This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Dogs with different needs and problems were brought together in the same training class. Most dog owners simply wanted to teach their dogs to be good companions—they were taught the basic course. Obedience, agility, tracking and hunting de otees worked on skills that ga e their dogs a head start for doing those specialized tasks. !ome dogs already had some ad anced training, but were not yet under good control—they took the regular course, but did it on an accelerated schedule. "uppies were put on limited play#training. In class, each student demonstrated what he or she worked on the pre ious week. $he other students then criti%ued how the student performed the task. I inter ened with comment and aid only when needed, or when asked. !ome students used the instruction material as self#study—they only came to class when they needed assistance. $he described training procedures are precise and detailed, and photo se%uences &photos are not yet a ailable in this ersion' clearly show how they should be done. (ut, when training by yourself, you may unknowingly perform some procedures incorrectly. )or the best training result, then, I recommend that you either work informally with others or use this course material with professional instruction at a participating dog training club. Mainly Reward Training Dogs can be trained to do basic obedience skills and most other specialized acti ities, using only rewarding techni%ues. In my e*perience, punishing procedures were completely omitted in the training of most +work dogs.+ It was done this way because punishment, e en the mild sort, has the tendency to draw the dog's attention to his handler rather than to the task at hand. ,enneled work dogs are not re%uired to obser e the same rules of conduct that are demanded of the home#based -ompanion Dog. $he handler of a work dog usually o erlooks his dog's beha ior anomalies, if they do not interfere with the dog's ability to do a re%uired task, and who is willing to work whene er the occasion arises. $he -ompanion dog, howe er, li es in a di erse social milieu. .e must obser e some social niceties. Misbeha ior and disobedience by the -ompanion dog in a social setting can be punished, and usually are. "unishment can take arious/many forms0 1 If the dog tries to e*it an open door to the outside before he's told he may, the door is closed and the dog loses the chance to play outdoors on that occasion. 1 If he fails to come when called during a social period, he can be gi en some penalty work, such as close#order drills for a minute or less. 1 $he same drill penalty can be gi en to the dog who tries to step off the curb at a street corner before he's released to go on. 1 $he dog who disobeys your command to +sit+ or +down+ when guests arri e or continues to annoy them in any manner can be made to spend a short time#out period in his home cage. 1 $he dog who nips a person, no matter what the pro ocation, is gi en a serious +talking to+—nipping is unacceptable. A Gentling Effect on Te !era ent
!ome dogs are shy or fearful and may show some defensi e aggression. $he gentle approach that's taken in this course has an ameliorati e effect on the dog's temperament. In addition, if you are training in a class setting, your dog has a chance to meet old friends and become ac%uainted with new ones—making him more outgoing and friendly from the e*perience. $he 2ame#playing class setting especially helps those dogs who don't yet know how to act with others—they may ha e had only limited friendly close encounters with other dogs. !ocially depri ed dogs gradually adapt to this friendly class setting, and are usually playing with other dogs after one or two sessions. .owe er, on rare occasion, you'll find a dog that is unfriendly with another in class. )ight they might, if gi en the chance. $hough the course e*perience has a gentling effect on dogs, this type of aggression is handled more %uickly with beha ior therapy3 a counter# conditioning procedure is usually all that's needed. -ounter#conditioning helps to change an +a ersi e+ circumstance into a +friendly+ one &!ee -hapter 45. (eha ior $herapy'0 6ou'd arrange for pleasant things to happen whene er the two dogs meet. $he 2o erning "rinciples of the "rogram $he Dog0 &4' learns a new strategy to get the things that he wants, and a oids their delay or loss. &7' learns that he gets most of the pleasures of life by working for them. &8' learns to recognize the occasions &signals, cues' and opportunities when he can earn rewards. &9' learns that he is not re%uired to work, and that he may %uit at any time without penalty beyond the loss of reward on that occasion. $he .andler0 &4' takes the dog to places where he can earn rewards. &7' informs the dog when a reward#filled session is about to begin &the sound, :;<D6, is the signal for doing that'. &8' gi es the signals and commands that tell the dog what to do when he is working for rewards and shows him how to perform. &9' deli ers the rewards and/or nonphysical punishments when earned by the dog. &5' calms and rela*es the dog whene er he becomes an*ious, fearful or aggressi e. &=' gi es the dog lo e, affection, and care at any time—the dog doesn't work to get them. Dog#.andler :elationships0 During training, or at any time for that matter, treat your dog as a close friend, rather than as an ad ersary. < oid doing anything that will cause your dog to be an*ious or apprehensi e. :ela* in his presence. >hene er you talk to the dog, do it in a soothing, %uiet oice. <cti ely work towards impro ing your dog's %uality of life with playtime, pleasure strolls, and plenty of pets and hugs. $he ?eash :ule for -lass $ime0 ,eep your dog on leash while in class. Do not leash# correct or scold the dog for anything that he does during this time. <ggressi e dogs must be kept out of reach of other dogs and people, until they become more friendly # with beha ior therapy, if necessary.
T"e Co#r$e E%erci$e$ $he core e*ercises for the companion dog are !it, Down, :ise, !tay, -ome#when#called, .alt, !end#away, and -asual !trolling on ?oose ?ead. <dditional obedience e*ercises that anyone cares to do for fun or competition are heeling drills, !it#front and finish#at# heel and ?ong sits and ?ong downs. If you perform the training procedures as gi en, without modification, the control that you will get o er these beha iors will be impressi e. 6ou will get that kind of control without stressing either you or your dog emotionally. $he training thus has a positi e effect on both you and your dog's disposition and temperament. 6our dog, howe er, may ha e stressful moments. >hene er they arise, you will be shown how to deal with them with calming and rela*ing techni%ues &see -hap. 45. (eha ior $herapy'. &earning Princi!le$ ,nowing how to correctly reinforce and disable beha iors is necessary for the training of any dog, by any training method. $he reinforcing sounds, 2OOD and O@$, are used in this course to reinforce &strengthen' desirable beha iors at the moment when these beha iors happen3 while the disabling sounds AO and $IM; are used to disable &weaken' unwanted beha iors. $ry to limit the AO and $IM; disabling mostly to social misbeha iors and only scarcely to training miscues in this first course. 6ou'll find this to be a highly sophisticated training method, but one that you can learn to use effecti ely. >ith it, you'll be able to get your dog to do anything that he is physically capable of doing, pro ided that you use the reinforcing and disabling signals correctly, and use the kinds of rewards that will get the dog to perform with enthusiasm. :einforcers0 $he reinforcing sounds, 2OOD and O@$, tell the dog that the response he Bust made will be followed by a reward. $o be effecti e, the reinforcing sound must come on at the e*act moment the correct response is made. In that way, the sounds clearly tell the dog which responses are in his best interest to make. )ollowing the reinforcing sound, the dog is rewarded. $he :einforcement/:eward :ule0 +)irst reinforce the response, then reward the dog.+ Ae er try to reward the dog without reinforcing the response first, otherwise you might find his response drifting into something different from what you had in mind. <nd ne er start any reward#deli ery mo ements before you gi e the reinforcing sound. <lso, as a rule, always follow a reinforcer with a tangible reward. If your dog doesn't get a fair payoff for the work he performs, he likely will %uit on you. If ade%uately compensated, your dog will be eager to perform. $he rule holds e en when the dog is in Obedience competition0 when all e*ercises are completed in the ring, the dog is +told+ that he will be rewarded after he lea es the ring.
Disablers $he disabling sounds, AO and $IM;, are used mainly in ad anced training work. $hey tell the dog that the response he Bust made is unacceptable for rewarding, and that he may ha e to do the task o er again from the beginning &punishment'. Dogs that are being campaigned for Obedience competition, for e*ample, may do a minute or so of precision heeling as a penalty for doing a careless performance on any e*ercise. $o be highly effecti e, the disabling sounds must come on at the precise moment the incorrect response or misbeha ior is made. $he disabling sounds in this first course are used primarily to disable social disobedience and misbeha iors. $he Disablement/"unishment :ule0 )irst disable the beha ior with a disabling sound, then punish the dog. Don't mo e to punish, until you' e told him first that he misbeha ed or disobeyed. "unishment in the training setting is usually in the form of delay or loss of reward or a light work penalty, and is rarely physically a ersi e. Training G#ideline$ Do not urge your dog to perform. 6our dog must be permitted not to respond whene er he wishes—or to %uit working at any time, without penalty. Mistakes are ignored, and, if necessary, the trial is simply repeated. $he dog's refusal to respond only forfeits the chance for him to earn some of the good things of life. If you do the procedures precisely as gi en, and use attracti e rewards, your dog will begin and continue to perform well without urging. Don't talk to the dog during the work session, e*cept for gi ing commands and reinforcing/disabling sounds. <lso, be as inconspicuous as you possibly can while doing the trial procedure. Don't do anything out of the ordinary to get the dog's attention. Don't e en use the dog's name in any of the early training sessions3 .is name will be learned later to mean0 +I want your attention. ;*pect to recei e a command or signal to do something.+ $he chance for earning rewards is a powerful persuader—let that work for you. <llow the dog to beg. If your dog noses the food#containing hand, you must allow it. < normal impulse might be to say AO, or to mo e your hand out of the dog's reach. Don't do it. $he beha ior will disappear on its own, because the dog is ne er rewarded for doing it. >ait until he stops the obBectionable beha ior, and then resume the training trial. >e're going to start with a clean slate. <ssume that your dog has not been taught any work skills. Don't gi e the dog any commands or use any procedures that ha en't been taught yet in this course. Dogs who ha e already been trained to some e*tent before entering this course won't lose any of the skills that they already know—they will do them again, later, with a newly learned work strategy.
Training 'o!tional( )#t enco#raged*
In $eam $raining, two or more persons are in ol ed in the training of a single dog—at the same time. $eam $raining resol es, to some e*tent, the problem of getting you to do all of the trial e ents correctly, in the proper order and with good timing. $he persons doing $eam $raining are $eam "layers. In $eam $raining, $eam "layers ha e defined roles in the training trial—each "layer controls one or more trial actions.4 <s an unlikely e*ample, one $eam "layer may call the dog to work, another may tell him what response to make &with commands and/or signals', one other may show the dog how to respond, another may tell the dog about the +goodness+ of his response, and yet another may reward the dog. .owe er, in all probability, you alone, or with Bust one other person, would do all of the trial actions with your dog. 6ou will control a number of actions in the training setting—actions that the dog can see, hear, smell, taste or feel. )or training to be efficient and effecti e, trial actions that you deli er must be done in the correct order with other actions—must ne er appear simultaneously or o erlap with a start of any other action. In addition, correct timing of some trial actions is crucial. In this course, no $eam "layer uses force techni%ues to get the dog to do anything. $o do so would risk arousing some uncontrolled beha ior#affecting an*iety, annoyance, fear or apprehension in the working dog. Moreo er, the training outcome from negati e inter ention would be hard to duplicate by others, e en if such inter entions occasionally happened to work. It's not correct to say that a trainer &or $eam "layer' controls the dog. -ues, signals and commands control beha ior. (eha ior control comes about from the way the dog reacts to actions that ha e been programmed by a trainer or $eam "layer.
$o be an action. <D. (ut when you do it again. but apparently. the dog might not react at all. -onsider this e*ample0 !uppose you suddenly snap your fingers &<D'. appears consistently before another action. a human scent that is smelled on a trackC $he <ssociation "rinciple is defined in a way that makes it useful as a training procedure. rouse the dog to acti ity.e.C !peed of learning an action is most fa orable when the time inter al between the start of action <D.. the principle is e*pressed as the close pairing of two distinct actions. $he <ssociation Model. make an impression. )rom this. Do it a third time.ER. it must affect the dog in some way. If the dog is to learn the meaning of the first#appearing action. but now after you snap your fingers. E. etc.OG &EARNS $he <ssociation Model for learning. and/or stimulate an emotion. two re%uirements must be met0 4' the two programmed actions must appear in the correct order3 &7' the inter al between the start of the first action and the start of the second must be %uite short. )or association learning to work. >hen you do the pairing one or more times. get up %uickly. Do not begin both actions at the same . In this model. >hen you see that your dog pays no attention to one of your actions during an early training period. and proceed outdoors. <D is followed by <4 )igure 7#4. it has no particular meaning for him. !imply stated. $he <ssociation "rinciple can e*plain irtually all learning. you must emphasize the e ent in a way that it's noticed.CHAPTER +. the association principle says that if an action. attach it to the dog. 6ou will show good training techni%ue when you start the second action about one#half second after the start of the first. 6our dog may show a mild reaction to the sound when you first do it. grab the leash. <D. )or our purpose. and which may e en control his beha ior in some way. a touch that is felt.e. yet not o erlap. and the start of action <4. you know that your dog hears the sound. 6ou ha e Bust performed an association procedure0 the finger snap is <D. be percei ed. i. i. <n action can be a oiced command that is heard by the dog. <D is an action that either has no meaning to your dog or has a meaning that you want to change3 <4 is an action that means something to the dog. 6ou will teach your dog the meanings of some useful actions that the dog can sense going on in his surroundings. your dog should be leaping with e*citement whene er he hears the finger#snap. he must at least be aware of its presence. then the first appearing action &<D' will take on the meaning of the one that follows &<4'. is in the range of se eral milliseconds to about one# half second. ?earning happens when new actions are associated with old ones.. <D and <4 represent actions. <ctions are e ents that trainers arrange in the dog's training setting. e*aggerate a signal. <4. and going#out#of# doors &a pleasurable action' is <4.. by gi ing a louder oice command.
. Altering an E otion >ith the <ssociation "rocedure. $hat is. in -hapter 4'. and the dog already knows to go down to an arm#and#hand signal. and the second action is pleasure#eliciting &<4'. if the first#appearing action of a pair is fear#eliciting &<D'. as was cited abo e in the finger#snapping instance. One of the first associations that you will make in this course will be between the oiced 2OOD and a food deli ery—in which case. don't o erlap the beginning of both actions. 2OOD will become a predictor that a food tidbit will follow. and a split second after you touch him in a petting gesture. 6our dog will learn new commands &and signals' that will be paired with ones that the dog already knows—the latter may already be controlling a dog's response that is of interest to you. >hen he comes. and not by accident. you call the dog to you. -onsider this coincidence0 >ith outstretched arms. If you don't ha e the knack to +time+ the actions too well. the command DO>A will come to control the down response when gi en alone. conse%uently. Accidental A$$ociation$ >e know that associations between actions can be made by chance. you ha e the ability to change the meaning of an action. >hen you arrange an association between two actions.a e another $eam "layer deli er one of the actions in any pairing. if you want the dog to learn the meaning of the oiced command DO>A. >hen paired this way o er a number of associations. do not do them in the re erse order. otherwise the desired learning will be delayed or not occur at all. do $eam $raining with your dog &see the section. In this instance. $raining will Bust take a bit longer. &earning New Co and$ and Signal$. 6ou can imagine what the dog will do when you reach out to pet him again the ne*t time. as percei ed by the dog.time—that is. o er what the dog learns. $eam $raining. where it's assumed you ha e control o er the training setting and training actions. . <lso. followed closely by the arm#and#hand signal. the first appearing action can be said to become a predictor of the second. a frightening noise sounds. <rranged associations are what you will be doing in this training course. <gain. then the consistent and close pairing of the two actions in that order will result in the first#appearing one. by properly se%uencing and timing it with an action that has the desired effect. <D. one. more desirable. $he procedure is used e*tensi ely in dog training. )or e*ample. also eliciting pleasure. then you would pair the new +command+ with the familiar +signal+ in this order0 the new command DO>A comes first. by <ssociation ?earning. <rranged <ssociations. (etter yet. and. associations between actions are made by design. you may increase the time inter al between actions to one second. you also ha e the ability to change the emotional character of a first#appearing action to that of a subse%uently appearing.
on se eral other occasions. &!ee the section. $he oiced sounds. One is the <ssisted#response Model. and temperament. a finger snapC . and. 2OOD and O@$. the dog de elops a strategy for turning on pleasant e ents.<s an e*ample. !o. then the pleasure#eliciting action will become fear#eliciting. +:einforcing !ounds+ under the heading +$he (asic !ounds. hunting dogs that ha e a fear of gunfire can be helped to o ercome that fear0 !omething pleasant can be made to happen to the dog whene er a gun is fired nearby. $he dog would soon look forward. whene er a handheld clicker is used to tell the dog that he made a correct response. It does wonders for dogs that show fear. I helped deaf persons train their dogs—the students use +sign. $he system is %uite ersatile and works e*ceedingly well with dogs of any age. size. 6ou do not tell him what to do or show him how to respond. or any other emotional or temperament problem that the owner may feel is disabling3 for dogs that need to be moti ated to perform3 and for those that re%uire confidence building. beha iors are strengthened &reinforced' with secondary reinforcers—not primary ones. :einforcement in the :eward !ystem :einforcement happens when you +tell+ the dog that he made a good response. with anticipation to hearing a gun sound. shyness. the dog would fear to pick up the tasty morsel. aggression. suppose the trainer fired the gun immediately after gi ing the dog a tasty tidbit. become secondary reinforcers4 when they are paired with food or other primary reinforcers o er a series of trials. CHAPTER /.+ below'. 6ou Bust wait for the . at the precise moment that he made it. watch the way you order the actions &pro ided you ha e control o er them in your training setting'. trainers in unusual circumstances use non#sound e ents as reinforcers. )or instance.+ uni%ue mo ements of the arm and hands to reinforce beha iors in the training trials. $he other ariation is the )ree#response Model. at the moment he made it. $he )ree#:esponse Model . which you will use mostly in this course. S-STEM In the :eward !ystem. you allow your dog to respond freely in the workplace—to do anything he wants. It makes a difference. $hat is. In only a few such associations. One time. a tasty morsel could appear immediately following gunfire. Reward1Sy$te Model$ $wo basic ariations of the reward system are a ailable to the trainer. I worked with a student who trained his deaf dog. Most reinforcing is done with sound0 It can be a oiced sound. THE RE0AR.owe er. If you re erse the order of the two actions.ssentially. $he latter model is often referred to as the -licker Method. $hus. a clicker7 sound.
6our dog is allowed to refuse a re%uest to perform or to %uit +playing the game+ whene er he wishes. It's used in this te*t to show you how a beha ior can be brought under control in a wholly different way. $his model is used sparingly in this course.+ >hene er the professor looked in her direction.beha ior that you' e designated to be correct to happen. +2ame playing+ is a gentle way of training your dog. without penalty. the relationship between beha ior and its conse%uences.+ below'. . $he procedures are described in clear and ample detail. <udrey. beginners should do their training at a participating Dog $raining -lub. One instance of the model's use is to get early control of the Down response. which wasn't too often at first. In this model. and ends with a +grand+ reward &see +. $he deli ery of a reward then follows in a deliberate. $hen the dog is +assisted+ in making the response. $o accomplish this. $he trainer says 2OOD or O@$ precisely at the moment the response is completed. and the photographs &may not yet be included in your packet' show you precisely how to do them. In 2ame#playing. $he <ssisted#:esponse Model $his model is the method of choice for training most performance skills in this course. 2ame playing always begins with +the call to play a game+. $his method isn't difficult to perform. $hen. 6ou will begin <ssisted#response training immediately after the dog learns the meanings of the 2OOD and O@$ sounds. $o do that. the beginner#trainer often fails to gi e proper attention to these details. )or this reason. $hen it was time to e*tinguish the beha ior. Ae ertheless. at that moment. still without coercion &!ee Down $raining in -hapter 48'.ssentials of 2ame#playing. continues with the game itself.+ I asked <udry to stop before the professor realized what she was doing. without waiting for the dog to do it on his own. It wasn't long before the professor looked in her direction with e er#greater fre%uency. Most dog owners want their dog to be obedient and friendly with people and other dogs. It's the more traditional way of training a dog. $he professor stopped looking in her direction. $he procedure is meant to show you. you'll tell your dog that a reward will follow. <udrey looked down at her notes instead.*ample0 One time. . a class friend attempted to condition the beha ior of a professor while he lectured. the dog is +told+ to make a response—commands and signals do the telling. in the most direct way. coercion is totally absent. where e*pert obser ers can criti%ue their performance and make needed corrections. unhurried way. she'd look up at him and slightly nod her head. $he beha ior that she tried to get him to do was +gaze in her direction with greater fre%uency. two distincti e training strategies are employed0 2ame "laying initially teaches the dog the obedience skills3 then !ocial Obedience in these skills is practiced for compliance in the social/real world setting. !he again reestablished the conditioned beha ior by +the look and nod. It's a fascinating and fun way to train your dog.
$esting is not training0 . $hat is. $he +assisting+ action. the effort that he must e*pend to get rewards is %uite small—he is only to pay attention to what is going on &see -hapter 5. and is eager to perform any task that you may ha e in mind. and other stimulus actions in the training trial are learned by association with actions that follow them. it gets the response to happen e ery time. $esting ersus training. AO is used mostly as a warning sound. the second#appearing action in the +paired+ se%uence. )or e*ample. (y simply obser ing. $he trial typically starts with a command or signal that the dog is meant to learn. 2etting !tarted'. the dog is helped with a prompt &assistance' before he has a chance to make the response on his own. . pro ided that your dog sits whene er you perform the pressing action. It's followed %uickly by assisting the dog to make the response. tells the dog that he earned a penalty3 though compulsi e. >hen the trainer waits for the dog to make the response on his own before she considers deli ering a prompt.$he work#seasoned dog becomes ery cooperati e when he hears the call to play. it's called testing. $o do that. . the dog's strategy is to a oid turning on the sounds AO and $IM. which are predictors of unpleasant conse%uences. the earned penalty for social disobedience is done with a light hand.e should then perform with little or no hesitation during the training session. In !ocial Obedience training. is called a +prompt. It only says that the prompt you choose must get the response e ery time. $he training trial pro ides the dog with the re%uired e*perience that results in a speedy ac%uisition and correctness of any performance.. and which is already controlling a beha ior &response'. "airing such a prompt with a new e ent helps to get the new e ent to control the same response. ?earning happens when a +new+ action is +paired+ often with an action that the dog knows something about. (y pairing a new signal or command with a prompt for a number of trials. Pro !ting Aew signals. !I$. >hen the dog is first e*posed to the structured game. $IM. you could follow the oiced !I$ by pressing down gently on the dog's hind%uarters. !aid again0 < prompt can be any trainer#action that already controls the dog's response. commands. $he <ssisted#response Method doesn't tell you what kind of prompt &assist' you are to gi e your dog to help him make the desired response.e will persist in the work e en under demanding circumstances until the grand reward turns up. the new signal or command begins to control the same response.+ It's called that because it +helps+ the dog to make a correct response e ery time. In these training trials. suppose you want to train your dog to sit whene er you say. $he dog's 2ame#playing strategy is to turn on the sounds 2OOD and O@$—sounds that are followed by tangible rewards. the dog learns to notice all of the session actions and how they relate to one another. < discussion of compliance work is found in some skill#training sections of this manual.
and thus incur a scoring penalty at these trials. 6ou don't want the dog to Bump about with anticipation whene er you get up to do something else. It often begins with a %uiet/still wait period action.+ $he $raining !ession. your dog may get a command to do something—after which. !ome e*perienced trainers do little or no testing during their training sessions. $he trial ends when you reward the dog. <lternati ely. . )ollowing the wait. $he training session. In no time at all. the e*perienced trainer may gradually fade out the amount of help gi en the dog. <sking the dog to do something begins in -hapter =. $he 2ame#playing $rials. your dog is not asked to do anything e*cept be aware of what is going on &see -hapter 5'. you would help your dog make the response. $he dog learns the meaning of the :. prompts are not allowed in Obedience competition. when learned. "rompts are considered to be e*tra commands.+ $he oiced :. the response# assistance at first is a non#Berking full restraint imposed on the dog's lead to halt. otherwise the dog may mistakenly begin to use your body mo ement as a cue that a game is about to be played.the wait period between the first e ent and the second of the paired e ents in testing is too long for the dog to make the connection between them.<D6 does the asking—said in a normal. In the early sessions of 2ame#playing. $he wait can ary from between one and fi e seconds from one trial to another. . or begins making it. following the command to halt in +. you may do an occasional test trial to in%uire whether your dog is learning. before the trainer has a chance to deli er the +assisting+ prompt. the aid &prompt' that's gi en following the halt command is simply a light tug on the lead. E$$ential$ of Ga e1!laying $he 2ame#playing )ormat is the blueprint for most of the dog's training and maintenance work. $hey know that learning has taken place when the dog makes the response. %uestioning tone. you'd say 2OOD &or O@$'. In passing. and the grand reward that the dog gets at the last trial of the session. (e sure to +ask+ before you make any mo es to start the game. it's called training. has all of the components of the 2ame#playing )ormat0 the call to play the game. $he principle features of the 2ame#playing )ormat0 $he -all to "lay a 2ame.alt and !tand#stay+ training. 6ou would then begin another trial with a arying +wait period. the training trials. beginning in -hapter 5. < trial is defined as a unit of training actions. >hen the trainer attempts to apply the prompt before the dog has a chance to perform it on his own. ask the dog if he wants to play a +game.<D6 sound in se eral working days. <t the moment the dog responds. $he :. 6ou are likely to see a marked reaction to the sound. >hen you are about to begin a training session. )or e*ample. T"e 2a$ic So#nd$ $he -all to >ork !ound.<D6 sound signals the dog to work8—it's supposed to get the dog to come to you and begin attending to the game that you are about to play.owe er.
and +anticipate+ a more attracti e reward to follow the O@$ sound. . $he dog doesn't know that the last trial is being run until he hears the O@$ sound.<D6 sound to predict when a 2ame playing session is about to begin. your dog should +e*pect+ a tasty tidbit to follow e ery 2OOD sound. ?ater in !it $raining. Otherwise the dog will latch onto your mo ement to predict an impending reward. :. because they are associated with rewards. $he reinforcing sound 2OOD &or O@$'. as if it doesn't know what to do. If the dog is to use the :. say the sound while you are absorbed in another acti ity. in the early steps of !it $raining. reading a book. If the dog wrongly becomes conditioned to your mo ement to predict a reward. )or instance. 6ou will be using the 2OOD or O@$ sounds whene er your dog responds in ways that you want. when often. On the last trial. rather than use the reinforcing sound to do that. the sound must be the first action to signal a training session. $hese sounds ha e the power to reinforce &strengthen' beha ior. or the dog will fail to respond. e*ercising. :ewarding the Dog. $he oiced command or signal usually follows a brief wait period &see "art 7 of -hapter E0 +!it and :ise+'. Ti ing and Se3#encing of Action$ $he sound. $he oiced 2OOD and O@$ are reinforcers. >hat constitutes a +good+ response by the dog must be clear in your mind before you begin an e*ercise. he will continually look at you for the mo ement +signal.+ 6ou will thus be restricting the dog in the kinds of things that he can learn. $he reinforcing sound must be timed precisely at the moment the response is made.<D6. $hat's when you will say the reinforcing sound. Do not start any mo ement to conduct a training session before you say the sound. and the dog will unfairly get the blame for that. Do not begin any food deli ery mo ements before you say the reinforcing sound. $he command for the dog to do something. no session is intended. the O@$ sound replaces the 2OOD sound. In one or more days. the response is defined as a !it only when the dog's back#end comes in contact with the ground. C $he se%uence might be0 say the :. when you are ready to work with your dog. If you start your assist mo ements before you oice the command. you will reinforce the !it#stay—when the dog had been sitting for a short period of time. $he 2OOD sound is used in e ery trial e*cept the last. and a grand reward follows.<D6 sound3 lay down your book3 get up out of your chair3 go to the kitchen3 get your training foods ready for the coming trials3 take all of your training aids with you to the place where you will do the work3 begin the session. the command will not likely be learned—the dog will be reacting to your mo ements. Otherwise the dog may learn to use your mo ement to predict the beginning of a training session.:einforcing !ounds. )or e*ample. $he command must come on before you start any mo ement to assist the dog to make the response. say. watching tele ision.
Many kinds of sa ory commercial +treats+ are a ailable for use as rewards &some of these should be cut up into smaller bits'.ATING -OUR . 2OOD and O@$. your dog will sample some of the foods that you plan to use in training. say these sounds in a neutral tone of oice. $hat. >hen training. )or smaller dogs. is a good choice as the main tidbit food. you are urged to praise and hug your dog at any time outside the training session—the dog is ne er re%uired to do work to get them. >hen outdoors in open space. they are not. "et#and#praise your dog immediately following a training session. small cylinder container.a e the Deli person cut one or two 8/4= inch thick slices &when you get the correct thickness. (aked or cooked ham. MOTI. "etting#and#"raise &"F"' does not work well as a +reward+ in the present $raining !ystem3 rather. or use some that are suggested here. without crumbling. and are in the process of deli ering the arranged +grand+ reward. with praise. cut into small cubes. it's a nice size.andling while $idbit $esting 6ou will be doing some of your training off#leash. use it in your upcoming association training with the 2OOD sound in chapter 5. Harious prepared luncheon meats that are firm and low in fat and sodium content. It comes in a handy. -ut each slice into tidbit pieces—each appro*imately 8/4= inch !%uare &about the size of a green pea'. Sa !ling 5ood$ In this chapter. especially when you're working indoors or a fenced#in space. <lso do not gi e chocolate to your dog3 many dogs are allergic to it.CHAPTER 4. <lso. if you want to. it's meant to work in the -ompulsi e !ystem. "ounceG by "uss n' (oots. ask the Deli person what dial number the Deli slicing machine was set at'.OG Most reward#training in this course is done with food. If the dog snubs your choices—fails to assume a begging attenti e stance—depri e him of any other food for an hour or more. It's nutritious. 2OOD and O@$ inform the dog about an impending reward. and doesn't mess your hands. If the dog eagerly consumes the treat food. 6our dog will be turned#on as a performer if the training food that you're using is tasty. < oid large amounts of salted and sweetened foods. . It's a tidbit that's about the same size and tastiness as "ounceG. $he sampling of each kind of food takes about a minute to do. though it's a cat treat. :ummage through your refrigerator for appetizing and nutritious foods. 6ou may. be sure that your off#leash . this treat can be broken in half. then try again. Don't confuse the sounds. (ut do it only after you say the O@$ sound. because it is training#effecti e and does not waste training time. Tid)it 5ood$ Most dogs will eagerly work to get0 Moist F MeatyG -hicken Dinner by "urina. Dog . Most dogs relish it.
Don't be concerned if your dog is begging. If you ha e a small dog. if working outdoors. 4. "referably. a short strip of -heweezK (eefhide or any other tasty con enience treat • and. when he becomes ery attenti e during the abo e procedure. O@$. $ake one tidbit in your other hand and gi e it to the dog. $he $idbit $asting "rocedure Do this procedure off#leash if you are working indoors3 on#leash. you won't be continually bending o er him. Otherwise. .aily 5ood Ration $he +dog in training+ should get a good %uality dry dog food as his daily ration at the end of the day. !ome items that can be used as grand foods0 • a I+ piece of hot dog or slice of sausage • a rounded teaspoon of a tasty canned dog food • a teaspoon portion of ice cream or sour cream • a J+ cube of good %uality headcheese or other luncheon meat • a part of a small Milk (oneK (iscuit. ?et the dog eat the food. 6ou will know if a food has reward properties. !oon. 7. If the dog eats eagerly. a spoonful of tasty table scraps. !nausageK. with little hesitation between deli eries. in forthcoming training. $his ends all of the food#sampling sessions. one morsel at a time. drop your end of the lead and stand on it during the trials. especially. put him on a table—that way. $he amount of +dry nugget+ ration depends on how much reward food he . Open a can of a tasty dog food &or use another kind of appetizing food. "lan to use the food to follow the reinforcing sound. !a e a part of whate er you ha e been eating. "ut the dog's food dish on the floor. "lace a rounded teaspoon of food into it. Grand 5ood$ 2rand food follows the O@$ sound on the last trial of a training session in this course. >hen you get that all#important effect. 8. Immediately after he has consumed it. 9. such as table scraps'. put him on leash. T"e . and use it as a grand#food reward. "ut about 4D tidbits in your hand.dog will not run off. begin using the food in the forthcoming 2OOD#food pairing procedure in the ne*t chapter. but then. ha e the dog in the off#leash mode. -ontinue with the remaining pieces.old both hands at midriff le el. :ela*. ?et the dog sample a ariety of foods. to see how eagerly he accepts them. place one more rounded teaspoon of food into the dish. <llow it. the dog's attention begins to be focused on you and your food deli ery mo ements. 2rand#food $asting "rocedure. stop after deli ering 7 portions.
should be fed their normal food ration once a day at the end of the workday. he should be at least a little hungry during the training session. +!orry pup. dry nugget food in one sitting. $he Oatmeal :ecipe for a medium size dog0 Measure J cup water3 bring to a boil3 add slightly less than 4/8 cup Luick Luaker Oats &or e%ual'3 bring to a boil again3 stir for 4D seconds3 turn the burner to +simmer+3 continue stirring for almost one minute more3 remo e from heat and let stand for 5 to 4D minutes. $o make the ration more palatable. $his is supposed to get the dog to begin eating immediately when the food is put in front of him.+ !ee below'. light cream and melted butter. It is then about the right consistency and cool enough for mi*ing with the dry food. it is not as important for puppies to be depri ed of food before training as it is for older dogs3 most puppies seem to be ready to eat any time that food is a ailable. )or another kind of nourishing and tasty ration. $raining should be done an hour before they are fed these rations. (ut. Most dogs will consume the food mi* in less than a minute. ha e the dog do some work for it in the forthcoming training0 <bout a minute in Down#stay or !it#stay are suitable e*ercises for that ration—select any beha iors o er which you already ha e established control. you get the lite style. . <llow the dog 4D minutes to finish his daily ration3 then remo e the food bowl. mi* a tasty moist food with the dry food—about 4/8 can of moist food for a medium size dog . in general. !ince the dog will be working for food during much of his training. If the end# of#day ration is %uite tasty. Dogs that are 4 yr. Many dogs are not inclined to finish off the hard. Dogs that are less than a year old should be fed their food ration twice a day. morning and e ening.consumed that day. mi* a watery. $his means that training on the following day is begun about 47 to 4= hours after the dog's last full meal. and may not get it all eaten within the 4D minutes allowed. or older. warm oatmeal with the dry food &Oatmeal is my fa orite breakfast cereal when topped with brown sugar.
reclining. 2OOD and O@$—sounds that your dog must know before he does the e*ercises beginning with the ne*t chapter. $hree trial modes. grooming. <nd. !ometime during the wait. Motion mode0 In this mode. your dog will learn that0 :.<D6 and O@$ are the first sounds learned in this Mode. end with the O@$ sound and a grand reward. signals and cues by the dog. petting and handling the dog during a training e*ercise. standing. see the section. :. only to obser e what is going on. do a number of trials each of which end with the 2OOD sound and a tidbit reward.+ )or details of the 2ame# playing format. +!tay in "lace. T"e Ga e1!laying trial $raining trials in the forthcoming e*ercises typically begin with a +wait+ period. GETTING STARTE. $he main features of the format0 <fter you call the dog to play with the :. you will know if your dog is prepared to begin the work of chapter . $he wait time aries from one to fi e seconds.<D6 is followed by preparation to begin a reward#filled acti ity.<D6 sound. gi e him a few free tidbits &as you did during the )ood#sampling "rocedure'. performed in the Motion mode. <t the end of the first week. touch and motion. the dog learns to ignore inconse%uential mo ements that you may make during the training trials &see section. O@$ is followed by a +grand+ reward. you will stand still and %uiet during the wait—but do it with normal breathing. +2OOD#tidbit pairing trials. +2OOD#tidbit pairing trials. U$ing t"e Ga e1!laying 5or at Do this work off leash. !till %uiet mode0 $his mode is the optimal condition for learning the meaning of most sounds. $ouch mode0 $his mode is used to adapt your dog to arious kinds of touching that you and others normally do when physically e*amining. for con enience.ssentials of 2ame#playing in chapter 8 and in the present chapter. !ee the section. In this mode.CHAPTER 6. Aot yet. :.+ below'. On the last trial of the session. a small dog may be placed on a table for this work. $he three sounds :. you will use the 2ame#playing format to teach your dog the sounds.<D6.<D6. In the present chapter. $his will get him interested and attending to what you are doing. 2OOD is followed by a tidbit reward. $o get the dog started in these early sessions. 6ou may be eager to train your dog to do something—anything. still %uiet. In the present work. . done in the $ouch mode. the dog is still not re%uired to do anything. <llow the dog to be sitting. In this chapter.+ below'. define what you do during the +wait+ period. say the 2OOD sound and follow with a tidbit3 or say the O@$ sound and follow with a grand reward. 2OOD and O@$ are essential to the training system. or mo ing about during the session trials.
<lso. :epeat the first week's schedule if you want to3 your dog will enBoy playing the games.<D6 or O@$ sound. O@$. or. "lace the pan with food on a counter &or any other place that's out of reach of the dog'. for ariety. Hary the wait inter al between trials. . !ay O@$ while standing still. then he is not prepared to undertake the work of the coming chapters. !ay the sound. <llow the dog to mo e freely off#leash—indoors or in any enclosure. !et a food pan on the ground Bust out of reach of the leash#restrained dog &about 7 feet away'.= and later chapters0 6ou will know he's ready when he remains eager to continue through the tidbit#rewarded trials3 and becomes e*pressi ely elated when he hears the O@$ sound. or does not bound about e*citedly at the :. do three sessions of O@$/food associations. . -hoose from three different training procedures &see ne*t' or. as an alternati e. "lace a tablespoon of his fa orite food &a canned food is con enient' into the pan. your dog may not ha e gotten the proper e*perience to make the re%uired associations between the sounds and the rewards that follow. !tand still and face your dog for 8 to 47 seconds. and only then. 6ou may hold your arms at your side or held still at midriff. ha e another person hold your dog on leash. O@$/food association — one procedure0 "lace a tablespoon of his fa orite food into a pan. use all three 2ood/tidbit procedures. start using the 2ame#playing format on day 7. If he does not appear moti ated. :ather than the foregoing.eep the canned &or other' food on a table or kitchen counter out of the dog's reach. 2OOD/tidbit trials are not included in these O@$/food sessions. . !tand still facing the restrained dog and wait 8 to 47 seconds. mo e to place the pan on the floor in front of the dog. $hen. O@$/food association—another procedure $ie the dog to something firm. "ut the can of food out of the dog's reach. !tand about 9 feet back from the pan &the pan is between you and the dog'. < word of caution0 If your dog fre%uently %uits on you during the session. if you did not do the procedures as described. Day 4 of training#week 4 $eaching the O@$/food association On day#4 of week#4 schedule. you may use one of two alternate procedures &see ne*t' for teaching the O@$ sound. 2o to action 4 to begin another trial.nd the training session after 9 trials. it might be that the tidbit foods and/or grand rewards are not enticing &tasty' enough. $hen.
6our mo ement must be deliberate. <fter :. :. -arry the training gear and foods to where the work will be done. etc. you may look at the dog when you say it. >alk rapidly to the food dish.$hen. "ause a scant instant after you say :.<D6. "lace a tablespoon of the dog's fa orite food &a canned food is con enient' into the pan. . pick up the pan and set it in front of the dog. $he call#to#work and session preparation0 !ay the call#to#work :. but without startling the dog. !ay it emphatically. !tand still and wait 8 to 47 seconds— ary the wait inter al between trials. is about to come on. In each of these sessions. . but there's no need to rush—the dog will ha e no trouble learning +the routine+ that follows this sound. O@$. <t the start of se eral early sessions. $he grand food is used on the last trial of the session. $he session ends. $hen. $ake ten tidbit foods in your hand &for small dogs. ?ead him away from the pan. >hen you are about M feet away. turn to face in the direction of the food dish. and halt. though not especially rapid. put a tablespoon of canned dog food &if you are using that as the grand food' into the dog's food dish. bend down.owe er.<D6.old the dog on leash. for instance'. go to where you keep your training gear and foods. !et a food pan on the ground. and only then. schedule M 2OOD/food pairing trials and one O@$/food pairing trial. Don't let the dog get at the food—hold the dog by the collar as you bait the dish. ?et the dog eat the food.<D6 sound before you begin your training session. do si* training sessions. . $he session ends after 9 trials.old the dog on a short lead. take half the number of pieces and break each in half'. "lace the food can out of the dog's reach. . Biggle the leash forward and unfold it to full length. !et it aside out of the dog's reach &on a countertop or table. !ay the sound. (ait the food dish again. 6our mo ements should be deliberate. and only then. $he dog must not get any hint that the sound.<D6 before you start your mo e to begin the session preparation. using the 2ame#playing format. gi e the dog a couple of free tidbits to get his attention. Do 9 trials. O@$/food association—and yet another procedure .ay + of training1wee7 1 !till#%uiet#mode in the 2ame#playing format On day#7. >hen you reach the workstation. (egin another trial with action 7 abo e.
!ay 2OOD. 2o to action 4 and begin another trial.+ It helps the dog to know that the training session is still on. <fter the sound. Days 8 and 9 of week 4 -ontinue to do 9 training sessions in the still#%uiet mode feature and add 7 training sessions with the touch#mode feature—both modes are performed in the 2ame#playing format. 9. 2OOD#tidbit trials in the +!till#%uiet+ mode -lasp both hands and hold them still in front of you at waist le el. rela*ed and breathe normally while you begin a one#to#fi e#second wait in this mode.ither hold all food tidbits in your closed hand during the training session. -lasping your hands in this way comes to be percei ed by the dog as +the sign of the feeder. 8. when the dog starts to attend often enough. -ontinue the motionless stance for a fleeting moment after you make the sound. set the dog's dish on the floor in front of the dog. do not fiddle with yours hands during the wait period. but done only with deliberate motion. . >ait at least one minute before starting another session. Make no mo ements that will draw the dog's attention. otherwise the dog might use the change in mo ement to know when the grand reward will appear. reach for one tidbit from the dish and gi e it to the dog. >ait se eral seconds in a motionless stance—hands at waist le el in front of you. beginning on the following day. do the trial actions e en when you don't ha e the dog's attention.. 5. $he last trial of +!till#%uiet+ mode session0 4. (e sure to say the 2OOD sound while still in the fi*ed pose. and to know who is going to feed him whene er you ha e others helping you &$eam $raining is discussed below'. or put the tidbit pieces in a dish on a table close#by. -ontinue the +2OOD#food+ pairing trials until you' e deli ered all of the tidbit foods. On the first se eral training sessions of the first day. . <lso. do one more trial. !ay O@$. >hen you no longer ha e any tidbits to gi e. Bust deliberate. :emember to start your food#deli ery mo ements after the 2OOD sound. $he action of reaching for the tidbit and making tidbit#deli ery mo ements do not ha e to be done rapidly. 7. $hen pass the food tidbit promptly to the dog. $hese mo es need not be hurried. etc.o not initiate any food#deli ery mo ement Bust before you say the O@$ sound. you can wait until you get his attention before doing the 2OOD# food or O@$#food associations. $idbit food in a dish0 <fter you say the 2OOD sound. $he dog doesn't know that you are out of tidbit foods. rather than to listen for the O@$ sound. $his will ensure that you will not start your mo ement to deli er the food before the sound. mo e to deli er the grand reward—that is. $hen. !tand motionless.
rather than to listen for the O@$ sound. 4D. E. :emember. but there's no need to rush—the dog will ha e no trouble learning +the routine+ that follows this sound. Bust deliberate. mo e to deli er the grand reward—that is.<D6. 6ou might lift his front feet off the ground3 push down lightly on his hind%uarters. >ait at least one minute before starting another training session. 4. <fter the sound. N. $ake ten tidbit foods in your hand &for small dogs. on some trials. N. :. Hary the wait period from 7 to 5 seconds. $he grand food is used on the last trial of the session. otherwise the dog might use the change in mo ement to know when the grand reward will appear. >hen you no longer ha e any tidbits to gi e. M. !ay O@$. 47. set the dog's dish on the floor in front of the dog. is about to come on. -ontinue the +2OOD#food+ pairing trials until you' e deli ered all of the tidbit foods.<D6 sound before you begin your training session. "ause a scant instant after you say :. you might e*amine the dog's ears. <fter :.owe er. $he last trial of the session0 E. 5. for instance'. go to where you keep your training gear and foods. 2o to action 4 and begin another trial.$he $ouch#mode in 2ame#playing $he call#to#work and session preparation0 =.<D6 before you start your mo e to begin the session preparation. 6our mo es need not be hurried. !et it aside out of the dog's reach &on a countertop or table. do not initiate any food#deli ery mo ement Bust before you say the O@$ sound. !tart your food#deli ery mo ements after the 2OOD sound. 8. M. put a tablespoon of canned dog food &if you are using that as the grand food' into the dog's food dish. 7. take half the number of pieces and break each in half'. continue doing that particular one for the duration of the wait period. (e sure to say the 2OOD sound while still handling or touching the dog. . on another. >hen you reach the workstation. 2OOD#tidbit trials. $his will ensure that you will not start your food#deli ery mo ement before the sound. $he dog doesn't know that you are out of tidbit foods. 9.<D6. )or e*ample. go to action 4 and begin one last trial of the session. -ontinue the touch and handling for a fleeting moment after you make the sound. $he dog must not get any hint that the sound. 6our mo ement must be deliberate. you may look at the dog when you say it. touch or handle your dog as you would for e*amination or training trials. During the wait period. !ay 2OOD at the end of the wait period. etc. $hen pass the food tidbit promptly to the dog. =. C (ut whate er touch or handling you choose. 44. -arry the training gear and foods to where the work will be done. e*amine his foot pads3 his mouth3 his skin. . !ay the call#to#work :. done in +$ouch+ mode.
$o restate. $his is irtually the same procedure as the $ouch#mode.arly on. the dog might be confused what it's to do or not do. $eam $raining In $eam $raining. arious calisthenics.<D6 sound3 does the preparations for training3 says the reinforcing sounds. $eam $raining is especially helpful when the dog learns more comple* skills. $he correct procedure is to wait until the dog is no longer nosing your hand. or to mo e your hand out of the dog's reach. If there is a chance that your dog's Bumping about might cause you discomfort. $he response will disappear only if the dog has a chance to do it without getting rewarded for doing it. !ay the call#to#work :. AO. then proceed with the trial. $ouch and Motion. 6ou share training#trial actions &e ents'. < normal impulse might be to say AO. 2OOD or O@$ — Bust before he gets the reward. two or more persons &$eam "layers' get in ol ed in training a single dog at the same time. with this e*ception0 :eplace the touching that you did in the 7#5 second wait period of the $ouch#mode with a motion action. < single session of 4D trials takes only a minute or two to do. $eam $raining helps you do timing and se%uencing of trial e ents correctly. $he dog will soon stop doing it without your inter ention. $hen stand still again. $he motion in this mode can be a stretch e*ercise. (asic 2ame#playing with $eam $raining. the dog is permitted to beg after he hears the reinforcing sound. ignore the begging during the trial. you must allow it. $he Motion#mode !ession. you may turn away to a oid the Bump. $o begin. !uppress the impulse.+ abo e'. walking in a circleC $he 2OOD &or O@$' is sounded while still in the motion. . . $he following is one way that $eam $raining can be used to perform trial actions. !he0 . 2OOD and O@$ during the training trials. or e en inBury. $eam "layer 4 performs these actions0 calls the dog to work with the :. remember that the dog is not re%uired to respond in any way yet—he still only obser es what is going on. each done in separate sessions. )or another. Doing training this way with others can be fun and dogs tolerate it—if not also enBoy it. <lso. Do a total of = to M sessions per day &choose any mode for any session'.ay$ 6 and 8 of wee7 1 On days 5 and = do all three trial modes—!till#%uiet. mo ing your hand out of the dog's reach pre ents the weakening of the nosing/begging response.. If your dog noses your food#containing hand or playfully Bumps on you.owe er. $he (egging "roblem !ome dogs beg during these procedures.<D6 sound before you begin your training session &see +$he -all#to#work and session preparation+ under +$he !till#%uiet#mode in the 2ame#playing# format. )or one thing. if you were to gi e the sound. or Bumping up. It's a way of training that can be applied to any or all of the e*ercises in this course.
. then says 2OOD. 7.4. places one tablespoon of a tasty canned dog food into a food dish.er food#deli ery mo ements are deliberate. 4D. touch or motion &see mode descriptions earlier in this chapter'. ahead of time. waits a scant moment after she hears the sound O@$ said by $eam "layer 4.<D6 &the call to work'. =. performs one of the trial modes. 8. she stands still until she hears the 2OOD sound. not the one who deli ers the sounds 2OOD or O@$ — e en when the )eeder happens to be a stranger to the dog. If the food is in a dish. so that she doesn't influence or distract the dog's performance in any way. she stands straight and still. !he then hurries to where the grand#food is kept. Note0 If the dog is begging. takes tidbits from $eam "layer 4 &or keeps them in a dish nearby'. still %uiet. what is about to come ne*t. !he lets $eam "layer 4 know when she no longer has any tidbits in her hand. $eam "layer 7 is the feeder. If doing a the !till#%uiet mode. but must be still. begins another one#to#fi e seconds' wait mode after $eam "layer 7 deli ers a food tidbit. yet unhurried. Don't do anything to change that. In time. or places them in a food dish on a table nearby. 8. 9. N. for e*ample. 5. M. says O@$ when $eam "layer 7 has no more tidbit food to gi e out. breaks from her stance after $eam player 7 deli ers the +grand+ food at the end of training session. E. then and only then starts her mo ement to pick up a tidbit from the dish and hand it to the dog. she holds off saying the reinforcing sounds until he ceases. again assumes the motionless )eeder stance after the dog takes the food. !he0 4. and holds them in front at waist le el. etc. E. waits one to fi e seconds while $eam "layer 7 performs one of the trial modes. makes herself comfortable close to the dog. 7. says :. . =. this nosing will cease because the beha ior is ne er rewarded. >hen you use 7 or more players. !he remains still after she says the sound. hands a food tidbit to the dog when she hears $eam "layer 4 say 2OOD. gi es the re%uired number of food tidbits to $eam "layer 7. !he remains still e en when the dog is nosing her food#containing hand. tells $eam "layer 4 when she is ready. 9. and places the food dish in front of the dog.. and places the dish out of reach of the dog. !he repeats actions = and E until all tidbits are gone. assumes the same )eeder stance for the last trial when she is out of food tidbits. !he has both hands closed. 5. the dog normally will fi* his gaze on the )eeder. !he may sit or stand. $he dog gets this reward after the O@$ is sounded on the last trial of the session. so that she doesn't gi e the dog a hint or clue. does the preparations for training.
. for e*ample. in anticipation of an impending 2OOD or O@$ sound and a reward that followed. $eam $raining is one &see +-hapter 4+ for a general description. In the !till#%uiet mode. so that there was little chance of getting unwelcome learning by accident. 6ou followed the 2OOD sound with a deliberate. $he other inno ation has one person training two or more dogs at the same time. >hen you replaced the 2OOD sound with the O@$ sound on the last trial of the session. and ended with a reward. $eam $raining is not only +fun and games+ for the dog. you stood still in a rela*ed pose. . en such a simple procedure had to be done by you in a manner that was precise and disciplined. followed by a said 2OOD &or O@$'. It will be up to your dog to try to turn on these reinforcing sounds in the upcoming e*ercises. you made sure that you did nothing different Bust before saying the sound— anything that would alert the dog that the O@$ sound was about to happen on that trial. >hen an e*ercise ends in a !tay response &see e*ample at end of -hapter =—!it and :ise'. it's a fun way for two or more persons to get in ol ed in a single dog's training.If both $eam "layers are ac%uainted with the training procedures.e Bust became preoccupied in what you were doing. !tand motionless while you begin a 4#5 second wait. say 2OOD. 7. and this chapter to see how it might be done'. but is a way that can be used later to control more comple* task actions. $hen. Optional $raining Inno ations $he course offers two optional inno ations that you are encouraged to incorporate into your training. (reathe normally. clasp both hands and hold them still in front of you at waist le el. deli ery of a food tidbit—all done the same way on e ery trial. !he can now say the rele ant sounds and you can be the feeder. 6ou then said the 2OOD &or O@$' sound. Aot only does $eam $raining help you become a more effecti e trainer. yet unhurried. OMultiple#dog training &Incorporate in +$he $raining !ession+ section abo e'0 If using the !till#%uiet mode. $he course allows you to do this in special instances0 4. . >hen the dogs are not re%uired to make a response &see early chapters and following e*ampleO and. < grand reward always followed this sound. < trial began with a wait of 4#to#5 seconds' duration. and e en help to alter undesirable temperament problems. then you and she can occasionally switch roles. and faced your dog during the wait. 6ou were careful not to make any sudden mo es or to begin the food#deli ery mo ement Bust before you said it. <fterword 6ou did not ask your dog to respond in any way during these startup trials.
refle*i ely. <fter one or two training sessions with the +early !tay signal. STA-1IN1P&ACE $hus far in this course. <fter the sound. 6ou may bend your body. pass a food tidbit promptly to one dog. $he dogs don't know that you are out of tidbit foods. In these e*ercises. $he refined !tay signal. rather than to listen for the O@$ sound. you will teach your dog to !tay#in#place whene er you mo e away from him. the dog is allowed to be standing. place the flat of both hands in front of the dog's face in a non#threatening way—palms facing the dog for two to fi e seconds. $he last trial of the session0 >hen you no longer ha e any tidbits to gi e. etc. 6ou will want your dog to maintain his present attitude.-ontinue motionless for a fleeting moment after you make the sound. not in your hands'. If the dog !tays. and end the trial with a tasty tidbit &food is kept in a dish on a nearby table. If the dog breaks from the !tay. with little or no mo ing about during the !tay period. >ait at least one minute before starting another session. mo e to deli er the grand reward—that is.+ ne*t. repeat the procedure. while performing this action. if necessary. >ait se eral seconds in a motionless stance—hands at waist le el in front of you. do one more trial. the dogs will adBust nicely. do not initiate any food#deli ery mo ement Bust before you say the O@$ sound— otherwise the dogs might use the change in mo ement to know when the grand reward will appear. $hen. your dog was not told to do anything. 2o to action 4 and begin another trial. without waiting. -ontinue the +2OOD#food+ pairing trials until you' e deli ered all of the tidbit foods. (egin the trials by facing the dog. Maintain the +early !tay signal+ in place for se eral seconds. and. !tay is probably the most useful beha ior that your dog will learn in this course. >hen the dog begins to stay still with this early !tay signal—it usually happens in the first training session—replace the signal with the +refined !tay signal. CHAPTER 8. :emember. then to the other—no need to hurry the rewarding. $he signal fills the wait#space in the !till#%uiet mode &see modes discussed in the section. +$he 2ame#playing trial+ of -hapter 5'. .+ refine the signal as follows0 "lace the palm of one hand close to the dog's face for a . !ay O@$. !tay by hand#signal is taught first &!teps 4 and 7'. and followed by teaching a !tay by oice command &!tep 8'. say 2OOD. $his signal often gets the dog to stay in place.e was simply e*posed to some training actions. $his will ensure that you will not start your mo ement to deli er the food before the sound. set a dish with food on the floor in front of each dog. $he early !tay signal. sitting or lying down when you signal or tell him to !tay. In the present work.
In which case. she could hold the dog lightly in place'. . N Deli er the food tidbit. If you are still using the +early !tay signal. 7 "ick up your training foods and go to the work site. = >ithout waiting. but still far enough away so that he has to rise to get it. $his e*ercise lends itself to $eam $raining.+ that is. It's a fun way for you and your dog to +play the game. replace the 2OOD sound with O@$.<D6. gi e the !tay signal. Ste! 1. If the dog is sitting or lying down during the !tay trials. abo e'. )ollow the signal with a wait period &see action E.e!enda)le Stay 4 !ay :.+ $hen. 6ou are ready to begin another !tay trial. below'. 9 <llow the dog to be sitting. E 6ou want your dog to !tay#in#place for two to fi e seconds. $hen let go the dog. 8 >ithout waiting. $o get the dog to break. you may on occasion want to do !tays when the dog is standing.+ also done at !tep 4. 4D 2o to action 9 of this !tep. you would entice the dog to break from the !tay after you say 2OOD. Do eight to ten such trials in the session. = <llow the dog to break from the !tay after you say 2OOD.+ hold the signal in place until you say 2OOD. standing or lying down. 9 $hen place your hands lightly on the dog and hold him in place for two to fi e seconds. when appropriate. 5 )ace the attenti e dog. (egin with the +early !tay signal. Getting a . change to the +refined !tay signal. then bring your hand back to your side—all in a continuing. $he dog is allowed to break his !tay after the 2OOD sound. gi e the !tay signal &use +the refined !tay signal. 8 "lace the food tidbits in a plate on a nearby table. 7 )ace the attenti e dog. If the dog breaks during the wait period. yet unhurried motion.*periment with the best way to do that &if you are doing $eam $raining with another $eam "layer. Pro)le 0 >hat if the dog repeatedly breaks from the !tay in action E. E Deli er the food tidbit. 5 !ay 2OOD while still holding the dog in place. abo eP Sol#tion0 Make the following change in the training step0 4 <llow the dog to be sitting. 6ou will not mo e away from the dog during !tep#4 !tay trials. . It asks the dog if he wants to play a game. standing or lying down. M !ay 2OOD when you get the !tay. as are most e*ercises in this course.+ !ee definition.fleeting moment. repeat the !tay signal. 44 On the last trial. hold the tidbit close to him. of !tep 4. sharing the below actions with another person. and follow with a grand reward.
!tep 8.ands are at your side. 4 $o begin a session. !tays with Distractions -ontinue !tep 4 trials. 9 <llow the dog to be sitting. such as slowly backing#away from the dog after you gi e the !tay signal &you are now in +motion+ mode'.+ abo e'.M 2o to action 9 of this !tep. >hen the dog no longer needs to be held in place. or ha e another $eam "layer hold the dog in place after the !tay signal is gi en. for one or two days.<D6. reinforce with the sound. for as many days that it takes to get a reliable !tay under the abo e distracting conditions. with simple distractions. start the trial o er again. )or learning to take place. the hand signal is used as a prompt for learning the command. = >ithout waiting say !$<6. Do other distraction mo ements at this training step. replace the 2OOD sound with O@$. the oice#command !$<6 must appear a moment before the hand signal is gi en. go to a simpler le el for awhile. !$<6. <dd comple*ity to your distraction in small increments from one trial to another. say :. $he oiced. $hat is. Ao part of the signal must be started before the command is oiced. Do one or two more sessions in this step. ?earning the !tay command is achie ed by pairing it with a !tay signal that already controls the response. On the last trial of a session. resume the work without the +hold#in#place+ correction. N 2radually fade out the holding correction. !$<6. "lan to do about 4D trials per training session and fi e to eight training sessions per day. standing or lying down. in time. Do eight to ten trials in the session. O@$. "lan to do about 4D trials in each training session3 conduct fi e to eight training sessions per day. "erform the following actions. and follow with a grand reward. In this way. 7 "ick up your training foods and go to the place where you will do your training. then go to !tep 7. . when gi en alone. E )ollow closely with the !tay signal &see +$he refined !tay signal. $hen do !tep 8. 4D On the last trial. and deli er a grand reward. . 6ou are ready to begin another !tay trial. go to the dog and deli er another !tay signal and go on from there. will come to control the same +stay#in# place+ response. !tep 7. but now make brief and smooth distracting mo ements. If the dog mo es before you release him with the 2OOD sound. 5 )ace the attenti e dog. $wo training days should gi e you the desired control. 8 "lace the tidbit foods in a dish on a table. If the dog continues to break from the !tay at any distraction le el. ?earning the Hoiced !$<6 In the present !tep. such as a stretch e*ercise away from the dog. an additional action—the oiced command !$<6—is added to the basic trial configuration.
replace the 2OOD sound with O@$. $o be a good helping action. $his part also helps the dog to adapt to your handling during the helping action. Deli er the tidbit. +"rompt+ candidates for !it training -hoose an action that is listed in this section. your dog was already in a particular attitude &!it. T"e Sit Trial 2etting the !it response under oice control is accomplished in two training parts. If the dog is standing. walk away and lea e your dog in !tay.+ $he pairing is done in this order0 first. +"rompt candidates for !it training. below' to get the dog familiarized with the routine. !I$. In this chapter. $hen run a number of trials &"art 4. allow the dog to sit. . On the last trial of the session. any other beha ior in this course—the dog already knows how to do them. do a !it#training trial3 alternati ely if the dog is sitting. In this part. 2o to action 5 of this !tep. It becomes a prompt in the second part when it is associated with learning the !it command. gi e the command3 then do the prompt. !tand or Down' when you told him to !tay. do a :ise#training trial.M N 4D 44 47 48 49 <fter gi ing the signal. :ather. stand or lie down anytime that he wants. >hile away. $he +touch/handling+ that you do in this part is not yet called a prompt. RISE 6ou are not going to teach your dog to !it or :ise. you will choose the best way to help the dog into the !it response. or for that matter. ?earning is accomplished by pairing the command !I$ with the prompt of your choice &see the ne*t section. SIT AN. 6ou are ready to begin another paired command# signal !tay trial. )ollow with a grand reward. !ay 2OOD while you are still doing the distraction. training puts these beha iors under signal and oice#command control—it's what you do in dog#obedience training. it must get the response e ery time. "art 70 "airing the !I$ command with a prompt. CHAPTER 9.nlist the aid of another $eam "layer to perform one or more of these trial actions—it makes it easier for the actions to be performed correctly. -ontinue working with your selected action . you will first tell your dog to change attitudes. In the work of this chapter. and then you will tell him to !tay. In the ne*t chapter. you may do a brief distracting mo ement. In this part. "art 40 2et a dependable and stable !it prompt. <llow the dog to break from the !tay. the dog learns the meaning of the oiced command.
>hen doing this action. a non#stressed dog will usually sit. and then to sit. if you wish. . additional pressure can then be applied atop the haunches. In such a training trial. T"e Ri$e Trial :ise#command control is also in two parts0 "art 40 >ork to get a dependable and stable :ise prompt. In this part. $he knee#tuck. it must get the . $his e ent is not all that reliable as a +prompt+ choice. $his action also gets the dog to raise his head. Ae ertheless. !I$. slowly bend the upper part of your body o er the dog. or any other signal. <n alternate plan is to unlock the dog's back knees by sliding your hand from on top of his hind%uarters to the back of the knees. gently cradle his muzzle in both hands. $hen use it as a prompting action in "art 7. • "ressing down lightly on the dog's haunches • $he knee#tuck • ?ight upward tug of the lead • @pward raising of the dog's head • (ending your upper body o er the dog "ressing down lightly on the dog's hind%uarters. >hen done this way. (ending your upper body o er the dog. $hen slowly raise the muzzle. >ith a +break+ in the knees.e probably does that to reduce the mild strain on his neck. to control the !it response. < light upward leash#tug. $o do it. $o be a good :ise prompt. It's done this way0 >hen the oice#command !I$ comes to control the !it response by itself &the control is achie ed in "art 7 of the present work'. <s you face the dog straight on. rather than at midriff. :aising of the dog's head upward. $his prompt is fa ored by dog trainers because most dogs willingly sit when light to moderate pressure is applied there. If necessary. the dog is not touched. !ome dogs will refle*i ely sit when you gi e the leash an upward tug. $his action is %uite effecti e. the leash#tug can be learned later as a new signal. e*cept that in this procedure. the dog usually goes into the sit. < light forward pressure then tucks the knees. to control the same !it response. the command can then be used as a prompt for learning this signal. with the same hand.until you are able to get the response e ery time and with little effort. $he action0 >hile the dog is facing you with anticipation. you will ha e no food in your hands &the food can be kept in a dish on a nearby table'. then follow closely with the oice#command. to complete the response. you will find the best way to help &prompt' the dog to :ise. !ome dogs resist the modest downward pressure on their haunches. $his usually gets the dog to raise his head. hold your closed hands &the !ign of the )eeder' at upper#chest. first deli er a momentary upward tug on the lead. but its use as a prompt has not been widespread.
:I!. $hen use it as a prompt in "art 7. 6ou can choose another.<D6 when the dog is not e*pecting it. and follow by releasing the dog. $he +?ift the belly+ is used here when you are doing the :ise trial. "art 4 trials do not begin with a wait period. Part 1. to your handling. then the prompt. take up most of the slack &without e*erting any force on the leash'. +"rompt+ candidates for :ise training $he dog is less inclined to go from the !it attitude to a !tand. the $eam "layer who does this prompt should be the owner of the dog— it's less stressful on the dog. 4 !ay :. ?earning is accomplished by pairing &associating' the command. $he :ise#prompt options are few. >hen you are ready to do the helping action. then say 2OOD. "art 70 $he dog learns the meaning of the oiced command. <t the moment the dog is up. 7 2o to the kitchen to pick up your training foods. >ith the dog sitting in front of you. . with the prompt of your choice.+ is arbitrarily used here to describe the "art 4 procedure in the !it trial. Do not ha e any food in your hands during these trials. $he +handling action+ of this first part becomes a prompt when it is used with the :I!. and hold your end of the leash at waist or chest le el with both hands. Getting a de!enda)le !ro !t 6ou will not +tell+ the dog to sit or rise in this first training part. $wo ways are suggested here. take one or two steps backward. Dog is pulled off the sit. bend o er the sitting or downed dog. say 2OOD. Design and substitute any other helping action that works best for you. )ollow with a tasty tidbit. 6ou will Bust ha e to pull the dog off the !it. $his work will enable the dog to adapt.. $hen proceed to the place where you will do the work. $he action. $he present trials resol e which !it and :ise actions will work best as prompts. $he pairing is done in this order0 first the command. <ttach the leash to the dog's collar. ?ifting the dog's underside. <. than he is to go from the !tand to the !it. If you are doing $eam $raining. putting a gentle to moderate pull on the lead.response e ery time. "lace your hands under the dog's belly. command in the second part.nlist the aid of another $eam "layer to do one or more actions in the trial—it makes it easier for the actions to be performed correctly. with composure. +@pward :aising of the Dog's .ead. If the dog is standing0 . :I!. 2ently pull upward until the dog is standing.. "lace 4D to 45 tidbits in a plate on a nearby table. Do not start your food deli ery before you say 2OOD. $he dog can release the strain on his neck by rising from the sit. -ontinue to run these trials until the chosen handling action gets the desired response easily e ery time. >hen you are ready to do the helping action.
Don't hurry or force the :ise. If you want the following trial to also be a !it action. Part +. if you ha e anyone to help you. 6ou may be performing all training actions yourself. 6ou're only trying to make the helping action work well before using it as a prompt in "art 7. (. Don't hurry or force the !it. go to the ne*t part. In $eam $raining. the !it trial and :ise trial each now ha e these actions0 a oice command for the dog to do something and a helping prompt that the dog e*perienced in "art 4. then release the dog's muzzle.oiced SIT and RISE In this part. proceed to assist the dog into the !it by raising the dog's head upward &or by any other assisting action'. if she does not also help the dog do the response#prompt'. and mo e to deli er the tidbit. abo e'. . >ithout waiting. ne*t. putting your hands under his abdomen. Teac"ing . If you want the dog to be sitting at the start of the ne*t trial. Do 4D#47 trials per session.8. sitting dog. 5 >hen the dog had been standing for about one#half second.eep in mind that you do not tell the dog to sit in this training part. 5 <t the moment the dog's butt touches the floor. $hen go to (. . proceed to assist the dog into the !tand by bending o er the dog. and reward the dog.8 9 )ace the attenti e dog. If the dog is sitting at the start of the trial0 8 )ace the attenti e. one $eam player assumes the )eeder !tance with hands closed at mid#waist or chest#high le el &this $eam "layer may ha e food tidbits in her hand. abo e.8. deli er the tidbit to the sitting dog. 9 >ithout waiting. >hen the dog has adBusted well enough to response assisting. >hen doing this training by yourself. hold the tidbit of the pre ious trial Bust out of reach of the dog so that he has to rise to retrie e it. but get practice with $eam $raining first. . say 2OOD. :un as many sessions as needed for the dog to become compliant to the helping sit and rise actions. and lifting up &or by any other lift action'. don't assume the feeder stance3 your hands will be busy doing other things. withdraw the lifting action. $eam training—!ee chapter 4 In ol e family members or friends in $eam $raining. say 2OOD.stablish beforehand which $eam "layer will do which action in the part#7 trials. $hen go to action <. $he dog is then ready for the ne*t trial &see directions < or (. It's fun and results in more effecti e timing and se%uencing of trial actions.
and then begin the prompt. In our "arks and :ecreation Dog $raining -ourse in (el <ir. the players can switch roles. Don't o erlap the two e ents—they're done in se%uence. If a player makes an error during the trial. 2OOD. gi e a command. go back to doing the basic bare bones trials of week one until you get the basic attenti e control. with the :ise prompt. <lso.$he "art 7 trial se%uence0 <fter a %uiet wait of one to fi e seconds. $he dog is then ready for the ne*t trial. and gi e him a tasty tidbit. )ollowing the +wait+ period. $he trial begins with a %uiet wait period of one to fi e seconds. <fter a number of training trials. do a :ise#training trial. "ause less than one#half second. If you are doing $eam $raining. -ontinue to use prompts in your !it and !tand work until your dog begins to respond too %uickly for you to deli er them. If the dog is standing. $he trial begins with a %uiet wait period of one to fi e seconds during which the dog is in the stand attitude. . which teaches the :ise command if the dog is sitting during the wait period3 teaches the !it command when the dog is standing during this period. !I$ In this part. no more than two players usually do the $eam training. for practical reasons. and then begin the prompt &helping the dog into the !it'. do a !it#training trial3 alternati ely if the dog is sitting. :I!. you can ha e as many $eam players as there are actions in the trial. $he command. pair the oice#command !I$ with the !it prompt. If your dog isn't attending. >hen the dog's backside touches the ground. you must obser e proper care in the way you perform the two new actions. In this part. simply to demonstrate $eam $raining at its fun best. pause shortly &less than one#half second'. Maryland. pair the oice#command :I!. stand or lie down at the start of any trial. continue your prompting action until the 2OOD is sounded. Bust laugh it off and continue—the dog is forgi ing. $he command. Don't o erlap the oiced command and the prompt —they're done in se%uence. Don't make any sudden mo es to start the prompt action before you gi e the command. .owe er. say the reinforcing sound. !ay the 2OOD sound and do tidbit rewarding as you had been doing in the earlier bare#bones work. then follow with a prompt—an action that puts your dog into the appropriate response. we sometimes in ol e 9 persons in the !it and :ise trials. $he pairing begins when the dog is in the sit attitude. say !I$. <ll $eam players are instructed not to start their action until the preceding action is completed by another $eam player. Make sure that you ha e the dog's attention at the start of e ery trial. <s in the earlier bare#bone work. Deli er the command :I!. <llow the dog to sit. first.
for more on +distractions. then !tay sitting. &>e don't think that your dog will be lying down. 8 <llow the dog to !it. you will link !tay with the !it attitude and !tay with the !tand attitude.ach successi e controlling action in the chain should be timed precisely at the moment the pre ious response in the chain is made. 9 )ace the attenti e dog. then !tay standing. plus gentle restraint. $hen go to the ne*t action. your dog will be doing it later when he recei es Down training'. 5 >ait %uietly for two to fi e seconds. $he 2OOD and O@$ actions always come on at the end of the last response link.+ . if it's still necessary. +!it. you can eliminate the !$<6 command0 the !I$ command will come to mean. .' abo e'. !ome chains can ha e many links. >hen the dog becomes proficient in the procedure. !tand or ?ie down during these trials. . if necessary.. the :I!. )or e*ample. $hen prompt the dog to sit. i. . E <t the moment the dog sits say !$<6. breaking from the !tay response to pick up the tidbit or grand reward. the dog earned the 2OOD sound at the moment he sat or stood—no !it#stay or !tand#stay was attempted. )or e*ample. !it#stay and !tand#stay <ctions 4 !ay :. M )ollow the !$<6 command closely with the !tay#signal prompt &see '$he refined !tay signal. N <fter gi ing the stay signal. walk away and lea e your dog in !tay. In the present section. signal a !tay &see the refined !tay signal in the !tay in "lace -hapter'. "rompt any or all of the dog's responses that are part of a chaining trial. is the command. E <t the moment the dog is up on his four legs. +:ise..owe er. ?inking one response to another is called chaining. the ne*t response in the chain.ands are at your side. If the dog is standing0 = !ay !I$. $hen prompt &help' the dog to stand up. $hen go to <ction M. 6ou may also prompt &help' the !tay response with hand#in#face signal. Pro !ting c"ained re$!on$e$.+ !tep 4. . !$<63 the 2OOD &or O@$' sound is the controlling action for the last response in the chain. continue to help the dog do the !it response. command will come to mean. below.<D6. $hen do a distracting mo ement for two or more seconds—!ee !tep 7. 7 "ick up your training foods and go to the place where you will do your training.+ !imilarly.e.Sit1$tay and Stand1$tay Training In the abo e part of this chapter. C"aining.ach response link in the chain has it's own controlling action. the controlling action for the !it response is the command. in !it#stay training in the present section. If the dog is sitting0 = !ay :I!. !I$3 the controlling action for the !tay response.
!I$ as a prompt. 2OOD or O@$. $he arm is then brought back to your side—all in a continuous fluid motion. then deli er the !it +arm and hand+ signal &see ne*t'. )or this step. $he signal begins by raising your right arm &no bends' toward the dog. $he dog is allowed to break from the response when he hears the sound. say 2OOD while you are still performing a distraction. 49 On the end of the last trial of the session. If the dog is sitting when you begin. $o be useful as a prompt. must get the !it response e ery time. 4D If the dog stays. !tep 8. !I$. 6ou are ready to begin another paired !it#stay or :ise# stay trial. !imply by pairing the new signal with the !it command o er a series of trials. followed closely by the !tay hand#signal. If the dog mo es before you release him with the 2OOD sound. $he !it +arm and hand+ signal0 6our arms rest at your side during the wait. make brief and smooth distracting mo ements. 6ou will be finished with this step when the dog stays in place after you make the following actions0 -ommand and !ignal the dog to !tay3 turn away from the dog3 walk about 5 paces3 turn to face the dog3 stand in place for se eral seconds3 return to the dog3 go around his left side to his right side &the heel position'3 stand there for a moment3 say 2OOD. go to the dog and put him gently in the response that he broke from. $eaching the !it +arm/hand+ signal. for as many days that it takes to get a reliable !tay under the abo e distracting conditions. and deli er a grand reward. the dog will then begin to !it to the +arm and . 44 <llow the dog to break from the !tay. 48 2o to action 9 of this !tep.If the dog makes an unauthorised break from the !tay. <dd distractions in small increments from one trial to another—make it easy for the dog to be correct. Do about 5 trials in each session. O@$. the oiced !I$ is said when your arm is at its furthest forward position. Distractions in !it and !tand <fter you gi e the command. the oiced. gi e the dog a :ise and !tand#stay trial. !$<6. you will want the dog to be standing. >hen doing the pairing. $hen turn away and lea e your standing dog3 $ake two steps3 $urn to face your dog3 >ait se eral seconds. -onduct se eral training sessions per day. reinforce with the sound. start the trial o er again. $hat is. say AO in a calm oice. such as slowly backing away from the dog. 45 )ollow with a grand reward. !tep 7. !I$. you're using the command. On the last trial of a session. $he palm of your hand faces the dog. $hen deli er another !tay command and !tay signal and go on from there. 47 Deli er the tidbit. and then go to <ction si* &='. replace the 2OOD sound with O@$. to about 95 degrees from the resting position. say !$<6. >hen the dog is standing. and gi e the dog a food tidbit. In this procedure. followed closely by the command.
you may want your -ompanion Dog to be at your side and under control. $hen later. >hen called to . you will use the command.?. Defining the classic .eel is the normal controlled stance for many working dogs.. . In the early part of your training. faced with an imminent threat feels more ulnerable when he is in sit or down. In yet another step. when there is a lull in the working dog's acti ity. you will gently guide the dog into . (e sure to obser e the se%uence0 first the new !it signal. It's the position from which they are released to do some work. with a command.eel position. the :eady# for#action stance. when you get your dog to the . . and close alongside you.eel command should not only get a +-ome to . then the !it command. CHAPTER :. to the precise . or get into mischief. .eel position. of course.eel—I'd imagine that a dog. -orrect timing "recise timing of the reinforcing sounds. $he dog is allowed to break from the heel position to pick up the food. your dog shall learn the automatic !it and !tay at .eel position. in any e ent. 2etting the dog close to you is especially useful when a situation on the stroll appears threatening. 6ou ha e the option. you will teach your dog to do an automatic !tand#stay. In the present lesson.eel position.owe er. the handler will put the dog in a resting !it or Down attitude with a command or signal. $he !tand#stay at . he is less likely be a nuisance to anyone.eel for a different purpose. In the first phase of this training. 2OOD or O@$. but in a later training step.eel. the working dog goes into an automatic !tand#stay. you can go about the business of .+ If you are doing Obedience competition..hand+ signal when gi en alone. the neck/shoulder region of the forward#facing dog is lined up with your left leg. It's the stance that is geared for immediate action—the dog e*pects a command to do something of a work nature. to tell the dog to come to your left side. >hen the dog is there. of putting the dog into the resting !it or Down whene er you wish. he is told 2OOD &or O@$'. the . anytime. (esides.owe er. . you may choose to ha e your dog do the automatic !it#stay. THE HEE& POSITION On occasion. <fter you deli er the reinforcing sound. when he comes to .eel position0 >hen you are standing still.andling Ao harsh leash handling is necessary to get the dog to learn a precise . you will gently guide your dog to the correct position.eel+ response.eel. $ypically. but also an automatic +!tand#stay. is essential. >orking Dogs are brought to . then is gi en a food tidbit &or grand reward'. the reinforcing sound comes on at the moment the dog is correctly aligned at your left side.
Do not command the dog to do anything— allow him the freedom to do whate er he wants in this early training step. after making the 2OOD sound. $aking se eral seconds to find a food#piece will scarcely affect the dog's learning speed. 6ou will e entually reach his right side. mo e casually to his right side. +baiting+ is a food#following techni%ue—the dog follows the mo ement of the hand that holds an e*posed food tidbit.. 2OOD or O@$. attract the dog to the heel position with +food baiting. with your dog off#leash. $he main problem with baiting is that it strengthens a strong +begging+ response at a time when the dog is trying to do something else. Teac"ing t"e Heel Po$ition If your dog is a runner. such as a room in your house or small fenced area. the command. ?ater in training. < tablespoon of a tasty canned dog food is a con enient 2rand :eward that can follow the O@$ sound in these sessions—you may replace the 2rand food with +taking a stroll+ reward at the end of one of the -ome#to#. preferably. you will deli er a reinforcing sound anytime the dog is in a !tand#stay &or !it#stay'. he is allowed to break from the response—that's when he can take on a begging stance. 6ou may hold the food tidbits in that hand or. no food is in sight or e ident to the dog before he makes the correct response. In the +non#baiting+ procedure that we use. Ste! 1.+ In which case. +-ome to . (aiting is not a suitable techni%ue to use in most training situations. face the off#leash dog who is close#by.+ !imply defined. since you already told the dog that he earned a reward when he made the correct response. . $he dog may try to maintain the facing position. E Make the usual preparations &see +$he $raining !ession+ in -hapter 9'. >hen the dog hears the reinforcing sound. $he procedure = !tart the session with the :. and !tay when you get there. +$o (ait+ or +Aot to (ait+ !ome trainers. do the work in an enclosed space.eel. will mean. since he was rewarded most often when he faced you.eel sessions. who use the :eward Method. M >hen you are set. (e patient. ?et your left arm hang at your side.?.+ !chedule $wo or more -ome#to#. 6ou can e en reach into your pocket or go to a nearby table for a food tidbit.rewarding the dog in a deliberate but unhurried way. in anticipation of the imminent food reward.eel sessions may be done back to back—with a short one#minute break between sessions.. N >hen you ha e the dog's attention. ha e them in a dish on a table that's nearby.<D6 sound. 4D 6ou can speed up the procedure by using another person &identified in the te*t as a $eam "layer' to hold the dog gently in place for se eral trials—to keep the dog .eel position &as defined abo e'. $he reinforcing sound means0 +6ou made a good response3 come and get your reward. to complete the . < session takes one or two minutes to do. $he closed right hand is held at midriff. Do M or 4D trials per session.
E Make the usual session preparations. he still may not know that he can turn on the reinforcing sound. the dog hasn't yet learned how to make the correct alignment without your assistance. to be lightly#guided into heel with a leash. <llow him freedom to mo e about between trials. . the dog was permitted to walk about. Don't talk to the dog during the trial. $hen. in the ne*t step. $hat is.<D6 sound. reinforce and reward. then step away from heel position. Ste! +. or something tasty from the refrigerator. e*cept to say 2OOD or O@$. $hese sessions will help the dog. )or a session or two. on any of the training trials. Do fi e sessions of +getting#ac%uainted with the heel position+ daily for two days. 6ou were instructed to mo e casually to the dog to achie e the heel position. >hen you and the dog come to be correctly aligned at heel &the neck/shoulder region of the dog is lined up with your left leg'. such as a room in your house. $hen go to the place where you keep the 2oal food. deli er the O@$ sound when the dog is in the correct heel position. but you will also lightly guide the dog in with a lead. $he $eam "layer may kneel at the dog's left side. that reinforcement comes only when both of you are physically positioned in that select way to each other. say 2OOD. (ut. ?ea e your dog to begin another trial &begin at action 8 again' >hen you ha e done about M trials. On the last trial of the session. when you and the dog are in correct alignment. $hough he soon gets to know that. if he so wished. -ontinue to do the work in an enclosed space.44 47 48 49 45 from mo ing about. and deli er a food tidbit. It may be awhile before the dog begins to mo e to the reinforcing position. Do not say the dog's name.owe er. this is not a !tay#at#heel response—the 2OOD is sounded at the moment the position is correct. you will be making all of the mo es that end with the dog in the proper heel position. during these trials the dog is learning. or oice#command him to do anything during the training session. without your help. 2i e the dog a tablespoon of canned dog food. G#iding dog into "eel !o$ition In !tep 4. always make sure that the dog is precisely there before reinforcing the response0 )or awhile. <lso. do one more trial. by association. "ut a leash on the dog. e*cept when you used another $eam "layer to hold the dog still. e en when the dog starts to make the right mo es that bring him there. you will make the same mo es toward the dog's right side. In the present step. by making the position#response himself. $he procedure0 = -all the dog to work with the :. you will ha e to make almost e ery response +look good+ with an additional correcti e mo ement yourself. (e sure not to step away or begin a food deli ery before you say 2OOD. . -ontinue the +$eam $raining+ procedure until the dog holds still on his own.
4D >ait a second or more.eel position. 4= .nd of session. >e find this step to be a nice transition between the one that gets the dog to know the heeling position &step 4' and one that gets control o er the dog's heeling mo ement without any leash aid &step 9'. say 2OOD. 2OOD or O@$. $he aid that you gi e the dog to come to heel lasts only a moment—it's not continuous. 9 <s you walk casually past the dog's right side. 49 2o to action 8 for another tidbit#rewarding trial. don't say the dog's name or tell the dog to come to . 5 -ontinue to walk one pace forward past the dog. then deli er a +grand+ reward. 48 )ace the dog and gi e him a food tidbit. -ontinue the +-ome#to#heel+ work. Ste! /. 8 >ait a second or two. along with any other work session. $here. and halt. 47 >hen the position is +right+ for reinforcement. 6ou will approach the dog to his right side as before. but do it without coercion. <s you make the turn into the dog. lead the dog into the correct . N >hen ready. try to get the dog to make part of the effort. calmly.M "ut the dog on loose lead. at this stage. then approach the standing dog from the side and rear. Make training preparations. During this action. -ontinue to assist the dog to make a +precise+ response by making part of the mo e to the correct position yourself.og get$ a o entary lea$" t#g In the present step. halt. replace the 2OOD sound with O@$.eel by himself. make the final correcti e mo ement so that both of you will be in precise alignment. and then walk normally toward the dog's right side. with no pause in pace. . you will gi e the leash a light and momentary tug in a forward direction3 -ontinue one step forward past the dog without pause.eel position. $he tug on the lead is supposed to tell the dog to come alongside you to the heel position.eel. nonchalantly take up the slack in the leash. 44 >hen the dog is close to being correct in . 45 )or this last trial. gi e the leash a light forward tug. $he procedure0 4 !ay :. . 7 "ut the dog on loose lead. as it was in the pre ious step. then gently guide him into position with the lead. $o repeat. 6ou may still make a final mo e to the dog's position to make the perfect heel. If the ne*t trial is the last one in the session. 6ou want the dog to make the final step to come to . $he dog is permitted to break from the heel position when he hears the reinforcing sounds. then release any tension that you may still ha e on the leash. a simple leash tug replaces the continued leash assistance.nd each session with O@$ and a grand reward. $hen. .<D6. mo e four to si* feet from the dog and face him. If the momentary tug is not enough to get the dog to mo e to you. go to the ne*t action. but deliberately.
T"e dog wor7$ off1lea$" $he procedure of this training step is like that of !tep 8. guide him to the precise heel position with the leash. = >hen the dog comes close to being in the correct position. but now. N 2o to the place where you keep the 2rand#food. reinforce with the sound. )or a couple of seconds or so. 4 !ay :. <s the dog tries to come to heel. and reinforce with the 2OOD or O@$ sound. and then start another training session with the :. 9 $hen. -ontinue the present trial procedure for the remainder of the training week. 2o to the ne*t action if the ne*t trial is the last one in the session. 6ou can e*pect the dog to follow where er you go. Teac"ing t"e co and( HEE& . 7 . and make the necessary training preparations. your dog may %uickly figure out that he can make the heel position happen—you see the dog make an effort to come to heel. -ontinue this training until the dog comes %uickly into position with little or no leash#help. Ste! 6. >ith Bust a bit more training in !tep 7. >hen he happens to be in the correct position. 44 If the ne*t trial is the last one in the session. $hen turn to face the dog to reward him. 2OOD. E 2o to action three if the ne*t trial is still tidbit#rewarded.*pect him to mo e with you. Do not break from the heel position before you say the reinforcing sound.<D6. 8 $ake a se eral steps away from the dog. "ut one tablespoon of a tasty canned dog food or a bit of table scraps into a food pan. go to action 8.a e the dog off#leash. 4D -ontinue the procedure until you are out of tidbits. $he dog should be able to make the appropriate mo ement into the proper position with little trouble when off leash. N If the ne*t trial is tidbit#rewarded. Otherwise. and gi e him a tidbit. (y this time. E !ay 2OOD. halt. $hat is. keep walking slowly while lightly assisting the dog. slowly approach the dog from his back and side. M !ay O@$ when the dog makes the last good response in the session. In which case. 5 "ass closely along the dog's right. say O@$ when the response is a good one. mo e about in a way that pre ents the dog from coming to . the dog should feel comfortable being at your side and wants to be there. Ste! 4.<D6 sound. 6ou can make the heel position more correct by making a minor correction mo ement yourself.eel. M $urn to face the dog and deli er a food tidbit. continue with training other tasks. or longer. $hen turn to face the dog. . you can accelerate the training. the dog gets no leash aid. until the dog readily comes to heel when gi en a short#tug prompt. halt.= >hen the dog comes alongside you. (e sure not to hurry through !tep 4 training # it teaches the dog where the precise heeling position is reinforced. $hen deli er the 2rand reward. wait another minute. 4D <fter the 2rand#food is eaten.
44 )or the ne*t tidbit#reward trial. T"e Re$ting Attit#de at Heel In this step. you said the reinforcing sound. 4 !ay :. If the dog breaks from the !tand#stay. 4D >hen the dog is correctly aligned at . an immediate !tand#stay after he comes to a halt at . Ste! 9.. !$<6. $hen reward. halt. 2OOD or O@$. A#to atic Sit1$tay at Heel 'o!tional* .eel command. Make the necessary training preparations. 9 >alk about the room to the limit of the leash length. then reward as usual. = >hen you are two still two paces away from him. you may gi e the dog additional assistance. 8 "ut the dog in a !tand#stay &see the section0 +!it#stay and !tand#stay training+ in -hapter E'. 47 < good . say .. you will add another response to the chain—a response that was learned earlier. say 2OOD or O@$.?#trial procedure about eight times..eel. then reward him. say 2OOD or O@$. then abruptly make an about turn. If the dog is still sitting at the end of a trial. after a week or so. you may put the dog in a resting !it or Down0 <fter the dog's been in the !tand#stay#at#. >hen the dog has been in a resting attitude for about 4D seconds. :epeat the . then go to the dog and begin another !tand#stay. $hen help the dog to remain standing by gently holding the dog in the !tand attitude. O@$. say a soft AO. Ste! 8. On an occasional trial. earns the sound. 6ou may. !ay 2OOD.eel for 8 or more seconds. go to action 8.<D6.? with a leash#tug prompt. -ontinue using the !tay#command assistance until you are sure that the dog remains standing without the !tay prompt.eel position. !ay !I$ &or DO>A'. or by easing him toward you. 5 >hen you are ready to gi e the . $he procedure >hen the dog reaches the precise . <fter the dog is in !tand#stay for one or more seconds. 7 "ut the dog back on leash. and the grand reward that follows. In this step.eel position. you are going to add a new response. stop saying !$<6—the !tand#stay will be understood whene er the dog comes to . at the precise moment the dog was in the correct .. M If necessary. & ary the time'. if necessary. rather than 2OOD or O@$.?.. N >hen the dog comes alongside. by mo ing toward the dog's right side. 6ou may continue to help the dog by making part of the correct heel#position yourself.eel. E )ollow your about#turn closely with a leash#tug in the direction of your left side.eel. say."airing the command . then command and/or signal him to :ise &with assistance if necessary' for the ne*t trial.. turn and walk toward him.eel response on the last trial of the session. T"e Stand1$tay at Heel In the pre ious steps.
?..e should come running whene er you say the sound. reinforce with the 2OOD or O@$ sound and then reward the dog. no negati e conse%uences are gi en for not responding. +)ront and )inish.6ou may prefer an automatic !it#stay. $IM. <fter se eral seconds in !tay. $he -all#to#work. . or the more disabling sound.. Do not hurry through any of the training steps. as punishment—a heeling skill that you should also teach your dog &see +!traight#line . and without further asking the dog to !it. $he automatic !it#stay at . ha e recall properties. when you deli er the command -OM.+ CHAPTER <. he will automatically !it. the dog should do some work when he comes. $he "rocedure0 -all the dog to . has some :ecall properties. (ut.eel is also taught in chapter 4D.eel &It's a re%uirement for Obedience trials'. >hen in the 2ame#playing mode of :ecall training. the dog is helped to make the correct response on e ery trial. )or the latter sound. Ae ertheless. . until the dog learns the more rele ant sound. .<D6. $o get the automatic !it#stay. that your dog learned in the first training week. 2OOD and O@$. -OM. no work is re%uired when the dog reaches you. . .eel position. AO.<D6 sound.eel. prompt the !it and !tay as you had in -hapter =. you can eliminate the !it and !tay commands. <s with most 2ame#playing acti ities of this course. @ntil your dog learns the more appropriate command.a e the dog do a single trial of !tand#stay. you can use the :..eel. you may ha e your dog do +precision straight#line heeling+ for a minute or less. :.owe er. though. <t the precise moment the dog is in the correct . when the dog comes to . Pro=ided a$$i$tance. you will do a ariation of the !tep = procedure. e*pecting to play a rewarding game. !ay !I$—the dog should already know to !it and !tay on the command. -OM. will then ser e to get the dog to the . Disobedience in the social setting may turn on a warning sound. rather than the automatic !tand#stay. COME 0HEN CA&&E. In keeping with the -all# to#work procedure.+ >hen you are sure that the dog will gi e you an automatic !it#stay at . in contrast to :. $he command. in a social setting—the dog is not in the 2ame#playing mode—the dog risks an unpleasant conse%uence for not coming when called. Don't neglect to reward him when he comes. Con$e3#ence$ for not co ing w"en called. as well.eeling+ in -hapter 4D'3 any other kind of penalty work3 or you may place him in his home cage for fi e minutes or longer. !I$. in a pinch. for e*ample. +!it and :ise..<D6 sound to get the dog to come to you.eel position. @se the three sounds. $he sounds.. then !tay.
. by associating the sound. <ssociation learning is most effecti e when the dog is released one#half second or less after the sound. e*cept to release the leash immediately after you hear $eam "layer 4 say. If the work is done out#of#doors in open space. $rial "rocedures0 4 "lace 4D food tidbits in your hand3 then hold your closed hands at midriff. E Drop the leash. hold on to the leash and follow closely on the heels of the dog to $eam "layer 4. . 8 !ay -OM. 9 !ay 2OOD when the dog is almost upon you &about si* feet away'. go to action 4 and begin another trial.<D6. punished or corrected by either $eam "layer. in a pleasing oice. +-ome to me.+ $hen. <t first.. -OM. 7 "lace one tablespoon of a tasty food in his food dish and set it aside3 reser e it for the last trial of the session. $his sound should alert the dog to come to work.$eam $raining of :ecall $he $eam $raining procedure is an efficient and fun way to train your dog with one or more other persons. $his first step is relati ely simple. trial after trial. stand still for one to fi e seconds in the !till/%uiet mode. 5 !tand your ground. A$$ociating COME wit" relea$e. If you prefer.. If the dog fails to pull. and &7' the prompt0 releasing the dog by another $eam "layer. $wo e ents are associated with learning0 &4' the sound. $he dog should follow. 7 >hen the dog is away and facing you. you can do the !ingle#person training approach—the procedure follows this $eam $raining section. and hold the leash firmly with both hands at chest le el. take up any slack in the leash. = Ae er gi e the dog any leash aids. -OM. 8 !tand still and don't talk to the dog. the dog will come to you when he Bust hears the sound. = (end forward to deli er the food tidbit. 7 . only the physical release is meaningful to the dog. Ste! 1. with release. M If the dog fails to mo e toward $eam "layer 4 after release. 8 2o to the place of training with your training foods. Hary the time from one trial to another. -OM. 5 :emain still and upright until after you say 2OOD.old dog in place on#leash and face $eam "layer 4. but loud enough for your dog to hear it clearly. immediately run to $eam player 4. $he dog will get the idea after se eral trials. Instructions for $eam "layer 4 "retrial "rocedures0 4 !ay :.. It means. Instructions for $eam "layer 7 4 6ou and the dog go to the starting point—about 7D feet from $eam "layer 4. N <fter the dog picks up the food reward. 9 <llow the dog to pull. E 2o to action 7 to begin another trial. @nauthorized attempts by the dog to come to you in the absence of the :ecall command are ignored—not disabled. -OM.
In that case. $hat surely should entice most dogs to come in. $hen go to the ne*t step. On the remaining trials. $his is done so the dog does not learn that a :ecall sound always comes after a non#recall .+ "erform the procedure of !tep 7. Ste! +. you may again use body and oice#appeal prompts for the dog to come in. when the dog is on loose lead. $he dog is permitted to come to you whene er you say. the dog would try to come to you then as well. he may fail to come to you when he hears the sound. Hold dog on loo$e lead In this training step. the sound of the ne*t trial can also be (I:D. add one or more other aids in se%uence to the procedure0 <fter you say. Relia)le Stay to non1recall $o#nd$ In the pre ious training steps. $he +$aut#lead+ release prompt is continued until the dog begins to show some wait on his own. >hat would happen if you said (I:D instead of -OM. the dog came to you on the command. In which case. and waits for the :ecall. a moment after gi ing the command. $hen. from the procedure—the oice appeal prompt is the first to go. +Do not come. <t first.owe er. say (I:D. If the dog tries to come to you before you say -OM. then the torso gesturing prompt. -OM... the dog will soon inhibit the +come#in+ response until the :ecall sound comes on. -OM.P In all probability. remo e them one at a time.. $his should happen in 8 to = training sessions. $hey are meant to con ey the message. try to lure the dog to come to you by bending forward and patting your thighs. @se these prompts only as necessary. as he should to the sound -OM. (I:D and !$<6 are used in the following discrimination procedure. $o be sure that the dog is responding correctly.. is deli ered only on some of the trials. On some occasions. $o do this. go to the ne*t step. $eam "layer 7 immediately loosens the lead again. $he Discrimination "rocedure. and the dog is released from a taut lead by $eam "layer 7. and saying what a good dog he is. or to a sound of any kind that you might make. $eam "layer 7 now holds the dog on a loose lead. -OM. $eam "layer 7 holds her ground. if necessary. -OM. with but with this one difference0 On some trials. $wo non#recall sounds. Ste! /.. a discrimination procedure is done. and not to any other sound. <fter (I:D is sounded. and lastly. -OM.. the rele ant sound -OM. . >hen you get the re%uired control. other sounds are said. but is pre ented from returning to you when you say some other sounds. you may. $eam "layer 7 is instructed to hang on tight to the lead and not release the dog when she hears that sound. >hen the response aids &prompts' are no longer needed. it's not clear if the dog responded to the particular sound. wait another 7#5 seconds before gi ing another sound. the release of leash tension prompt.:elease by $eam "layer 7 may not be a particularly strong prompt for some dogs to come to you. >ith continued training. Do about ten tidbit#rewarded trials and one goal#rewarded trial per session.
?et the "rompts. to respond. In correct Discrimination responding.6 means +Do not come. 4 $o begin. U$e dog>$ na e to get "i$ attention -ontinue the procedures of the pre ious training steps. :<AD6. -OM. has a meaning in its own right—it also tells the dog to remain in his present response topography.<D6. $he dog is not released when you say. -OM. (I:D. but without an assistant &the dog is in a !it#stay or !tand# stay away from you. Off1lea$" control $he work in this step re%uires good command control in the pre ious step.+ Ste! 6. sometimes say :<AD6. if your dog's name is :andy. step off se en paces. !$<6. 8 ?ead the dog twenty feet away from where you will position yourself for the trial.—release follows the -OM. -OM. -ontinue to use the same training setting. Don't use the sound AO at this time. the dog comes to you on the command. sound. say :..sound. "OO-. <lthough discipline skills are being learned. !$<6. >ith this kind of training. he is placed back into the sit by $eam "layer 7. instead of saying :<AD6. !o that the dog does not anticipate the :ecall command at the moment when he hears his name. $hat is. $his kind of control permits you to work with two or more dogs at one time in or outside the training session. Ste! 4. Do $idbit# and 2oal#rewarded trials as before. $eam "layer 7 is instructed to release the dog on the command. If he tries to get up at the sound. !$<6. restraint and release.. turn to face the dog.. the dog will alert to the sound of his name. 5 !ay !$<6 and follow closely with the !$<6 signal when you are about to lea e your dog. if the dog is sitting at the time the !$<6 command is deli ered. you still want your dog to iew the task as a fun game. !$<6. It's when you will want the dog to whom the command is directed. @se the informati e sound AO whene er the dog breaks from !tay—at the moment he breaks—then place him again into the pre ious attitude. do the work for you. occasionally follow the name :<AD6 with the command. :emain at this step until your dog's discrimination performance becomes reliable. or show any displeasure when the dog responds incorrectly3 or pro ide punishing conse%uences during the :ecall work. $he !$<6 sound.+ (ut unlike these latter sounds. and inhibits coming on the sound. 7 Make the usual training preparations. $hat is. . and wait for a command to do something. e*cept for the following0 $he dog is going to learn to differentiate his Aame#sound from that of other sounds. = ?ea e your dog. the dog should remain sitting. 9 !it or !tand your dog. 6ou may use physical prompting to get him into either attitude. )or instance. and wait one to fi e seconds in the !till/%uiet mode. because the dog's name is not "OO-. -OM. like the sounds (I:D and !. &if your dog's name happens to be :andy'.
. 6our dog might break at the moment he hears his name. without waiting to hear what else you ha e to say. in some instances.<D6. :einforce and :eward as usual.E M $hen choose one of four commands0 -OM. -OM.owe er. <fter each successful response. Recall training )y yo#r$elf 6ou can get the same kind of :ecall control by doing the training yourself. Moreo er.. in the present work. occasionally. 6ou would do well to continue running sessions of these discrimination trials. and positions himself properly for the upcoming trial. say AO at the moment of the break. an occasional dog walks back unaccompanied. $he sound alerts the dog to the work at hand. :<AD6 -OM. $he 2OOD sound already has some :ecall properties.. you go to the dog and do it.. -OM. $he :ecall procedures of !tep 5 are highly disciplining—re%uiring high le els of concentration and restraint by the dog. $hen go to the dog. go back to the leash#helper routine of a pre ious step for a period of remedial work. after the dog returns to you on the commands. 6our arms are rela*ed at your side. most dogs learn %uickly to walk alongside you to the starting place. Error$ in re$!onding. 7 !tart walking slowly around the room. 2OOD. >hene er the dog breaks from the !tay on the !$<6 and :<AD6 !$<6 commands. and :<AD6 -OM. 8 2o to the place where you'll do your training. . without being led. In which case. and lead him back to the original !tay position. is paired with the sound. (y delaying the command that follows his name. and :<AD6 !$<6 &if your dog's name is :andy' !elect one of these at random for any particular trial &see +. during the work#life of the dog. !$<6. If your dog is not yet steady on the !tay. >hen 2OOD is used as a prompt. $he Ao sound is strictly informational3 it is not meant to foretell a punishing conse%uence &you're still in the 2ame#playing mode'. you are able to tell if the dog is making the error.. but it may take longer. the dog is rewarded e en if he does not come to you—in which instance. you may ha e to lead your dog back to the starting place by the collar &or harness'. on occasion. 7 "lace one tablespoon of a tasty food in his food dish and set it aside3 reser e it for the last trial of the session. according to the <ssociation "rinciple &see -hapter 70 $he <ssociation Model for ?earning+'.+ below'. the dog considers the Aame#sound to mean. -OM. -orrect your dog as you would do for any anticipatory errors &see pre ious paragraph'. In this training. the new command. so it can be used as a +prompt+ for the :ecall response. $he alternate !tep 4 procedure0 4 "lace 4D food tidbits in your hand.rrors in responding. "retrial procedures0 4 !ay :.
!ay !$<6 and follow closely with the !$<6 signal when you are about to lea e your dog. In this step. you will place the dog in the !tand#!tay &or !it#!tay' and then mo e away from him. $urn to face the dog and hold out a tidbit. . In this alternate procedure. $he oiced emphasis is on both sounds. Aow. as a reinforcing sound for coming. Make the usual training preparations. if he chooses.eep walking while saying the two sounds. Ignore the dog when he comes to you on the wrong sounds. then is re erted to its con entional usage.# 2OOD.+ abo e. wait until the dog begins some small mo ement to come before you say the 2OOD sound. go to him and deli er the tidbit &whene er you say the reinforcing sound. ?ead your off#leash dog about fifteen feet away. In that case. and await another command. >hen the dog stops following and gets interested in something else. more likely. from where you will position yourself for the trial. $hat is.<D6. if necessary'. with little pause between them. = >hen the dog comes to you. gradually start to unpair them. but comes to you on the :ecall sound. . -OM. E 2o to action 7.. you must deli er the food reward. go to !tep 5. If the dog fails to come. gi e him the tidbit. abo e'. (egin your food#deli ery motions immediately after you turn to face the dog. and 2OOD. >hen you ha e good recall control up to this point. ignore him and continue walking casually. 2OOD. to stay in place. when he comes front. no matter what'. beforehand. the dog will follow you where er you go. -OM. A#to atic Sit w"en dog co e$ front $he automatic !it#front is a part of an Obedience e*ercise. you handed your dog a tasty tidbit at the moment he came to you on recall. +Off#leash control. @ntil now. >hen you introduce Aon#recall sounds. !ay -OM. $he dog must not get any hint of the sounds coming. and begin another trial. called +)ront and )inish. Mo e about and allow the dog to mo e freely during Aame#sound training &see !tep 9. he will automatically !it and !tay facing you. $urn to face the dog only after you' e said the sounds.8 9 5 $he dog may. say :. Do as many sessions as it takes for the dog to ignore the Aon#recall sounds. the dog might come to you when you say these sounds. $o begin. Training note0 . $hat's an ad antage. after you say the command. In time. (ut.6. you will wait until the dog gets close to you &four to si* feet away' before saying the reinforcing sound 2OOD. )ront the dog in the direction of the :ecall. the 2OOD sound is initially used as a :ecall prompt.+ $he complete e*ercise is found in -hapter 4D.eep the tidbits in a dish on a nearby table. in another step. -ommand your dog to !it &assist him into the !it. such as (I:D and !. <fter se eral sessions of closely pairing the sounds.
>hen he comes to you. and a work penalty that follows. take fi e or si* paces away from him. >hen the dog is almost upon you. or a brief time#out from strolling and e*ploration' are administered to the dog for disobedience and glaring errors. then asking your dog to come in again. so that both of you will be in better final alignment and position. help the dog by making part of the correction yourself. :<AD6 -OM. $hen say. say !it. you don't reward the dog with food'. . >hen the !it#front looks better than before. "enalties &the nonphysical kind. A=oidance training in Real 0orld >hen you ha e achie ed reasonably good recall control with the sounds that your dog has learned so far. field or park. turn to face the dog. Most !it#front faults can be corrected by taking one or two short steps backwards at the time of the fault. <llow your dog to fully enBoy the stroll to the full length of the lead &use a long retractable lead if you ha e one'. <s soon as his backside touches the floor.?ea e your dog. send him off on his way to resume the stroll. continue his training outdoors where you usually take your on#leash dog for a stroll0 your neighborhood street. <llow your dog to in estigate interesting smells along the way. !ome !it#front faults that can be made in Obedience competition0 not sitting close enough3 poor sits3 touching you on coming in3 or sitting between your feet. such as a bit of precision straight#line . $hen mo e to assist the dog to !it. and wait one to four seconds in the !till/%uiet mode. <fter the petting and praise. 6ou don't need to o erdo the petting and praise—it's meant to be not so much rewarding as informational that he successfully a oided the sound $IM. gi e him a little +petting and praise+ &when training on the stroll. Occasionally call your dog to you while strolling. correctly align yourself with respect to the dog to make a good#looking !it front. &use your dog's name if it's not :andy'.eeling.
little by little. <s the dog responds increasingly more often. $he +)ront+ component of )ront and )inish co ers the performance0 come#in to front of you and sit close facing you. then completes the e*ercise with a )ront and )inish. they are combined to become the +)ront and )inish+ Obedience e*ercise. to the desired +)inish+ performance. !haping. en if you are not an Obedience buff. you will be choosing increasingly better responses for reinforcement. 6ou begin with a response that the dog can presently make. is comparable to clay sculpturing0 <t first. $he +)inish+ component comprises the mo ement that the dog makes as he goes from !it#front to the left side of you. it begins to take the desired form. . below'. (y this procedure. +)ront and )inish+ is organized into the two training parts.CHAPTER 1?. and which may little resemble the end performance—but it is one that clearly starts the dog off in the direction of the desired one. $hen you'll select only the better response for reinforcement3 any responses that are not up to the standards of the newly selected one are no longer reinforced. . he can be taught it by means of a +shaping+ procedure.owe er. you can increase its rate of responding. T"e 5ini$" $he !haping of (eha ior. . -ontinue these practice drills simply as fun e*ercises for your dog. +$he )ront+ and +$he )inish.+ ?ater. 5INISH )ront and )inish are two performance components that are re%uired in se eral Obedience# trial . as described in +Maintenance#"ractice $rials &it follows the !tep = section'. $hen. <fter you complete si* training steps in this chapter. you may see an occasional response that is closer to the one that you want. It is the same with response shaping0 $he beginning performance in this process is one that the dog can normally make.eel. In these competition e*ercises. you put e er#greater demands on the dog's beha ior until you finally get the beha ior you want. +<utomatic !it when the dog comes front+ in the +-ome when called+ chapter until you are ready to complete +)ront and )inish+ e*ercise &!tep =. +$he )inish+ is a performance7 that the dog doesn't normally do without training. $he initially selected response must e entually lead.4 T"e 5ront -ontinue the work in section. where the dog again sits and remains until he is re%uired to do something else. 5RONT AN. the dog first does something away from you. (y reinforcing the first#selected response with the 2OOD sound e ery time. in the training sense. 6our dog will be doing automatic !its when he comes )ront and then goes to )inish at . <s training continues.*ercises. )inish and )ront and )inish. do the practice drills. the clay is a featureless mass. ia the shaping process. )ront and )inish is another fun game that you can teach your dog to do. or as an e*ercise that you might prepare for the Obedience ring.
substitute the 2rand#reinforcer. because the dog can see it better where it's thrown—better than most any other kinds of food tidbits.eel. O@$. without stopping. finally. $he dog then returns to begin the loop#se%uence o er again. It is said when the dog touches your hand. where the dog is made to sit and stay. < more in ol ed loop is formed at an intermediate training stage0 when the dog mo es toward you. $he throw is done for all but the end training steps. On the last trial of the session. tidbit food is deli ered a new way0 :ather than hand a piece of food to the dog as you did in pre ious e*ercises. 6ou don't ha e to add butter or salt after popping—but you might if you're making some for yourself. e*cept 2OOD or O@$. around your back and left side. ?ooping ends with $raining !tep 9. and. 2OOD. . In this fashion. the @#turn around you. then turns away3 goes directly away from you to pick up a piece of food. the downed dog rises from the Down to get a food tidbit from your outstretched hand3 the dog downs again3 rises to get another tidbit3 etc. It is there that the dog is made to stop for a moment. for e*ample'. $he response#loop appears +pear+ shaped—the pointed end of which is made away from you. the dog must not only stop. before he is signaled to mo e to . (efore training begins. below. before he is allowed to go out again. $he dog comes close to you in front and touches your hand. until interrupted by will or outside inter ention. at the place where the food is picked up3 the fat end of the loop is made close to you. $he dog is permitted to do whate er . continues around your right side. $he throwing of the tidbit helps to get the dog in the correct position for making his approach to you and. then goes away again to pick up the food. $he first established loop &see !tep 4. repeatedly. In that work. let the dog sample the popcorn to see if he likes it. you will throw it out in front of you.nding the (eha ior ?oops. below'. for the reinforcer. etc. 6ou say nothing to the dog. !haping +$he )inish+ < closed#loop performance is said to be one that's done in a ritual fashion. touches your hand. $he beginning training step of the present e*ercise results in a simple closed loop. 6ou can also buy the tasty ready#popped.eel position. goes on out to get the food. 6ou can prepare the popcorn with polyunsaturated oil &safflower. and deli er a more substantial reward. @se popcorn to reward the responses of this e*ercise. the loop gets another interruption at )ront. )ood $idbits and their Method of Deli ery In this training. More comple* beha ior loops as training progresses. $he )ree#response Method of $raining $raining begins in the )ree#response style &see +$he )ree#response Model+ e*plained in -hapter 7—see also as it is used in Down training'. the beha ior is made to recur in a closed loop.eel. when the dog's mo ement is interrupted at the . comes back to you. and Bust before you throw the food.Do about 47 tidbit deli eries per session. In another training step. ?ooping is also done during Down training &see -hapter 48'. )inally. but must sit when he comes to .
E 2et another piece of food ready in your left hand. the dog cannot escape connecting the 2OOD sound with the +feel of your hand on his nose. In this step. with your left hand. If the dog has trouble catching on. in a later step. gradually increase the distance of your food throws to between =#M feet. < good hand#following response by your dog comes about when his nose#touch of your right hand is made a condition of turning on the 2OOD or O@$ sound. $his is an in iting situation for the dog to sniff your hand. the dog may be too close to you to see and make the connection between your forward arm motion and the a ailability of food +out there. 8 !tand still. which is then eliminated from use as soon as practicable. and begin another nose#touch training trial. he does not retrie e the food.+ !ay 2OOD before you make each throw. touch the dog's nose &a light touch made with the back of your right hand'. without assistance. $he nose#touch response is an early training aid. In this way.<D6. 4 !ay :. = $hrow a piece of food straight out.+ . 9 >ait a second or two. $he dog should already know to !tand#stay and look up at you.e should then begin to make a nose#touch response on his own.e. Ste! 1. though he will undoubtedly begin attending %uite strongly to your new way of food deli ery. Don't be concerned if the dog does not willingly touch your hand first. "lace one piece between the inde* finger and thumb. . In this step. . $hen. "lace one piece between the inde* finger and thumb and throw it out underhanded. Do the Aose#touch with your right hand3 )ood#throw. go to him and begin the short wait period. T"e dog>$ no$e to#c" re$!on$e $he dog learns some comple* mo es in doing the +)inish+ part of the :ecall e*ercise. <s these association trials progress. underhanded. then help him do it. If he isn't standing. or Bust stands out there waiting for the ne*t throw. <t first. "reliminary procedure0 $he dog learns where food can be picked up. with your left. $hen prepare your training aids for the training session. <fter a series of such conditioning trials. $ake a small handful of food in your left hand. bend forward slightly and e*tend the back of your right hand toward the dog.he wants within the enclosed training space. facing the dog. >hen the dog consistently goes out to retrie e the thrown food. If the dog is standing too far away from you. Don't start your food throw before you say 2OOD.. in his effort to reach it and make the touch. 7 "lace about M popcorn kernels in your left hand. 5 !ay 2OOD immediately after you or the dog makes the touch. the dog will soon make the connection between your left#arm mo ement and food lea ing your hand. tell him to :I!. i.. keep the throws short—ha e the food land in front of the dog or to his right side. begin !tep 4. 6ou can help him make these mo es by getting him to follow the motions of your right hand.old your food#containing left hand close to your side. you want the dog to go where er your hand goes. the dog will learn to turn on the 2OOD &or O@$ ' sound by touching the back of your right hand. If you need to.
. and follow with a thrown tidbit.eep your hand mo ing at the speed of your dog. >arm#up the dog by doing the !tep 7 procedure for the first couple of trials. !tep 8. though. with your body bent slightly forward. slowly mo e the hand se eral inches back or to the side. your dog fails to follow your hand mo ement. take a short step forward and to your right so that the dog can easily complete his mo ement around you. !tep 7. make it easy by e*tending your right hand to his nose and touching it if you ha e to. . Don't be too %uick to ha e the dog make it without your help. <s trials progress. at any time. (egin these trials by positioning your right hand in front of you. start as you did in <ction 7. !ay 2OOD when your arm is as far back as it will go. . <s you throw. In the ne*t training step. Dog mo es completely around you (egin the session with the :. .$est occasionally to see if the dog can make the nose touch response by himself.<D6 sound. and the dog's head is at the middle of your back. about 4M inches away. Don't make too large a hand mo ement for the dog to follow. and follow around your backside. the dog appears confused. when a ailable. say 2OOD. Make a larger shift only when he's making a strong hand#orienting response. at any time. but stopping about 4 inch short of his nose. shorten the shaping steps to get a strong hand following &"hotos. )ollow the 2OOD sound with a food throw. In this step. mo e your hand close to your front. Dog does an orienting response.<D6 sound. If the dog mo es his head forward to make the nose#touch. >hen the dog follows the hand and touches it. $he dog no longer has to touch your hand. will clearly show how to do the actions 9 through ='. <t the end of this step. as you did before.*tend your hand to the dog. swing your arm around your right side. as before. $hen. $his gets the dog to continue in a forward direction. without stopping. 6ou are finished with this step when the dog follows the hand through your right side and slightly to the back of you—when he does this %uickly and consistently. it is clear that learning of the response has occurred. the dog should consistently come to the stationary outstretched hand to make the touch. you'll want your dog to go to your right hand no matter where the hand is positioned and touch it. ?ift your right hand out of the dog's way. at first. the loop will be made around you. Bust out of nose#reach. In the new procedure0 <s the dog comes in. "roceed to make your training preparations. but always in sight and within easy reach. If. !tart the session preparation with the :.*tend your hand outward toward the dog. If. but then. when the dog's nose gets close to your hand.
)irst !ession0 >arm#up the dog by doing the !tep 8 procedure for se eral trials0 $he dog mo es completely around you and goes outward to fetch the food tidbit. while the dog brushes through them. In the present step. Do not correct the dog's bad sits at this time. on e ery trial. . halt him. your dog should be making the mo ement around you in a smooth motion.eel when released. :est of !essions0 >arm#up the dog for the first couple of trials. $hen. to get the dog around you.owe er. <fter a wait of 4 second. $he Dog !tops at your ?eft !ide. position yourself in relation to the sitting dog so that a good sit is e ident.+ abo e.eep your hands still. !top the dog's forward mo ement when he reaches your left side. $ake a kernel of popcorn in your right hand and toss it outward. In about a dozen trials at this step. continue to mo e your right hand in a sweeping motion from in front of you to around your back—staying Bust ahead of the mo ing dog's nose. $hen immediately +"rompt+ the !it response. begin to stand still during the trial. If you ha e a small dog. $hen physically hold the dog lightly in place by his collar. to pre ent him from breaking from the !it.eel position. !tep 9. make yourself comfortable. hold the dog in place and wait 4 to 5 seconds. but eliminate these mo es as soon as you can. $hough. -ontinue this procedure for the remaining trials in the session. >hen the dog reaches the . <s soon as he sits. !tep 5. Make your body mo es. If the dog does not willingly sit or does it haltingly. +!it and :ise+'. lightly grasp his collar with your right hand. )ollowing the toss. Immediately after the dog halts. >arm#up the dog for the first couple of trials. . $hen toss the food tidbit and release the dog.+ abo e. -ontinue to run the sessions in this way until you get the dog to make a fluid mo ement around you e ery time. say !$<6. continue to cue the dog around you with your right hand. as necessary. $he Dog does an <utomatic !it. On the remaining 4D trials of this step. do some practice sessions of +!it $raining+ &see -hapter E.rather than back up when he hears the reinforcing sound. by doing the <ctions of !tep 90 +:est of sessions. brush the dog's breast lightly with both hands. 6ou are finished at this step when the dog consistently and readily mo es out from . you may do these trials while kneeling—in other words. . >hen dog halts. continue to cue the dog around you with your right hand. say 2OOD. In the new procedure0 <s he mo es past your left side on his way to the food. Do this gently by wrapping both your arms around the front of the dog's chest. command him to sit. by doing <ction 7 of the +)irst session.
"erform the motion with your right hand as described in <ctions 9.eel. (oth components !it front and !it at heel complete the )ront and )inish e*ercise. gently guide him to your )ront and make him sit. and allow the dog to retrie e both tidbits. Don't be too %uick to end this training step.eel position. <nother >ay of Doing the !it "rompt at .eel. face the dog. simply throw out another food tidbit. tell him to sit. $he Dog !its at )ront. +$he )inish.eel. $he dog should already be doing automatic !its#front. >hen the dog reaches . do the pertinent sections in the earlier +-ome#in+ part of the +-ome when called+ chapter. If you are doing the Obedience :ecall e*ercise for competition. Maintenance &practice' trials. reposition yourself.eel position. as necessary. but don't do it in a coerci e manner.+ and +$he )ront and )inish practice drill.eel. and place your right foot in front of the dog. <fter the dog had been in !it#stay at )ront for 4 to 9 seconds. Immediately following a food retrie e.$hen gi e the collar a light flip forward. he comes to an automatic !it &or place him in the !it physically. 5 and = of !tep 8. grasp his collar with your right hand. the dog must also sit when he comes )ront before he goes to . practice the :ecall e*ercise precisely as is run in the Obedience :ing $he training should include two practice drills.+ as they are described ne*t .eel. -ontinue the trial. but not a ersi ely'. "hysically place the dog into the !it3 signal him to !tay. then return to the original . motion him to go to . If the dog hesitates to mo e out after the !end#away signal and physical release. -ontinue in this step until the dog sits at . and then do the prompt. !tep =. $hat is. and responds reliably to the !end#away signal. if he's had the -ome#front part of :ecall training in the pre ious chapter. -ontinue to prompt the !it#at# front. as is re%uired in the Ao ice e*ercise. abo e. at this !tep. If !it#front is new to the dog. then pi ot on your left foot. $he dog should feel the release. when the dog comes to .eel without ha ing to be restrained. If it's awkward for you to prompt the !it. (esides doing the automatic !it at .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.