
drawn in two strokes.
1. Stroke 1-2 draws the foot. It begins at the baseline
and moves horizontally to the left to pt 2.
2. Stroke 3-4-5 draws the shaft. It begins between the
mean and ascender lines, but closer to the former, at pt
3, moves downwards and to the right to pt 4, then down
to pt 5 where it terminates just below the baseline. There are no
allographic variations.


11
Acurensis ...
505. Ductus 241
10.7. B
505. Esrangel B is a dual-joining, pen-lifting grapheme. The
same ductus applies to all four allographs. It is drawn in one bro-
ken stroke.
The stroke begins at pt 1 just around the mean
line. It moves a short distance to the left to pt 2,
then traces itself back to pt 1 and continues to pt
3. At pt 2, the pen moves down slightly, down
creating a clubbed end. At pt 3, the stroke curves
and changes direction downward to the baseline at pt 4. Then, it
changes direction again and moves horizontally to the left. The
distance between points 2 and 3 and between points 4 and 5 vary
depending on justification needs, but the vertical distance be-
tween points 3 and 4 is usually stable and varies little within one
hand. Allographic variations are:
i. Isolated graph. It terminates with a tail at pt 6.
ii. Initial graph. It terminates at pt 5.
iii. Medial graph. Pt 4 meets the joining line from the preced-
ing graph.
iv. Final graph. Pt 4 meets the joining line from the preceding
graph, and terminates with a tail at pt 6.

The crotch at points 3 and 4 is more angular in later
Esrangel (e.g. 844/5 and 1230 as opposed to 411). Pt 4 may
have a serif (e.g. 1230).
242 II. Graphotactics, Writing, and Ductus 506.
506. Ser B is drawn with a similar ductus but is rather
curvier.






507. E. Syr. B is non pen-lifting. It is drawn with a distinct
ductus in two strokes.
1. Stroke 1-2-3 begins at the baseline, moves ver-
tically upwards to pt 2, then changes direction
and moves horizontally to pt 3.
2. Stroke 1-4-5 begins at the baseline and moves
horizontally to the left to pt 4 terminating with the tail at pt 5.
The tail is obviously missing in initial and medial graphs.


579. Ductus 287
579.

and

. These are drawn in two strokes and a point. 1.


Stroke 1-2 draws a shaft. 2. Stroke 3-4 draws a
perpendicular shaft with respect to the first one
joining it at pt 3. A point, shown in some types
as a circle, is then drawn inside the graph. In
some hands the point is above the second stroke,
while in others, as in here, it is below.

-. , , - -e -e ,.x ,i
.e. .. -se -. -e -

289
I
I
I
I
I
I
.
.
G
G
a
a
r
r

n
n
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y
,
,
A
A
d
d
a
a
p
p
t
t
a
a
t
t
i
i
o
o
n
n
,
,

a
a
n
n
d
d
A
A
l
l
l
l
o
o
g
g
l
l
o
o
t
t
t
t
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y

Part III is dedicated to garnography (or gar-
shunography) and script adaptations. Garnogra-
phy is a system for writing one language in a script
that is sociolinguistically associated with another
language; i.e. what is traditionally called Garn.
Chapter 11 covers cases when Syriac is the target
script in which languages other than Syriac are
written, while Chapter 12 covers cases where
Syriac is the source language and is written in
scripts other than the Syriac script. Chapter 13 dis-
cusses nongarnographic script adaptations when
the Syriac script is being used to write other forms
of Aramaic; viz. Christian Palestinian Aramaic and
Neo-Aramaic. Finally, Chapter 14 presents a re-
lated topic, alloglottography, when Syriac texts are
read in other languages, usually in liturgical set-
tings.
Garnography, Adaptation & Alloglottography

291
1
1
1
1
.
.
G
G
a
a
r
r

n
n
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y
I
I
:
:
S
S
y
y
r
r
i
i
a
a
c
c
a
a
s
s

t
t
h
h
e
e
T
T
a
a
r
r
g
g
e
e
t
t
S
S
c
c
r
r
i
i
p
p
t
t

Scripts, either in our lands or in neighboring lands, are
either complete and perfect, or lacking and imperfect.
Complete scripts have a written letter for each sound as
in Greek, Latin, Coptic, and Armenian. Incomplete
scripts do not have a written symbol for each sound as
in Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic.
Bar Ebroyo (d. 1286), em
11.1. On Garnography
580. I have recently proposed elsewhere
1
to use the term
garnography to refer to the writing of one language (called the
source language) in the script of another (called the target
script) in specific sociolinguistic settings: 1. when the source lan-
guage is already associated with a script that is perceived to be its
own, and 2. there exists a readership which is either unfamiliar
with the script of the source language or prefers, for whatever
reason, to use the target script over the script of the source lan-
guage. Traditionally, writing Arabic in the Syriac script is called
Garni, from which the term garnography was coined. The
term garnography, however, does not imply a specific source
language or a specific target script. These are specified by modifi-
ers; e.g. Syro-Arabic garnography is Arabic text written in the
Syriac script, and Armeno-Syriac garnography is Syriac text
written in the Armenian script.

1
Kiraz, Garshunography.
292 Garnography, Adaptation & Alloglottography 581.
581. Extending this terminology to the graphemic level, I pro-
posed to use the term garnographeme to refer to graphemes
which have been adapted for purposes of garnography; e.g. the
adaptation of Syriac into the garnographeme to indicated
Arabic in Syro-Arabic garnography. Its allographic variants,
, , , and _, are called allogarnographs.
582. The Syriac writing system was adapted for the writing of
other languages, some Semitic, even Aramaic, but others not. The
Aramaic languages (viz. Christian Palestinian Aramaic and Neo-
Aramaic) did not have independent writing systems and hence are
not strictly-speaking garnographic. These are discussed in Chap-
ter 13. The other languages did not lack a script that is considered
sociolinguistically its own, but rather, Syriac Christians preferred
to use their own script to write other languages for their own use
(e.g. Arabic, Ottoman Turkish), and to transmit their literature in
missionary settings (e.g. Sogdian, Malayalam). In all cases, the
entire writing system was borrowed: the symbol set, phoneme
values (augmented to cater for non-Syriac phonemes), writing di-
rection, ligatures, and graphotactics. Known languages covered by
Syriac garnography include Arabic, Armenian, Greek, Kurdish,
Latin, Malayalam, Persian, Sogdian, and Ottoman Turkish.
583. Garnography exists in two modes: transliteration and
transcription. Transliteration is a direct mapping of one writing
system into another at the grapheme (not graph) level; e.g. Arabic
<ktb> = : <ktb> to write. That the mapping is
graphemic is clear from the preceding example: while Arabic
<t> is dual-joining with four allographs, Syriac <t> is right-
joining with only two allographs and the graphotactics of each
script works independently. Transcription is the mapping of the
sounds of one language into the graphemes of another at the
phoneme level; e.g. Greek = e.e..
585. Garnography I: Syriac as the Target Script 293
584. As the Syriac graphemic repository does not cover all the
graphemes (in the case of transliteration) or phonemes (in the
case of transcription) of the source languages, Syriac garnogra-
phy remedies this with a number of extensions:
A. The bg

kp

diacritics. These provided for plosive-


fricative pairs; e.g.

and

for Arabic <d> and <>,


respectively. As the supra- and sublinear points are optional, the
mapping gives rise to ambiguities: Syriac <d> corresponds to
both Arabic <d> and <>.
B. Nonlinear graphemes from the Syriac graphemic inven-
tory. These are graphemes already used in Syriac for other pur-
poses, but are now redefined to express foreign graphemes or
phonemes; e.g. the points in and for Arabic <> and
<>, respectively. Additional nonlinear graphemes are also in-
troduced; e.g. the tilde

for Ottoman Turkish .


C. New linear graphemesor garnographemes as I call
themwere introduced exclusively for purposes of garno-
graphic writing; e.g. adding a stroke (sometimes a filling in MSS)
in for Arabic <j>. This is related to the augmentation of
existing consonantal graphemes to represent sounds with phono-
logical features similar to those of the original grapheme; e.g. ex-
tending to in Sogdian.
D. Graphemes borrowed from the script of the source lan-
guage, as in the case of Syro-Malayalam.
585. While there is some degree of uniformity within each
garnographic system, variations are common, especially in
transcription systems and most notably in vowels. This is mostly
due to the fact that the written text does not always represent a
standard form of the source language. Rather, it is usually a rep-
resentation of local dialects. This makes it more difficult to read
garnographic texts, as one needs to be familiar not only with
294 Garnography, Adaptation & Alloglottography 585.
the basics of a language but also with its various regional dialects.
Keeping this in mind, the discussion below aims at giving an ap-
proximation of each of the garnographic systems.
11.2. Syro-Arabic
586. Syro-Arabic
2
is a transliteration scheme. The first occur-
rence is in a note, written in 1154 in the Rabula Gospels codex
(folio 7b). Syro-Arabic texts were popular in medieval times and
continue to be used, though in a minimal fashion, until the mod-
ern day. (I used to transliterate all of my high school notes, even
for physics and biology, in Garn in the early 1980s. Alas, I no
longer have these texts) The exact number of Syro-Arabic MSS is
not known, but is probably in several thousands. Syro-Arabic ap-
pears first in printed text, albeit a few phrases here and there, in
Ambrosios Introducio in 1539 which includes, in addition to bib-
lical verses, some verses from the Qurn when introducing Ara-
bic.
3
The first printed text in Syro-Arabic is a catechism from
1580.
4

587. Each Arabic grapheme is represented by its counterpart in
Syriac at the graphemic level. As Syriac only has 22 graphemes,
as opposed to the Arabic inventory of 29 graphemes, four meth-
ods are used to extend the Syriac writing system:
5

A. By extending the bg

kp

letters (with the exception of

and

which do not have Arabic counterparts):

maps to

2
Amira 22 ff.; Assfalg, Arabische Handschriften in Syrischer Schrift
(Karn); Mengozzi, The History of Garshuni as a Writing System.
3
Ambrosio 38
v
ff., Quran verses 84.
4
Coakley, Typography 38.
5
Coakley, Typography 14.
635. Garnography I: Syriac as the Target Script 321
Transcription into the Latin script:
Meclis-i mebsn kd olundu, ve mebslarn esmsi
ner olundu ise de onlar arasnda bir bile Sryn me-
bsun ismine tesdif edemediimiz iin pek rlanp
muztarib olunuyoruz, acab Srynlerde mebs olmaa
lyk adamn bulunmamasndr. Yoksa ekseriyyeti az
kazanmak rekbetinde vki olan bir malbiyet midir:
Ey Srynler, hukk- milliye zyi oluyor, acab farkna
varyor musunuz, acab bunun sebebi kef edip de
hukkunuzu iddi etmeyi htra gtryor musunuz.
Yoksa henz gaflet uykusuna dalp da etrf ve eknfta
gelip geenden bhaber mi bulunuyorsunuz.
Translation:
Parliament has convened and the names of the members
have been printed, but amongst them we have not come
across the name of even a single Sryn, and conse-
quently we are saddened and dismayed. Is it that no de-
serving Sryn parliamentarian could be found? Or in
the competition to be a member, was this an [electoral]
defeat? O Sryn, we are losing our national rights, are
you even aware? I wonder if you are trying to find the
reason and to secure what is rightfully yours. Or are you
still ignorantly sleeping, unaware of what is happening
around you?
11.11. Appendix: Syro-English in the Making
635. I have been experimenting with Syro-English, an example
of which follows:
:

.s.

: .

..: ,

,. ,.

.s. .



,..s. ..



. ,..

, :.. , ,s.



,. . . :. . ..: ,..


.. .- ,.. , .:




. . ,

.. , .s



, .. .s




322 Garnography, Adaptation & Alloglottography 635.
, .: :... .: , ..

_... .t ,+ , .


,. .,..





,..s.: ,,: .
The prayer of peace. God of all and Lord, account these
our unworthy selves to be worthy of this salvation, that
freed from all guilt and united together by the chain of
love we may greet one another with the holy and divine
kiss of peace and that we may offer glory and thanks to
Thee and to Thy Only-begotten Son and to Thy Holy
Spirit, all Holy and good, and adorable and life-giving,
Who is of one substance with Thee, now and at all times,
forever.

.- . sx -. .s- ,.x ,i
&.is-

323
1
1
2
2
.
.
G
G
a
a
r
r

n
n
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y
I
I
I
I
:
:
S
S
y
y
r
r
i
i
a
a
c
c
a
a
s
s

t
t
h
h
e
e
S
S
o
o
u
u
r
r
c
c
e
e
L
L
a
a
n
n
g
g
u
u
a
a
g
g
e
e

I have found that it is much easier for our boys and girls
to learn church prayers, hymns, liturgy and rituals,
when English characters are used instead of our alpha-
bet. At the same time, however, we must do our utmost
to teach our mother language to our children.
Peter Barsoum (d. 18961963)
636. This chapter discusses garnographic systems where
Syriac is the source language. Syriac has been written in other
scripts for a variety of reasons: to represent Syriac sounds in
pedagogical settings, to represent Syriac writing in scholarly pub-
lications where either a Syriac type is not available or a wider
audience is desired (e.g. scholarly transliterations and transcrip-
tions), and to represent Syriac (liturgical) texts for Syriac Chris-
tians who can no longer read the Syriac script. The following dis-
cussion is organized by script in alphabetical order.
12.1. Arabo-Syriac
637. While Syro-Arabic is a transliteration system, Arabo-Syriac
is a transcription system. There are some cases found in MSS;
1
e.g.
a MS from Homs
2
dated 1546/7 contains Eliya of Nisibiss Kitb
al-turjumn in three columns: Syriac, Arabic (in the Arabic script),
and Syriac glosses in the Arabic script in the third column. For the
most part, liturgical texts began to be written in the Arabic script

1
G. Khan, personal communication; A. McCollum, personal com-
munication.
2
MS HMML Syr. Orth. Archdiocese of Homs 56.
324 Garnography, Adaptation & Alloglottography 637.
during the 20
th
century by the various Syriac Christian arabo-
phone communities.
638. The mapping of the consonants is straightforward: for

, for , for , for , for , for (interestingly, Bazzi


3

also uses for E. Syr., not ), for , for , for ,-, for
, for , for ,, for , for , for for [f] (but
for [p] in E. Syr.), for , for , for , for , and
for . The Syriac grapheme <g> has a number of variations: ,
, ,
4
or . The soft bg

d kp

letters are mapped to their Arabic


phonemic counterparts: for

(in E. Syr. only), for

, for

,
for ,-
, and for

[p] is no longer being used in W. Syr.).


639. Vowels, as usual, cause most of the variation. In closed
syllables, the short Arabic vowels are used: for

, for

, and

for

. In open syllables, matres lectionis are used, sometimes


combined with their Arabic short vowels: (or word-initially)
for long

, for

, for

, and for

. The sukn is used to


mark the lack of a vowel.
640. Having said that, huge variations exist as illustrated with
the following example:
5

1 ,.. .... - ,. ..,. . . ,.













2 .... ..s. ,. ,s. ,. ,s. - :.:









,: :. - .: ..







1

.






.









3
Bazzi, Chaldean Prayers and Hymns.
4
David 12.
5
Lahmo dhay 42. The variants are from al-idma al-ilhiyya f al-
kansa al-suryniyya al-uruksiyya 23.
707. Garnography II: Syriac as the Source Language 351
wyd); final . (e.g. z

= pw); final (e.g. ..

s = ydx)
and miscellaneous other silent letters (e.g. +s..


= mdyty).

WLM HL;N DEL GRWON; HICA;T XBL MR; EMLA HNA
BY;BOTC


353
1
1
3
3
.
.
N
N
o
o
n
n
g
g
a
a
r
r

n
n
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
i
i
c
c

A
A
d
d
a
a
p
p
t
t
a
a
t
t
i
i
o
o
n
n
s
s
o
o
f
f
t
t
h
h
e
e
S
S
y
y
r
r
i
i
a
a
c
c

S
S
c
c
r
r
i
i
p
p
t
t

We have, from the first, been fully impressed, in at-
tempting to reduce this spoken dialect to writing, with
the high importance of shaping it, so far as practicable,
to the very perfect model of the ancient Syriac; and we
strenuously urge on the Nestorians [sic.] the continued
study of the latter, as a learned language.
Justin Perkins (18051869), A Residence
708. While the previous two chapters covered garnographic
systems, this chapter dwells on the adaptation of the Syriac script
to write other Aramaic languages. These systems are non-
garnographic on sociolinguistic grounds. Typically in
garnographic system, there exists a dichotomy between lan-
guage and script which is not present here.
13.1. Christian Palestinian Aramaic
709. Christian Palestinian Aramaic (CPA), formerly known as
Palestinian Syriac, is known from texts from the 5
th
to around the
14
th
centuries from Palestine and Transjordan. The earlier MSS
are mostly fragmentary. Later texts survive from the 11
th
century.
710. CPA was written in a hand that is similar, but not exactly
like, Esrangel. Most text editions use available Esrangel types,
with the exception of the somewhat recent A Corpus of Christian
354 Garnography, Adaptation & Alloglottography 710.
Palestinian Aramaic
1
which uses a digital font that resembles the
actual script.
711. The CPA script differs from the Syriac script in a number
of ways, but most importantly its unique joining properties: only
<d/r> and <z> are right-joining. CPA has an additional graph-
eme, the inverted <p>, , which appears first in print type in
1892 (S16).
2
In 1899, a more aesthetic glyph was produced.
3

13.2. NENA Neo-Aramaic
712. Neo-Aramaic dialects, especially NENA
4
dialects and to a
lesser extent uroyo, called by older generations Srayt, are writ-
ten using the Syriac writing system (with the existence of other
competing scripts, most notably Cyrillic and Latin for NENA and
Latin for uroyo).
713. NENA dialects are first attested in written form at the end
of the 16
th
century. They exclusively use the E. Syr. script (though
Nldeke used Ser for his Grammatik).
5
These texts primarily rep-
resent the dialects of Alqosh and Telkepe, but with influence from
Classical Syriac. During the 19
th
century, missionaries among the
Assyrians adapted the Christian Urmia dialect into a written lan-
guage. Whereas the system of the earlier MSS is mostly phonemic,
the system employed by the missionaries, and their Assyrian
helpers, gradually became historico-etymological over time, with

1
Mller-Kessler and Sokoloff, A Corpus of Christian Palestinian Ara-
maic.
2
Coakley, Typography 178.
3
Coakley, Typography 174.
4
For further discussion, see Murre-Van den Berg, From a Spoken to
a Written Language.
5
Nldeke, Grammatik der neusyrische Sprache.
359
1
1
4
4
.
.
A
A
l
l
l
l
o
o
g
g
l
l
o
o
t
t
t
t
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y

To read was to interpret. Although the text was fixed, its
sense was not unambiguiously given in the characters
but was, so to speak, conferred in the act of reading it-
self.
Harry Gamble, Books and Readers in the Early Church
723. The term alloglottography
1
is used in various contexts. It
denotes the practice of writing a text in one language and reading
it in another. This practice is known from the Aramaic of the
Achaemenid period under Darius the Great (522486 BC). Liter-
ate notaries and scribes would write messages in Aramaic, the
lingua franca of the time. The recipient notary would then read
the message in Persian or another langauge.
2

724. A similar practice survives today in liturgical settings, but
it is difficult to determine the historical depth of this tradition.
Here, the text is written in Classical Syriac, but read in a variety
of target languages.
3
Known target languages include sister Ara-
maic languages such as uroyo and Swady, a sister Semitic lan-
guage, viz. Arabic, and languages of different families such as
Turkish, Kurdish, and Malayalam. Other target languages such
Armenian may have also existed. Of these target languages,
uroyo and Swady are very active and can be heard in many
parishes in the Middle East and the diaspora. Arabic is still active

1
Gershevitch, The alloglottography of Old Persian; Rubio, Writing
in Another Tongue.
2
Coulmas, The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems 89.
3
A similar practice is used between Hebrew and Neo-Aramaic. See
Hary, Judeo-Arabic in Its Sociolinguistic Setting.
360 Garnography, Adaptation & Alloglottography 724.
in the Middle East, but less so in the diaspora (it is somewhat ac-
tive in Teaneck, NJ, mostly performed by Mor Cyril Ephrem
Karim). Turkish is somewhat active in Istanbul. I have heard
Kurdish once during a funeral service in The Netherlands. Mala-
yalam is known to have been active at the beginning of the 20
th

century, and I was recently told that Mor Dionysius Geevarghese
of Mor Ignatius Elias III Dayro, Pampady, Kottayam, is able to
perform Syriac-into-Malayalam alloglottography. In June 2012, I
heard the priest E. Shabo perform Syriac-into-English alloglot-
tography in Cranbury, NJ.
725. Alas, research in this area is non-existent. The following
remarks are based on personal observations and analogy with He-
brew-into-Jewish NENA alloglottography.
4
My personal observa-
tions are limited to Syriac-into-uroyo and Syriac-into-Arabic al-
loglottography.
726. Alloglottography is set during liturgies. The source text,
written in Syriac, is either biblical or prose prayers. The latter are
usually usy, er, or tlyt prayers. These vary in length with
usy being the longest and tlyt the shortest. The reader, or
rather translator, is given the task of alloglottography on the spot.
(Once at the Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate in Damascus, I was
asked to perform Syro-Arabic into Modern Standard Arabic al-
loglottography in public, q.v. 731.)
727. The quality (if one can define such a thing) of the trans-
lations depends on a number of factors. First and foremost is the
readers familiarity with Syriac, and expertise in composition in
the target language (which, typically, is the readers native or

4
Sabar, The Hebrew Bible Vocabulary as Reflected through Tradi-
tional Oral Neo-Aramaic Translations; Sabar, On the Nature of the Oral
Translations of the Book of Exodus in Neo-Aramaic.
363
I
I
V
V
.
.
T
T
e
e
c
c
h
h
n
n
o
o
l
l
o
o
g
g
i
i
c
c
a
a
l
l
D
D
e
e
v
v
e
e
l
l
o
o
p
p
m
m
e
e
n
n
t
t
s
s

Part IV gives a synopsis of technological develop-
ments vis--vis Syriac writing: the short history of
lithography and mimeography (Chapter 15), type-
writers (Chapter 16), and digital typography
(Chapter 17). Finally, Chapter 18 gives an account
of coding standards. The long history of Syriac ty-
pography in the form of movable type is intesti-
nally absent here as it has been already presented
in great detail by Coakley in his Typography.
365
1
1
5
5
.
.
L
L
i
i
t
t
h
h
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y
a
a
n
n
d
d

M
M
i
i
m
m
e
e
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y

This book of the m prayers of the clergy of the one
holy and catholic Church of Antioch was printed by the
printing that is called lugrap

q which belongs to Eda-


vazhikkal Philipose the priest, son of Sheryan who is
Zachariah the deceased.
Colophon (1861)
15.1. Lithography
732. Lithography was invented in 1796 by Alois Senefelder,
who produced a press for it in 1817. It provides a mechanism to
produce printing at low cost. The artwork is first drawn onto spe-
cial paper which is then transferred as a mirror on stone. The
stone is then pressed against the final product to reproduce an
image. While lithography was mostly used by artists to produce
prints, it was possible to use it to reproduce pages written by
hand. The same technology would develop in the 20
th
century to
be used with offset printing.
733. The extent to which Syriac printing used the 19
th
century
version of lithography is unknown. In 1874, Ceriani (18281907)
published a photolithographic facsimile of an incomplete 8
th
or 9
th

century Syro-hexapla codex from the Ambrosian library (MS C
313 inf.).
1
Between 1876 and 1883, he also published a similar

1
Ceriani, Codex Syro-Hexaplaris Ambrosianus photolithographice edi-
tus.
366 IV. Technological Developments 733.
edition of the 6
th
or 7
th
century Old Testament Peshit codex, also
from the Ambrosian library (MS B 21 inf.).
2

734. A ....


was published in Kottayam in 1861 by Philipose
Edavazhikkal. We are fortunate to have a colophon that gives the
name of the technology in Syriac: ..,. .






.....:


it was printed with the printing that is called li-
thography. The free hand permitted the scribe to use decorative
writings for headings. The colophon states that 250 copies were
made and that the scribe was Edavazhikkal himself.
735. It is plausible that other books were published using this
technology. We are told by Jacob III
3
that the Syriac Orthodox
bishop Cyril Yuwaqim was the first to publish liturgical texts in
Malabar (no doubt other denominations may have been publish-
ing books as well). The press was not his but belonged to Edavaz-
hikkal who purchased the lithographic press in 1859. Jacob III
mentions two other lithographic presses obtained during this pe-
riod: one by the Protestants (probably the predecessor of the Mar
Thoma Church) and another by Bishop Athanasius Matta, who
also published Syriac liturgical texts. Alas, some of Mattas litho-
graphic publications were later burnt by the party loyal to the
Syriac Orthodox patriarchate.
736. Syriac printing made use of lithographys successors. The
press at Deir al-Zafarn published a number of books engraved
on metal in the mid-20
th
century, as by then its movable type
press was no longer operational. Many of these engravings are
still preserved at Deir al-Zafarn. A few specimens were obtained
for display at the Beth Mardutho Research Library.

2
Ceriani, Translatio Syra Pescitto Veteris Testamenti ex codice Ambro-
siano saec. 6 potolithographice edita.
3
Tuma, Trkh al-kansah al-suryniyyah al-hindiyyah 285.
369
1
1
6
6
.
.
T
T
y
y
p
p
e
e
w
w
r
r
i
i
t
t
e
e
r
r
s
s

The carriage of the ADLER-SPECIAL moves from the left
to the right, so that Syriac manuscripts can be typed in
the normal way, i.e. from the right to the left.
Koller & Van OS to W. Baars (Jan 4, 1968)
742. The period between movable type and digital type wit-
nessed a number of projects for designing Syriac typewriters.
Some of these projects materialized but others remained in the
planning stages. The following section documents the information
that I was able to gather, although no doubt there were other at-
tempts made that I did not learn about.
16.1. Underwood Typewriter
743. The earliest documented typewriter was by the Under-
wood Typewriter Company (1924), commissioned by New Britain
Assyrians. It produced separated characters. A description of its
history is provided by Coakley.
1

16.2. The Adler Typewriter
744. The Adler Corporation produced a typewriter in the
1960s. It was initially conceived by J. P. Lettinga, and soon the
Peshitta Institute was involved. The late Wim Baars suggested a
number of changes to what a leaflet describes as a unique new
systemconceived by Drs. J. P. Lettinga of Kampen Theological
Seminary. Because of Baars contribution the leaflet says that the
system was applied in close co-operation with the Peshitta Insti-

1
Coakley, Assyrian Printers in the U.S.A.
370 IV. Technological Developments 744.
tute.
2
Baars received a typewriter in January 1968 from the N.V.
Handelmij Adr. Koller & Van Os at Amsterdam, agents for Adler.
Around the same period, Werner Strothmann obtained one, tested
it, and published a brief report:
3

The Syriac typewriter with Estrangelo characters was
designed by Dr. Lettinga; the set of types was installed
on an Adler-Special type writer with reversed carriage
by the company Koller & vanOs in Amsterdam. The
types are small but clearly legible. One can write all let-
ter combinations in common use with Estrangelo script.
The arrangement of the types is suitable for typing; to
type the letters inside a word one seldom needs the shift
key [this means that on the level of the shift key there are
most of the letters one needs at the beginning or at the end
of a wordA.J.]. Singled out for praise should be the so-
lution of the problem connected with the final free Nun.
This letter is divided up into two separate keys.
The Goettinger Arbeitskreis fuer syrische Kirchen-
geschichte made a thorough test of this machine. For
every purpose it is excellent[ly] usable. Texts written
with it can be copied mechanically or photographically.
This is a great progress; from now on one will no more
have to publish texts written by hand. Until now, a
small number of machines [has been] produced. Pro-
vided there are enough advance orders, the company
will produce the machine in series. Buying this machine
can be recommended to everybody who is interested. Of
course the price is higher than the one of a normal ma-

2
Bas ter Haar Romeny, post on hugoye-list citing Konrad Jenner,
Dec. 6, 2007.
3
Strothmann, Die syrische Schreibmaschine. Translation by A.
Juckel.
748. Typewriters 375
ujd used it for a short period. Shortly after, the Alaph Beth
fonts for Multi-Lingual Scholar became available and the project
came to a halt.

,.x ,i &.&- .s

s . s

.x &e
- .
377
1
1
7
7
.
.
D
D
i
i
g
g
i
i
t
t
a
a
l
l
T
T
y
y
p
p
o
o
g
g
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
y
y

..


only if asy Dolabani lived to see this
with his own eyes.
J. Y. iek (19412005) on the Syriac MLS fonts, 1988
749. Until the 1970s and even the early 1980s,
1
publishing
Syriac texts used traditional methods such as reproducing hand-
written texts, movable type, and machine-set types (e.g. the
Syriac types produced in the 1920s by American Linotype, and
the Estrangelo type produced by the British Monotype Corpora-
tion in 1954). With the advancement of computers, institutions
and individuals began looking for ways to use computer technol-
ogy to print Syriac texts.
17.1. Plotter Technology
750. The first publications to employ computer technology for
the production of the text were the concordances of the Gttinger
Syrischen Konkordanz project. The text was produced on a plot-
ter, an output device that draws pictures and drawings using one
or more pens, usually used by the engineering community for ar-
chitectural drawings. This system was not used, to the best of my
knowledge, beyond the projects publications.
751. Another project to employ plotter technology was initiated
by Andrew Palmer in 1983. A computer program was written by
Alan Winter in the programming language Fortran at Christs Col-
lege, Cambridge. (At the time, Palmer was Junior Research Fel-
low at Christs College.) Palmers motivation was

1
This section is based on Kiraz, Forty Years of Syriac Computing.
387
1
1
8
8
.
.
C
C
o
o
d
d
i
i
n
n
g
g
S
S
t
t
a
a
n
n
d
d
a
a
r
r
d
d
s
s

Congratulations on an excellent proposal that can serve
as a model for others.
Joan Aliprand, UTC Chair
On the Syriac Unicode proposal (1998)
764. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO),
founded in 1947, is an international-standard-setting body com-
posed of representatives from various national standards organi-
zations. Its standards are defined in the format ISO n where n is
the number of the standard.
18.1. Language Name Code: ISO 639
765. ISO 630 provides short codes for language names. Origi-
nally approved in 1967, it was withdrawn in 2002 and replaced
by different sub-standards. ISO 631-1 is simply the original ISO
630. It does not provide a standard for naming Syriac.
766. ISO 639-2, published in 1998, provides for each language
a three-letter code, referred to as Alpha-3 codes. Classical Syriac
is assigned the code Syc, originally proposed by Michael Everson.
767. ISO 639-3, published in 2007, is an extension of ISO 639-
2 with the aim of providing codes for all natural languages. Here,
the code Syr represents Syriac, while Syrc represents Classical
Syriac.
ISO 639-3 provides codes for dialects: arc represents Ara-
maic in all its forms, aii represents Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (i.e.
Christian NENA dialects), and amw represents Western Neo-
Aramaic (i.e. ry).
388 IV. Technological Developments 768.
768. ISO 639-6 is in progress and aims to provide four-letter
codes, referred to as Alpha-4 for language names. As can be seen
from ISO 639-3, the codes and names provided by these agencies
do not always conform to scholarly naming standards.
18.2. Script Name Codes: ISO 15924
769. ISO 15924 sets a standard of codes for the representation
of names of scripts. It defines two sets of codes for each script, as
well as separate codes for script variants. The first code is a four-
letter code, usually based on ISO 639-2. The second is a three-
digit numeric code. Right-to-left alphabetic scripts, such as Syriac,
must be within the range 100199.
770. The Syriac writing system in general is given the four-
letter code Syrc, the first three letters of which are taken from ISO
6392 (q.v. 765), and the last is the final letter of the word
Syriac. It is assigned the numeric code 135. Esrangel is given the
four-letter code Syre and the numeric code 138. Ser is given the
four-letter code Syrj, where j, alas, stands for Jacobite. It is as-
signed the numeric code 137. East Syriac is given the code Syrn,
where n, (double alas!) stands for Nestorian. It is assigned the nu-
meric code 136. These codes were proposed by Michael Everson.
18.3. Grapheme Codes: Unicode (ISO 10646)
771. The Unicode Standard provides character encoding for in-
formation processing of many major scripts. It maintains a consis-
tency with ISO 10646. Syriac was included for the first time in
Version 3.0,
1
proposed by Sargon Hasso, George A. Kiraz, and

1
The Unicode Consortium, The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0, 199
205, 39698.
782. Coding Standards 391
779. The SSKL had the following priorities in mind in this order
(from the above list): 1, 2, 5, 6, 4. (Contextual analysis, item 3,
was assumed.) For instance, a character whose occurrence is high,
such as , would be assigned a key in the center of the keyboard
rather than on the a key which is at the periphery. However, if
the assignment of a character according to its frequency is close
enough to another key which has its phonetic value, then the
phonetic key is chosen. For example, if has a frequency that
would place it on the d key, it will be shifted one place and
placed on the s key instead.
780. As for SPKL, the priorities (with respect to the above list)
were: 4, 6, 1, 2, 5. For instance, is assigned the a key which is at
the edge of the keyboard even though its frequency is the highest.
781. In cases when a program did not support contextual analy-
sis, it was recommended that the characters be left- and right-
reduced as much as possible to minimize the need for keys. The
shift keys would be used for final and standalone graphs. In cases
when there is no left or right reduction of characters, it was rec-
ommended that the normal keys be assigned the initial shapes,
the shift keys for middle, the alternative keys for final, and the
control keys for standalone.
782. It was suggested that vowels and other nonsegmental
graphs be placed on the function keys (keyboards at the time had
only 10 such keys, not 12). It was also recommended that vowels
should be on adjacent keys. It should be kept in mind the pro-
posal stated, that when the user inputs a fully vocalized text, the
text should be entered first, then the vowels should be placed.
Typing text and vowels at the same time delays the speed of typ-
ing by a large factor.
392 IV. Technological Developments 783.
783. Numbers and punctuation marks were assigned their cor-
responding keys. Traditional Syriac punctuation marks (point,
two points, four points) could take unused keys such as < > | \
~, etc.
18.4.2. The MLS Keyboard
784. The Alaph Beth Syriac fonts for MLS
6
opted for an Arabic-
like keyboard as a standard keyboard for practical purposes, as
well as a phonetic keyboard. Users would either be from the Arab
world or western countries. The rationale was to make typing an
easy process in multi-lingual documents (which could include
Latin-based languages as well as Arabic).
18.4.3. The Windows/Meltho Keyboard
785. The Windows/Meltho
7
keyboards were borrowed from the
Alaph Beth MLS keyboards with minor modifications. The func-
tion keys could not be used as they had other functions in Micro-
soft Word; instead, vowels and other marks were placed on the
shift keys.
786.

s .s

s.

, .

,.x ,i .s- -.sx -

&.s. ,.i


6
Kiraz, Alaph Beth.
7
Kiraz, MELTHO.

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ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
G
G
e
e
n
n
e
e
r
r
a
a
l
l
I
I
n
n
d
d
e
e
x
x

Unmarked numbers refer to page numbers, while those prefixed with
to paragraph numbers. References to footnotes are given in the format
ch. a n. b where a is the chapter number and b is the footnote number
within that chapter; e.g., Al-Jeloo below is found in chapter 17, footnote
11. A guide indicating the page number where each chapter begins is
given in the footer.
A
Abbasid 42
abbreviation mark 255 ff., 481,
Pl. 6
earliest record 21
first printed example 24
in early MSS 38
length 259
with numerals 355
abbreviations xxix, 26, 260
common 266
Abdeljaber, Shehnaz xxivxxvi
Abed, Dawod 759
Abouna, Albert
on

590
see also under Authority Index
Al-Abrsh
see under Authority Index
accents 281 ff.
catalogue 288
in 411 codex 37
lists 287
points 10
signs xxi
Achaemenid 723
acronyms 26, 263
acrophonic 57
acrostics 123
on the alphabet 21
act. part.
pointing of 223
Acurensis, J.
see al-qr
see also under Authority Index
Adair, James 759
address
and mna 311
adjectives
and syme 229
Adler Corporation 744
Adler typewriter 744
adverbial suffix :

93
affirmative
and smk g

n 315
Akhrass, Roger ch. 12 n. 55
Aland, Kurt
Adler typewriter 744
Alaph Beth Computer Systems
fonts 26, 748, 757, 759,
777, 784
keyboard 785
algorithms 126
syme placement 234
alif maksra 590
398 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Al-Jeloo, Nicholas ch. 17 n. 11
allogarnographs 581
alloglottography xxi, xxiii, 723
with garnography 731
allographs 1, 5, 168, 275,
376, 485 ff., 581
and alphabetization 125
and ductus 496 ff.
in awws vowels 169
in Malayalo-Syriac 699
of prosodic graphemes 286
allography 485 ff.
cursivity 377 ff.
early MSS 30
joining properties 377 ff.
Old Syriac 19
allomorphs 1
allophones 1
Alpha-3 codes 766
Alpha-4 codes 768
alphabet 4, 7, 54, 56, ch. 2 n.
1
and ligatures 13
of Bardaian 20, 367
alphabetization 122 ff.
Alqosh 713
Alqur, K. 462
Ambrosian library 734
Ambrosio, Teseo 23, 48, 58,
586, 651
transcription 650
see also under Authority Index
Amid 595, Pl. 8
Amira, Jirjis 49
on numerals 353
on syme 225
see also under Authority Index
Amsterdam 645, 744
Anaphora 275
of St. James 602, ch. 5 n. 39
anatomy of graphs 491 ff.
and spacing 434
angle brackets 254, 273
annotations 25
annunciation 299
Antioch Bible xxxi, 224, ch. 4 n.
22
Antithesis
and mna 311
and taty 320
Antwerp 645
Polyglot 24, 273, 363,
644
Ap

el xxvii, 24, 92, 116, 124,


133, 220
Aphraha 54, 123
Apocalypse 101
apodosis
and ry ta 331
and lp taty 320
and way 330
Apostolic Legate 170
apostrophe 664, 670
Apple Macintosh 754
al-qr, Burus 49
on numerals 334, 353
see also under Authority Index
Arabic 3, 188, 582, 58687,
637, 718, 752, ch. 10 n. 8
alloglottography 724
and Esrangel 453
and Melkite script 457
and Syro-Ottoman 632
and Syro-Persian 626
chat alphabet 687
doubling 217, 205
font 758
garnography 582
glyphs 758
aww vowels 171
General Index 399

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
kasra 178
keyboards 778
lexica 124
liturgical texts 26
loan words 594
MLS 757
neologisms 26
into Syriac 611
numbers 24
punctuation marks 25, 244,
775
rise of 44
adda 218
script 606
sukn 218
tawl 472
Arabic numerals 26, 273, 363
directionality 448
pagination 24
verse numbers 24
Arabic Windows 758
arabophone 637
Arabo-Syriac 23, 637
Aramaeans 129
Aramaic xxi, 2, 129, 582, 767
alloglottography 723
inscriptions 461
numerals 333
relative zy 624
script 452, 701
tattoos 27
Aramaic Word Processor 755,
759
Arayathinal
see under Authority Index
arithmetic 334
Armenian 3
alloglottography 724
garnography 582
Modern Western 597
script 580, 641
vowels 597
Armeno-Syriac xxii, 23, 580, 641
arrow 247
ascender 178, 49192
ASCII 26, 675
Ashurbanipal Library 26, 777
Ashurbanipal software 759
Asia 700
Asiria 264
Assemani, Joseph
on Esrangel 453
on aww vowels 170
association line 398, 405
Assyrias Letters font series 759
Assyrian (font) xxii
Assyrian
Church of the East 26, 455,
752, ch. 10 n. 9
Neo-Aramaic 767
typewriter 744, 747
Assyrian Youth Group of Victoria
759
Assyrian Web font 759
Assyriankid.com Pl. 16
Assyrians 713, 743
Assyriska Riksfrbundet 748
asteriscus 21, 271
asterisk 249, 273
astronomy 334
Atari 754
Athanasius Matta 735
Auckland 744
Audo, Thoma 262
Australia 747, 759
AutoCAD 753
Autograph Printing 737
autosegmental phonology 371
72, 405
auxiliary marks 9
400 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Ave Maria 609, ch. 12 n. 20
Aydin, Numan 673
Aydin, Polycarpus Eugene xxii, ch.
10 n. 13, ch. 12 n. 60
Aydin, Robert 186
B
Baars, W.
typewriter 744
Babai of Nisibis 702
Baghdad 453, 455, 462
Syriac Academy 26
Bahi, Elia 758
Bahro Suryoyo 740
by 312
bar 278
Bar Bahlul 595
Bar Ebroyo xix, xxvii, 23, 43,
45, 127
accents 282
directionality 449
Esrangel 453
Jacob of Edessa vowels
16465
maln 309
numerals 359
rem 302
vowel names 189
writing points 155
zlm 191
see also under Authority Index
Bar Hebraeus Verlag 740, 757
Bar Malkn 43, 70
on accents 282
Bar akko 43
on accents 282
on vowel names 190
on writing points 155
see also under Authority Index
Bar ny
see Elia of oba
see also under Authority Index
Bar Sg

ed Pl. 2
Bar Zob 23
on ng

199, 207
on ts 306
Bardaisan, alphabet of 20, 367
baseline 41, 283, 491
Basilios Shimun 24, 606
bar ely 323
bly 461
Bedjan
color editions 443
question mark 25, 244
Beinecke Rare Book and Manu-
script Library xxv, Pl. 3
Beirut ch. 10 n. 8
Belgium 744
Benjamin, Daniel xxii, 755, 763,
ch. 16 n. 11
fonts 755
typewriter 747
Berlin 701
Turfan collection 619
Beth Gazo 270, 280
Beth Mardutho Research Library
xxiii, xxiv, 27, 736, 744,
762, ch. 5 n. 24, ch. 10 n. 1
Bezier curves 758
BFBS ch. 4 n. 23
bg

kp

404, ch. 4 n. 26
in garnography 584
in NENA 714
in Syro-Arabic 587
in uroyo 719
tier 374
transcription 657, 665,
671
bib Pl. 16
General Index 401

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Bible Society 646
biblical MSS 261
and vocalization 196
biblical texts 10, 44
accents 281
special signs 272
bibliography xxxiii
bidirectional 429, 448
bilingual 447
binding direction 447
biology 586
bitmap fonts 754 ff., 757
black 275
in abbreviation mark 255
ink 215
blue 443
body 492
Bhmisch, Franz ch. 16 n. 9
book hand 483, 495
bound
graph 146, 148
graphemes 12
Greek vowels 185
boundary symbol 14, 187
bouto
in Syro-Armenian 595
bowl 79, 492
Boyaji, Gabriel 739, Pl. 13
and taqlab 358
Brackets
angle 273
square 273
breathing marks 664
Brye Pl. 9
British India 611
British Library xxiv
Brock, Sebastian xxv, xxii, 88,
756, ch. 17 n. 5
on Syro-Hebrew 605
Romanization 681
typewriter 744, Pl. 14
Brockelmann, Carl 114, 124
encoding of lexicon 676
see also under Authority Index
broken stroke 489
Buddhism 700701, ch. 12 n. 73
Budge, Ernest
directionality 449
lining 444
writing sequence 479
Bulayq 619
business documents 483
Butts, Aaron 158, ch. 3 n. 57
Byzantine Neums 280
Byzantines 174
C
dh 57
CALAP 679
California 757
Callenberg, J. H. 645
calligraphy 442
calligraphers 484
calligraphic schools 484
Cambridge 751
Canada 759
capitalization
in chat alphabet 689
Cardahi, Gabriel
doubling marker 218
use of adda 25
use of sukn 25
want of vowels 188
Carlson, Thomas xxiii
Catholic 609
Central Asia 700, 703
Ceriani, Antonio
lithography 734
Chabot, Jean-Baptiste 538
402 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Chalcedon 457
Chalcedonian Christians 602
Chaldeans 59, 455, 609, 651
Chamoun, Joseph ch. 9 n. 49, ch.
12 n. 68
chandrakkala 699
chanting marks 28
Chart, Flo xxiv
chat
alphabet 27, 682
orthography 649
chemistry xxiv
Cherry, Ashur 759
Chibo, David 759
Chicago 26, 759, 777
China 619, 700, ch. 12 n. 73
Chinese 452
Christs College 751
Christian Palestinian Aramaic 20,
457, 582, 709 ff.
MSS 22
Christianity 644
Christians 2
chronograms 355
chronology of events 54
Church of the East 700
CIA 265
iek, J. Y. 740
cipher 367 ff.
circle 215, 274
circular stroke 489
circumfixes 667
and spacing 415
citation mark 251
classical grammarians 40 ff.
Classical Syriac 1718, 24,
132, 228
clubbed stroke 490
Coakley, J.F. xx, xxiixxiv, xxvi,
3, 46
on letter forms 376
on W. Syr. vowels 129, 174
Romanization 680
Underwood typewriter 743
see also under Authority Index
coda 699
code switching
in chat writing 688
coding standards xxi, 764 ff.
coins 17, 29
collectives
and syme 229
Collier, Diane xxiii, 166, 173
colon 25
colophons 32, 367, 477, 733
and Ser 454
color 443
columns 20, 446, Pl. 6
comma 25, 244
combining diacritical marks 773
command
and ely 328
and pq 300
compound numbers 349 ff.
compounds 109
spacing 424
syme 231
Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon
677
computational systems 126
Computer Assisted Linguistic
Analysis of the Peshitta 679
computer 682
encoding 649, 675 ff.
fonts 741
technology 750
computus 358, 739
concatenation 424
conjunction 289
t

and smk 314
General Index 403

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
292, 311, 325, 417
and lp

mayyn 310
consonant 220
cluster 205
and syme 234
consonantal
graphemes 78, 12
root 6
system xxi, 7
in early MSS 30 ff.
in Old Syriac 18 ff.
tier 374, 375, 481
consonantary 6, 7, 27, 56 ff.,
113, ch. 1 n. 2
as numerals 345
in early MSS 30
consonants 67, 49
typology 70 ff.
Romanization 681
context
following 14
preceding 14
contraction 260
and maln 204
and spacing 420
Coptic 162
letters as quire numbers 28
numerals 366
copyists 113
CorelDraw 758
corpora 117
cosmology 122
Costaz, L.
on numerals 353
see also under Authority Index
Cthen 645
counter 492
CPA
see Christian Palestinian Ara-
maic
Cranbury 724
Creed
in Syro-Armenian 595
Crininesius, C. 49, 645
critical editions 242, 273
cross 249, 269, 275
cross-like symbols
crossbar 492
crotch 492
crucifix painting 24
CSCO 374
Coulmas, F. xix
Cowper
see also under Authority Index
cursivity 493 ff., 753
of Old Syriac 20
Cyrillic
in MLS 757
and NENA script 712
D
dagger 273
Dallas Museum Pl. 2
Damascus xix, 280, 726, 758
Museum 602
Daniel of ala ch. 2 n. 137
Darius the Great 723
dash Pl. 5
dates 334
dating 15
David, C. J. xix, 51
on circle for fricatization 25,
215
on marhn 206
on ng

207
on numerals 353
on pointing on 221
on schwa 25
on schwa marker 209
on syme & collectives 229
404 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
on vowel position 183
see also under Authority Index
David, Shmuel 233, 461
Davodian, Michael 759
David bar Pawlos 21, 42, 123
de Brves, Savary ch. 10 n. 8
de Dieu, L. 645
deacons xx
decimal system 337
decorative grapheme 469
Deir al-Suryn 499
Dayr al-Zafarn 609
press xxvi, 736, 738
DeFrancis, J. xix
deletion markers 202 ff.
demonstrative
and mawwyn 294
demonstrative pronoun
in 411 codex 36
and maln 204
den Biesen, Kees ch. 16 n. 7
typewriters 744
denominative verbs 116
denticle 492
descender 178, 398, 491, 492
descriptive vs. prescriptive xx
diachronic xx, 14, 16
diacritic 4
diacritical points 10, 45, 49,
51, 129, 140, 400
disambiguation 237
in MSS 29, 3334
Jacob of Edessas time 41
Old Syriac 27
position of 144
diacritical signs 10, 677
color of 443
position of 433
in garnography 584
dialects 585
Diamper 615
diaspora 2526, 649, 668, 724
Dickens, Mark xxii, xxv
on Turco-Syriac 700 ff.
Dictionaries
alphabetization 124
arrangement by root 24
digits 4, 9
and Unicode 775
digital phototypesetting 752
digital typography 386, 749 ff.,
Pl. 15
line fillers 474
Dionysius Geevarghese 724
Dionysius Thrax 127
diphthongs 177
Romanization 681
diple 251
direct speech
and mqmn 327
and psq 324
and smk 314
direction, writing 582
and accent names 283
of points 155
directionality 445
and numerals 365
disambiguation 34, 138
tier 374, 400, 481
discourse
and accents 283
disjointed graphemes 20
dismay
and mammrn 304
dittography 477
documentary hand 483, 495
Doerfler, Maria xxii
Dominican Press 215
DOS 754 ff., 758, Pl. 15
dot matrix printers 757
General Index 405

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
doubled letters 59
doubling
and 101
and vowel variants 195
in NENA 715
in Syro-Malayalam 617
in uroyo 718
marker 217
transcription of 671
downstroke 489
downwards points 155
Draguet, R.
Esrangel font ch. 10 n. 7
Drijvers xxv, 21
Drugulin ch. 10 n. 9
dual-joining 378, 761
graphemes 496 ff
ductus xxixxii, 18, 484
in early MSS 30
of Old Syriac 21
Dolabani
see under Authority Index
Dura Pl. 3
Duval, Rubens xix, xxii, 51, 111,
162
on accents 281
on marhn 206
on mhaggyn 205
on numerals 35354
on rh 305
on lp

eyn 299
on verbal markers 220
on vowel names 191
on word joining line 430
see also under Authority Index
E
East Syriac xxiixxiii
grammarians 43
script 23, 455
Easter dates 358, ch. 7 n.
Ebied, Rifaat
typewriter 744
Ecchellensis, Abraham 49
see also al-aqilln, Ibrahm
see also under Authority Index
Edavazhikkal, Philipose 733,
735
Edessa 20, 2, 453, 499, Pl. 2
Edison, Thomas 737
editorial marks xxi, 9
Ehrenstrahl, David Klcker 24,
647
ely 328
and bar ely 323
and mna 311
and smk 314
and smk g

rr 316
Elephantine papyri 335, 339
Elia of Nisibis
see Elia of oba
Elia of oba 1, 22, 43
lexicon 595, 637
on writing points 155
see also under Authority Index
Elia the Maronite scribe 458
Elias bar Abraham 48
Elias of Tirhan 43
on mzn rabb 293
on rem 302
on taty al 322
email 649
Emerald City Fontworks 759
emphasis
and eyn 299
and smk 314
and taty al 322
emphatic letters 591
encoding of 679
in chat alphabet 683
406 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
in Malayalo-Syriac 692
transcription of 662, 669
enclitics
L

202
22

20
and spacing 420
in poetry 207

20304
and maln 204
encoding 649, 675 ff., 683
English xxiv, 254, 263, 265,
373, 611, 752
alloglottography 724
code switching ch. 8 n. 46
punctuation 244
readers 668
entreaty 287
and mallyn 313
Ephrem (scribe from Dayr al-
Zafarn) 609
Ephrem the Syrian 123, 140,
207, 702
Epiphanius 272
Eshai Shimmon 747
Esrangel 21, 59, 279, 453
and unified scripts 461
and vowels 459
falls out of use 21
in early MSS 32
in headings 458
in text editions 25
ISO code of 770
revival of 22
typewriter ujd 748
Esrangel fonts
Estrangelo Nisibin ch. 8 n. 15
Estrangelo Qenneshrin 85
Esrangelo Talada ch. 10 n. 7
Monotype ch. 10 n. 7
eyn 292, 299
and ely 328
and smk 314
Epaal 133, 220
pointing 224
Epel 111, 133, 220
er
and alloglottography 726
etymology 70
Eumnath, Jasmaile xxiii
Euphrates Pl. 1
Europe 48, 244
European
grammarians 48 ff.
languages & neologisms 26
punctuation marks 25
Europeans 58
Eva, Gabriel
see aww, Gabriel
Everson, Michael 27, 766, 770
Ewald, Heinrich
on accents 281
exclamation
and ely 328
and mna 311
and mqallsn 296
and mqmn 327
and pq 300
and taty al 322
and ts 306
mark 25, 244
F
Facebook ch. 12 n. 6566
Fiq, Nam xxv, 738739, Pl.
1
Falla, Terry
typewriter 744
Fifth Lateran Council 48
Figgins, Vincent 85
General Index 407

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Final letters 4, 19, 376
Flower Hill Cemetery Pl. 1
foliation 334
following context 14
Fontographer 758
fonts 474
Jacob of Edessa vowels 166
Meltho 27
MLS 26
multi-lingual 27
OpenType 27
outline 460
foot 492
formal hand 482
formal language theory ch. 1 n. 6
formalism 14
Fortran 751
free graphemes 12
French xxii, 651
and chat alphabet 684
frequency 374
of consonants 117 ff.
of vowels 196 ff.
and keyboards 778
Fribourg University 746
fricative 10, 210, 620, 665
fricatization 12, 63, ch. 4 n. 26
and homography 116
in Malayalo-Syriac 695
markers 210 ff.
tier 404 ff., 481
function keys 782
in Microsoft Word 785
fu Arabic 731
G
Gabriel, Robert ch. 12 n. 61
Gabriel of St. Joseph
see under Authority Index
Gallus, Joseph 651
Gamma Productions 757, 759
Gansu province ch. 12 n. 73
Gargar 595
Garn xxiii, xxv, 126, 167,
492, 580, 615, Pl. 4
garnographemes 581, 584,
719
garnography xxixxii, 580 ff.,
708
in Unicode 774
with alloglottography 731
grr 289
Geer, zcan xxvi
Gelb, Ignace xix, 9
Gelston, Anthony 756
gender 415
marker 235 ff.
Geneva 644
Georgia ch. 17 n. 10
Georgian 641
German xxii, 254
readers 668
Germany 747, 759
Ghazal, Pierre ch. 12 n. 62
Gibson, M.
color editions 443
Girgis, Ann Mary xxiii
Gloria Patri 609
in Syro-Armenian 595
glottal stop 20, 14
transcription 670
glyph 1, 13, 757, 761
descenders 178
Gnanadesikan, Amalia xix
gold (color) 443
Goldsmith, John 372
Gorgias Press xxiixxiii
gospel cover xxvi
gospels
and alloglottography 727
408 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Gttingen concordances 26, 750
grammarians xx, 40 ff., 56,
113, 124, 12728, 219,
225
East Syriac 43
European 48 ff.
on accents 282, 288
West Syriac 43
grammars 215, 454
grammatical category 116, 139,
143, 373
and points 147
grammatical
graphemes 10, 199 ff.,
200, 714
tier 374, 396, 481
graphemes xx, 1, 5, 6, 10,
13, 27, 371, 584
and garnography 583
bound 12
consonantal 78, 12
dual-joining 21
free 12
grammatical xxi
linear 12
linear vowel 162
nonlinear 12
nonsegmental 9
obligatory 10
prosodic 10
resemblance of 75 ff.
segmental 6, 78
supra-segmental 10
vowel 8
graphemic 675
repository 584
graphotactics xxi, 11, 18, 582
in early MSS 3031
in Old Syriac 20
in parchments 20
Malayalam 699
Syro-Sogdian 620
graphs 1, 4
arrangement of 11
linear 11
nonlinear 11
Greco-Syriac 643
Greek 162, 448, 641, 647,
664
alphabet 162, ch. 1 n. 4, ch.
2 n. 1
and mayyn 310
garnography 582
Hellenistic 203
in MLS 757
in quire numbers 28
letters & vowels 129
loan words 12, 105, 133,
136, 194, 203, 214
mythology Pl. 2
numerals 366
suffix 470
vocalization 129, 174 ff.,
401
Greek vowels (

, etc.) 22, 45,


461
alongside pointing 130
green 443
Griffin, Catherine 756
g xx, 279, 334
reading direction 451
Gutenberg 461
Gutturals
in Malayalo-Syriac 692
H
addad, Benjamin 462
hairline stroke 490
Halle 645
General Index 409

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Haluk Perk Museum xxiv, xxvi, Pl.
9
hamza 588, 590
in chat alphabet 687
handwriting 402
Haralambous, Yannis 26, 760
Harqlean 21, 39, 271
Harrak, Amir 483, ch. 12 n. 72
Harun, Yacub 753
Harvard 744
Hasidic 646
al-arn, Yanna 49
Hasso, Sargon 26, 259, 762,
771
Hatch, William xx, 441, 499
columns 446
aww, Gabriel xxvi, 24, 161,
167 ff., 479, Pl. 11
headings 23, 453, 458
outline writing in 460
Heal, Kristian ch. 2 n. 129
Healey, John xxiixxiii, 21
see also under Authority Index
Hebrao-Syriac 644 ff.
over Judaeo-Syriac ch. 12 n.
10
Hebrew 131, 647, 681
and alloglottography 725
and keyboards 778
and wy ch. 6 n. 64
in MLS 757
script 644
Hellenistic Greek 203
Heller, Chaim (Hayyim) 646
Hermes typewriter 747
heterodoxy 252
Heva, Gabriel
see aww, Gabriel
Hill Museum & Manuscript Library
xxiiixxvi
Hindu numerals 362
HMML
see Hill Museum & Manuscript
Library
Hoffmann 123
see also under Authority Index
Holland 757
see also Netherlands, The
Homer 165, Pl. 5
homoeoarcton 249
homoeoteleuton 249, 610
homographs 10, 138, 14041,
143, 219, 222
2-way earliest record 20
3-way 21, 41, 147
4-way 147
consonantal 223
disambiguation of 129, 219
in early MSS 3334
lists of 54, 113
homography xxiii, 113 ff.
hook 492
udr 702
hugoye-list xxiii, 744, ch. 2 n.
137, ch. 9 n. 50, ch. 16 n. 2,
ch. 16 n. 79.
ujd ch. 16 n. 12
unayn bar Isaq 42, 445
Hunter, Erica xxv
usy
and alloglottography 726
Hussmann, Heinrich 280
hymns 270
hyphen 172
in chat alphabet 683
hyphenation 465
hypolemniscus 271
I
IBM electronic typewriter 746
410 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
IBM Personal Computer 754
Ibn al-Nadm 455
on Esrangel 453
identity 694
Iliad 165
imperfect 415
prefixes 65
Imprimerie Catholique ch. 10 n. 8
Imprimerie Nationale ch. 10 n. 8,
Pl. 10
indexing 126
Indian numerals 21, 26, 362,
364
and directionality 448
Indian Orthodox 454
infinitive 221
initial letters 4, 264, 376
ink 22, 215, 443
Inner Mongolia 700
inscriptions 17, 21, 2425,
54
CPA 457
lack of point on 236
lack of syme 225
and Ser 454
vowels 129
writing direction ch. 9 n. 12
inseparable prefixes 41617
and spacing 415
inseparable suffixes 416
Institut fr neutestamentliche
Textforschung 744
Interjection
and mawwyn 294
and qry 301
International Organization for
Standardization
see ISO
International Systems Consultancy
759
Internet 759
interrogative 25, 121, 287
and mna 311
and pq 300
and ts 306
sentence 246
intervocalic 720
ntibh xxvi, Pl. 13
intonation 10, 281, 287
and mqallsn 296
and mqmn 327
and maln 297
and mzn 292
and np

319
and pq 300
and qry 301
and smk 314
and smk g

rr 316
and lp ely 328
and way 330
in 411 codex 37
inverted commas 254
Iraq 763
Iraqi Museum 483
Ishtar Web 759
Islamic conquest 44
ISO 764
630 language names 765
639-2 Alpha-3 766
639-3 767
639-6 Alpha-4 768
10646 grapheme codes 771
15924 script codes 769
isolated letters 19, 376
J
Jacob bar akko
see Bar akko
see also under Authority Index
General Index 411

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Jacob III, Patriarch
on lithography 735
Jacob of Edessa xxiv, 2122, 59,
15, 34, 45, 291
letter on orthography 41
on accents 282
on grr 289
on makkyn 317
on maln (accent) 309
on mhappn 326
on mawwyn 294
on mayyn 310
on mp

sn 295
on mqallsn 296
on psq 324
on qry 301
on qawm 325
on rh p

seq 305
on ry ta 331
on lp ely 328
on lp

grr 289
on lp

mayyn 310
on lp

smk 314
on lp way 330
on lp taty 320
on vowels 129
on pointing 138
on vowel names 189
vowel system 162 ff.
vowel system in fonts 757
Jacob of Sarug 194, 595
Jacob of Takrit
on vowel names 190
Jazirah 731
Jenner, Konrad ch. 16 n. 2
Jerusalem 442, ch. 10 n. 8
Jewish 646, ch. 12 n. 10
Jews conversion 24, 644
John of Qarmin
Esrangel revival 22, 453
John the Grammaticus 252
John the Stylite 42
John the Syrian 225
joiner line 433
joining properties 384
of CPA 711
of early MSS 31
of Old Syriac 20
of parchments 20
joining words
and rh arteh 307
and rh p

seq 308
Jollie, Angelina 27
Jones, F. S. 33
Jnkping 748
Joseph bar Malkun
see Bar Malkn
Joseph zy 40, 123
Joseph, Thomas xxii
on Malayalo-Syriac 691 ff.
Juckel, Andreas xxiixxiii, 44,
744, ch. 12 n. 67, ch. 16 n.
6.
Judaeo-Arabic ch. 12 n. 10
Judaeo-Syriac ch. 12 n. 10
Julius II, Pope 651
jussive
and mna 311
and pq 300
justification 472, 474
K
Kabalistic 646
Kampen Theological Seminary
744
Kanna, Youaw T. 747
Kaplan, Ayda 484, ch. 12 n. 70
Karim, Cyril Ephrem 724
Karson 615
412 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
kashida 47274, 762
in Unicode 775
kasra 178, 587
Kaufhold, Hubert
typewriter 744
Kaufman, Stephen
CAL encoding 677
kayl xxvii
Kazakhstan 700
Kerala 24, 457, Pl. 12
kerning 761
keyboard 677
layouts 777 ff.
al-Kfarnissy
on Esrangel 453
see also under Authority Index
Khalloul-Risha, Amir ch. 12 n. 65
Khamis, Abdulaad Pl. 8
Khara-Khoto 700
Khoshaba, Tony 759
King, Daniel xxii, 29
Kiraz, Christine xxiiixxv, ch. 9 n.
13
Kiraz, George A. 26, 771, Pl. 14,
Pl. 16
children ch. 8 n. 46
see also under Authority Index
Kiraz, Lucian Nurono xxiv
Kiraz, Sebastian Kenoro xxiv
Kiraz, Tabetha xxiv
Koonammakkal, Thomas 616
Kthen 645
Kottayam xxvi, 724, 733
Kourieh, Qlimis Daniel ch. 12 n.
71
al-Koury, Asmar 740
Kreyenbroek, P. G.
on Syro-Kurdish 607
Krinetzki
typewriter 744
Kthobonoyo xxiv, ch. 8 n. 46
Kurdish 24, 606
alloglottography 724
garnography 582
Kurdistan 462
Kurmanc, Modern Standard 607
Kuwait 747
L
L- forms 94, 133, 409
pointing of 222
lamentation
and ts 306
laser printers 757
Lasercomp 756
Lateran Council 651
Latin xxii, 49, 131, 167, 595,
609, 644, 647, 650, 712
alphabet ch. 1 n. 4
garnography 582
graphemes 25
in MLS 757
script 23, 26, 448
transcriptions 209, 582
Latino-Syriac 649
Lawj 606
Lebanon 631
lectionary 261, 274, 752
mark (small circle) 28
left-context ch. 1 n. 7
left-to-right 448, 501
leg 492
legal parchments
see parchments
Leiden Peshitta edition 679, 759
Lejoly, Abb Raymond
typewriter 744
lemniscus 271
General Index 413

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
letter
pairs and frequency 121
sequences 262
letterpress 461
Lettinga, J. P.
typewriter 744
Levita, Elias 59
Lewis, A. S.
color editions 443
lexeme 114, 416
lexica 454
Bar Bahlul 595
Elias of Nisibis 595
Syriac-Armenian 595
lexical markers 199, 237 ff.
Library of Congress 681
library Romanization 680 ff.
ligatures 1, 13, 376, 387 ff.,
582, 761
alphabetization 13, 125
ductus of 566 ff.
nonstructural 13
obligatory 13
ordering of 394 ff.
optional 13
Lind, James 737
line fillers 463 ff.
linea occultans 199
linear
graphs 11
grapheme 7, 12
vocalization 24, 161 ff.
linearity vs. nonlinearity 243
lingua franca 703, 723
lining board 444, Pl. 8
Linotype 461, 740, 749
list
and psq 324
lithography xxi, xxvi, 25, 732 ff.,
Pl. 12
liturgical graphemes 274 ff., 757
liturgical texts, 2526, 215
loan words 116, 596
Arabic into Armenian 598
99
Arabic into Kurdish 607
Arabic into Syriac 594
English into Syriac 611
Greek into Syriac 12, 105,
133, 136, 194, 203, 214,
604
Latin into Syriac 611
Persian into Armenian 599
Syriac into Malayalam 618
Syriac into Sogdian 622
Turkish into Armenian 599
logogram 624
London Jews Society 646
Loopstra, Jonathan 214
lunar year ch. 7 n. 22
Lundeen, Steven J. 759
M
macron 667
madda 588, 590
Many 455
Maiberger
typewriter 744
Makdasi
see under Authority Index
Malabar 735
Malayalam 3, 582, 616, 668,
691
and alloglottography 724
and garnography 582
graphotactics 699
script 692
Malayalee 615, 684
Malayalo-Syriac xxii, 25, 691 ff.
Malick, David G. 481 n. 1
414 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Mandaic 162, 700, 701
Manna
see also under Authority Index
Man Pl. 1
Maphrian 606
maqryn 40, ch. 2 n. 132
Mar Thoma Church 735
Marcus, Isho 763
Mardin 215, 262, ch. 10 n. 1, Pl.
12
margin 24, 249, 273, 468
marginal notes 45
Margoliouth, Mrs.
on ts 306
marhn 23, 206
and

ch. 4 n. 23
context . .s..


66
in Syro-Kurdish 607
Marietta ch. 17 n. 10
Maronite 59, 4849, 58, 454,
602, 609
College 218
grammarians 124, 353
scribe 458
Martin, Ricky 27
Martin, Paulin 47
accents 281
word joining line 430
Masius, Andreas 24, 48, 124
and syme 225
marhn vs. maln 224
on maln 204
on verbal markers 219
transcription 650
see also under Authority Index
malmn (Masora) 42 ff., 54,
177
accent 299
vocalization 196
Masora
see malmn
Matenedaran 641
mathematics 334
matres lectionis 20, 23, 26, 74,
129, 131 ff., 182, 402
and frequency 118
in early MSS 33
in awws vowels 168
in Old Syriac 23, 54
in Syro-Armenian 598
in Syro-Kurdish 607
makkyn 317
maln (the accent) 309
maln (the line) 23, 224, ch. 4
n. 22
and

ch. 4 n. 23
in NENA 715
in uroyo 717
with quotation mark 250
McCarthy, John 372, 401
McCollum, Adam xxiixxiv
mammrn 304
mean line 491
Media Center Stuttgart Pl. 16
media types 21
medial letters 376
medical texts 344
medicine 342
medium of writing 439 ff.
Melbourne 759
Melitene 22, 174
Melkite 280
script 22, 457
Meltho fonts 27, 85, 390, 474,
760, 762, 777, ch. 8 n. 15,
ch. 10 n. 7 ff.
Meltho keyboard 785
memoria technica 62 ff.
Mengozzi, Alessandro xxiii
General Index 415

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Merx xxii, 47
on accents 281
on Ambrosio 650
see also under Authority Index
Mesopotamia 2
metal as medium xxvi , 439, Pl. 9
metathesis 95, 101
metdammrn 304
mekap

n 318
metobelus 21
Metonic cycle ch. 7 n. 22
metrical grammar 43
mettap

n 313
mhaggyn 23, 205, 206
context . .s..


66
in NENA 715
in Syro-Armenian 597
mhappn 326
mawwyn 294
mayyn 310
Michael Rab, Chronicle of Pl. 6
abbreviation mark 538
columns 446
Michaelis, C. B. 49
see also under Authority Index
Michaelis, J. D. 49
on Esrangel 453
on numerals 353
see also under Authority Index
Microsoft 75758, 761
Windows 2000 27, 777
Word 474
Word word-spacing 429
Middle East 2526, 2, 364, 447,
611, 724, 740
Windows 758
Middle Persian 703
mimeography xxi, 25, 737 ff., Pl.
12
Mingana
morphological pointing 221
schwa 25
schwa marker 209
see also under Authority Index
missionaries 582, 713
Mitwally, Hoda xxiii
MLS
see Multi-Lingual Scholar
mna 311
mnemonics 62 ff.
and productivity 69
mnn 312
mobile devices 27, 649, 682
Modern Literary Syriac
acronyms 263
Modern Standard Kurmanc 607
Modern Western Armenian 597
Mongol era 703
Mongolia 700
Mongolian 452
monograms
in Syro-Greek 603
Monotype 461, 740, 749, 756,
ch. 10 n. 7
Montreal 753
Mor Ignatius Elias III Dayro 724
morphemes 1, 371, 373, 416
arrangement of 11
spacing 415
morphological description 1
morphological graphemes 219 ff.
morphological marking
in 411 codex 35
morphology xxi, 1, 199, 371
root-and-pattern 6
morphosyntactic 728
morphotactics 11, 371
morph 1
416 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
mosaics 17, 29, Pl. 2, Pl. 16
as writing medium 439
Mosul 215, 221, 499, ch. 10 n.
9
Mount Lebanon 58
mourning
and makkyn 317
movable type xxi, 738, 749, Pl.
12
mp

sn 295
mqallsn 291, 296
mqarqsn 326
mqmn 327
and pelg mqmn 329
and smk 314
msabbn 324
maln xxvii, 294, 297
and pq 300
and ts 306
mallyn 313, 318
msandln 303
msaqqn 317
mappyn 23, 208
multicolumn page 446
multi-lingual
font 27
web browsing software 27
Multi-Lingual Scholar xxvi, 26,
474, 748, 757, ch. 10 n. 7
ff., Pl. 15
fonts 434, 460, 758
keyboard 784
multipage 447
multi-tier framework 373
Mnster 744
Muraoka
see also under Authority Index
Murre-van den Berg, Heleen xxiii,
ch. 13 n. 10
Museum fr Asiatische Kunst,
Staatiche Museen zu Berlin
xxivxxv, Pl. 7
Mushe of Mardin 23, 48
musical
graphemes xxv, 274 ff., Pl. 5
notation 280
pattern 276
mzahhrn 309
mzn 292, 293, 322
and mqmn 327
and n 298
and rh arteh 307
and rem 302
and smk 314
and smk g

rr 316
and zawg g

n 303
mzn rabb 293
and rem 302
N
N.V. Handelmij Adr. Koller & Van
Os 744
Nabu Publishing 759
ng

23, 207
and poetry 207
Naay Pl. 1
name initials 26
Nano 123
np

286, 319
Narsai 702
Nayis, Philoxenus Mattias ch. 12 n.
58
neck 492
negative clause
and smk g

n 315
Nelson, Paul 26, 259, 762, 771,
ch. 8 n. 10
variable-length abbreviation
mark 27
General Index 417

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
NENA 23, 712 ff., 767
see also Neo-Aramaic
Neo-Aramaic xxiii, 3, 582, 712
ff.
in Unicode 773
Romanization 681
neologisms 26, 604, 611
Nestle
see under Authority Index
Netherlands, The 724
see also Holland
Neums 280
New Jersey 263, 724, Pl. 1
New Persian 703
New Testament 39, 117, 271,
64445, 703
editio princeps of Syriac 48
in Hebrew script 24
New York Pl. 13
newspapers 738
nib 442, 490
Nimatallah
see under Authority Index
n 298
al-Ns, Ms 49
Nisibis 702
Nldeke, Theodor 51
NENA 713
on numerals 353
see also under Authority Index
nomenclature 91
nominal formatives
and frequency 119
nongarnographic system 708
nonlinear graphemes 8, 12, 714
and alphabetization 125
nonlinear
graphs 11
morphology 372
orthography 372
phonology 372
vocalization 174 ff.
nonlinearity vs. linearity 243
nonsegmental graphemes 9
nonstructural ligatures 13
Northern Iraq 462
notation 14
nouns 139
and points 147
and syme 229
number 415
numbering systems xxi, 54
Indian 21
sequential alphabetical 20
numbers 9
and abbreviation mark 257
and syme 229
on keyboards 783
numerals 333
alphabetic 345 ff.
directionality 365
Old Syriac 54
in inscriptions 335 ff.
in MSS 342 ff.
Nuremberg polyglot 645
Nuro, Abrohom xxvi
on syme and /e/ 160
script reform 26, 461, 462,
Pl. 11
vocalization reform 26, 186
O
obelus 21, 271
object marker 417
object pronominal suffixes 419
obligatoriness 374
obligatory graphemes 10
obligatory ligatures 13
oblique line 206
obliqueness of points 155
418 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Oceania 747
OCLC 680
offset printing 740
Ojala, Doug xxiii
Old Syriac xxiii, 15, 1718,
23, 30
allography in 19
consonantal system 18 ff.
cursivity in 20
ductus of 21
graphotactics 20
inscriptions xxv
inscriptions and vowels 129
joining properties 20
matres lectionis 132
numerical system 54, 335
parchments xxv, 32
vocalization system 23 ff.
writing 2021
Old Syriac Gospels 90, 228
Old Testament 39, 271, 342,
646, 734
Old Uyghur 23, 700
Olympia typewriter 745
omissions 249
mark 28
Ontario 759
OpenType fonts 27, 43435,
47475, 760, 761, ch. 10
n. 7 ff.
and ligatures 394
operating system 27
optional ligatures 13
Oraha, Yakob Ishak 759
organic chemistry xxiv
orientation of vowels 17476
ornaments 443
Orpheus xxv, Pl. 2
orthodoxy 252
orthographic space 411 ff.
orthographic variation
in consonants 88 ff.
in vowels 194
orthographic word 416
orthography-phonology xix
otiose stroke 490
and line fillers 463
Ottoman Empire 631
Ottoman Turkey 738
Ottoman Turkish 263, 582, 631
and aww vowels 171
garnography 582
outline
fonts 460, 758
writing 460
overlining 255
red for 443
Oxford Computing Centre 756
zta, Eliyo 449, Pl. 8
P
P- forms 92, 133
P- forms 133
Pael 24, 92, 116, 124, 133,
148, 220
pointing of 141, 223
pagination 334, 360, 363
using Arabic numerals 26
Pal xxvii, 24, 92, 124, 133,
141, 194, 22021
pointing of 141, 223
Palacios
see under Authority Index
Palak, Nam Faiq
see Faiq, Nam
paleography 484
Palestine 709
Palestinian Syriac 709
see also Christian Palestinian
Aramaic
General Index 419

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
palimpsest xxv, 22, 441, Pl. 5
in Syro-Greek 602
Palmer, Andrew ch. 12 n. 57, ch.
17 n. 2
plotter 751
Pampady 724
Pange lingua 609
paper 22
and lithography 732
and mimeography 737
as writing medium 441,
439
pq 294, 300
and smk 314
para-grammatical works 44
para-grammatical, literature 42
paragraph 242
paragraphing 242
paraxtonos 289
parchments 15, 17, 2425,
29, 32, 54, 123, 129,
483, Pl. 3
and Ser 454
as writing medium 43940
graphotactics 20
joining properties 20
lack of point on 236
lack of syme 225
parenthesis 273
parenthetic phrase
and lp taty 320
Paris polyglot 645
Paris ch. 10 n. 8
Parsnegar word processor 759
participial prefixes 65
particles 416
253, 292, 311
and n 298
,:

253
compound 424
line filling 471
spacing 417
Passau University 744
psq 324
and bar ely 323
and ely 328
and mnn 312
and mqmn 327
and rh 305
and rh l pseq 305
and rh p

seq 308
and smk 314
and ry ta 331
and way 330
and taty 320
and ts 306
Pater Noster 60910
Paul bar Anqa 453
Pauline Epistles
and alloglottography 727
pause 281
and rh 305
and rh p

seq 308
and ts 306
in 411 codex 37
PC Paintbrush ch. 17 n. 10
PCX file 758, ch. 17 n. 10
pelg mqmn 329
pen 22, 442, 479
lifting 493 ff.
strokes 489
Penn, Michael xxii
perfect 102, 104, 119, 221,
224, 415
pointing 223
period 242
Perk, Haluk xxvi, Pl. 9
Persian 3, 641
and alloglottography 723
and aww vowels 171
420 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
and Syro-Ottoman 632
and Unicode 772
orthography 620
garnography 582
personal pronoun 36
Peshitta Institute
typewriter at 744
Peshit 441, 459, 734
Peter III/IV, Ignatius 414
Phanqitho 279, 334
pharmacological handbook 626
philologists 48 ff.
phoneme 1, 12, 134, 138,
371, 58284
phonemic
representation 59
transcriptions 6
Phonemic-to-graphemic
relationships 187 ff.
phones 1
phonological
description 1
features 584
graphemes 201 ff.
processes 12, 14
representation 478
segment xx, 10
phonology xix, xxi, 1, 6, 45,
161, 199, 371
phonotactics 11, 371
photocopiers 740
phototypesetting 26, 752
physics 586
Piscataway xxiv, ch. 5 n. 24
pixels 757
Plantin 645
plosive 10, 210, 665
plosive-fricative pairs 584
plotter technology 26, 750
plural marker 128, 225 ff.
see also syme
poems 276
poetry and ng

207
pointing system 113
origin of 138
points
ductus of 569 ff.
position of 147
polyglot 645
Syro-Hebrew Psalter 605
polygraph 12, 149, 663, 157
polyphone 12
possessive 417
pronoun 418
Postel 650, ch. 12 n. 20
preceding context 14
prefixes 71, 220
and frequency 11920
prepositions 139, 41617,
prescriptive 40
vs. descriptive xx
print punches xxvi
print types 13, 414, 714
for ) 173
for 201
for abbreviation mark 258
for Jacob of Edessa vowels
166
for punctuation 242
for syme 233
printed books xx
and vocalization 197
line filling 472
printers 763
printing 50, 402
script reform 26
simplification 161, 167
productive morphology 604
pronominal suffix 204
General Index 421

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
pronouns 121, 416
and maln 204
pronunciation 10
and chronograms 355
proper noun 470
and fricatization 211
transcription 655
prosodic
allographs 286
features 281
graphemes 10, 281 ff.,
286
marks as punctuation 242
points catalogue 288
prosody 10
prosthetic 20
protasis
and way 330
and taty m 321
Protestants 735
Psalm/Psalter xxv, 59, 167, 172,
605, 626, 70203, ch. 2
n. 137
PtLebanon1 font 758
PtSyr2 font 758
punches xxvi, Pl. 10
punctuation xxi, 4, 910, 242
ff.
and line fillers 464
Arabic 25, 775
European 25
grr 289
on keyboards 783
prn 284
Purdy and Macintosh 26, 752
Puzzles xxvi, Pl. 16
Q
Qalat Nijm Pl. 1
qle 270
Qarabashi, Abdulmas 186
Qarqp

y
on vowel names 189
Qarmn 499
qry 301
Qasha, Boutros 462
qawm 325
Qocho 700
quadriliteral roots 124
Quanzhou 700
question
and ely 328
and maln (accent) 309
and ts 306
mark 244
quill 20, 442
quire signatures 334, 342, 366
quotation marks 250 ff.
quotations 20
Qurn in Garni 586
qy xxvii, 45, 210 ff., 374,
404, 590
and doubling 217
and vowel variants 195
encoding 678
in Nuros reform 461
in Syro-Kurdish 607
in Syro-Sogdian 620
in Unicode 773
red ink 22
Quzayya Psalter 390, 423,
588
R
Rabo, Gabriel ch. 16 n. 6
typewriter 744
Rabula Gospels 586
radicals 220
and pointing 221
422 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
rh 305
and rh arteh 307
and rh p

seq 308
rh arteh
and rh p

seq 308
rh arteh 307
rh l pseq 305
rh p

seq 305, 308


Ransmayer & Rodrian 74445
rare books xx
ratio between vowels and
consonants 198
reading 44
orientation 155
recitation marks 283, 289
red ink 22, 25, 481, Pl. 6
in abbreviation mark 255
in fricatization 215
reed pen 442
reflexive 133
reform 462
Abrohom Nuro 186
script 26
vocalization 26
refrain 270
relative pronoun 417
reprehension
and ts 306
rem 302
and n 298
rhyme
in dictionaries 124
rby 225
right-context ch. 1 n. 7
right-joining 378, 761
graphemes 496 ff.
right-to-left 7, 448, 758
r qle 691
al-Rizz, Sarks 49
doubling marker 218
see also under Authority Index
Risius
see al-Rizz
Robinson 677
see also under Authority Index
Rogers, Henry xix
Roham, Eustathius Matta ch. 12 n.
69
Romanization 680 ff.
Roman-rite 609
Rome 48, 218, 651
Romeny, Bas ter Haar 744, ch. 16
n. 2, 481
root 6
homographs 115
in dictionaries 124
root-and-pattern morphology 6,
113
Royal Asiatic Society ch. 3 n. 58
Royel, Awa xxiii
rubrics 23, 443, 703
Ruana, Michael ch. 17 n. 9
rkk xxvii, 45, 210 ff., 374,
404, 590
and vowel variants 195
earliest record 20
encoding 678
in Nuros reform 461
in red ink 22
in Syro-Kurdish 607
in Syro-Sogdian 620
in Unicode 773
rule formalism 14
runic alphabet 701
Russell-Smith, Lilla xxv
Rutgers University xxiv
General Index 423

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
S
Sabra (TeX package) 760
adda 218
al-adrw [v], 49
on scripts 453
on verbal markers 219
see also under Authority Index
Saint Johns University xxvxxvi
Saley, Richard A. ch. 16 n. 8
typewriter 744
Samarqand 619
smk 314
and mqmn 327
and maln 297
and np

319
and taty 320
smk g

rr 316
smk g

n 315
Sampson, Geoffrey xix
ardunaa Pl. 1
Satan 450
Sauget, J. M.
on Syro-Greek 603
Savary de Brves 85
Sawm, zael ch. 17 n. 9
SBL xxix
Schindler, Valentin 124
Schmierer, Melonie xxii
scholarly editions 453
ScholarTeX 760
school of Nisibis 40
schwa xxvii, 25, 141, 224, ch. 4
n. 27
absence of 206
and mappyn 208
and ng

207
and wy ch. 6 n. 64
in NENA 715
in transcriptions 209
markers 205 ff.
position ch. 4 n. 26
Sciadrensis
see al-adrw
see also under Authority Index
scribal errors 27, 247
scribes 113, 140, 442, 481
and directionality 449
and lining 444
and spacing 435
script 453 ff.
adaptation xxi, 708 ff.
in early MSS 32
reform & unification 26, 461
Seattle 759
SEDRA database 678
Segal, J. B. 51, 113, 164
on accents 281, 288
on precedence of syme 374
see also under Authority Index
Segert, Stanislav ch. 12 n. 46
segment 10
segmental graphemes xx, 78
segmental value
of and 146
of

etc. vowels 184


of point vowels 156
segments 478
Seife, Charles
on numerals 362
semantic specification 6
semicolon 25, 244
inverted 246
Semirechye 700
Semitic 3, 372, 582
Senefelder, Alois 732
Serrin Pl. 1
Ser xxiii, 23, 13, 21, 32,
454, 458
in Syro-Latin 609
424 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
ISO code 770
replaces Esrangel 21
typewriter 748
Ser fonts
Serto Jerusalem xxiii, 85,
390, 394, 475
spacing 435
Serto Jerusalem Outline 460
Serto Kharput 390
Serto Malankara 85
Serto Quzhayya 758
sern 49, 224, 678
and

ch. 4 n. 23
ductus 573
opp. maln accent 309
Severus of Antioch
against John the Grammaticus
252, Pl. 5
Severus Bar akko
see Bar akko
Severus Sebokht 21
Indic numbers 362
Shabo, Eli 186, 724
shadda 25, 588
in uroyo 718
shaft 492
Shields, Erin xxiii
Shields, Rachel xxiii
m (the book) xxvi
m (the accent) 324
sibilants
Malayalo-Syriac 693
sigla 261
abbreviations 26
signatures
numbering 28
Old Syriac numbers 21
silver
gospel cover xxvi, Pl. 9
Sims-Williams, Nicholas xxii, 27,
619 ff., 772
Sinai 457
Singapore 747
r 299
Sivanand, Sunil 755
skin
as writing medium 440
slanted
line 211
points 152, 155
social networking 649
sociolinguistics 580, 708
sociolinguistic features
in chat writing 688
software 26
Sogdian 582, 619, 701, 703
and garnography 582
and Unicode 772
sokdiddy ch. 12 n. 63
Sokoloff, Michael xxiii , 112,
114
solar year ch. 7 n. 22
solidi 6
sort (printing) 13, 461
for , & 201
sorting 126
sound change 14
source language 580, 584
Soviet Union 612
space
and abbreviations 267
spacing 411 ff.
SPEdessa font 759
speech 6, 910
spelling 11, 88 ff.
spine 492
spiritus asper 203
Sproat, Richard xix, xxiii
square brackets 273
General Index 425

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
ry ta 331
and lp way 330
St. Catherine 457
St. James ch. 5 n. 39
St. Marks Monastery 442, 449
press ch. 10 n. 8
standalone letters 376
standardization of software 26
stanzas 270
stem 492
stencil 737
Stewart, Columba xxiv
Stockholm Cathedral 24, 647
stone 29
and lithography 732
as writing medium 439
Stott, Katie xxiii
stroke types 489 ff.
Strothmann, Werner
typewriter 744
Stutgart Pl. 16
stylus for lining 444
subject 284
sublinear 8
horizontal line 353
line (mhaggyn) 205
line (mappyn) 208
point 10, 12, 220
point (ng

) 207
point in 411 codex 33
point on 202
point on 203
tilde 714
virgule 353
vowels 178
subordinate clause 298
and mna 311
substantives 116
and syme 229
ddy 284
sudoku 27,361
suffixes 418

121
-suffix 2122
,.-

121
and abbreviation mark 256,
260, 268
and frequency 11920
and maln ch. 4 n. 22
and rem 302
and spacing 415
and syme 229
marker 235 ff.
suffixation 116
lp ely 328
lp

eyn 299
lp

grr 289
lp

smk 314
lp way 330
lp

taty 320
and makkyn 317
sukn 25, 188, 218, 588, 639
supralinear 8
accents 289 ff.
arch as schwa marker 209
line (marhn) 206
line (ng

) 207
point 10
point in 411 codex 33, 36
point on 202
point on 203
point on suffix 235
point Rkk 210
tilde 714
two-points 225
verbal markers 220
vowels 178
supra-segmental graphemes 10
Srayt 712
426 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
surprise
and mammrn 304
suryani font 758
suryani2 font 758
suspension 260, 470
suuryooyoo ch. 12 n. 64
Swady
and alloglottography 724,
728
way 330, ch. 6 n. 64
Sweden 740, 748
Switzerland 746
syme 10, 49, 225 ff., 374,
396, 678
and Garni

590
and rh 305
as an /e/ vowel 158 ff.
ductus of 570
earliest record of 20
encoding of 679
floating 398
in 411 codex 35
in collective nouns 21
in fonts 762
in Garni 587
in awws vowels 172
in NENA 71415
in Old Syriac 27
in Unicode 773
scope 200
shape 226
position 227
Sydney 747
syllabary ch. 1 n. 2
syllabification
Malayalo-Syriac 699
syllable
and mnn 312
and rem 302
and vocalization ratio 198
symbols xx, 13
synchronic xxxxi, 16, 112
synodic year ch. 7 n. 22
syntactic descriptions 1
syntax 371
Syria Pl. 1
Syriac
glyphs 758
language 3
script 3
churches 609
literature 15
Syriac Academy of Baghdad 26,
462
Syriac Catholic 454
Syriac Orthodox 414, 454, 631,
642, 694, 726, 735, 758,
ch. 12 n. 64
Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal
Archive 262
Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Library
280
Syro-Arabic 23, 58081, 586
ff., Pl. 13
first printed example 24
in Unicode 774
influence on Syro-Kurdish
606
Syro-Armenian xxii, 23, 595 ff.
Syro-English 635
Syro-Greek 22, 602 ff.
Syro-Hebrew 605
Syro-hexapla 21, 39, 271, 734
Syro-Kurdish 24, 606 ff.
Syro-Latin 23, 609 ff.
Syro-Malabar 455
script 24, 457
Syro-Malankara 454
Syro-Malayalam 24, 584, 615 ff.
General Index 427

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Syro-Ottoman xxii, 2425, 631,
738, Pl. 13
Syro-Persian xxii, xxv, 22, 626 ff.,
Pl. 7
numerals 344
Unicode 27
Syro-Sogdian xxii, 21, 619 ff.
syme as an /e/ vowel 159
Unicode 27
T
t marba 587, 590, 758
tactics 371
taty 320, 322
and maln 297
and n 298
and ts 306
taty al 322
taty m 321
tail 492
Tajikistan 619
Takahashi, Hidemi xxii, 609
on Armeno-Syriac 641
on Syro-Armenian 595 ff.
Takrit 483
ts 306
Tan, Mesut 759
Tannous, Jack xxiii
taqlab 739
target script 580
tadd 205
tattoos 27
tawl 472
and Unicode 775
Taw Mm Simkath 263, Pl. 1
Taylor, David G.K. xxiii, xxv, ch. 2
n. 137, ch. 12 n. 59
Teaneck 724
technological developments xxi
Teitel, Peter 744, ch. 16 n. 4, ch.
16 n. 10
Telkepe 713
Temiz (Malle), Barsawmo 748
templatic morphology 113
tense 373
Terakkiyt- Mekteb-i Sryn
263
terminal 492
TeX 760
text critical symbols 25
text editions
in Esrangel 25
texting 649, ch. 1 n. 3
TeX-XeT 26, 760
Thackston
see under Authority Index
theograph 393, 757
Theophilus of Edessa 22
using Jacob of Edessa vowels
165
Thomas the Deacon 40
tiers 11, 373, 374, 478
break 480
tilde
as line filler 463
in garnography 584
in NENA 714
Timothy Isaac Pl. 8
tl nuqz 322
tlyt
and alloglottography 726
TMS
see Taw Mm Simkath
tone 281, 303
tools of writing 439 ff.
top-to-bottom 501
transcription 584, 637, 649,
658, 681
chat alphabet 683
428 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
garnography 583
German-style 660
phonemic 6
scholarly 25
standard 661
Transjordan 709
transliteration 25, 584, 649,
658, 675
chat alphabet 683
garnography 583
standard 661
Tremellius, Immanuel 644
Trigona-Harany, Benjamin xxii
on Syro-Ottoman 631
trilateral roots 124
Trinity 393
Trisagion 641
Trost, M. 645
TrueType fonts 758, 761
Tullberg
see under Authority Index
ur Abdin 22, 606
and Esrangel revival 453
Turco-Syriac xxii, 23, 700 ff.
Turfan xxv, 2223, 619, 626,
70003, Pl. 7
Old Syriac numbers 21
Turkic dialects 631
Turkish 3, 668, 671
and alloglottography 724
and Syro-Ottoman 632
loan words in Armenian 596
Turks 700
uroyo xxii, 27, 185, 712, 717,
767
and alloglottography 724,
728
chat alphabet 684
type styles 453
typeface 13
typesetter 481
and line fillers 463
and spacing 435
typewriters xxi, xxvi, 26, 461,
742 ff., Pl. 4, Pl. 14
typographical data 761
typography 1, 13, 453, 587
digital xxi, 749 ff.
graph resemblance 85
typology of consonants 70 ff.
U
UCLA 676, ch. 12 n. 46
Ugaritic 122
Uhlemann
see under Authority Index
underlying representation 398
Underwood typewriter 743
Ungand
see under Authority Index
Unicode 2627, 649, 675, 760,
771
abbreviation mark 256
and sorting 126
Unicode Consortium 26, ch. 5 n.
22
unification of scripts 26, 461
United States 265, 631, 739, Pl.
13
upside-down writing 450
upstroke 489
upwards points 155
rek, Martina Pl. 16
Urmia 713
USA
see United States
Uyghur 23, 700
script ch. 12 n. 73
Uzbekistan 619
zel, Aram ch. 12 n. 56
General Index 429

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
V
van Damme, Dirk
typewriter 746
van Ginkel, Jan ch. 9 n. 50
van Peursen, W.T. ch. 12 n. 52
van Roey, Albert
typewriter 744
Van Rompay, Lucas xxii, 88, ch.
12 n. 54
variant readings 45
vellum 54
as medium 440
Venkadathu Qasheeshe
Alexandrayos & Joseph
Collection xxvi
verbs 139, 219, 284
and points 147
and spacing 421
markers 219 ff.
patterns 220
verse divisions 24
versification 24
vertical line 249
vertical writing 449
vigesimal system 337
violet 443
virgule 204, 224, 353
vocalism
morpheme 373
tier 374, 401, 481
vocalization system xxxxi, 8,
10, 374, 461
Greek (

, etc.) 174 ff.


in early MSS 33 ff.
lack of 33
linear 161 ff.
multi-point 147 ff.
nonlinear 174 ff.
Old Syriac 23 ff.
one-point 139 ff.
pointing system 149 ff.
voces memoriales 62 ff.
vowel graphemes 8
vowels 6, 8, 49
alphabetization 125
Arabo-Syriac 639
Armenian 597
ductus of 575 ff.
frequency of 196 ff.
Greek (

, etc.) 174 ff.


imposition of 6
length 192
matres lectionis 23
names 189 ff.
orientation 17476
position 182
quality 192
quantity 192
Romanization 681
shift 194, 424
supralinear 178
Syro-Kurdish 607
Turco-Syriac Uyghur 706
W
-weak forms 111
Walters, James xxiii
Way International 678
Weitz, Lev xxiii
well-formedness condition 405
West New York Pl. 1
West Syriac grammarians 43
Western Neo-Aramaic 767
Wickham, Lionel
typewriter 744
Widmanstetter 23, 48, 644, 648
transcription 652, 660, Pl.
10
430 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Windows
2000 259, 757, 761
keyboard 785
operating system 758
Winter, Alan
plotter 751
Wittenberg 645
wonderment
and mammrn 304
wood
as a writing medium 439
word
boundary & ng

207
boundary symbol 14
spacing 423 ff.
spacing in Garni 589
spacing in uroyo 721
wrapping 429
Words of the Institution 275
wrapping 429
Wright, William xx, 123, 162
Coptic numerals 366
Greek numerals 366
writing xxi, 9
Old Syriac 2021
tools 439 ff.
groups 382
sequence 478 ff.
system 1, 56, 40
X
x-height 491
Xinjiang 619
Y
yhe 291, 296
Yahwe 393
Yale University xxivxxv, ch. 3 n.
57, Pl. 3
Yeates, Thomas 87
transcription 660
see also under Authority Index
yellow 443
Yerevan 641
Yosip, Emmanuel xxii, ch. 10 n. 9
Youhanna, Phoebe xxiii
YouTube 684, ch. 12 n. 64
Yusuf, ur 634, 738
Yuwaqim, Cyril 735
Z
Zafarn Press 215
zqr 310
zaw 290, 330
zawg m leyn 299
zawg ely 306
and zawg g

n 303
zawg g

n 303
Zschokke
see under Authority Index
zero suffix 102
Zhetysu 700
Zieme, Peter xxii
on Turco-Syriac 700 ff.
ZSoft Corporation ch. 17 n. 10
al-Zubayd 124


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
A
A
u
u
t
t
h
h
o
o
r
r
i
i
t
t
y
y
I
I
n
n
d
d
e
e
x
x

The following index provides cross references from the major grammars
and sources used in this study. References are made to chapter foot-
notes.
Abouna
28 (ch. 2, n. 22)
29 (ch. 2, n. 8)
30 (ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 11, n. 12;
ch. 11, n. 13)
31 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75)
33 (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 32;
ch. 4, n. 77; ch. 4, n. 87;
ch. 5, n. 16)
34 (ch. 4, n. 25)
al-Abrsh et al.
22 (ch. 2, n. 3536)
24 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75;
ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 5, n. 16)
27 (ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 4, n. 77)
Acurensis
(ch. 2, n. 22; ch. 3, n. 3)
(ch. 3, n. 75)
(ch. 1, n. 35)
(ch. 2, n. 22)
(ch. 3, n. 75)
. (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 30;
ch. 4, n. 32)
.. ff. (ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 10, n.
11)
s. ff. (ch. 7, n. 11)
,.. ff. (ch. 7, n. 16)
,. ff. (ch. 7, n. 2)
Ambrosio
9r (ch. 2, n. 16)
9r (ch. 12, n. 19)
9v (ch. 2, n. 22)
38v ff. (ch. 11, n. 3)
7479 (ch. 4, n. 44)
8182v (ch. 3, n. 75)
132 ff.(ch. 7, n. 11)
Amira
2 (ch. 9, n. 41)
6 (ch. 2, n. 11)
10 (ch. 2, n. 22)
11 (ch. 2, n. 35; ch. 4, n. 44)
12 ff. (ch. 7, n. 11)
22 (ch. 7, n. 15)
22 ff. (ch. 11, n. 2)
24 (ch. 8, n. 16)
32 ff. (ch. 3, n. 75)
34 (ch. 3, n. 3)
40 (ch. 4, n. 113)
40 ff. (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n.
25)
48 (ch. 4, n. 81)
51 ff. (ch. 3, n. 15)
Arayathinal
2.1 (ch. 8, n. 9)
2.2 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 21)
2.3 (ch. 2, n. 17)
2.4 (ch. 8, n. 39)
2.6 (ch. 7, n. 11)
4 (ch. 3, n. 55)
5 (ch. 3, n. 75)
11 (ch. 4, n. 16)
12 (ch. 4, n. 25)
432 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
13 (ch. 4, n. 32)
16 ff. (ch. 4, n. 44)
22 (ch. 4, n. 77)
23 (ch. 4, n. 107)
24 (ch. 5, n. 1; ch. 5, n. 5)
Bar Ebroyo, eme
intro 3, p. 4 (ch. 2, n. 6)
intro 3, p. 45 (ch. 3, n. 94)
intro 3 (ch. 3, n. 99)
intro 3, p. 4 (ch. 9, n. 20)
i.5.2, p. 29 (ch. 3, n. 19)
ii.1.2, p. 89 (ch. 2, n. 26)
iv.1.2, p. 193 (ch. 3, n. 68)
iv.1.3 (ch. 2, n. 145)
iv.1.3, p. 194 (ch. 2, n. 22;
ch. 2, n. 24; ch. 2, n. 29)
iv.2.1, p. 209 (ch. 2, n. 23;
ch. 2, n. 25; ch. 2, n. 30;
ch. 8, n. 62)
108 ff. (ch. 4, n. 77)
282 ff. (ch. 4, n. 44)
308 ff. (ch. 5, n. 1)
Brockelmann
2 (ch. 2, n. 7; ch. 2, n. 9; ch.
2, n. 10; ch. 2, n. 12; ch.
2, n. 13; ch. 8, n. 16; ch.
8, n. 21; ch. 8, n. 35; ch.
8, n. 39)
3 (ch. 8, n. 52)
4 (ch. 3, n. 8)
5 (ch. 3, n. 15)
6 (ch. 4, n. 107)
7 (ch. 3, n. 55)
8 (ch. 3, n. 75; ch. 4, n. 113)
10 (ch. 4, n. 44)
11 (ch. 4, n. 77)
12 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
18 (ch. 5, n. 1)
Coakley, Typography
4 n. 18. (ch. 1, n. 1)
416 (ch. 9, n. 23; ch. 10, n.
3)
5 n. 12 (ch. 9, n. 26)
89 (ch. 9, n. 38)
11 (ch. 8, n. 26; ch. 8, n. 68)
12 (ch. 3, n. 74; ch. 10, n. 14)
14 (ch. 11, n. 5)
17 n. 56 (ch. 8, n. 4)
20 (ch. 9, n. 52)
21 (ch. 8, n. 72)
2122 (ch. 8, n. 71)
2930 (ch. 8, n. 30)
33 (ch. 3, n. 83; ch. 8, n. 17;
ch. 8, n. 18)
34 (ch. 3, n. 77)
35 (ch. 5, n. 35; ch. 7, n. 33)
36 (ch. 8, n. 37)
37 (ch. 5, n. 36; ch. 7, n. 32)
38 (ch. 11, n. 4)
4043 (ch. 8, n. 31)
44 (ch. 5, n. 3)
45 (ch. 8, n. 32)
46 (ch. 5, n. 20; ch. 8, n. 22;
ch. 8, n. 51)
47 (ch. 11, n. 9)
48 (ch. 9, n. 56)
57 (ch. 8, n. 28)
58 (ch. 8, n. 29)
59 (ch. 2, n. 43)
60 (ch. 2, n. 43)
61 (ch. 2, n. 43; ch. 4, n. 5)
64 (ch. 7, n. 26)
6466 (ch. 10, n. 15)
65 (ch. 3, n. 76)
68 (ch. 4, n. 5)
6971 (ch. 8, n. 34)
7374 (ch. 8, n. 33)
104 (ch. 2, n. 42; ch. 5, n. 2)
105 (ch. 2, n. 42)
106 (ch. 2, n. 42)
Authority Index 433

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
120 (ch. 5, n. 2)
134 (ch. 3, n. 87)
139 (ch. 8, n. 44)
14042 (ch. 4, n. 48)
142 (ch. 11, n. 8)
149 (ch. 9, n. 9)
153 (ch. 5, n. 26)
162 (ch. 8, n. 12)
164 (ch. 5, n. 37)
166 (ch. 8, n. 13)
174 (ch. 13, n. 3)
178 (ch. 13, n. 2)
179 (ch. 10, n. 17)
18182 (ch. 10, n. 18)
18384 (ch. 9, n. 42)
189 (ch. 8, n. 14; ch. 10, n.
18)
191 n. 4 (ch. 13, n. 7)
19496. (ch. 8, n. 40)
223 (ch. 8, n. 41)
23840 (ch. 4, n. 102; ch. 9,
n. 43)
Coakley-Robinson
2 (ch. 4, n. 107; ch. 5, n. 1;
ch. 5, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 9;
ch. 8, n. 16)
3 (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 44)
1213 (ch. 3, n. 75)
69 (ch. 4, n. 23; ch. 4, n. 75)
Costaz
1 (ch. 2, n. 9; ch. 2, n. 13)
3 (ch. 9, n. 23)
3 n. 1 (ch. 11, n. 10; ch. 11,
n. 14)
4 (ch. 8, n. 5)
5 (ch. 2, n. 35)
6 (ch. 2, n. 17; ch. 8, n. 16;
ch. 8, n. 21; ch. 8, n. 24;
ch. 8, n. 52)
9 (ch. 4, n. 44)
10 (ch. 3, n. 8)
11 (ch. 3, n. 15)
1214 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n.
75)
15 (ch. 3, n. 81)
17 (ch. 4, n. 77)
18 (ch. 4, n. 86)
19 (ch. 4, n. 94)
2021 (ch. 4, n. 16)
21 (ch. 4, n. 23; ch. 4, n. 75)
22 (ch. 5, n. 16)
23 (ch. 4, n. 25)
24 (ch. 4, n. 32)
25 (ch. 4, n. 113)
26 (ch. 5, n. 1; ch. 5, n. 3)
Cowper
1 (ch. 8, n. 5)
4 (ch. 2, n. 35)
5 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 21;
ch. 8, n. 35)
6 (ch. 8, n. 9; ch. 12, n. 29)
9 (ch. 7, n. 11)
11 (ch. 3, n. 55)
1112 (ch. 3, n. 75)
17 (ch. 4, n. 103)
19 (ch. 4, n. 52)
1920 (ch. 4, n. 44)
21
a (ch. 4, n. 32)
b (ch. 4, n. 25)
c (ch. 4, n. 16)
d (ch. 5, n. 16)
22 (ch. 4, n. 77)
22 n (ch. 4, n. 84)
23 (ch. 5, n. 1)
David
1 (ch. 2, n. 2; ch. 2, n. 7; ch.
2, n. 9; ch. 2, n. 12; ch.
2, n. 22)
1 n. 1 (ch. 2, n. 15)
434 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
2 (ch. 8, n. 9)
11 (ch. 2, n. 23; ch. 4, n. 49)
12 (ch. 12, n. 4)
15 (ch. 3, n. 1; ch. 3, n. 55)
20 (ch. 3, n. 108)
30 (ch. 3, n. 86; ch. 8, n. 43;
ch. 10, n. 19)
32 (ch. 3, n. 112)
33 (ch. 2, n. 70; ch. 2, n.
114; ch. 8, n. 27)
37 (ch. 3, n. 109; ch. 3, n.
111)
42 (ch. 2, n. 50; ch. 3, n.
104)
57 ff. (ch. 4, n. 42)
61 (ch. 4, n. 2; ch. 4, n. 16
17)
61 ff. (ch. 6, n. 7)
62 (ch. 2, n. 27; ch. 4, n. 25)
63 (ch. 4, n. 2829)
64 (ch. 4, n. 32)
65 (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 20)
67 (ch. 4, n. 35; ch. 4, n. 41)
68 (ch. 4, n. 12; ch. 4, n. 15;
ch. 4, n. 57; ch. 4, n. 60
62; ch. 4, n. 6668; ch.
4, n. 71; ch. 4, n. 103;
ch. 4, n. 10708)
69 (ch. 4, n. 77; ch. 4, n. 86;
ch. 4, n. 9192; ch. 4, n.
95; ch. 4, n. 9799; ch.
4, n. 94; ch. 4, n. 113)
69.1 (ch. 4, n. 15)
70 (ch. 8, n. 45; ch. 8, n. 52;
ch. 8, n. 55)
70.4 (ch. 5, n. 16; ch. 9, n.
46)
136 (ch. 4, n. 94)
13761 (ch. 5, n. 8)
p. 244 n. 1 (ch. 3, n. 95)
Dulabani
1 (ch. 3, n. 1)
2 (ch. 3, n. 55)
2 (ch. 3, n. 75)
Duval
1 (ch. 9, n. 7)
2 (ch. 9, n. 2)
3 (ch. 9, n. 4)
4 (ch. 9, n. 14; ch. 9, n. 19)
6 (ch. 8, n. 9)
9 (ch. 9, n. 29; ch. 9, n. 41)
11 (ch. 9, n. 36)
12 (ch. 11, n. 9; ch. 11, n.
31)
13 (ch. 8, n. 21; ch. 8, n. 24;
ch. 8, n. 42)
16 (ch. 7, n. 9)
17 (ch. 7, n. 13; ch. 7, n. 20)
18 (ch. 2, n. 34; ch. 2, n.
146)
19 ff. (ch. 4, n. 44)
42 (ch. 2, n. 2; ch. 2, n. 5;
ch. 3, n. 1)
56 (ch. 2, n. 76)
63 (ch. 2, n. 131)
6369 (ch. 3, n. 15)
65 (ch. 3, n. 38)
66 (ch. 4, n. 77)
67 (ch. 4, n. 71)
68 (ch. 4, n. 57; ch. 4, n. 58;
ch. 4, n. 59; ch. 4, n. 70)
69 (ch. 4, n. 67)
70 (ch. 3, n. 55)
71 (ch. 3, n. 17)
72 (ch. 3, n. 61; ch. 3, n. 64)
73 (ch. 3, n. 67)
74 (ch. 3, n. 70)
75 (ch. 3, n. 3; ch. 3, n. 75;
ch. 3, n. 98)
77 (ch. 3, n. 96)
Authority Index 435

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
136 (ch. 4, n. 7779; ch. 4,
n. 84)
143147 (ch. 4, n. 25)
145 (ch. 4, n. 31)
148 (ch. 4, n. 3334)
14850 (ch. 4, n. 32)
151 (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n.
21)
152 (ch. 4, n. 38)
15253 (ch. 4, n. 35; ch. 4,
n. 41)
154 (ch. 8, n. 69)
155 (ch. 4, n. 113; ch. 5, n.
16)
163 (ch. 6, n. 9)
170, 1 (ch. 6, n. 30; ch. 6, n.
56)
170, 1, 9 (ch. 6, n. 28)
170, 2 (ch. 6, n. 65)
170, 3 (ch. 6, n. 53)
170, 4 (ch. 6, n. 61)
170, 5 (ch. 6, n. 66)
170, 10 (ch. 6, n. 46)
170, 11 (ch. 6, n. 47)
170, 12 (ch. 6, n. 58)
170, 13 (ch. 6, n. 37)
170, 13, 35 (ch. 6, n. 32)
170, 14 (ch. 6, n. 33; ch. 6,
n. 36)
170, 15 (ch. 6, n. 31)
170, 16 (ch. 6, n. 41)
170, 17 (ch. 6, n. 38)
170, 18 (ch. 6, n. 13)
170, 21 (ch. 6, n. 25)
170, 23 (ch. 6, n. 50)
170, 24 (ch. 6, n. 26)
170, 25 (ch. 6, n. 21)
170, 26 (ch. 6, n. 16)
170, 27 (ch. 6, n. 27)
170, 28 (ch. 6, n. 19)
170, 29 (ch. 6, n. 43; ch. 6,
n. 51)
170, 30 (ch. 6, n. 23)
170, 32 (ch. 6, n. 39)
170, 33 (ch. 6, n. 40)
170, 34 (ch. 6, n. 59)
170, 35 (ch. 6, n. 32)
170, 36 (ch. 6, n. 34)
170, 90 (ch. 6, n. 14)
171 (ch. 6, n. 10)
174, 5 (ch. 6, n. 62)
ch. ix (ch. 3, n. 8)
Ecchellens
5 (ch. 2, n. 22)
Elia of oba
26 (ch. 2, n. 29)
2728 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n.
75)
37 ff. (ch. 4, n. 44)
41 ff. (ch. 4, n. 77)
4445 (ch. 6, n. 29)
45 (ch. 6, n. 53; ch. 6, n. 61)
4546 (ch. 6, n. 56)
(ch. 2, n. 21)
(ch. 2, n. 21)
.. (ch. 2, n. 25)
.. (ch. 2, n. 23)
Gabriel of St. Joseph
5 (ch. 11, n. 31)
6 (ch. 2, n. 22)
9 (ch. 4, n. 44)
10 (ch. 7, n. 11)
11 (ch. 8, n. 5; ch. 11, n. 31)
11.e (ch. 8, n. 39)
12 (ch. 9, n. 51)
15 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75)
30 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
35 (ch. 4, n. 77)
37 (ch. 4, n. 107)
39 (ch. 5, n. 1)
436 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Healey
4 (ch. 2, n. 35; ch. 8, n. 21;
ch. 8, n. 39)
8 (ch. 3, n. 8)
89 (ch. 3, n. 75)
12 (ch. 5, n. 1)
10 (ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 4, n. 77;
ch. 4, n. 107)
11 (ch. 4, n. 16)
141 (ch. 3, n. 55)
4 (ch. 8, n. 16)
11 (ch. 4, n. 52)
Hoffmann, A.
4 (ch. 2, n. 35)
7 (ch. 2, n. 2; ch. 2, n. 22;
ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 24;
ch. 8, n. 35; ch. 11, n.
13; ch. 12, n. 29; ch. 12,
n. 31; ch. 12, n. 33)
8, p. 43 (ch. 7, n. 6)
8, pp. 8182 (ch. 7, n. 11)
8, p. 82 (ch. 7, n. 14; ch. 7,
n. 21)
9, p. 85 (ch. 3, n. 15)
11 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75)
14 (ch. 4, n. 57)
18 (ch. 4, n. 44)
19 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
20 (ch. 4, n. 16)
21 (ch. 5, n. 16)
22 (ch. 4, n. 77)
88 (ch. 3, n. 70)
Jacob bar akko
(ch. 3, n. 56)
.. (ch. 2, n. 31)
..

(ch. 2, n. 2526)
al-Kfarnissy
2 (ch. 2, n. 22; ch. 9, n. 27)
3 (ch. 3, n. 1; ch. 3, n. 55;
ch. 3, n. 75)
4.

.2 (ch. 4, n. 44)
4. (ch. 4, n. 77)
4. (ch. 5, n. 1)
5 (ch. 4, n. 1; ch. 4, n. 16;
ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 74)
5.

(ch. 5, n. 16)
5. (ch. 4, n. 113)
5. (ch. 4, n. 32)
Kiraz, Primer
17 (ch. 2, n. 37)
23 (ch. 8, n. 16)
30 (ch. 3, n. 104)
34 (ch. 4, n. 77)
45 (ch. 2, n. 22)
4647 (ch. 3, n. 75)
4748 (ch. 4, n. 44)
67 (ch. 5, n. 1)
70 (ch. 4, n. 16)
7475 (ch. 4, n. 77)
12425 (ch. 7, n. 11)
128 (ch. 5, n. 1)
16061 (ch. 4, n. 67)
164 (ch. 8, n. 52)
181 (ch. 4, n. 107)
192 (ch. 7, n. 11)
196 (ch. 3, n. 75)
196 (ch. 8, n. 2425)
198 (ch. 4, n. 77)
210 11 (ch. 2, n. 35)
210 12 (ch. 3, n. 75)
211 16 (ch. 3, n. 55)
211 19 (ch. 4, n. 16)
211 20 (ch. 5, n. 16)
211 21 (ch. 4, n. 44)
211 22 (ch. 4, n. 107)
212 2324 (ch. 4, n. 57)
212 2528 (ch. 5, n. 1)
212 29 (ch. 8, n. 16)
212 30 (ch. 8, n. 21; ch. 8, n.
2425)
Authority Index 437

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
212 31 (ch. 8, n. 35)
262 (ch. 4, n. 92)
Makdasi
(ch. 2, n. 22)
.. (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75)
,. (ch. 4, n. 77)
..

(ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 25;


ch. 4, n. 32)
,- (ch. 4, n. 44)
Manna
7 (ch. 2, n. 22)
8 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75)
34041 (ch. 4, n. 44)
Masius
5 (ch. 12, n. 21)
8 (ch. 4, n. 44)
10 (ch. 4, n. 18)
1011 (ch. 4, n. 76)
11 (ch. 4, n. 55; ch. 4, n. 80)
15 ff. (ch. 2, n. 144)
Merx
19 (ch. 4, n. 38)
50 (ch. 3, n. 94)
103 (ch. 2, n. 140; ch. 2, n.
143)
104 (ch. 2, n. 33)
136 (ch. 2, n. 32)
269 (ch. 12, n. 22)
270 (ch. 12, n. 23)
272 (ch. 2, n. 144)
. (ch. 2, n. 20)
Michaelis, C. B.
3 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 21;
ch. 8, n. 35)
21 ff. (ch. 4, n. 44)
22 (ch. 4, n. 103; ch. 4, n.
107)
23 (ch. 4, n. 78)
24 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32;
ch. 4, n. 113)
25 (ch. 4, n. 16)
II.a (ch. 2, n. 35)
II.e (ch. 8, n. 5)
13 ff. (ch. 3, n. 55)
Michaelis, J. B.
2 (ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 8, n. 16;
ch. 8, n. 21; ch. 8, n. 35;
ch. 11, n. 11)
4 (ch. 7, n. 12)
5 (ch. 9, n. 23)
8 (ch. 3, n. 75)
12 (ch. 4, n. 44)
13 (ch. 4, n. 103; ch. 4, n.
113)
14 (ch. 4, n. 77)
15 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
16 (ch. 4, n. 16)
17 (ch. 5, n. 1)
17 (ch. 6, n. 16; ch. 6, n. 19;
ch. 6, n. 2122; ch. 6, n.
2627; ch. 6, n. 30; ch.
6, n. 53; ch. 6, n. 56; ch.
6, n. 61; ch. 6, n. 65)
29 (ch. 3, n. 70)
Mingana
2 (ch. 8, n. 9)
3 (ch. 4, n. 51)
34 (ch. 4, n. 44)
10 (ch. 8, n. 48; ch. 8, n. 52)
1423 (ch. 3, n. 55)
15 ff. (ch. 4, n. 43)
1920 (ch. 3, n. 97)
24 ff. (ch. 3, n. 75)
31 (ch. 8, n. 49)
3136 (ch. 3, n. 101)
89 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 29)
90 (ch. 4, n. 32)
9193 (ch. 4, n. 16)
94 ff. (ch. 4, n. 77)
97 ff. (ch. 4, n. 57)
438 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
98 (ch. 4, n. 67; ch. 4, n. 69)
10001 (ch. 4, n. 107)
102 (ch. 4, n. 113)
Muraoka, CS
2 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 21;
ch. 8, n. 39)
4 (ch. 2, n. 35; ch. 3, n. 55;
ch. 3, n. 75)
5 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32;
ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 4, n. 77)
Muraoka, CS4H
2 (ch. 2, n. 35)
4 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75)
5 (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 44)
6 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32;
ch. 4, n. 77; ch. 4, n.
107; ch. 5, n. 1)
7 (ch. 3, n. 8)
Nestle
2.b (ch. 2, n. 3; ch. 2, n. 7;
ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 21)
3 (ch. 2, n. 28; ch. 3, n. 55;
ch. 3, n. 75)
6.a (ch. 3, n. 1516; ch. 4, n.
3)
6.b.n.1 (ch. 3, n. 62)
6.c (ch. 3, n. 100)
6.e (ch. 3, n. 92)
7.a (ch. 4, n. 95)
7.a n. 1 (ch. 4, n. 78)
7.b (ch. 4, n. 57)
8 (ch. 4, n. 44)
9.a (ch. 4, n. 25)
9.b (ch. 4, n. 32)
9.c (ch. 4, n. 35)
9.d (ch. 5, n. 16)
10 (ch. 5, n. 9; ch. 5, n. 11;
ch. 5, n. 13)
12 (ch. 5, n. 8)
13 (ch. 7, n. 11)
13 (ch. 7, n. 31)
Nimatallah
(ch. 2, n. 22)
(ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 4, n. 67;
ch. 4, n. 77; ch. 4, n.
107)
(ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 74;
ch. 5, n. 16)
(ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
Nldeke
1.A (ch. 9, n. 23)
1.B (ch. 2, n. 7; ch. 2, n. 10;
ch. 2, n. 1213; ch. 8, n.
5)
1.C (ch. 2, n. 17; ch. 2, n. 35;
ch. 8, n. 16)
3 (ch. 8, n. 52)
4.A (ch. 3, n. 8)
6 (ch. 3, n. 15; ch. 4, n. 57;
ch. 4, n. 67; ch. 4, n. 68;
ch. 4, n. 103)
7 (ch. 4, n. 107)
8 (ch. 3, n. 53; ch. 3, n. 55)
9 (ch. 3, n. 75; ch. 4, n. 113)
9.c (ch. 4, n. 35)
10 (ch. 3, n. 81)
11 (ch. 3, n. 100)
12 (ch. 3, n. 92)
13.A (ch. 3, n. 81)
14 (ch. 4, n. 3)
15 (ch. 4, n. 44)
16.A (ch. 4, n. 77)
16.B (ch. 4, n. 92; ch. 4, n.
9495; ch. 4, n. 9798)
16.C (ch. 4, n. 101)
16.D (ch. 4, n. 8586)
17 (ch. 4, n. 1516; ch. 4, n.
25)
18 (ch. 5, n. 1)
p. 10 n. 2 (ch. 4, n. 78)
Authority Index 439

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Appendix, 31617 (ch. 7, n.
9)
Palacios
6 (ch. 8, n. 9)
7 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 21)
8 (ch. 2, n. 35)
13 (ch. 3, n. 8)
15 (ch. 3, n. 15)
16 (ch. 3, n. 55)
18 ff. (ch. 3, n. 75)
28 ff. (ch. 4, n. 44)
32 (ch. 4, n. 16)
33 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
35 (ch. 5, n. 3; ch. 6, n. 53;
ch. 6, n. 56; ch. 6, n. 61;
ch. 6, n. 65)
Risius
171 (ch. 2, n. 4; ch. 2, n. 22)
173 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n.
75)
178 (ch. 4, n. 44)
Robinson
2 (ch. 2, n. 14)
4 (ch. 12, n. 48)
64 (ch. 4, n. 75)
Sciadrensis
(ch. 9, n. 2324; ch. 9, n.
41)
(ch. 2, n. 145)
(ch. 2, n. 35)
ff. (ch. 7, n. 11)
. ff. (ch. 3, n. 75)
- (ch. 4, n. 16)
.- (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
-- (ch. 4, n. 79)
- (ch. 4, n. 56)
(ch. 4, n. 107)
Segal
5 (ch. 8, n. 3)
6 (ch. 3, n. 113)
7 (ch. 2, n. 130; ch. 3, n. 2)
9 (ch. 3, n. 15)
1013 (ch. 4, n. 6)
12 (ch. 3, n. 18; ch. 4, n. 11)
13 (ch. 4, n. 710; ch. 4, n.
13; ch. 4, n. 104)
14 (ch. 3, n. 2931)
15 (ch. 3, n. 32)
1518 (ch. 4, n. 57)
1519 (ch. 4, n. 61)
1617 (ch. 4, n. 6364)
21 (ch. 3, n. 2028; ch. 3, n.
3337; ch. 3, n. 39; ch.
4, n. 112)
22 (ch. 4, n. 109; ch. 4, n.
111)
23 (ch. 4, n. 14)
25 (ch. 4, n. 11)
26 (ch. 3, n. 4144)
26 (ch. 4, n. 13)
28 (ch. 3, n. 4547)
29 (ch. 3, n. 4851)
30 (ch. 3, n. 54)
37 (ch. 4, n. 73)
41 (ch. 3, n. 63)
4243 (ch. 3, n. 65)
43 n. 1 (ch. 3, n. 66)
59 (ch. 6, n. 7)
68 (ch. 6, n. 22)
6869 (ch. 6, n. 26)
6970 (ch. 6, n. 24)
70 (ch. 6, n. 31; ch. 6, n. 35)
71 (ch. 6, n. 30)
72 (ch. 6, n. 41)
7273 (ch. 6, n. 45)
73 (ch. 6, n. 43; ch. 6, n. 56)
74 (ch. 6, n. 53; ch. 6, n. 61)
75 (ch. 6, n. 65)
8183 (ch. 6, n. 17)
83 (ch. 6, n. 18)
440 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
8485 (ch. 6, n. 28)
8586 (ch. 6, n. 23)
86 (ch. 6, n. 22)
8789 (ch. 6, n. 26)
8990 (ch. 6, n. 30)
9092 (ch. 6, n. 24)
9294 (ch. 6, n. 35)
9495 (ch. 6, n. 29)
9697 (ch. 6, n. 61)
97 (ch. 6, n. 55)
9899 (ch. 6, n. 31)
99100 (ch. 6, n. 36)
10001 (ch. 6, n. 37)
10103 (ch. 6, n. 45)
103 (ch. 6, n. 49)
104 (ch. 6, n. 48)
10406 (ch. 6, n. 41)
107 (ch. 6, n. 42)
10708 (ch. 6, n. 46)
108 (ch. 6, n. 11; ch. 6, n. 52)
109 (ch. 6, n. 12; ch. 6, n. 53)
110 (ch. 6, n. 54)
11113 (ch. 6, n. 56)
11315 (ch. 6, n. 65)
11517 (ch. 6, n. 60)
117 (ch. 6, n. 63)
122 (ch. 6, n. 15)
123 (ch. 6, n. 13)
124 (ch. 6, n. 19; ch. 6, n. 22;
ch. 6, n. 26)
125 (ch. 6, n. 20; ch. 6, n. 27)
12526 (ch. 6, n. 21)
126 (ch. 6, n. 13; ch. 6, n. 61)
12728 (ch. 6, n. 35)
128 (ch. 6, n. 31)
129 (ch. 6, n. 44)
12930 (ch. 6, n. 39)
13032 (ch. 6, n. 38)
132 (ch. 6, n. 30; ch. 6, n. 53)
13233 (ch. 6, n. 51)
13334 (ch. 6, n. 57)
135 (ch. 6, n. 65)
13536 (ch. 6, n. 67)
138 (ch. 6, n. 14)
139 (ch. 6, n. 40; ch. 6, n. 47)
140 (ch. 6, n. 50; 5859)
141 (ch. 6, n. 66)
Thackston
xxi (ch. 3, n. 75)
xxii (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 67;
ch. 4, n. 77; ch. 4, n.
107)
xxiii (ch. 4, n. 44; ch. 4, n. 52)
xxiii (ch. 7, n. 11)
xxxxi (ch. 3, n. 55)
Tullberg
2 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 35)
3 (ch. 7, n. 11)
4 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75)
8.1 (ch. 4, n. 107)
8.2 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
9 (ch. 5, n. 1)
14 (ch. 4, n. 44)
Uhlemann
1 (ch. 8, n. 5; ch. 8, n. 9)
1.R.2 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n.
21; ch. 8, n. 35)
1.R.5 (ch. 2, n. 17; ch. 7, n.
11; ch. 7, n. 21)
2 (ch. 3, n. 8)
2.R (ch. 3, n. 70)
3 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75;
ch. 3, n. 81)
4 (ch. 3, n. 15)
5 (ch. 4, n. 44)
6 (ch. 4, n. 77)
7 (ch. 4, n. 25; ch. 4, n. 32)
7.R.1 (ch. 4, n. 29)
7.R.2.b (ch. 5, n. 16)
7.R.2.c (ch. 4, n. 113)
Authority Index 441

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
8 (ch. 4, n. 16)
10 (ch. 5, n. 1)
Ungnad
3 (ch. 3, n. 55; ch. 3, n. 75;
ch. 4, n. 32; ch. 4, n. 44;
ch. 4, n. 77; ch. 4, n.
107; ch. 4, n. 113; ch. 5,
n. 1; ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8,
n. 21)
Yeates
2 (ch. 8, n. 5; ch. 8, n. 16;
ch. 8, n. 24; ch. 8, n. 35)
78 (ch. 4, n. 44)
8 (ch. 4, n. 107)
9 (ch. 4, n. 16; ch. 4, n. 25;
ch. 4, n. 32)
10 (ch. 4, n. 77)
11 (ch. 5, n. 1)
13 (ch. 12, n. 30)
13 (ch. 12, n. 33)
1718 (ch. 12, n. 18)
2 (ch. 2, n. 44)
p. 17 (ch. 12, n. 9)
Zschokke
1.2 (ch. 8, n. 9)
1.3 (ch. 8, n. 16; ch. 8, n. 24;
ch. 8, n. 35)
3.2 (ch. 3, n. 8)
3.3 (ch. 3, n. 15; ch. 3, n. 55;
ch. 3, n. 75)
4 (ch. 11, n. 13)
4.4.a (ch. 4, n. 44)
4.4.b (ch. 4, n. 77)
4.4.c (ch. 4, n. 32)
4.4.c. (ch. 4, n. 25)
4.4.d (ch. 4, n. 16)
4.4.e. (ch. 5, n. 16)
5 (ch. 7, n. 11; ch. 7, n. 21)
7 (ch. 5, n. 1; ch. 5, n. 33)
12 (ch. 7, n. 6)
12 (ch. 12, n. 31)
12 (ch. 12, n. 33)



ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
B
B
i
i
b
b
l
l
i
i
c
c
a
a
l
l
C
C
i
i
t
t
a
a
t
t
i
i
o
o
n
n
s
s

Gen. 6:4 331
Gen. 8:13 325
Gen. 31:43 314
Gen. 32:9 317
Gen. 43:7 297, 302
Gen. 47:9 321
Gen. 49:9 289

Exod. 5:21 311
Exod. 10:7 306
Exod. 14:31 306
Exod. 16:3 311
Exod. 31:15 314
Exod. 34:6 327

Num. 36:3 303

Josh. 9:8 297

Judg. 14:4 316

Ruth 1:20 314

2 Sam. 1:19 304
2 Sam. 3:16 292
2 Sam. 12:13 314
2 Sam. 14:7 327

1 Kgs. 8:17 328
1 Kgs. 18:34 324

2 Kgs. 12:16 298

Job 34:7 300, 328

Ps. 1:6 292, 314
Ps. 2:6 311
Ps. 51:1 307
Ps. 66:2 312
Ps. 78:20 306
Ps. 112:1 296
Ps. 116/7: 1 305
Ps. 123/4:7 314
Ps. 132/3:1 328
Ps. 143/4:14 306

Prov. 23:15 327

Isa. 1:20 330
Isa. 1:21 323
Isa. 1:24 300
Isa. 10:30 305
Isa. 11:10 ch. 3 n. 40
Isa. 26:2 300
Isa. 32:11 ch. 2 n. 51
Isa. 37:27 ch. 2 n. 52
Isa. 40:21 311
Isa. 45:4 ch. 4 n. 19
Isa. 46:12 308
Isa. 48:1 328
Isa. 55:13 ch. 9 n. 53
Isa. 58:13 298
Isa. 62:5 ch. 9 n. 54
Isa. 65:12 ch. 9 n. 55
Isa. 65:18 ch. 9 n. 48
Isa. 66:15 ch. 4 n. 110
Isa. 66:19 ch. 4 n. 110

Jer. 22:18 324
Jer. 52:34 306

Lam. 1:12 290
444 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Lam. 2:20 327
Lam. 3:55 308
Ezek. 36:22 327
Ezek. 36:32 314

Dan. 4:31 305
Dan. 11:4 315
Dan. 12:8 297, 324

Amos 2:7 314

Mic. 1:5 327

Mt. 1:1 ch. 5 n. 4
Mt. 1:2 299
Mt. 1:5 90
Mt. 3:5 ch. 4 n. 88
Mt. 3:7 ch. 4 n. 89
Mt. 3:8 ch. 4 n. 90
Mt. 7:5 330
Mt. 11:4 319
Mt. 12:3 302
Mt. 12:42 299
Mt. 25:34 301

Mk. 16:6 292

Lk 9:38 295
Lk. 11:31 299
Jn. 1:1 314
Jn 1:30 294
Jn. 1:42 299
Jn. 1:46 306
Jn. 11:56 311
Jn. 14:20 202
Jn. 20:12 90

Acts 9:17 320
Acts 25:10 300
Acts 27:24 305

Rom. 1:30 324
Rom. 8:38 314

1 Cor. 15:42 310

Gal. 3:1 305
Gal. 4:10 289
Gal. 5:22 300

Col. 1:2 311

1 Tim. 6:11 ch. 4 n. 23

2 Tim. 2:22 ch. 4 n. 23




ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
C
C
V
V
P
P
a
a
t
t
t
t
e
e
r
r
n
n
s
s

CCC 223
CCCt 223
CCCty 223
CCC 221
CCVC 221
CCVC 221
CVCVC 221
neCCC 223
teCCuC 223


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
G
G
r
r
a
a
m
m
m
m
a
a
t
t
i
i
c
c
a
a
l
l
&
&
T
T
e
e
c
c
h
h
n
n
i
i
c
c
a
a
l
l
T
T
e
e
r
r
m
m
s
s

Arabic
Arab. elongation 472
Arab.



script of the
gospel 453
Greek
284
289
284
453
Persian
drawn out 472
Syriac

.: 271
,.. .

pen of bird 442


.

form 453
..- acute 272
. ..... asterisk
271
,..



the mnemonic 65, 71
.

.-.


elements 56
.

t.


Estrangel 45354
..


vowel name 189
..

long 193
..




signs of annunciation
56
,.:


signs of writings
56
.s...


letters of comple-
tion 72


signs 56
:


Edessan letters
453
:...


generic letters
70

_..

Bardaian Alphabet
367
,..s.


healthy/perfect
letters 74
-..-


weak/sick signs 74,
131

. grave 272
,



220
and abbreviation mark 257
and frequency 119
and numerals 355
and quotation marks 254
and spacing 417
and vowel shift 194
in Nuros reform 461
..:,


Nuros bdl marker 461
...

weeping 312
.-. short 272
.s. ,

after ely 323


Grammatical & Technical Terms 451

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
:.. ..


termination of
narrative 331
:..


detached 461
t..


chain 19091
.s. t..




upper el 190
.,. t..



lower el 190

.,.

lower 320, 283


,: .,.

taty of three
points 322
.... .,.

simple taty
321
.-

moderator 306
,:




three rh 305
,.. ,.:



three points 322
.s. taqlab (computus) 358,
ch. 7 n.
.,

writing in a straight man-


ner 155





ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
G
G
r
r
a
a
p
p
h
h
I
I
n
n
d
d
e
e
x
x

! 244
% 466
( 25, 273
) 25, 273
* 24, 28, 273; encoding syme
678
? 244
[ 2425, 273
] 2425, 273
_ encoding sern 678
< 25, 27, 273, 251
= (as hyphen) 172
> 25, 273
254
254
25, 273
273
24, 273
397
0,1,,9 363
Arabic
244
25, 244, 246
25, 244
,,,, 364
171
590
584, 596, 633
591
587
581, 584, 587, 633
596, 633
587
584
584, 587
633
591
584, 587
584, 587
587, 633
633
633
See also under 590
Armenian
See under 59697
CPA
711
Greek
175
194, 366
366
366
136, 17475
133
175
174
17576
153
454 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
175
63, 68
153
Y 17677
174
IPA
see p. xxvii
Latin
u 153
x 12
see also under 649 ff.
Malayalam
see 691 ff.
Syriac
Linear: 1 Point
. 242, 323 ff.
bar ely 323
psq 324
qawm 325
Linear: 2 Points
: 242, 327 ff.
mqmn 327
pelg mqmn 329
ry ta 331
lp

zawg 330
wy 330
zawg 330
242
242
ely 328
lp

ely 328
Linear: 3 Points
, 242
Linear: 4 Points
242
. 242
242
Linear: Symbols
: 27, 251
\ 27, 251
| 28, 249, 273
~ (tilde) as line filler 463
271
271
271, 275
271
<. 27, 25152
(bly) 461
242
252
Supralinear: 1 Point
289 ff.
eyn 299
grr 289
mammrn 304
mawwyn 294
mp

sn 295
mqallsn 296
maln 297
mzn 292
mzn rabb 293
n 298
pq 300
qry 301
rem 302
lp

grr 289
Graph Index 457

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389

633
vs. 77
xxvii, 20, 30, 126, 225
19, 30, 78, 126, 201
and sorting 126

584, 590

xxvii, 584, 587, 590


and mna 311
and n 298
particle 292
and quotations 253
vs. 78, 201
xxvii, 20, 80,

587, 590
suffix 235
vs. 79
xxvii, 2021

15354, 157, 189,


194

153, 157, 189

153

153
. 4

12

757
and mhaggyn 205
and mna 311
and n 298
and qawm 325
and lp

mayyn 310
as matres lectionis 142
as vowel 129
conjunction 289, 292
for // and /o/ 134
in .- and .. 26
in Old Syriac 2324
spelling variation 98 ff.
vs. 79
vs. 80
xxvii
596

633

596

596

714
vs. 75
xxvii, 599
xxvii, 12627, 591, 599

590
xxvii, 126, 584, 587,
590, 599, 719
xxvii, 127

154, 157, 189


// and // 135
and maln 204
and mhaggyn 205
as matres lectionis 142
as vowel 129
in Old Syr 20, 23, 25
point under 221
spelling variation 102 ff.
vs. . vs. 81
393, 757
xxvii
- vs. 76

590, 596

714

xxvii, 587, 590, 596

714
Old Syriac 19
Graph Index 459

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Ligatures
Arabic
13, 125
Syriac
389
: 390
389
392
390, 757
t 125, 590, 389, 757
1 172
x 392
13, 390, 757
_ 390
390
_ 388, 390, 757
388
392


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
M
M
a
a
n
n
u
u
s
s
c
c
r
r
i
i
p
p
t
t
s
s
I
I
n
n
d
d
e
e
x
x

Ambrosian
B 21 inf. 734
C 313 inf. 734
Aqta
Summer Phanqitho ch. 5 n. 18
Winter Phanqitho ch. 4 n. 72
Berlin
Sachau 222 ch. 3 n. 59
Beth Mardutho
Unnumbered MS ch. 11 n. 16
Birmingham
Mingana 44 595, 600, 609610
Mingana 110 60910
British Library
Add. 7,157 ch. 3 n. 41, 44
Add. 8,729 499
Add. 12,133 342
Add. 12,138 28586, 292, 297300, 30206, 308, 31112,
31416, 32124, 32728, 306, 324, 330
Add. 12,150 446; 499; ch. 2 n. 40, 41; ch. 3 n. 914, 23, 25, 2931, 35;
ch. 4 n. 7, 112
Add. 12,153 499
Add. 12,166 ch. 3 n. 39, ch. 4 n. 111
Add. 12,178 123, 290, 305, 310, 314, 318, ch. 6 n. 8
Add. 14,425 299; ch. 3 n. 11, 2122, 2728, 32; ch. 4 n. 810, 64
Add. 14,429 174
Add. 14,431 ch. 3 n. 24, 26, 36
Add. 14,445 ch. 3 n. 20
Add. 14,448 ch. 3 n. 4851
Add. 14,459 304, 313, 320
462 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Add. 14,460 306; ch. 3 n. 4243, 4546
Add. 14,471 212, 319, 465, ch. 3 n. 47
Add. 14,512 441
Add. 14,542 442
Add. 14,581 ch. 7 n. 8
Add. 17,102 212
Add. 17,104 211
Add. 17,107 ch. 3 n. 3334
Add. 17,126 446
Add. 17,176 ch. 4 n. 109
Add. 17,210 252
Add. 17,231 499
Add. 25,876 299, 481
Cairo
Franciscan Centre Syr. 11 595
Cambridge
Add. MS. 1975 499
BFBS no. 449 (MS Syr. 7) ch. 9 n. 57
Or. 929 605
Hackensack
ao Phanqitho ch. 9 n. 49
Harvard
Syr. 54 595
Syr. 96 ch. 8 n. 26, 68
oms
52 ch. 3 n. 52
56 637, ch. 12 n. 2
Jerusalem, St. Mark
Syr. 31 463, ch. 5 n. 17, 27
Syr. 129 ch. 4 n. 65
Leningrad
Cod. Syr. 1, New Series 446
Manuscripts Index 463

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
Mor Gabriel
52 ch. 11 n. 30
180 ch. 8 n. 20
Paramus
Winter Phanqitho ch. 2 n. 38
Paris
Arabe 6725 ch. 4 n. 36
Berlin
Pet. 9 285, 293, 297, 302, 30708, 311, 314, 324, 328
Teaneck
ao Phanqitho ch. 8 n. 23, ch. 9 n. 47
Qymt Phanqith ch. 3 n. 79, ch. 5 n. 10
awmo usoyo ch. 9 n. 45
Winter Phanqitho ch. 8 n. 63
Vatican
Sir. 152 ch. 3 n. 8485
Sir. 186 499
Sir. 477 602
Sir. 491 609
Sir. 544 595
Yale
Syr. 5 ch. 3 n. 5960
Syr. 9 595
Yerevan
Matenedaran no. 4618 641

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
W
W
o
o
r
r
d
d
I
I
n
n
d
d
e
e
x
x

The following is an index, not a glossary; as such, entries are
listed purely in alphabetical order.

Arabic
...



62

type of plant 116


give me 596
593
Amir 116
lighten 593
593
Caliph 594
to write 583
banana 594
and fix 593
593
and everything 589
and everyone who 589
English
America ....


, ....


613
Australia .

..:.


,
..:,.



614
bus


611
cassette -.-


611
film .s.


612
folklore .::. 613
liters ::


614
piano L.

, L.

611
police ..:.

612
studio .,.


614
tea .

611
telegraph .-



611
unsuccessful 373
Greek
310
603
604
116
271
272
272
272
133
133
133
203
133
153
153
136
614
272
147
12
310
272
272
174
158
604
466 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
583, 603
Old Syriac
March 20
.. (= ..) I shall polish
24
.. in the month 20
, (= :) house 25
- all 24
,.... (= ,.... 20) 22
.. (= ..) sign 24
,.. year 20
,.: (= ,..:) pupil 25
.. (= ..) run away 24
-. (=-.) witness 22
-: (= -s.) theirs 25
..- (= ...-) chair 25
Syriac

father 116, 175, 433

fruit 116

to be evil 92
,



,.: ..



62
.-

fatherly 382, 411


,

receipt ch. 2 n. 55
. to cause to cry 133
s

to cause to rot 116


.

feather 116
.

lead 116
,.. .

20
.

to be evil 92
L.


struggle 105
-.

for ..


his trials
247
,.s



ice ch. 2 n. 55
.


to lengthen 116
.


roof 116
.



wage 116
.


letter 105
,.:

double door 105


,.

opp. ,.

earth 194,
195

Holm Oak 116

O 27, 241

or 33, 241


sumac 194
:-


that is 424
.


sour buttermilk 194
.


way 98
-.


buffalo 110
,


ambassador 105

be careful 224

he went 75, 204


,:

she went 204


.



..

of my brother 202
...


the last 204
....



another 91, 266
:...




meal ch. 2 n. 55


,


he informed 92
L..


struggle 105
..


letter 105
,.

hand 116, 142, 237


...,.

in your (f.) hands


91
...,.

in your (f.) hands


91
,.


, ,. which? 116, 142
,.:,.




double door 105
Word Index 467

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
,.


he knew 89
,.,.


knowledge 89
.

. Job 286
..,.


buffalo 110
,,.


ambassador 105
,.

as 33, 109, 311, 425
,.

204
...


as 33, 304
,.s.


those 121
.s.



tree 475
....


Israel 96
:


to be 266
-

perhaps ch. 2 n. 55
L,-

as 109, 425
,.-

, ,.-

likewise 109, 425


..:

slanderer 424
...-

foreigner 12
t

but 31415, 422
t

vs.

mourned 194
t

the letter 58
.... -




Christ, God 247
.



..:t



and to Elijah
194
..:t


to Elijah 194


the letter 58, 116


to teach 116


one thousand 116


ship 116
.

mother 175
,


decoration 175
,..

opp.

Amen 194
...

Amir 116
...

art of speaking 116


..

said 202
and mqmn 327
and np

319
..


command, lamb 116
..


she says 116
..


I shall polish 24
..


she said 104
L

I 202
L

I am 204
L

202
.


and spacing 419
,..


we 81, 111
,.

121
and spacing 419
.

, .

, .

person 204, 229


,.,

you (pl. fem.) 121


....



Syriac/Syrian, Assyrian
91
..


physicians 182
..:.



astrology 390
...


, ..


circle 105
..

I shall ascend 202


..


and he lift up 148
..

Sketis (place name) 158


.


double 9596

also
and compounds 425
.-

also now 425


,..

us too 425
t

not even 425


,s

for us 425
,

even if 425
....

, ....



bishop
258, 266
468 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
.... Ephrem 470

be careful 97
..

221
.


220
s.


,.

key ch. 2 n. 55
....


acquired 111
....


acquired 111
,...


four quarters 426
.


desirable ch. 2 n. 55
t


feet 90
,.



bridal veil ch. 2 n. 55


exultation 90
,.



open space ch. 2 n. 55
..


spacious 90

sacrament 95


virtue 116
.


lion, leprosy 116

be long 97
...


sprinkling ch. 2 n. 55
..


Ruth 90
...


firmament ch. 2 n. 55
:


trembling ch. 2 n. 55
..



document 90, ch. 2 n. 55
t..



borrowed 95
:t..




apparently ch. 2 n. 55
....


they (m.) found 232

I surrendered 205
,.


six ch. 2 n. 55
.,.



was carried 205

he came 147

he comes 147

I shall come 147

vs.

204


sign opp.

came opp.


comes opp.

I shall come
238

sign 147


sign 147
.

to be evil (reflex.) 92


was eaten 205
s

to rot 116
.

to be evil (reflex.) 92
.

was added 111


..

was ordered 604

he was killed ch. 4 n. 33


.


220
.


220


was afraid 205
.


was added 111



...

, ..

barren 107

a well 179

fortress 97
.

Babylon 106

Babylon 106
,

in that, because 424


.,



therefore 424
t,

because not 424


,.,

because from 424


..,

because very 424


L,


because he thought 424
t-

abstinence 194
... -


he was embarrassed by
me 208
.-.


first born 256
-.


benediction, borax 116
-.


bowing 116
..,

falcon 99
opp. ...

194
Word Index 469

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
t

cup, bowl 110


L,..

eggshaped 105
..

fortress 97
:


in the house 417
:

he who is in the
house 417
:


of the house 417
:



and in his house
416
:


and the house 417
:,.:


and to him who is
in the house 417
:.:


to the house 417
:,.:

to him who is in
the house 417
..

evil one 179, 183


. he cried 133
..

she cries 152

:.



vs. , ..

you cry
421
,,:


at all times 425
,.:


at every time 425
s

to cause to rot 116


s

cup, bowl 110


,.s

without 229
,.s

without him 229


...




free men 424
....


, . ..



humans 424
t. ,.


words 231
...


opp. L...

incense
194
meat 379
,.

opp. ,..

bottle 194
.



..s. .



councilor 424
.

councilor 424
.


. ..


confederate
424
.


..

having the same


name 424
.


...

neighbor 424
,s.





enemy 424
..,s.



adversary at law
424
,s.



enemy 424
..

vs. L .

I seek 421
L,.

eggshaped 105
.....



67
. son 133


cypress 473
.

he blessed 275
..

human 424
.


day of the week 266
.. ,


schools 231

to cut 92

treasure 96
.

side 110

my side 107

204
..



107
.

opp. .

chosen one
194
.


man 249

youth 473
-


opp. -


to incline 194



gehana 107
470 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
.

beam 116
.

well 116
t.

, t.

flame 101


to cut 92
,

treasure 96
.. particle 30, 471
.. 30
L-.

gehana 107

to put in motion 77
t

hay 110
....s coffin ch. 10 n. 13
...s 538
L..s

, ..s

revelation 101
ts

hay 110
.

, .


58
..

side 110
.

leper 116
.

leprosy 116


wolf
opp.


of the father 237

<

to designate 92
,.

sacrifice 206



205

, L

fatness 101
:



-,.:

to their place
212
:

Dr. 261
.

he was afraid 151


,s.

fear 205
... diatessaron 133
.... service 133
-s.

theirs 25
,.

particle 33, 471


and mna 311
..

judge 237
..

judgment 237
... ... 700 dinrs 225
...

monk 261, 266


..: covenant 133
...:


opp.


194
.:

syme as /e/ 158


.-

pure 162
.-| 162
:-


162
,:- 162
<

to designate 92
..:



and ts 306
,.,....:

true 230
..



shape 162
,. 162


,.,: =
,.,.:

for ages and ages


477


opp.


to tread upon 194
..

opp.

gift 194

L..

prefect 203

this (f.) is 204


he 36, 203

142

203

203

that MASC 36, 57, 142,


144
Word Index 471

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389

to be 79


203

204

414

she 142

203

that FEM 142


t..


temple 188
- -:.




the temple of God
218
....


faith 468, 266
,.:


121
-..s



266
,. .


266
.

266
.

these 141
opp.

. those 237
.

those 141
.

,

sweet 194

run ch. 4 n. 23
-


here 422

57
.

papers 228

57
:.

glass 116
,


to shine 116
,



small bell 116
..

,.

righteous 229
..

wary 115


1
to shine,
2
to admonish 115


coin, type of onion 116

, ,.

57

t.

cord 141
t. corruption 141
,.

bride 116
,.

joy 116
,.

around 229
,.,.

around you 229


,.. ,.

around Jordan
228
,.

to make new 143


,.

new 143
..



idle 116
..



porter 116
.:.. ,...


Soviet Union
612
....

opp.

mercy 194
..


desert 116
..

stork 116
:,.


I saw him 221
..



-...



for their lives 81
t.

uncle 193
t.

sand, uncle 114


.s.


they mixed 100
,s.

to dream 143
.s.

dream 143
... donkeys 140
....


500 425
,..

we 111
,..


mercy 116
,..


shame 116
....


another 91
.s...



arklean 266
472 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
::,.


accurately 93

t

dew 22, 92

good 141

141
opp.

good 237
,


good ones 229
.


goodness 296
.. blessed 134, 266
.... .. 83

example 216
.... 583
..

he ordered 604
..

(computer) system 604,


ch. 3 n. 110
vs. ..

order 194
..

(liturgical) order 604, ch.


3 n. 110
t

,

dew 92

..

suitable 94
,.

he knew 89
,. , ..

to know 30
,.,.

knowledge 89
-.

he gave 204
-.


Judah 289
...


opp.


day 194
...

Greek 266
.,...


only-begotten 81
...

seas 204

Israel 96
.

be careful 97
..

be long 97

Jesus 89

.-

suffering 97
L..-

a storm 97
. -

justice 92, 266


. -

harp 92
- rock 133
,-


and mna 311
.-

2021, 26, 24, 101, 180,


240
Nuros reform 186
L.-

sickness 98
..-

quire 266
...-

chair 25, 266


..-

suffering 97
L...-

a storm 97
-

every 27, 24, 101, 180,


240, 715
and compounds 425


and all of you
473
,.:

each one 425


..:

every day 425


,.:

everything 425
..:

every blemish 425


..:

everyone 425
.:

every hour 425


..-

justice 92
..-

harp 92
-..-

their vineyard 205


.-

bow 110
:


he wrote 6, 10, 583
-:


and he who wrote it
Word Index 473

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
416
:


22, 420
.:


420
,:


204
.:


204
.:


204
,:


72
:


, , ,.. ,:


421
:


373
: she writes 133
,..:



, ,.. ,.:



421
::



, , ,.:




421
..:

175
.: 133
: book ABS. 6
:


680
:


215
:

229, 398


Book of em
152
-:


his book 235, 418
-:



her book 235, 397
-:


their book 418
.:



his books 235
.:


and maln 204
-.:




her books 235

t


and smk 314
,.s. t

not begotten 310


_t

cymbal 390
....:


clothing 482
,..:

, ,.:


brick 110
,:



dish 110
-.:


to her 200

to him 152
....--:




lexicon 136
..:


against 101
....:

Lucius 153
..:

liters 614
.s..:


.s.s




in the evenings
390
..:


opp. ..:


dough 194
::


he is not 204
..:


for you 204
::

dish 110
,:

253
..:

particle 306
...:

opp. ...:

to chew 194
t...:


against 101
.....:



, formerly 230
..

s languages 226

.


and mammrn 304
.

hundred 202, 229, 425


..

gives life 92
....


life-giver 92
,.:.-.


food 92
:.


:..:

to learn 133,
202
... 681
.. to cry 133
,.


,. well then 422
478 Indices


ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
t.



t.



in the melody of 266
,.s.


key 186
,.

he rose 219
,.

152
t.


chapter 266
.

and he broke 276


..

to read
and mqmn 327
..

and he reads 221


...

, ...

, ...


they
called me 94
..


read 221
,.. ,...


204
....


reading 261, 266
:..

I read 219
..

she read 219
..


became old 222
....

elder 266
,..


bow 110, 116
.

,.

stubble 116
..:,. universal 133


sacrament 95

big 168
and compounds 425

big (pl.) 168


:

elder of the house 425


L-.

archpriest 425
t


feet 90

to run ch. 4 n. 23

their quarter 205


exultation 90
....




Holy Spirit 426
..


spacious 90
..


drawing 24
..


wickedness 98

sacrament 95
....


from philanthropic 426
.s...



have mercy upon me
426
..


insects 228
L-- ..


archpriest 256
..

and compounds 425


..


head 105
L-...


archpriest 425
.. .-



stallions 229
.


high 168
..


Ruth 90
_...

185


head 105
.

utterance 266

t..


borrowed 95
.

he asked 194
.. (for ...) glory 20
,...



70 277
,.


dill 162
,:. 162
.

he sent 205
.. glory 255
..

equal 222, 433


.. ..

consubstantial
310
.. glory 255
...



glory 20, 98, 255, 258,
260, 266
Word Index 479

ch. 1: p. 1 ch. 2: 31 ch. 3: 59 ch. 4: 91 ch. 5: 115 ch. 6: 131
ch. 7: 159 ch. 8: 177 ch. 9: 209 ch. 10: 227 ch. 11:291 ch. 12: 323
ch. 13: p. 353 ch. 14: 359 ch. 15: 365 ch. 16: 369 ch. 17: 377 ch. 18: 389
,...

they are worthy MASC. 222


,...


we were even 222
..

partakers 133
,s.

end 261, 266, 274


.s.



completed opp. .s.


peace 237
...


heaven 229
... ...





upper part of the
brain 229
. .

listen 209
.... Simon 134
,..



,..


quickly 417
,...



recently 230
..

began 150
....

true 228
-..


etc. 266
-..


266
-..

266
,.,.



foundation 425

. . . TMS 263
. to cry 133

vs.


vs. wonder 194
: faith 178, 379,
,.:

a 3-year old 116


,.:

third 116


their ox 205

mulberry 116

sycamore 116
:

she shall write 103


.:

21
,...:

pupil 25
,:



three 206
...,.:


you three 229
,.,:


thirty 229
-..

strange ones 229
..

you/she shall escape 24


-.

both of them 229


,.

two 152
,.

229
,...

glory 266
,...

256, 260
...



she praises 104
....



nineteen 229
uroyo
-t.

the angels 718


..,.

the ancient ones 717


s ..

Beljium 719
:.


creation 717
-..:

talk 719


he (Midyat dialect) 718
-..


the (f.) 717
,.

one 717
..


weak 719
....-


they say 718
,....:



to our children 718
L ,.



this thing 721


remains 720