evidence | 1st sem, 2011-2012

ysr • Re erred to %& Bi'#ore as evidence %& Gauto)tic )re erence$H i.e. %& )resentin' in o)en court t"e evidentiar& articles or t"e o%servation or ins)ection o t"e tri%unal Iocu#entar& evidence *//2>1J$ R1?A+ Evidence su))lied %& -ritten instru#ents or derived ro# conventional s&#%ols$ suc" as letters$ %& -"ic" ideas are re)resented on #aterial su%stances. • S)eci ic de inition ound in /2$ R1?A Testi#onial evidence T"at -"ic" is su%#itted to t"e court t"rou'" t"e testi#on& or de)osition o a -itness

PART ONE
I. GENERAL PROVISIONS A. Rule128: General Provisions 2+

Section 1. Evidence de ined. ! Evidence is t"e #eans$ sanctioned %& t"ese rules$ o ascertainin' in a (udicial )roceedin' t"e trut" res)ectin' a #atter o act. *1+ Section 2. Sco)e. ! T"e rules o evidence s"all %e t"e sa#e in all courts and in all trials and "earin's$ e,ce)t as ot"er-ise )rovided %& la- or t"ese rules. *2a+

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.ustos v. Lucero: R128$ /1 )rovides t"e le'al de inition o evidence 0 Evidence is t"e #ode and #anner o )rovin' co#)etent acts in (udicial )roceedin's. Proo : result or e ect o evidence. Proo o suc" act: -"en re1uisite 1uantu# o evidence o a )articular act "as %een dul& ad#itted and 'iven -ei'"t 2actu# )ro%andu#: ulti#ate act3 act sou'"t to %e esta%lis"ed. Re ers to t"e )ro)osition 2actu# )ro%ans: evidentiar& act3 act %& -4c t"e actu# )ro%andu# is to %e esta%lis"ed. Re er to t"e #aterials -"ic" esta%lis" t"at )ro)osition
La- o evidence • unda#entall& a )rocedural la- *.ustos v. Lucero+ • /5657$ Art. VIII$ 8onsti: S8 s"all )ro#ul'ate rules concernin' )leadin's$ )ractice and )rocedure -4c s"all %e uni or# or all courts o t"e sa#e 'rade 9 s"all not di#inis"$ increase or #odi & su%stantive ri'"ts o ne- rules #a& %e validl& a))lied to cases )endin' at ti#e o suc" c"an'e *Alde'uer v. :os;&n+ o .<T in cri#inal cases$ i alteration o evidence rules -ould allo- rece)tion o lesser 1uantu# o evidence t"an -"at t"e la- re1uired at t"e ti#e t"e o ense -as co##itted in order to convict = retroactive a))lication is unconstitutional or %ein' e, )ost acto )ri#aril& ound in Ro8 *R 128>1??+ s)ecial la-s *E,. RA @2AA 6Anti>Bireta))in' La-7$ 8ode o 8o##erce$ 88+ 8onsti 0 see Part .. T"e rules o evidence are s)eci icall& a))lica%le ONLC in (udicial )roceedin's.

Ot"er classi ications o evidence 1+ Relevant$ #aterial$ and co#)etent evidence a+ Relevant evidence: evidence "avin' an& value in reason as tendin' to )rove an& #atter )rova%le in an action %+ Katerial evidence: evidence directed to )rove a act in issue as deter#ined %& t"e rules o su%stantive la- and )leadin's c+ 8o#)etent evidence: one t"at is not e,cluded %& t"e Rules$ a statute$ or t"e 8onstitution Test o relevanc& T"e lo'ical relation o t"e evidentiar& act to t"e act in issue$ i.e. -"et"er t"e or#er tends to esta%lis" t"e )ro%a%ilit& or i#)ro%a%ilit& o t"e latter Katerialit& o evidence Ieter#ined %& -"et"er t"e act it intends to )rove is in issue or not$ -4c is in turn deter#ined %& t"e su%stantive la-$ t"e )leadin's$ t"e )re>trial order and %& t"e ad#issions or con essions on ile 2+ Iirect and circu#stantial evidence a+ Iirect evidence: t"at -"ic" )roves t"e act in dis)ute -4o t"e aid o an& in erence or )resu#)tion %+ 8ircu#stantial evidence: t"e )roo o *a+ act4s ro# -"ic"$ ta;en eit"er sin'l& or collectivel&$ t"e e,istence o t"e )articular act in dis)ute #a& %e in erred as a necessar& or )ro%a%le conse1uence 8u#ulative and corro%orative evidence a+ 8u#ulative evidence: evidence o t"e sa#e ;ind and to t"e sa#e state o acts %+ 8orro%orative evidence: additional evidence o a di erent c"aracter to t"e sa#e )oint Pri#a acie and conclusive evidence a+ Pri#a acie evidence: t"at -"ic"$ standin' alone$ une,)lained$ or uncontradicted$ is su icient to #aintain t"e )ro)osition a ir#ed %+ 8onclusive evidence: t"at class o evidence -"ic" t"e la- does not allo- to %e contradicted Pri#ar& and secondar& evidence a+ Pri#ar& evidence: t"at -"ic" t"e la- re'ards as a ordin' t"e 'reatest certaint& o t"e act in 1uestion. Re erred to in Ro8 as t"e %est evidence %+ Secondar& evidence: t"at -"ic" is in erior to t"e )ri#ar& evidence and is )er#itted %& la- onl& -"en t"e %est evidence is not availa%le. Also called su%stitutionar& evidence Positive and ne'ative evidence

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Duasi>(udicial )roceedin's: t"e sa#e a))l& %& analo'&$ or in a su))letor& c"aracter and -"enever )ractica%le and convenient *R1 /@+ EE8EPT -"ere t"e 'overnin' la- or t"at )articular )roceedin' s)eci icall& ado)ts t"e rules o evidence in Ro8

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8lassi ication o evidence accordin' to or# 1+ O%(ect *real+ evidence */1$ R1?A+ T"at -"ic" is directl& addressed to t"e senses o t"e court and consists o tan'i%le t"in's e,"i%ited or de#onstrated in o)en court$ in an ocular ins)ection$ or at a )lace desi'nated %& t"e court or its vie- or o%servation o an e,"i%ition$ e,)eri#ent or de#onstration. • T"e ascertain#ent o t"e controverted act is #ade t"rou'" t"e direct use o t"e di erent senses o t"e )residin' #a'istrate or "is aut"oriFed dele'ate. 1

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evidence | 1st sem, 2011-2012 a+ %+

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Positive evidence: -"en t"e -itness a ir#s t"at a act did or did not occur Ne'ative evidence: -"en t"e -itness states "e did not see or ;no- o t"e occurrence o a act

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On' 8"ia v. Re)u%lic: T"e rule on or#al o er o evidence is not a))lica%le to a case involvin' a )etition or naturaliFation. Sasan$ Sr. v. NLR8: Tec"nical rules o evidence are not %indin' in la%or cases. .antolino v. 8oca 8ola .ottlers$ Inc.: T"e rules o evidence are not strictl& o%served in )roceedin's %e ore ad#inistrative %odies -"ere decisions #a& %e reac"ed on t"e %asis o )osition )a)ers onl&.

Positive testi#on& is entitled to 'reater -ei'"t since t"e -itness re)resents o "is )ersonal ;no-led'e t"e )resence or a%sence o a act. In ne'ative testi#on&$ t"ere is a total disclai#er o )ersonal ;no-led'e$ "ence -it"out an& re)resentation or disavo-al t"at t"e act in 1uestion could or couldnMt "ave e,isted or "a))ened. B"en a -itness declares o "is o-n ;no-led'e t"at a act did not ta;e )lace t"at is actuall& )ositive testi#on& since itMs an a ir#ation o t"e trut" o a ne'ative act. RIANO: Not ever& circu#stance -"ic" a ords an in erence as to t"e trut" or alsit& o a #atter alle'ed is considered evidence. • Not evidence i itMs e,cluded %& t"e la- or Ro8 even i it )roves t"e e,istence or non>e,istence o a act in issue. Ie inition under /1$ R128 si'ni icantl& considers GevidenceH not as an end in itsel %ut #erel& as a G#eansH o ascertainin' t"e trut" o a #atter o act.

Bit"in t"e ield o ad#inistrative la-$ -"ile strict rules o evidence are not a))lica%le to 1uasi>(udicial )roceedin's$ nevert"eless$ in adducin' evidence constitutive o su%stantial evidence$ t"e %asic rule t"at #ere alle'ation is not evidence cannot %e disre'arded. *Karcelo v. .un'u%un'+

A))lication o t"e Rules on Electronic Evidence T"e )rovisions o t"e REE a))l& to all civil actions and )roceedin's$ as -ell as 1uasi>(udicial and ad#inistrative cases. */2$ R1$ REE+ Sco)e o t"e rules o evidence T"e rules o evidence in t"e Ro8 are 'uided %& t"e )rinci)le o uni or#it&. As a 'eneral )olic&$ t"e rules o evidence s"all %e t"e sa#e in all courts and in all trials and "earin's. */2$ R128+
Evidence in civil cases v. Evidence in cri#inal cases EVIIEN8E IN 8IVIL 8ASES EVIIEN8E IN 8RIKINAL 8ASES T"e )art& "avin' t"e %urden Guilt o accused "as to %e o )roo #ust )rove "is clai# )roven %e&ond reasona%le %& a )re)onderance o dou%t */2$ R1??+ evidence */1$ R1??+ O er o co#)ro#ise is not An o er o co#)ro#ise %& an ad#ission o an& lia%ilit&$ t"e accused #a& %e received and is not ad#issi%le in in evidence as an i#)lied evidence a'ainst t"e o eror ad#ission o 'uilt$ EE8EPT in */2N$ R1?A+ cri#inal cases involvin' 1uasi>o enses *cri#inal ne'li'ence+ or t"ose allo-ed %& la- to %e co#)ro#ised Generall& t"ere is no T"e accused en(o&s t"e )resu#)tion o innocence constitutional )resu#)tion o or or a'ainst a )art& EE8EPT innocence */1@$ Art. III$ in certain cases )rovided or 8onstitution+ %& la-

Pur)ose o evidence Ascertain t"e trut" res)ectin' a #atter o act in a (udicial )roceedin' */1$ R128+
Evidence is re1uired %ecause o t"e )resu#)tion t"at t"e court is not a-are o t"e veracit& o t"e acts involved in a case. It is incu#%ent u)on t"e )arties to )rove a act in issue t"rou'" t"e )resentation o ad#issi%le evidence.

B"en evidence is re1uired3 -"en not re1uired • B"ere no actual issue e,ists in a case$ t"ere is no need to )resent evidence %ecause -"ere t"e case )resents a 1uestion o la-$ suc" is resolved %& t"e #ere a))lication o t"e relevant statutes or rules o t"is (urisdiction to -"ic" no evidence is re1uired. • B"en t"e )leadin's in a civil case do not tender an issue o act$ a trial need not %e conducted since t"ere is no #ore reason to )resent evidence. 8ase is ri)e or (udicial deter#ination t"rou'" a (ud'#ent on t"e )leadin's )er R?@ • Evidence #a& %e dis)ensed -it" %& a'ree#ent o t"e )arties. T"e )arties to an& action are allo-ed %& t"e Rules to a'ree in -ritin' u)on t"e acts involved in t"e liti'ation and to su%#it t"e case or (ud'#ent u)on t"e acts a'reed u)on$ -it"out t"e introduction o evidence. • Evidence is not re1uired on #atters o (udicial notice */1$ R12J+ and on #atters (udiciall& ad#itted */@$ R12J+ A))lica%ilit& o t"e rules o evidence /@$ R1 )rovides or t"e non>a))lica%ilit& o Ro8$ includin' necessaril& t"e rules o evidence$ to certain s)eci ied )roceedin's.
• • Ad#inistrative %odies are not %ound %& t"e tec"nical niceties o t"e rules o%tainin' in a court o la-. 8S8 conducts its investi'ations or t"e )ur)ose o ascertainin' t"e trut" -it"out necessaril& ad"erin' to tec"nical rules o )rocedure a))lica%le in (udicial )roceedin's.

Iistinction %et-een evidence and )roo

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Evidence is t"e #ediu# or #eans %& -"ic" a act is )roved or dis)roved. Proo is not t"e evidence itsel . It is #erel& t"e )ro%ative e ect o evidence and is t"e conviction or )ersuasion o t"e #ind resultin' ro# a consideration o t"e evidence. o Proo is t"e e ect o evidence %ecause -it"out evidence t"ere is no )roo . o .are alle'ations unsu%stantiated %& evidence are not e1uivalent to )roo .

Positive and ne'ative de enses GENERAL R<LE: Positive evidence is #ore credi%le t"an ne'ative evidence.


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Reason: t"e -itness -"o testi ies to a ne'ative #a& "ave or'otten -"at actuall& occurred$ -"ile it is i#)ossi%le to

evidence | 1st sem, 2011-2012 re#e#%er -"at never e,isted. *Go#eF v. Go#eF> Sa#son+ A denial evidence is t"e -ea;est de ense and can never overco#e a )ositive testi#on& )articularl& -"en it co#es ro# t"e #out" o a credi%le -itness. *Peo)le v. KendoFa+ • Evidence t"at is ne'ative is sel >servin' in nature and cannot attain #ore credi%ilit& t"an t"e testi#onies o -itnesses -"o testi & on clear and )ositive evidence. *Peo)le v. Larrana'a+ • Ienial$ li;e ali%i is an in"erentl& -ea; de ense vis>O>vis )ositive identi ication.

ysr Section ?. Ad#issi%ilit& o evidence. ! Evidence is ad#issi%le -"en it is relevant to t"e issue and is not e,cluded %& t"e lao t"ese rules. *?a+ Section @. Relevanc&3 collateral #atters. ! Evidence #ust "ave suc" a relation to t"e act in issue as to induce %elie in its e,istence or non>e,istence. Evidence on collateral #atters s"all not %e allo-ed$ e,ce)t -"en it tends in an& reasona%le de'ree to esta%lis" t"e )ro%a%ilit& or i#)ro%a%ilit& o t"e act in issue. *@a+ Re1uisites or ad#issi%ilit& o evidence */?+ 1+ It #ust %e relevant to t"e issue sou'"t to %e )roved

2actu# )ro%ans and actu# )ro%andu# Evidence si'ni ies a relations"i) %et-een t-o acts$ na#el&: a+ t"e act or )ro)osition to %e esta%lis"ed * actu# )ro%andu#+3 and %+ t"e acts or #aterial evidencin' t"e act or )ro)osition to %e esta%lis"ed * actu# )ro%ans+.
2actu# )ro%andu#: t"e act to %e )roved3 t"e act -"ic" is in issue and to -"ic" t"e evidence is directed. 2actu# )ro%ans: t"e )ro%ative or evidentiar& act tendin' to )rove t"e act in issue T"e actu# )ro%andu# in a certain case #a& %e a ected %& t"e (udicial ad#issions o a )art&. • E,. I t"e de endant in a suit %ased on a cul)a a1uiliana t"eor& ad#its "is ne'li'ence in "is ans-er to t"e co#)laint$ t"ere is no #ore need to )rove ne'li'ence. :ence$ ne'li'ence ceases to %e a actu# )ro%andu# in t"e case. I t"e actu# )ro%andu# Gsi'ni ies t"e act or )ro)osition to %e esta%lis"ed$H t"en #atters o PN$ conclusive )resu#)tions and (udicial ad#issions cannot 1uali & as )arts o t"e actu# )ro%andu# o a )articular case$ %ecause suc" #atters need not %e esta%lis"ed or )roven. In )ractical ter#s$ t"e actu# )ro%andu# in a civil case re ers to t"e ele#ents o a cause o action ro# t"e )oint o vie- o t"e )lainti and t"e ele#ents o t"e de ense ro# t"e de endantMs stand)oint.

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/@: Evidence is relevant -"en it "as Gsuc" a relation to t"e act in issue as to induce %elie in its e,istence or non>e,istence.H • Relevanc& is deter#ina%le %& t"e rules o lo'ic and "u#an e,)erience It #ust %e co#)etent


/?: Evidence is co#)etent -"en it Gis not e,cluded %& t"e la- o t"ese rules.H 8o#)etenc& is deter#ined %& t"e )revailin' e,clusionar& rules o evidence

Restated %& Bi'#ore 0 a,io#s o ad#issi%ilit&: 1+ T"at none %ut acts "avin' rational )ro%ative value are ad#issi%le 2+ T"at all acts "avin' rational )ro%ative value are ad#issi%le unless so#e s)eci ic rule or%ids t"eir ad#ission Note: under t"is conce)t$ relevant evidence is an& class o evidence -"ic" "as Grational )ro%ative valueH to esta%lis" t"e issue in controvers&. Ad#issi%ilit& o evidence is deter#ined at t"e ti#e it is o ered to t"e court */?5$ R1?2+ • O%(ect or real evidence is o ered to t"e court -"en t"e sa#e is )resented or its vie- or evaluation *e,. Ocular ins)ections or de#os+ • Iocu#entar& evidence or#all& o ered %& t"e )ro)onent i##ediatel& %e ore "e rests "is case • Testi#onial evidence o ered %& t"e callin' o t"e -itness to t"e stand Ever& o%(ection to t"e ad#issi%ilit& o evidence s"all %e #ade at t"e ti#e suc" evidence is o ered$ or as soon t"erea ter as t"e o%(ection to its ad#issi%ilit& s"all %e considered -aived. • O%(ections to o%(ect or real evidence #ust %e #ade eit"er at t"e ti#e it is )resented in an ocular ins)ection or de#onstration or -"en it is or#all& o ered. • O%(ections to docu#entar& evidence #ust %e #ade at t"e ti#e it is or#all& o ered. • In t"e case o testi#onial evidence$ o%(ection to t"e 1uali ications o t"e -itness s"ould %e #ade at t"e ti#e "e is called to t"e stand o I t"e -itness is ot"er-ise 1uali ied$ t"e o%(ection s"ould %e raised -"en t"e o%(ectiona%le 1uestion is as;ed or a ter t"e ans-er is 'iven i t"e o%(ectiona%le eatures %eca#e a))arent %& reason o suc" ans-er. Ioctrines or rules o ad#issi%ilit& sanctioned %& S8 • 8onditional ad#issi%ilit& 3

E,a#)le: Suit or collection o a su# o #one& 0 in t"e a%sence o an& ad#ission %& t"e de endant$ • T"e actu# )ro%andu# o t"e )lainti -ould %e: 1+ T"e e,istence o t"e de%t o t"e de endant 2+ T"e #aturit& o t"e de%t ?+ T"e de#and #ade %& t"e )lainti u)on t"e de endant to )a& @+ 2ailure to )a& des)ite t"e de#and • T"e actu# )ro%andu# or t"e de endant: t"e act o )a&#ent o t"e o%li'ation or t"e )rescri)tion o t"e de%t or t"e ele#ents o an& de ense "e #a& inter)ose 8orint"ian Gardens Association$ Inc. v. Tan(an'co 2or a tort case under 88 21NL$ )lainti "as to )rove: 1+ Ia#a'es su ered %& t"e )lainti 2+ T"e ault or ne'li'ence o t"e de endant or so#e ot"er )erson or -"ose act "e #ust res)ond ?+ T"e connection o cause and e ect %et-een t"e ault or ne'li'ence and t"e da#a'es incurred.
In a cri#inal case$ t"e actu# )ro%andu# includes all #atter t"at t"e )rosecution #ust )rove %e&ond reasona%le dou%t in order to (usti & a conviction.

8ollateral #atters Katters ot"er t"an t"e acts in issue and -"ic" are o ered as a %asis or in erence as to t"e e. T"e ri'"t o t"e )eo)le to %e secure in t"eir )ersons$ "ouses$ )a)ers and e ects a'ainst unreasona%le searc"es . 4 1.en out.arcenas v. o Lac. On t"e ot"er "and$ t"e -ei'"t to %e 'iven to suc" evidence$ once ad#itted$ de)ends on (udicial evaluation -4in t"e 'uidelines )rovided in R1?? and t"e decisional rules o t"e S8. B"ile evidence #a& %e ad#issi%le$ it #a& %e entitled to little or no -ei'"t at all. Evidence o relevant collateral acts E. 0 Suc" a 1uali ication a))ears necessar& to avoid un air sur)rises to t"e ot"er )art&.clusion Stone"ill v. :o-ever$ t"is tec"nical rule s"ould %e rela.also a))lies to ille'all& o%tained con essions. o T"is doctrine -as a))lied %& S8 in a cri#inal case and in a civil case su%(ect to t"e 1uali ication t"at t"ere s"ould %e no %ad ait" on t"e )art o t"e )ro)onent. Ad#issi%ilit& is an a air o lo'ic and la-$ as ad#issi%ilit& o evidence is deter#ined %& its relevance and co#)etence. III$ 8onstitution+ .)lanation and a su%se1uent ul ill#ent o t"e re1uire#ents "ave al-a&s %een re1uired. Secs. To#as+ No vested ri'"t in t"e rules o evidence Reason: t"e rules o evidence are su%(ect to c"an'e %& t"e S8 )ursuant to its )o-ers to )ro#ul'ate rules concernin' )leadin'$ )ractice$ and )rocedure */5657$ Art. • Kulti)le ad#issi%ilit& B"ere t"e evidence is relevant and co#)etent or t-o or #ore )ur)oses$ suc" evidence s"ould %e ad#itted or an& or all t"e )ur)oses or -"ic" it is o ered )rovided it satis ies all t"e re1uire#ents o la. Not all collateral #atters are )ro"i%ited %& t"e Rules. irrelevant 8ircu#stantial evidence Evidence o collateral acts or circu#stances ro# -"ic" an in erence #a& %e dra-n as to t"e )ro%a%ilit& or i#)ro%a%ilit& o t"e acts in dis)ute 8ircu#stantial evidence is le'al evidence and$ i su icient$ can sustain a (ud'#ent.ation o t"e rules$ a satis actor& e. o o%(ection to inco#)etent evidence constitutes -aiver %& t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# it is introduced %ut does not de)rive t"e o))osin' )art& o "is ri'"t to o%(ect to si#ilar re%uttin' evidence. Ie)endin' u)on t"e circu#stances$ t"e declaration o a d&in' )erson #a& %e ad#issi%le or several )ur)oses: o I&in' declaration */?N$ R1?A+ o Part o t"e res 'estae */@2$ R1?A+ o Ieclaration a'ainst interest */?8$ R1?A+ • ysr Sa#e rule no. 8A+ :o-ever$ to (usti & rela. *Duia#%ao v.istence o t"e acts in issue. 2 9 ?$ Art. )ost acto la-s */22$ Art.istence or non>e.. In our (urisdiction$ inad#issi%le evidence not o%(ected to %eco#es ad#issi%le. Iio. *.evidence | 1st sem..ed i one )art& -ould su er a )lain and un air )re(udice. VIII$ 8onstitution+ T"e c"an'e in t"e rules o evidence is$ "o-ever$ su%(ect to t"e constitutional li#itation on t"e enact#ent o e. 2011-2012 B"ere t"e evidence at t"e ti#e o its o er a))ears to %e i##aterial or irrelevant unless it is connected -it" t"e ot"er acts to %e su%se1uentl& )roved$ suc" evidence #a& %e received on condition t"at t"e ot"er acts -ill %e )roved t"erea ter$ ot"er-ise t"e evidence alread& 'iven -ill %e stric.no: Iocu#entar& evidence$ ille'all& o%tained$ is inad#issi%le on a ti#el& #otion or action to su))ress. • B"ere t"e collateral #atters are relevant to t"e act in issue %ecause Gt"e& tend in an& reasona%le de'ree to esta%lis" t"e )ro%a%ilit& or i#)ro%a%ilit& o t"e act in issue$H evidence o suc" collateral #atters is ad#issi%le.. 8onversel&$ evidence -"ic" #a& "ave evidentiar& -ei'"t #a& %e inad#issi%le %ecause a s)ecial rule or%ids its rece)tion. NOTE: S)ecial rules o evidence re'ardin' electronic docu#ents "ave %een introduced %& t"e Electronic 8o##erce Act *RA 8NJ2+ RIANO: Li%eral construction o t"e rules o evidence • /L$ R1 • Procedural rules #ust %e li%erall& inter)reted and a))lied so as not to rustrate su%stantial (ustice. RIANO: E. III$ 8onsti /2. • • • • B"at t"e Rules )ro"i%it is evidence o collateral acts.or its ad#issi%ilit& t"ere or. Rules o E.ind o evidence adduced %& t"e adverse )art& B"at s"ould deter#ine t"e a))lication o t"e rule o curative ad#issi%ilit& are: 1+ B"et"er t"e inco#)etent evidence -as seasona%l& o%(ected to$ and 2+ B"et"er$ re'ardless o t"e o%(ections vel non$ t"e ad#ission o suc" evidence -ill cause a )lain and un air )re(udice to t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# it -as ad#itted. RIANO: It is su%#itted t"at in our (urisdiction$ t"e )rinci)le o curative ad#issi%ilit& s"ould not %e #ade to a))l& -"ere t"e evidence -as ad#itted -it"out o%(ection %ecause t"e ailure to o%(ect constitutes a -aiver o t"e inad#issi%ilit& o t"e evidence. T"e state#ent %& a %us driver i##ediatel& a ter t"e collision t"at "e doFed o -"ile drivin' #a& %e ad#issi%le as: o An ad#ission under /2L$ R1?A3 or o As )art o t"e res 'estae )er /@2$ R1?A • 8urative ad#issi%ilit& Treats u)on t"e ri'"t o a )art& to introduce inco#)etent evidence in "is %e"al -"ere t"e court "as ad#itted t"e sa#e .

RA 1?NJ 'rants i##unit& to -itnesses in )roceedin's or or eiture o unla.en -ord %& usin' a device co##onl& . &ears and -it" t"e accessor& )enalt& o )er)etual a%solute dis1uali ication ro# )u%lic o ice i t"e o ender %e a )u%lic o icial at t"e ti#e o t"e co##ission o t"e o ense$ and$ i t"e o ender is an alien "e s"all %e su%(ect to de)ortation )roceedin's.in' -ar and dislo&alt& in case o -ar$ )irac&$ #utin& in t"e "i'" seas$ re%ellion$ cons)irac& and )ro)osal to co##it re%ellion$ incitin' to re%ellion$ sedition$ cons)irac& to co##it sedition$ incitin' to sedition$ . *2+ An& evidence o%tained in violation o t"is or t"e )recedin' section s"all %e inad#issi%le or an& )ur)ose in an& )roceedin'. T"ese ri'"ts cannot %e -aived e. RA @2AA$ Anti>Bireta))in' LaAN A8T TO PRO:I. *@+ T"e la.ie or ta)e recorder$ or "o-ever ot"er-ise descri%ed: It s"all also %e unla.idna))in' as de ined %& t"e Revised Penal 8ode$ and violations o 8o##on-ealt" Act No. *1+ An& )erson under investi'ation or t"e co##ission o an o ense s"all "ave t"e ri'"t to %e in or#ed o "is ri'"t to re#ain silent and to "ave co#)etent and inde)endent counsel )re era%l& o "is o-n c"oice. 5 .ed in situations covered %& i##unit& statutes *e. Sec.ecute an& o t"e acts declared to %e unla.s"all )rovide or )enal and civil sanctions or violations o t"is section as -ell as co#)ensation to t"e re"a%ilitation o victi#s o torture or si#ilar )ractices$ and t"eir a#ilies.ul or an& )erson$ not %ein' aut"oriFed %& all t"e )arties to an& )rivate co##unication or s)o.ce)t u)on )ro%a%le cause to %e deter#ined )ersonall& %& t"e (ud'e a ter e..en -ord secured eit"er %e ore or a ter t"e e ective date o t"is Act in t"e #anner )ro"i%ited %& t"is la-3 or to re)la& t"e sa#e or an& ot"er )erson or )ersons3 or to co##unicate t"e contents t"ereo $ eit"er ver%all& or in -ritin'$ or to urnis" transcri)tions t"ereo $ -"et"er co#)lete or )artial$ to an& ot"er )erson: Provided$ T"at t"e use o suc" record or an& co)ies t"ereo as evidence in an& civil$ cri#inal investi'ation or trial o o enses #entioned in section ? "ereo $ s"all not %e covered %& t"is )ro"i%ition. *1+ T"e )rivac& o co##unication and corres)ondence s"all %e inviola%le e.ull& ac1uired )ro)ert&3 PI N@J 'rants i##unit& in %ri%er& and 'ra t cases+ 2.ce)t u)on la. NOTE: ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination canMt %e invo. Secret detention )laces$ solitar&$ inco##unicado$ or ot"er si#ilar or#s o detention are )ro"i%ited. 1N$ Art.ed t"ereto and cancelled. *?+ An& con ession or ad#ission o%tained in violation o t"is or Section 1N "ereo s"all %e inad#issi%le in evidence a'ainst "i#. 2A1$ Ta.a#ination under oat" or a ir#ation o t"e co#)lainant and t"e -itnesses "e #a& )roduce$ and )articularl& descri%in' t"e )lace to %e searc"ed and t"e )ersons or t"in's to %e seiFed. It s"all %e unla.IT ANI PENALIQE BIRE TAPPING ANI OT:ER RELATEI VIOLATIONS O2 T:E PRIVA8C O2 8OKK<NI8ATION$ ANI 2OR OT:ER P<RPOSES. III$ 8onsti /1N.ul order o t"e court$ or -"en )u%lic sa et& and order re1uire ot"er-ise as )rescri%ed %& la-. *2+ No torture$ orce$ violence$ t"reat$ inti#idation$ or an& ot"er #eans -"ic" vitiate t"e ree -ill s"all %e used a'ainst "i#.no-in'l& does or -"o s"all aid$ )er#it$ or cause to %e done an& o t"e acts declared to %e unla.en -ord$ to ta) an& -ire or ca%le$ or %& usin' an& ot"er device or arran'e#ent$ to secretl& over"ear$ interce)t$ or record suc" co##unication or s)o. An& )erson -"o -ill ull& or .to %e sta#)ed and -"ic" "as %een si'ned$ issued$ acce)ted or trans erred -it"out %ein' dul& sta#)ed$ s"all not %e recorded$ nor s"all it or an& co)& t"ereo or an& record o trans er o t"e sa#e %e ad#itted or used in evidence in an& court until t"e re1uisite sta#) or sta#)s are a i. L1L$ )unis"in' es)iona'e and ot"er o enses a'ainst national securit&: Provided$ T"at suc" -ritten order s"all onl& %e issued or 'ranted u)on -ritten a))lication and t"e e. @.ul in t"e )recedin' section or -"o violates t"e )rovisions o t"e ollo-in' section or o an& order issued t"ereunder$ or aids$ )er#its$ or causes suc" violation s"all$ u)on conviction t"ereo $ %e )unis"ed %& i#)rison#ent or not less t"an si.t )recedin' sentence$ to .ie>tal. > An instru#ent$ docu#ent or )a)er -"ic" is re1uired %& la. /?. Section 2.ul in t"e t-o )recedin' sections in cases involvin' t"e cri#es o treason$ es)iona'e$ )rovo.a%le Iocu#ent.a#ination under oat" or a ir#ation o t"e a))licant and t"e -itnesses "e #a& )roduce and a s"o-in': *1+ t"at t"ere are reasona%le 'rounds to %elieve t"at an& o t"e cri#es enu#erated "ereina%ove "as %een co##itted or is %ein' co##itted or is a%out to %e co##itted: Provided$ "o-ever$ T"at in cases involvin' t"e o enses o re%ellion$ cons)irac& and )ro)osal to co##it re%ellion$ incitin' to re%ellion$ sedition$ cons)irac& to co##it sedition$ and incitin' to sedition$ suc" aut"orit& s"all %e 'ranted onl& u)on )rior )roo t"at a re%ellion or acts o sedition$ as t"e case #a& %e$ "ave actuall& %een or are %ein' co##itted3 *2+ t"at t"ere are reasona%le 'rounds to %elieve t"at evidence -ill %e o%tained essential to t"e conviction o an& )erson or$ or to t"e solution o $ or to t"e )revention o $ an& o suc" cri#es3 and *?+ t"at t"ere are no ot"er #eans readil& availa%le or o%tainin' suc" evidence. 2011-2012 and seiFures o -"atever nature and or an& )ur)ose s"all %e inviola%le$ and no searc" -arrant or -arrant o arrest s"all issue e. E ect o 2ailure to Sta#) Ta. I t"e )erson cannot a ord t"e services o counsel$ "e #ust %e )rovided -it" one.evidence | 1st sem.no-in'l& )ossess an& ta)e record$ -ire record$ disc record$ or an& ot"er suc" record$ or co)ies t"ereo $ o an& co##unication or s)o. Re or# Act o 1JJN /2A1.no-n as a dicta)"one or dicta'ra)" or dicta)"one or -al. ysr Section 1. Sec.ul or )unis"a%le or an& )eace o icer$ -"o is aut"oriFed %& a -ritten order o t"e 8ourt$ to e. 5. III$ 8onsti /12.ul or an& )erson$ %e "e a )artici)ant or not in t"e act or acts )enaliFed in t"e ne. #ont"s or #ore t"an si. Section ?.ce)t in -ritin' and in t"e )resence o counsel. Sec. 12$ Art. ?. No )erson s"all %e co#)elled to %e a -itness a'ainst "i#sel . Not"in' contained in t"is Act$ "o-ever$ s"all render it unla.

re)ort or state#ent or )artici)ate in an& raudulent transaction$ t"ere%& a ectin' t"e inancial interest o $ or causin' da#a'e to$ t"e %an. ItMs considered unla. RA 1@A5$ La.istin' la-s s"all )revail3 *c+ Acce)t 'i ts$ ees$ or co##issions or an& ot"er or# o re#uneration in connection -it" t"e a))roval o a loan or ot"er credit acco##odation ro# said %an.s in aut"oriFed loans to assist in t"e econo#ic develo)#ent o t"e countr&.evidence | 1st sem. RIANO: /@$ RA @2AA T"e )rovisions o /1$ RA @2AA does not consider it unla.3 or *e+ Outsource in"erent %an.ceed si. Section 1. Section @.1.an. An& co##unication or s)o. Pro"i%ited Transactions.ecuted.a#ined$ in1uired or loo. Section L.en -ords are to %e over"eard$ interce)ted$ or recorded and$ in t"e case o tele'ra)"ic or tele)"onic co##unications$ t"e tele'ra)" line or t"e tele)"one nu#%er involved and its location3 *2+ t"e identit& o t"e )eace o icer aut"oriFed to over"ear$ interce)t$ or record t"e co##unications$ conversations$ discussions$ or s)o. All recordin's #ade under court aut"oriFation s"all$ -it"in ort&>ei'"t "ours a ter t"e e.ed into %& an& )erson$ 'overn#ent o icial$ %ureau or o ice$ e.ul to record o)en and )u%lic co##unications.en -ord$ or t"e e. 55. Section L. s"all > .ul to a+ secretl& over"ear$ %+ interce)t$ or c+ record )rivate co##unication or s)o.in' institutions and to discoura'e )rivate "oardin' so t"at t"e sa#e #a& %e )ro)erl& utiliFed %& %an. s"all > *a+ Ka. RA @2AA )ro"i%its t"e ad#ission in evidence in an& (udicial$ 1uasi>(udicial$ le'islative$ or ad#inistrative investi'ation o an& co##unication or s)o. No director$ o icer$ e#)lo&ee$ or a'ent o an& %an. 55.3 *d+ Overvalue or aid in overvaluin' an& securit& or t"e )ur)ose o in luencin' in an& -a& t"e actions o t"e %an. Section 2.in' Act o 2AAA Section 55.s or %an. No %orro-er o a %an.e alse entries in an& %an. T"is Act s"all ta.en -ord or an& in or#ation )rocured %& -ireta))in' and related #eans s)eci ied in said laEE8EPT in t"e cases t"erein s)eciall& )er#itted. Section @.e e ect u)on its a))roval. T"e envelo)e or )ac.)iration o t"e )eriod i. I onl& one )art& aut"oriFes t"e recordin' and t"e ot"er does not$ t"ere is a violation o t"e la-. or an& )erson3 *%+ Bit"out order o a court o co#)etent (urisdiction$ disclose to an& unaut"oriFed )erson an& in or#ation relative to t"e unds or )ro)erties in t"e custod& o t"e %an. B"at t"e la)rotects are )rivate conversations and co##unications. It is "ere%& declared to %e t"e )olic& o t"e Govern#ent to 'ive encoura'e#ent to t"e )eo)le to de)osit t"eir #one& in %an. T"e court re erred to in t"is section s"all %e understood to #ean t"e 8ourt o 2irst Instance -it"in -"ose territorial (urisdiction t"e acts or -"ic" aut"orit& is a))lied or are to %e e. L.en -ords3 *?+ t"e o ense or o enses co##itted or sou'"t to %e )revented3 and *@+ t"e )eriod o t"e aut"oriFation.ul or an& o icial or e#)lo&ee o a %an. %elon'in' to )rivate individuals$ cor)orations$ or an& ot"er entit&: Provided$ T"at -it" res)ect to %an. All de)osits o -"atever nature -it" %an. 2011-2012 T"e order 'ranted or issued s"all s)eci &: *1+ t"e identit& o t"e )erson or )ersons -"ose co##unications$ conversations$ discussions$ or s)o. T"is Act s"all ta.e e ect u)on its a))roval. An& violation o t"is la.ce)t u)on #otion$ -it" due notice and o))ortunit& to %e "eard to t"e )erson or )ersons -"ose conversation or co##unications "ave %een recorded. or an& %an.ce)t u)on -ritten )er#ission o t"e de)ositor$ or in cases o i#)eac"#ent$ or u)on order o a co#)etent court in cases o %ri%er& or dereliction o dut& o )u%lic o icials$ or in cases -"ere t"e #one& de)osited or invested is t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e liti'ation. T"e aut"oriFation s"all %e e ective or t"e )eriod s)eci ied in t"e order -"ic" s"all not e. All Acts or )arts o Acts$ S)ecial 8"arters$ E. It s"all %e unla.ecutive Orders$ Rules and Re'ulations -"ic" are inconsistent -it" t"e )rovisions o t"is Act are "ere%& re)ealed.a'e so de)osited s"all not %e o)ened$ or t"e recordin's re)la&ed$ or used in evidence$ or t"eir contents revealed$ e. Section ?.in' institutions in t"e P"ili))ines includin' invest#ents in %onds issued %& t"e Govern#ent o t"e P"ili))ines$ its )olitical su%divisions and its instru#entalities$ are "ere%& considered as o an a%solutel& con idential nature and #a& not %e e. Ie)osits AN A8T PRO:I.on Secrec& o .in' institution to disclose to an& )erson ot"er t"an t"ose #entioned in Section t-o "ereo an& in or#ation concernin' said de)osits.-ill su%(ect o ender u)on conviction$ to an i#)rison#ent o not #ore t"an ive &ears or a ine o not #ore t"an t-ent& t"ousand )esos or %ot"$ in t"e discretion o t"e court.tended or rene-ed %& t"e court u)on %ein' satis ied t"at suc" e.an.t& *LA+ da&s ro# t"e date o issuance o t"e order$ unless e.ITING IIS8LOS<RE O2 OR IND<IRC INTO$ IEPOSITS BIT: ANC .ce)t u)on order o t"e court$ -"ic" s"all not %e 'ranted e.2.a'e$ and s"all %e acco#)anied %& an a idavit o t"e )eace o icer 'ranted suc" aut"orit& statin' t"e nu#%er o recordin's #ade$ t"e dates and ti#es covered %& eac" recordin'$ t"e nu#%er o ta)es$ discs$ or records included in t"e de)osit$ and certi &in' t"at no du)licates or co)ies o t"e -"ole or an& )art t"ereo "ave %een #ade$ or i #ade$ t"at all suc" du)licates or co)ies are included in t"e envelo)e or )ac. Section 5.in' unctions.ed in t"e order$ %e de)osited -it" t"e court in a sealed envelo)e or sealed )ac. 55$ RA 8NJ1: General . de)osits$ t"e )rovisions o e. Sec.a'e de)osited -it" t"e court.ANRING INSTIT<TION ANI PROVIIING PENALTC T:ERE2OR. Section 5.istence$ contents$ su%stance$ )ur)ort$ e ect$ or #eanin' o t"e sa#e or an& )art t"ereo $ or an& in or#ation t"erein contained o%tained or secured %& an& )erson in violation o t"e )recedin' sections o t"is Act s"all not %e ad#issi%le in evidence in an& (udicial$ 1uasi>(udicial$ le'islative or ad#inistrative "earin' or investi'ation.tension or rene-al is in t"e )u%lic interest. N. All la-s inconsistent -it" t"e )rovisions o t"is Act are "ere%& re)ealed or accordin'l& a#ended.en -ord -"en doin' so is -4o t"e aut"orit& o all t"e )arties to suc" )rivate 6 ysr co##unication.

in' o alse re)orts or #isre)resentation or su))ression o #aterial acts %& )ersonnel o t"e .in' into consideration an& issue$ 1uestion or incident$ even i not raised$ i resolution t"ereo is necessar& or a co#)lete and (ust dis)osition o t"e case.t& "undred and t"irt&> ive -it"out urt"er )roo t"ereo .8entral . A co)& o t"e -ritten notice o a))eal s"all %e served -it"in t"e sa#e )eriod u)on t"e adverse )art&.)ensive deter#ination o ever& action or )roceedin' iled %e ore t"e#. 8onsistent -it" t"e )rovisions o Re)u%lic Act No.an'.tendin' t"e )eriod t"ereo 3 *c+ Atte#)t to de raud t"e said %an. T"e 8ourt o A))eals s"all a ir# t"e decision or order or t"e )ortions t"ereo a))ealed ro# i t"e indin's o act in t"e said decision or order are su))orted %& su%stantial evidence as %asis t"ereo $ and t"e conclusions stated t"erein are not clearl& a'ainst t"e la. :e s"all continue to en(o& suc" status as )au)er and4or indi'ent liti'ant in t"e a))ellate courts and until t"e case is inall& dis)osed o .an. o court to t"e adverse )art&. o court s"all reduce t"e sa#e to -ritin'$ -"ic" s"all %e si'ned %& t"e a))ellant and a co)& t"ereo served -it"in t"e sa#e )eriod %& t"e cler.and (uris)rudence.@.)ro)riation cases t"e Rules o 8ourt s"all a))l&.a#iner$ o icer or e#)lo&ee o t"e . 55. Rules o Procedure. B"ere t"ere is dou%t in t"e a))lication o uni or# rules or in t"e construction and inter)retation o t"is Iecree or o an& contract %et-een t"e )arties$ t"e dou%t s"all %e resolved in avor o t"e tenant> ar#ers$ a'ricultural lessees$ settlers$ o-ner>cultivators$ a#ortiFin' o-ner>cultivators$ t"e Sa#a"an' Na&on$ co#)act ar#s$ ar#ersS coo)eratives and ot"er re'istered ar#ersS associations or or'aniFations. Onl& one #otion or reconsideration s"all %e allo-ed a )art&.an'.3 *%+ 2urnis" alse or #a. In case t"e notice o a))eal is orall& #ade$ t"e cler.no-n as t"e .o Sentral or o an& de)art#ent$ %ureau$ o ice$ %ranc" or a'enc& o t"e Govern#ent t"at is assi'ned to su)ervise$ e. To t"is end$ eac" 8ourt o A'rarian Relations s"all "ave t"e aut"orit& to ado)t an& a))ro)riate #easure or )rocedure in an& situation or #atter not )rovided or or covered %& t"is Iecree and in t"e uni or# rules o )rocedure o t"e 8ourts o A'rarian Relations. in t"e event o a court action to recover a loan or ot"er credit acco##odation3 or *d+ O er an& director$ o icer$ e#)lo&ee or a'ent o a %an. Section 18. In case o t"e #alicious denial o t"e tenanc& relations"i) %& t"e land"older$ "e s"all %e su%(ect to t"e )a&#ent o e. 1@A5$ ot"er-ise . T"e 8ourts o A'rarian Relation s"all ado)t uni or# rules o )rocedure on #atters not )rovided or in t"is Iecree in order to ac"ieve a (ust$ e. T"e rules o 8ourt s"all not %e a))lica%le to a'rarian cases$ even in a su))letor& c"aracter. All suc" s)ecial #easures or )rocedures$ and t"e situations to -"ic" t"e& are a))lied s"all %e re)orted to t"e Su)re#e 8ourt %& t"e individual Pud'es t"rou'" t"e E. An a'ricultural tiller$ tenant or lessee -"o "as %een allo-ed to liti'ate as a )au)er and4or indi'ent liti'ant s"all %e entitled to t"e issuance o a dul& certi ied co)& o t"e transcri)t o steno'ra)"ic notes o t"e "earin'$ -"ic" s"all %e 'iven to "i# ree o c"ar'e.ed %& t"e 8ourt$ to ans-er or suc" da#a'es as #a& %e su ered %& t"e tiller -"o is ound to %e a la. 7 . In cri#inal and e. T"e 8ourt o A))eals s"all not %e )recluded ro# ta.ecutive Pud'e -"o s"all urnis" co)ies o suc" re)orts to all t"e ot"er Pud'es. 8.ul tenant. Iirect testi#onies o -itnesses s"all %e in narrative or# su%(ect to cross e. A))eals.an. de)osits.e#)lar& da#a'es e1uivalent to at least t"e value o t"e "arvest i#)ounded. Act.a#ine$ assist or render tec"nical assistance to an& %an. An& undue dela& in t"e transcri)tion o t"e steno'ra)"ic notes or in t"e issuance o a dul& certi ied co)& o said transcri)t in avor o said )art& and an& c"ar'in' o ees a'ainst "i# in connection t"ere-it" s"all %e dealt -it" ad#inistrativel&.evidence | 1st sem. s"all e#)lo& casual or non re'ular )ersonnel or too len't"& )ro%ationar& )ersonnel in t"e conduct o its %usiness involvin' %an.s Secrec& La-$ no %an. 2011-2012 *a+ 2raudulentl& overvalue )ro)ert& o ered as securit& or a loan or ot"er credit acco##odation ro# t"e %an.and )rocedure.e #isre)resentation or su))ression o #aterial acts or t"e )ur)ose o o%tainin'$ rene-in'$ or increasin' a loan or ot"er credit acco##odation or e. ysr In t"e "earin'$ investi'ation and deter#ination o an& 1uestion or controvers&$ a idavits and counter>a idavits #a& %e allo-ed and are ad#issi%le in evidence. 55.)editious and ine.o Sental n' Pili)inas s"all %e su%(ect to t"e ad#inistrative and cri#inal sanctions )rovided under t"e Ne. B"ere a )art& is a tenant> ar#er$ a'ricultural lessee or tiller$ settler$ or a#ortiFin' o-ner>cultivator$ "e s"all %e entitled to t"e ri'"ts o a )au)er and4or indi'ent liti'ant and t"e )rivile'es o an indi'ent liti'ant under Re)u%lic Act nu#%ered si. *8N>Aa+ T"e #a. An a))eal #a& %e ta.en to t"e 8ourt o A))eals %& 'ivin' an oral or -ritten notice o a))eal -it" t"e trial court -it"in t"e )eriod o i teen *15+ da&s ro# notice o order or decision.a#ination.? No e. In cases -"ere t"e tenurial status o a )erson is in issue$ t"e 8ourt o A'rarian Relations s"all not issue an order restrainin' t"e actual tiller ro# cultivatin' t"e land$ or i#)oundin' t"e "arvest -it"out )rovidin' "i# -it" at least i t& )ercent o t"e net "arvest. an& 'i t$ ee$ co##ission$ or an& ot"er or# o co#)ensation in order to in luence suc" )ersons into a))rovin' a loan or ot"er credit acco##odation a))lication. In case a #otion or reconsideration is iled -it"in t"at )eriod o i teen *15+ da&s$ t"e notice o a))eal s"all %e iled -it"in ten *1A+ da&s ro# notice o t"e resolution den&in' t"e #otion or reconsideration. Secs. S"ould t"e i#)oundin' o t"e "arvest %e at t"e instance o t"e land"older$ "e s"all ile a cas" %ond to %e i. s"all co##it an& o t"e acts enu#erated in t"is Section or aid in t"e co##ission o t"e sa#e. 1L 9 18$ PI J@L Section 1L. It is t"e s)irit and intention o t"is Iecree t"at t"e 8ourts o A'rarian Relations s"all utiliFe and e#)lo& ever& and all reasona%le #eans to ascertain t"e acts o ever& case in accordance -it" (ustice and e1uit& and t"e #erits o t"e case$ -it"out re'ard to tec"nicalities o la.

)lained -ealt" as "eld in t"e case o PN.a#ination o t"e secrec& o %an. de)osits la. or violation o R. B"ile it is laid do-n in t"e %oo.en$ %ecause in 'eneral all #one& o t"e sa#e deno#ination and #aterial is ali. STATE$ NJ NE 1ANL *1JAN+ ISS<E4:ELI4RATIO: B4N evidence relevant o a )articular ite# i it tends to su))ort -"et"er )roo o t"at evidence -ould assist to resolve t"e central issue o a case 0 CES.clude all )resu#)tive evidenceT Bit"in settled rules$ t"e co#)etenc& o testi#on& de)ends lar'el& u)on its tendenc& to )ersuade t"e (ud'#entT As said in 1 B"arton$ 8 .U In Stevenson v. al.*RA 1@A5+ -ould reveal t"e ollo-in' e.er o #one& c"ar'ed as ta.en is too orced and e. T"e la.traordinar& to %e receiva%le. • KAK. Evidence o t"e old #anMs deat" -as relevant.on certiorari onl& on 1uestions o la-$ -it"in a non>e.t& *LA+ da&s ro# t"e e ectivit& o t"is Iecree: Provided$ "o-ever$ T"at i t"e decision or order %e an a ir#ance in toto o t"e dis)ositive conclusion o t"e (ud'#ent a))ealed ro#$ t"en t"e 8ourt o A))eals #a&$ instead o renderin' an e.-"ic" "ave %een ado)ted as %asis or t"e a ir#ance. ? *e+ and *'+ relative to t"e Point Venture A'ree#ent %et-een t"e Pu%lic Estates Aut"orit& and AKARI.tendi%le )eriod o i teen *15+ da&s ro# recei)t o a notice o a))eal$ i no #otions or reconsideration are iled.e$ and t"e "&)ot"esis t"at t"e #one& ound is t"e sa#e as t"e #one& ta. T"e recordin' o )rivate conversations -it"out t"e consent o t"e )arties contravenes t"e )rovisions o RA @2AA Tand renders t"e sa#e inad#issi%le in evidence in an& )roceedin'.)ro)riation cases */1L$ PI J@L+ ysr EvidenceT / 2A: URelevanc& is t"at -"ic" conduces to t"e )roo o a )ertinent "&)ot"esis.ce)t in cri#inal and e.ce)tions: 1. It is enou'" i t"ese #a& tend$ in a sli'"t de'ree$ to elucidate t"e in1uir&$ or to assist$ t"ou'" re#otel&$ to a deter#ination )ro%a%l& ounded in trut". No. .s t"at t"ere #ust %e an o)en and visi%le connection %et-een t"e act under in1uir& and t"e evidence %& -"ic" it is sou'"t to %e esta%lis"ed$ &et t"e connection t"us re1uired is in t"e lo'ical )rocesses onl&$ or to re1uire an actual connection %et-een t"e t-o acts -ould %e to e.allSs )ossession at t"e ti#e o "is arrest ca#e ro# or "ad so#e connection -it" t"e ro%%er& and in t"e a%sence o a )lain s"o-in' o "is i#)ecuniousness %e ore t"e ro%%er& and "is sudden a luence *State v. 2011-2012 T"e 8ourt o A'rarian Relations s"all or-ard to t"e 8ourt o A))eals t"e co#)lete records o t"e case -it"in a non> e. In t"e a%sence o )roo or o a air in erence ro# t"e record t"at t"e #one& in . In cases %e ore t"e t"en 8ourt o A'rarian Relations$ t"e Ro8 -ere not a))lica%le even in a su))letor& c"aracter$ e. A))eal s"all not sta& t"e decision or order e. All cases o t"e 8ourts o A'rarian Relations no. I#)eac"#ent case3 ?.& court order in %ri%er& or dereliction o dut& cases a'ainst )u%lic o icials3 @. Ganca&co T"e order o t"e O#%uds#an to )roduce or in ca#era ins)ection t"e su%(ect accounts -it" t"e <nion .tendi%le )eriod o t"irt& *?A+ da&s ro# recei)t %& t"e a))ellant o a co)& o t"e decision or order. Ste-art *18@J+T it -as said: UT"e co#)etenc& o a collateral act to %e used as t"e %asis o le'iti#ate ar'u#ent$ is not to %e deter#ined %& t"e conclusiveness o t"e in erences it #a& a ord in re erence to t"e liti'ated act. <)on recei)t o t"e records o t"e case ro# t"e 8ourt o A'rarian Relations$ t"e 8ourt o A))eals #a&$ i it dee#s necessar&$ re1uire t"e )arties to ile si#ultaneous #e#oranda -it"in a non>e. o t"e P"ili))ines$ Pulia Var'as . KARD<EQ V. Ie)osit is su%(ect o liti'ation3 5. B"ere t"e de)ositor consents in -ritin'3 2. NOTE: suc" )rocedure "as %een S<PERSEIEI %& )rovisions o RA LL5N 8ases RNAPP V. 8$ RA ?A1J$ in cases o une. de)osits *RA 1@A5+ An e. . <)on t"e e ectivit& o t"is Iecree$ t"e 8ourt o A))eals s"all desi'nate at least t-o *2+ o its Iivisions to -"ic" all a))ealed a'rarian cases s"all %e assi'ned$ and t"ese cases s"all "ave )riorit& over ot"er cases. T"us$ t"e contents o t"e ta)e recorder cannot %e relied u)on to deter#ine t"e cul)a%ilit& o res)ondent (ud'e.tendi%le )eriod o i teen *15+ da&s ro# notice3 t"e a))ellate court s"all decide t"e case -it"in t"irt& *?A+ da&s ro# recei)t o said records or #e#oranda.e )eriod ro# recei)t %& t"e )art& concerned o denial o t"e last #otion or reconsideration.on secrec& o %an. Garrett+$ t"e evidence -as not in act relevant and in t"e circu#stances -as o%viousl& )re(udicial or i it did not tend to )rove t"e o ense or -"ic" t"e a))ellant -as on trial t"e (ur& #a& "ave in erred t"at "e -as 'uilt& o anot"er ro%%er&. vs.UT STATE V. No #otion or re"earin' or reconsideration s"all %e allo-ed in t"e 8ourt o A))eals.)endin' %e ore t"e 8ourt o A))eals s"all re#ain in t"e Iivision to -"ic" t"e& "ave %een assi'ned$ and s"all %e -it"in si.an. GAR8IA$ ?5J S8RA @2L *2AA1+ T"e Investi'atin' Pud'eSs reliance on t"e ta)e>recorded conversation %et-een . A.ce)t -"ere t"e e(ect#ent o a tenant> ar#er$ a'ricultural lessee or tiller$ settler$ or a#ortiFin' o-ner>cultivator is directed.evidence | 1st sem.ulatao and t"e t-o )olice o icers is erroneous.tended o)inion$ indicate clearl& t"e trial courtSs indin's o act and )ronounce#ents o la.covers even t"ose recorded %& )ersons )riv& to t"e )rivate co##unications$ as in t"is case. • 8.ranc"$ is %ased on a )endin' investi'ation at t"e O ice o t"e O#%uds#an a'ainst A#ado La'da#eo$ et.ALL$ ??J SB 2I N8? *1JLA+ • Bi'#ore: T"e #ere )ossession o a 1uantit& o #one& is in itsel no indication t"at t"e )ossessor -as t"e ta. ?A1J$ Sec.A V. In t"e event t"at #otions or reconsideration are iled$ t"e records s"all %e or-arded to t"e a))ellate court -it"in a li. T"e decisions or orders o t"e 8ourt o A))eals #a& %e a))ealed to t"e Su)re#e 8ourt %& )etition or revie. Sec. IESIERTO$ ?5J S8RA NN2 *2AA1+ ISS<E4:ELI4RATIO: B4N )etitioner #a& %e cited or indirect conte#)t or "er ailure to )roduce t"e docu#ents re1uested %& t"e O#%uds#an > And -"et"er t"e order o t"e O#%uds#an to "ave an in ca#era ins)ection o t"e 1uestioned account is allo-ed as an e.ce)tion to t"e la.

an. Qones o )rivac& are reco'niFed and )rotected in our la-s. Ie)osits La-$ t"ere %ein' t-o e.clusive re#edies or its violation$ t"e court -ould encroac"in' u)on t"e )rero'atives o con'ress i it aut"oriFes a re#ed& not )rovided or %& statute.a#ination o %an. into t"e de)osit to esta%lis" suc" raud or irre'ularit&$ *2+ In an e.A.a#ination o a %an. In t"e )resent case$ t-o e.a#ination is or audit )ur)oses onl& and t"e results t"ereo s"all %e or t"e e.e. T"e %an.on Secrec& o . RA 1@A5 does not )rovide or t"e a))lication o t"is rule.$ N. o t"e P"ili))ines v.A. 858.ce)ted ro# t"e )rotection o R. Plunder is e. account or ins)ection. )ersonnel and t"e account "older #ust %e noti ied to %e )resent durin' t"e ins)ection$ and suc" ins)ection #a& cover onl& t"e account identi ied in t"e )endin' case. accounts under t"e na#e o President Estrada alone$ %ut #ust include t"ose accounts to -"ic" t"e #one& )ur)ortedl& ac1uired ille'all& or a )ortion t"ereo -as alle'ed to "ave %een trans erred. In s"ort$ -"at t"e O ice o t"e O#%uds#an -ould -is" to do is to is" or additional evidence to or#all& c"ar'e A#ado La'da#eo$ et. Plunder %ein' t"us analo'ous to %ri%er&$ t"e e. Ka'sino: GSection 2 o 6RA 1@A57 allo-s t"e disclosure o %an.tends to -"atever is concealed %& %ein' "eld or recorded in t"e na#e o )ersons ot"er t"an t"e one res)onsi%le or t"e ille'al ac1uisitionH In li'"t t"en o t"e 8ourtMs )ronounce#ent in <nion .an. E.$ -it" t"e Sandi'an%a&an. Inas#uc" as 8ivil 8ase No.ce)tion *2+ a))lies %ecause t"e #one& de)osited in E(ercitoMs %an.ce)tion *1+ a))lies since t"e )lunder case )endin' a'ainst or#er President Estrada is analo'ous to %ri%er& or dereliction o dut&$ -"ile e. T"ere %ein' reco'niFed e.ce)tions a))l&$ to -it: *1+ t"e e. 8learl&$ t"ere -as no )endin' case in court -"ic" -ould -arrant t"e o)enin' o t"e %an.an.ce)t: *1+ In an e. accounts s"all render t"e evidence t"ere ro# inad#issi%le in evidence.a#ination o %an.e t"e Anti>Bireta))in' La-$ t"e Secrec& o .ce)ted ro# t"e )rotection o RA 1@A5 ot"er-ise . B"at is e. to conduct its re'ular audit )rovided t"at t"e e. At all events$ t"e O#%uds#an is not %arred ro# re1uirin' t"e )roduction o docu#ents %ased solel& on in or#ation o%tained %& it ro# sources inde)endent o its )revious in1uir&. v.oard a ter %ein' satis ied t"at t"ere is reasona%le 'round to %elieve t"at a %an. Kellon .ce)tion to RA 1@A5$ ot"er-ise . ISS<E4:ELI4RATIO: B4N t"e Trust Account No.an. :ence$ t"ese accounts are no lon'er )rotected %& t"e Secrec& o .cluded as evidence.a#ination o %an.ul e.evidence | 1st sem. 2011-2012 Be rule t"at %e ore an in ca#era ins)ection #a& %e allo-ed$ t"ere #ust %e a )endin' case %e ore a court o co#)etent (urisdiction. :o-ever$ t"e )rotection a orded %& t"e la.a#ination #ade %& an inde)endent auditor "ired %& t"e %an. It also "olds a )u%lic o icer or e#)lo&ee or an& )rivate individual lia%le or da#a'es or an& violation o t"e ri'"ts and li%erties o anot"er )erson$ and reco'niFes t"e )rivac& o letters and ot"er )rivate co##unications. accounts is u)on order o a co#)etent court in cases o %ri%er& or dereliction o dut& o )u%lic o icials$ and *2+ t"e #one& de)osited or invested is t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e liti'ation.es a cri#e o t"e violation o secrets %& an o icer$ t"e revelation o trade and industrial secrets$ and tres)ass to d-ellin'. Invasion o )rivac& is an o ense in s)ecial la-s li.no-n as T"e Secrec& o . accounts. :ELI: RA 1@A5 no-"ere )rovides t"at an unla.$ t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e liti'ation cannot %e li#ited to %an.clusionar& rule$ -"ic" states t"at once t"e 9 <nion . A11L>1N?@5>J in t"e na#e o E(ercito all under t"is descri)tion and #ust t"us %e )art o t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e liti'ation. Ie)osits La. 8ourt o A))eals: Section 2 o t"e La. de)osits to %e Ga%solutel& con identialH e.an.no-n as t"e . EPER8ITO V. 1@A5 0 NO.ce)tions t"ereto$ as a%ove>1uoted Section 2 )rovides. T"e RP8 #a. 2L8JJ is ai#ed at recoverin' t"e a#ount converted %& t"e Paviers or t"eir o-n %ene it$ necessaril&$ an in1uir& into t"e -"erea%outs o t"e ille'all& ac1uired a#ount e. Ie)osits$ as a#ended$ declares %an.ul e. Ie)osits Act$ and t"e Intellectual Pro)ert& 8ode. al.an.is not a%solute. T"e G ruit o t"e )oisonous treeH )rinci)le$ -"ic" states t"at once t"e )ri#ar& source *t"e GtreeH+ is s"o-n to "ave %een unla.an. accounts is said to or# )art o t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e sa#e )lunder case.. Ie)osits LaRA 1@A5 is %road enou'" to cover Trust Account No.ce)tions to t"e said la. T"e 8ivil 8ode )rovides t"at U6e7ver& )erson s"all res)ect t"e di'nit&$ )ersonalit&$ )rivac& and )eace o #ind o "is nei'"%ors and ot"er )ersonsU and )unis"es as actiona%le torts several acts or #eddlin' and )r&in' into t"e )rivac& o anot"er. raud or serious irre'ularit& "as %een or is %ein' co##itted and t"at it is necessar& to loo. ysr e. SANIIGAN. .an. accounts i.ACAN$ 5AJ S8RA 1JA *2AAL+ T"e accused clai#ed t"at in or#ation a%out "is %an. t"at is s)eci icall& aut"oriFed %& t"e Konetar& .*RA 1@A5+ and #oved to "ave t"e# %e e. Trust Account No.clusionar& rule$ it is not a))ro)riate or t"e courts to read suc" a )rovision into t"e act.ull& o%tained$ an& secondar& or derivative evidence *t"e G ruitH+ derived ro# it is also inad#issi%le$ does not a))l& in cases o unla.istin' is an investi'ation %& t"e o ice o t"e O#%uds#an. Secrec& La-$ a))lica%le in cases o %ri%er& #ust also a))l& to cases o )lunder.a))lica%le in t"is case$ na#el&: *1+ t"e e. de)osits in cases -"ere t"e #one& de)osited is t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e liti'ation. 858 and Savin's Account No. accounts is u)on order o a co#)etent court in cases o %ri%er& or dereliction o dut& o )u%lic o icials$ and *2+ t"e #one& de)osited or invested is t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e liti'ation.an. trust unds$ -as o%tained in violation o t"e Secrec& o . A11L>1N?@5>J are e. 2urt"er$ t"e account #ust %e clearl& identi ied$ t"e ins)ection li#ited to t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e )endin' case %e ore t"e court o co#)etent (urisdiction.a#ination o %an..$ *?+ <)on -ritten )er#ission o t"e de)ositor$ *@+ In cases o i#)eac"#ent$ *5+ <)on order o a co#)etent court in cases o %ri%er& or dereliction o dut& o )u%lic o icials$ or *L+ In cases -"ere t"e #one& de)osited or invested is t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e liti'ation In t"e case at %ar$ t"ere is &et no )endin' liti'ation %e ore an& court o co#)etent aut"orit&. A%sent a s)eci ic re erence to an . 858 and Savin's Account No.clusive use o t"e %an. I 8on'ress "as %ot" esta%lis"ed a ri'"t and )rovided e. ISS<E4:ELI4RATIO: B4N t"e G ruit o t"e )oisonous treeH doctrine or t"e e.a#ination #ade in t"e course o a s)ecial or 'eneral e.

1@A5$ t"e 8ourt inds no reason to a))l& t"e sa#e in t"is )articular case.evidence | 1st sem. PN t"ereo %ut %ecause t"ese are acts ca)a%le o un1uestiona%le de#onstration. 8ourts are re1uired to ta.ce)tion: -"ere said la-s are -it"in t"e actual .e PN o ordinances o t"e #unici)alit& or cit& -"erein t"e& sit • • RT8s #ust ta. Pudicial notice *//1>?$ R12J+ Section 1.A. E(ercitoMs %an.e an& ot"er act o E. accounts 0 t"e investi'ation )reviousl& conducted %& t"e O#%uds#an 0 -as la.ercised -it" caution and ever& reasona%le dou%t on t"e su%(ect #ust %e resolved in t"e ne'ative. 1@A5 does not )rovide or t"e a))lication o t"is rule. In eit"er case$ t"e court #a& allo.t"e )arties to %e "eard t"ereon i suc" #atter is decisive o a #aterial issue in t"e case. v. T"e G ruit o t"e )oisonous treeH doctrine )resu))oses a violation o la-.ull& o%tained$ an& secondar& or derivative evidence *t"e G ruitH+ derived ro# it is also inad#issi%le$ does not a))l& in t"is case.not"e# PN is %ased on considerations o e. II.clusionar& rule a))lica%le to t"e instant case ails.e and act on -it"out )roo %ecause t"e& alread& .E PROVEI A. Koreover$ t"ere is no %asis or a))l&in' t"e sa#e in t"is case since t"e )ri#ar& source or t"e detailed in or#ation re'ardin' Pose)" Victor G. I t"ere -as no violation o R. accounts s"all render t"e evidence o%tained t"ere ro# inad#issi%le in evidence. Rule re'ardin' (udicial notice o ordinances • Kunici)al courts re1uired to ta. ! A court s"all ta. In t"e irst )lace$ R. 1@A5 in t"e instant case$ t"en t"ere -ould %e no G)oisonous treeH to %e'in -it"$ and$ t"us$ no reason to a))l& t"e doctrine.a#ination o %an.A.e V )ersonal . *1a+ Section ?. 1@A5$ it %ears notin'$ no-"ere )rovides t"at an unla. A ter t"e trial$ and %e ore (ud'#ent or on a))eal$ t"e )ro)er court$ on its o-n initiative or on re1uest o a )art&$ #a& ta.ul.es suc" evidence unnecessar&.no-led'e$ or are ca)a%le to un1uestiona%le de#onstration$ or ou'"t to %e . Pudicial notice$ -"en "earin' necessar&.clusionar& rule is ina))lica%le in cases o unla. PN court re1uired to ta.e t"e e.e PN o #unici)al or cit& ordinances not onl& -"ere t"e lo-er courts too. E(ercitoMs atte#)t to #a.e (udicial notice o an& #atter and allo. It dis)laces evidence since$ %ein' e1uivalent to )roo $ it ul ills t"e o%(ect -"ic" t"e evidence is intended to ac"ieve and$ t"ere ore$ #a. R.e PN o t"e decisions o t"e a))ellate courts %ut not o t"e decisions o coordinate trial courts$ nor even o a decision or t"e acts involved in anot"er case tried %& t"e sa#e court itsel $ unless t"e )arties introduce t"e sa#e in evidence or -"ere t"e court$ as a #atter o convenience$ #a& decide to do so. 2or t"e sa#e reason$ courts #a& ta. *AlFua vs.e (udicial notice o an& #atter and allo. ! Iurin' t"e trial$ t"e court$ on its o-n initiative$ or on re1uest o a )art&$ #a& announce its intention to ta.a#ination o %an.e (udicial notice$ -it"out t"e introduction o evidence$ o t"e e.a#ination o %an. PN o an ordinance involved in said case A))ellate courts #a& also ta.A. ! A court #a& ta.A. 1@A5 onl& states t"at G6a7n& violation o t"is la.en %& a court a+ on its o-n #otion$ or %+ -"en it is re1uested or invited %& t"e )arties or eit"er o t"e# to do so. B:AT NEEI NOT . Section 5 o R.en PN o and "ave to %e )roved li.t"e )arties to %e "eard t"ereon.no-n or t"e& "ave %een actuall& ruled u)on in ot"er cases %e ore it and none o t"e )arties clai# ot"er-ise.no-led'e$ and vice versa$ as t"is rule re ers to acts -"ic" Gou'"t to %e .e PN #ust %e e. Po"nson+ PN o a act #a& %e ta. Pudicial notice$ -"en #andator&.)edienc& and convenience. Pudicial notice$ -"en discretionar&. T"e G ruit o t"e )oisonous treeH doctrine or t"e e.e suc" PN onl& a+ -"en re1uired to do so %& statute3 and %+ in a case on a))eal %e ore t"e# and -"erein t"e in erior court too.e (udicial notice o #atters -"ic" are o )u%lic .-ill su%(ect t"e o ender u)on conviction$ to an i#)rison#ent o not #ore t"an ive &ears or a ine o not #ore t"an t-ent& t"ousand )esos or %ot"$ in t"e discretion o t"e court.no-n to (ud'es %ecause o t"eir (udicial unctions.o nations$ t"e ad#iralt& and #ariti#e courts o t"e -orld and t"eir seals$ t"e )olitical constitution and "istor& o t"e P"ili))ines$ t"e o icial acts o le'islative$ e.A. :ence$ t"e G ruit o t"e )oisonous treeH )rinci)le$ -"ic" states t"at once t"e )ri#ar& source *t"e GtreeH+ is s"o-n to "ave %een unla. *1a+ Section 2. It "as %een "eld$ "o-ever$ t"at t"e )o-er to ta.tent o states$ t"eir )olitical "istor&$ or#s o 'overn#ent and s&#%ols o nationalit&$ t"e la.ecutive and (udicial de)art#ents o t"e P"ili))ines$ t"e la-s o nature$ t"e #easure o ti#e$ and t"e 'eo'ra)"ical divisions.clusionar& rule a))lies in )rinci)le to cases involvin' R.ul e.t"e )arties to %e "eard on t"e #atter in 1uestion. Guerrero 10 .H Even assu#in' ar'uendo$ "o-ever$ t"at t"e e.no-led'e o t"e court suc" as -"en t"e& are -ell and 'enerall& . • To )rove a orei'n -ritten la-$ t"e re1uire#ents o //2@ 9 25$ R1?2 #ust %e co#)lied -it" *%& an o icial )u%lication or %& a dul& attested and aut"enticated co)& t"ereo + o Kanu acturers :anover Trust 8o.ull& o%tained$ an& secondar& or derivative evidence *t"e G ruitH+ derived ro# it is also inad#issi%le$ a))lica%le in cases o unla. accounts. 2011-2012 )ri#ar& source *t"e GtreeH+ is s"o-n to "ave %een unla. accounts 0 NO.e PN o ad#inistrative re'ulations.H Duestion as to -"at are t"e la-s o a orei'n state is one o act$ not o la-.ul e.istence and territorial e. • 2orei'n la-s #a& not %e ta.ul e.no-n to (ud'es %ecause o t"eir (udicial unctions.no-led'e o (ud'e • A act #a& %e o PN and not %e o t"e (ud'eMs )ersonal . *n+ ysr Pudicial notice T"e co'niFance o certain acts -"ic" (ud'es #a& )ro)erl& ta.

istence and territorial e.and (uris)rudence t"erein.no-led'e 2. 2orei'n la-s are not a #atter o (udicial notice. T"e #atter #ust %e one o co##on . B"en as. T"e 'eo'ra)"ical divisions.U . <nder /2@ o R1?2$ t"e record o )u%lic docu#ents o a soverei'n aut"orit& or tri%unal #a& %e )roved %& *1+ an o icial )u%lication t"ereo or *2+ a co)& attested %& t"e o icer "avin' t"e le'al custod& t"ereo . 8A$ 8TA *2AAA+ As a rule$ Ucourts are not aut"oriFed to ta. KuFFal$ t"at Section @1$ Rule 12? *Section 25$ Rule 1?2 o t"e Revised Rules o 8ourt+ does not e.e (udicial notice o #atters ou'"t to %e . Provisions o orei'n la. 2unction o PN To a%%reviate liti'ation %& t"e ad#ission o #atters t"at need no evidence %ecause PN is a su%stitute or or#al )roo o a #atter %& evidence B"en PN is #andator& A #atter o PN #a& eit"er %e #andator& or discretionar&.evidence | 1st sem. T"e #easure o ti#e 9.no-led'e #ust e. 1?851 *a+ 9 *%+ o t"e 8ali ornia Internal and Revenue 8ode as )u%lis"ed in Ierrin's 8ali ornia 8ode$ a )u%lication o .e (udicial notice o t"e contents o t"e records o ot"er cases$ even -"en suc" cases "ave %een tried or are )endin' in t"e sa#e court$ and not-it"standin' t"e act t"at %ot" cases #a& "ave %een "eard or are actuall& )endin' %e ore t"e sa#e (ud'e.ecutive and (udicial de)art#ents o t"e P"ili))ines 7. T"e resolution o -"et"er a orei'n la.on t"e issue o da#a'es involved$ %ut #erel& contained t"e a iantMs inter)retation and o)inion o t"e acts o t"e case vis>O>vis t"e alle'ed la.ist -it"in t"e (urisdiction o t"e court . In t"at case$ t"e counsel or res)ondent testi ied t"at as an active #e#%er o t"e 8ali ornia . )arte a%road and t"e a iant never testi ied in court.o 8ali ornia as )roved %& t"e res)ondents -itness. T"e )olitical "istor&$ or#s o 'overn#ent and s&#%ols o nationalit& o states 3.e t"at as it #a&$ Section 2$ Rule 12J )rovides t"at courts #a& ta.e)t$ and aut"enticated %& t"e seal o "is o ice.ed$ t"e court #a& dis)ense -it" t"e )resentation o evidence on (udiciall& co'niFa%le acts. T"e #atter #ust %e settled %e&ond reasona%le dou%t *i t"ere is an& uncertaint& a%out t"e #atter$ t"en evidence #ust %e adduced+ ?. 8A+ Alt"ou'" it is desira%le t"at orei'n la.allo-s onl& t"e recover& o actual da#a'es is a 1uestion o act as ar as t"e trial court is concerned since orei'n la-s do not )rove t"e#selves in our courts.#a& also %e t"e su%(ect o (udicial ad#ission under /@$ R12J. • 8ERTAIN EE8EPTIONS *Asiavest Li#ited v.no-n to (ud'es %ecause o t"eir (udicial unctions.clude t"e )resentation o ot"er co#)etent evidence to )rove t"e e. 2is"er et al.e an& ot"er act$ t"e& #ust %e alle'ed and )roven.ce)tions to t"e re1uire#ents in //2@ 9 25$ R1?2 or )roo o orei'n la.ar since 1J51$ "e is a#iliar -it" t"e revenue and ta.ed %& t"e lo-er court to state t"e )ertinent 8ali ornia la. Li. And as )art o "is testi#on&$ a ull 11 • • • RIANO: PN is %ased on t"e #a. 2urt"er$ said a idavit -as ta.$ Inc."ave %een reco'niFed$ t"e evidence )resented or t"at )ur)ose in t"is case is unacce)ta%le.no-n need not %e )roved$H "ence$ -"en t"e rule is invo.i#$ G-"at is . T"e .s v.e PN o . T"e attestation #ust state$ in su%stance$ t"at t"e co)& is a correct co)& o t"e ori'inal$ or a s)eci ic )art t"ereo $ as t"e case #a& %e$ and #ust %e under t"e o icial seal o t"e attestin' o icer. G<ERRERO *2AA?+ T"ere can %e no su##ar& (ud'#ent -"ere 1uestions o act are in issue or -"ere #aterial alle'ations o t"e )leadin's are in dis)ute.e PN o a act %ecause t"is is a #atter -"ic" a court ou'"t to ta.istence o said la-.%e )roved in accordance -it" t"e a%ove rule$ "o-ever$ t"e Su)re#e 8ourt "eld in t"e case o Billa#ette Iron and Steel Bor. 8ertainl&$ t"e con lictin' alle'ations as to -"et"er NC la. Accordin'l&$ in line -it" t"is vie-$ t"e Su)re#e 8ourt in t"e 8ollector o Internal Revenue v.e)t in t"e P"ili))ines$ -it" a certi icate t"at t"e attestin' o icer "as t"e le'al custod& t"ereo .istence o a orei'n la-. Suc" o icial )u%lication or co)& #ust %e acco#)anied$ i t"e record is not . T"e )olitical constitution and "istor& o t"e P"ili))ines 6. 8ourt in considerin' t"e )ertinent la.or P"ili))ine la. T"e la-s o nature 8.en e. T"e e. T"e certi icate #a& %e issued %& an& o t"e aut"oriFed P"ili))ine e#%ass& or consular o icials stationed in t"e orei'n countr& in -"ic" t"e record is .$ u)"eld t"e Ta.tent o states 2.as re'ards e. Katters su%(ect to #andator& PN 1.ation la-s o t"e State o 8ali ornia.  Instant case 0 )etitioner su%#itted a idavit o NC attorne& -"ic" doesnMt even state t"e s)eci ic NC la. re1uisites are #et: 1.is )resu#ed to %e t"e sa#e as t"at in t"e P"ili))ines 0 doctrine o )rocessual )resu#)tion  8ases ysr .ANR$ IN8. T"e o icial acts o le'islative$ e. V. T"e la. T"e ad#iralt& and #ariti#e courts o t"e -orld and t"eir seals 5.PI 2AKILC SAVINGS . B"en PN is discretionar& T"e )rinci)les o discretionar& PN -ill a))l& -"ere t"e .o nations 4. 2011-2012 S8 noted t"at -"ile certain e. KAN<2A8T<RERS :ANOVER TR<ST V. B"en t"e #atter is su%(ect to a #andator& PN$ no #otion or "earin' is necessar& or t"e court to ta. To )rove an un-ritten orei'n la-$ t"e )rovisions o /@L$ R1?A su))l& t"e evidential sources or re#edies.o San 2rancisco$ 8ali ornia$ -"o 1uoted ver%ati# a section o 8ali ornia 8ivil 8ode and -"o stated t"at t"e sa#e -as in orce at t"e ti#e t"e o%li'ations -ere contracted$ as su icient evidence to esta%lis" t"e e. In t"at case$ t"e Su)re#e 8ourt considered t"e testi#on& under oat" o an attorne&>at>la.a))lies to GuerreroMs clai#s )resent a clear dis)ute on #aterial alle'ations -"ic" can %e resolved onl& %& a trial on t"e #erits. GENERAL R<LE: A%sent an& o t"e ore'oin' evidence or ad#ission$ t"e orei'n la.e#)tion o intan'i%le )ersonal )ro)erties$ t"e -itness cited Article @$ Sec.ancro t> B"itne& 8o.

<nder t"e a%ove 'uideline$ t"e testi#on& o a relative -it" res)ect to t"e a'e o t"e victi# is su icient to constitute )roo %e&ond reasona%le dou%t in cases *a+$ *%+ and *c+ a%ove.e it re#e#%ered t"at t"e )roo o t"e victi#Ms a'e in t"e )resent case s)ells t"e di erence %et-een li e and deat". As Tunda' )uts it$ it Gis t"e co'niFance o certain acts -"ic" (ud'es #a& )ro)erl& ta.tre#e )enalt& o deat" to %e u)"eld$ not"in' %ut )roo %e&ond reasona%le dou%t o ever& act necessar& to constitute t"e cri#e #ust %e su%stantiated.i#atel& an inde.ed e. T"e e.)erience teac"es t"at cor)oral a))earances are a))ro. :o-ever$ %ecause o t"e ailure to co#)l& -it" /2@ o Rule 1?2 on "o. B"ile t"e .tre#es o old a'e and &out".e-ise )roved -it" e1ual certaint& and clearness as t"e cri#e itsel .e (udicial notice o t"e contents o t"e records o ot"er cases even -"en said cases "ave %een tried or are )endin' in t"e 12 . T"e a))earance corro%orates t"e relativeMs testi#on&.t"e#.1@R$ #erel& too.no-led'e or consent o t"e )arties. T"e . (udicial notice o t"e avera'e )roduction i'ures in t"e Rodri'ueF case )endin' %e ore it and a))lied t"e sa#e to t"is case -it"out conductin' a "earin' and -orse$ -it"out t"e . • Pudicial notice si'ni ies t"at t"ere are certain G acta )ro%anda$H or )ro)ositions in a )art&Ms case$ as to -"ic" "e -ill not %e re1uired to o er evidence3 t"ese -ill %e ta. PEOPLE V. T"ere can %e no 1uestion$ t"ere ore$ as to t"e ad#issi%ilit& o a )ersonMs a))earance in deter#inin' "is or "er a'e. R<LLEPA *2AA?+ Several cases su''est t"at courts #a& ta."i%itin' "i# %e ore t"e (ur& and an o er o suc" )erson as an e. 2011-2012 ysr 1uotation o t"e cited section -as o ered in evidence %& res)ondents. T"us$ t"e .evidence | 1st sem.a#ination o t"e evidence$ t"e evidence %ein' t"e a))earance o t"e )erson.an. LANI.H TB"en t"e trier o acts o%serves t"e a))earance o a )erson to ascertain "is or "er a'e$ "e is not ta.o a orei'n countr& on reci)rocit& re'ardin' t"e ac1uisition o citiFens"i)$ alt"ou'" not #eetin' t"e )rescri%ed rule o )ractice$ #a& %e allo-ed and used as %asis or avora%le action$ i $ in t"e li'"t o all t"e circu#stances$ t"e 8ourt is satis ied o t"e aut"enticit& o t"e -ritten )roo o ered. "as onl& alle'ed$ %ut "as not )roved$ -"at NC la.and (uris)rudence are on t"e #atters at issue.e G(udicial noticeH o t"e a))earance o t"e victi# in deter#inin' "er a'e. Veril&$ t"e #inorit& o t"e victi# s"ould %e not onl& alle'ed %ut li. 2or t"e e.e (udicial notice o t"e victi#Ms a'e.e-ise$ in several naturaliFation cases$ it -as "eld %& t"e 8ourt t"at evidence o t"e la.an. E. Suc" a )rocess #ilitates a'ainst t"e ver& conce)t o (udicial notice$ t"e o%(ect o -"ic" is to do a-a& -it" t"e )resentation o evidence.no.e and act on -it"out )roo %ecause t"e& alread& . Li. 6/1$ R1?A7 A )ersonMs a))earance$ as evidence o a'e * or e. In )articular$ t"e out-ard )"&sical a))earance o an alle'ed #inor #a& %e considered in (ud'in' "is a'e3 a contrar& rule -ould or suc" an in erence %e )edanticall& over>cautious.to )rove a orei'n la.)edienc& or it -ould certainl& %e su)er luous$ inconvenient$ and e. Iou%t as to "er true a'e %eco#es 'reater and$ ollo-in' A'adas$ su)ra$ suc" dou%t #ust %e resolved in avor o t"e accused.ANR V. T"us$ in a nu#%er o decisions$ #ere aut"entication o t"e 8"inese NaturaliFation La.a#ination o a )art& %e ore t"e (ur& are e1uivalent to e.)ensive %ot" to )arties and t"e court to re1uire )roo $ in t"e ordinar& -a&$ o acts -"ic" are alread& . In suc" cases$ t"e dis)arit& %et-een t"e alle'ation and t"e )roo o a'e is so 'reat t"at t"e court can easil& deter#ine ro# t"e a))earance o t"e victi# t"e veracit& o t"e testi#on&.and decisions o orei'n courts$ t"e Balden a idavit did not )rove t"e current state o NC la. o t"e a'e o t"eir %earer$ )articularl& or t"e #ar.Ms intention in )resentin' t"e Balden a idavit is to )rove NC la."i%it is )ro)erl& re used. . • On t"e ot"er "and$ a "and ul o cases "olds t"at courts$ -it"out t"e re1uisite "earin' )rescri%ed %& /?$ R12J o t"e Ro8$ cannot ta.no-n to courts.in' (udicial notice o suc" act3 rat"er$ "e is conductin' an e. T"is is %ecause in t"e era o #odernis# and ra)id 'ro-t"$ t"e victi#Ms #ere )"&sical a))earance is not enou'" to 'au'e "er e. In ever& case suc" evidence s"ould %e acce)ted and -ei'"ed or -"at it #a& %e in eac" case -ort".a#)le$ o in anc&$ or o %ein' under t"e a'e o consent to intercourse+$ is usuall& re'arded as relevant3 and$ i so$ t"e tri%unal #a& )ro)erl& o%serve t"e )erson %rou'"t %e ore it.en or true %& t"e tri%unal -it"out t"e need o evidence. Pudicial notice is %ased u)on convenience and e. 8ertain rules o Evidence$ usuall& . ?. A )ersonMs a))earance$ -"ere relevant$ is ad#issi%le as o%(ect evidence$ t"e sa#e %ein' addressed to t"e senses o t"e court. T"e citations in t"e Balden a idavit o various <S court decisions do not constitute )roo o t"e o icial records or decisions o t"e <S courts.%& t"e 8"inese 8onsulate General o Kanila -as "eld to %e co#)etent )roo o t"at la-. attac"ed co)ies o so#e o t"e <S court decisions cited in t"e Balden a idavit$ t"ese co)ies do not co#)l& -it" Section 2@ o Rule 1?2 on )roo o o icial records or decisions o orei'n courts.an. T"e or#al o er o t"e )erson as evidence is not necessar&. • • • • • • • T"e )rocess %& -"ic" t"e trier o acts (ud'es a )ersonMs a'e ro# "is or "er a))earance cannot %e cate'oriFed as (udicial notice. As to t"e -ei'"t to accord suc" a))earance$ es)eciall& in ra)e cases$ Pruna laid do-n 'uideline no.a#ination and cross>e. As t"e alle'ed a'e a))roac"es t"e a'e sou'"t to %e )roved$ t"e )ersonMs a))earance$ as o%(ect evidence o "er a'e$ loses )ro%ative value.act a'e. T"is is not to sa& t"at t"e )rocess is not sanctioned %& t"e Rules o 8ourt3 on t"e contrar&$ it does. . Pudicial notice$ "o-ever$ is a )"rase so#eti#es used in a loose -a& to cover so#e ot"er (udicial action. 8onse1uentl&$ t"e (ur& or t"e court tr&in' an issue o act #a& %e allo-ed to (ud'e t"e a'e o )ersons in court %& o%servation o suc" )ersons. *E#)"asis su))lied+ T"e Balden a idavit states conclusions ro# t"e a iantMs )ersonal inter)retation and o)inion o t"e acts o t"e case vis>O>vis t"e alle'ed la-s and (uris)rudence -it"out citin' an& la.and (uris)rudence. Bell>settled is t"e rule t"at courts are not aut"oriFed to ta.ANAL *2AA@+ T"e RT8$ in concludin' t"at t"e valuation o res)ondentsS )ro)ert& is PNA?.in )articular.and (uris)rudence.no-n under ot"er na#es$ are re1uentl& re erred to in ter#s o (udicial notice.

E ect o a#ended )leadin's. 1..e.no-led'e nor ca)a%le o un1uestiona%le de#onstration nor ou'"t to %e . T"e ad#ission #a& %e contradicted onl& %& s"o-in' t"at it -as #ade t"rou'" )al)a%le #ista.erna%e and t"e P::8 alle'ed to %e t"e )ro> or#a contract used %& P::8 -it" its a))licants > -"ic" )etitioners are )resentin' or t"e irst ti#e. Pudicial ad#issions ysr Pudicial ad#issions #ade in one case are ad#issi%le at t"e trial o anot"er case )rovided t"e& are )roved and are )ertinent to t"e issue involved in t"e latter$ unless: a+ said ad#issions -ere #ade onl& or )ur)oses o t"e irst case$ as in t"e rule on i#)lied ad#issions and t"eir e ects under R2L3 %+ t"e sa#e -ere -it"dra-n -it" t"e )er#ission o t"e court t"erein3 or c+ t"e court dee#s it )ro)er to relieve t"e )art& t"ere ro#. 8are #ust %e ta. 2urt"er#ore$ as earlier stated$ t"e Rules o 8ourt s"all a))l& to all )roceedin's %e ore t"e S)ecial A'rarian 8ourts. In t"is re'ard$ Section ?$ Rule 12J o t"e Revised Rules on Evidence is e. *2a+ Pudicial ad#issions #a& %e #ade in: a+ T"e )leadin's iled %& t"e )arties3 %+ In t"e course o t"e trial eit"er %& ver%al or -ritten #ani estations or sti)ulations3 or c+ In ot"er sta'es o t"e (udicial )roceedin'$ as in t"e )re> trial o t"e case. PAs cannot %e contradicted %& t"e ad#itted -"o is t"e )art& "i#sel $ unless t"e& -ere #ade t"rou'" )al)a%le #ista. I 6)etitioners7 ne'lected to o er 6an& docu#ent7 in evidence$ "o-ever vital 6it7 #a& %e$ 6t"e&7 onl& "ave t"e#selves to %la#e$ not res)ondent -"o -as not even 'iven a c"ance to o%(ect as t"e docu#ents -ere never o ered in evidence.no-led'e o t"e o))osin' )art&$U -"ic" are not o%tainin' "ere. v.no-led'e3 *2+ it #ust %e -ell and aut"oritativel& settled and not dou%t ul or uncertain3 and *?+ it #ust %e . . /@$ R12J$ as a#ended$ no. 2011-2012 sa#e court or %e ore t"e sa#e (ud'e. ! An ad#ission$ ver%al or -ritten$ #ade %& t"e )art& in t"e course o t"e )roceedin's in t"e sa#e case$ does not re1uire )roo .)licit on t"e necessit& o a "earin' %e ore a court ta. 2. Be cannot ta. Be "ave "eld t"at: Katters o (udicial notice "ave t"ree #aterial re1uisites: *1+ t"e #atter #ust %e one o co##on and 'eneral .in' (udicial notice is to %e e. Ana.e (udicial notice o . Ad#issions #ade %& t"e )arties in t"eir )leadin's$ or in t"e course o t"e trial or ot"er )roceedin's$ do not re1uire )roo and cannot %e contradicted %& t"e# unless )roved to "ave %een #ade t"rou'" )al)a%le #ista.includes su)erseded )leadin's as (udicial ad#issions. v. T"e )o-er o ta. //1>@$ R2L R2@: Ad#ission %& Adverse Part& Sec. Pa%alde+ B"en t"e )arties in a case a'ree on -"at t"e orei'n la)rovides$ t"ese are ad#issions o act -"ic" t"e ot"er )arties and t"e court are #ade to rel& and act u)on$ "ence t"e& are in esto))el to su%se1uentl& ta. ! An a#ended )leadin' su)ersedes t"e )leadin' t"at it a#ends.. To %e considered as a PA$ t"e sa#e #ust %e #ade in t"e sa#e case in -"ic" it is o ered.ists and ever& reasona%le dou%t on t"e su%(ect s"ould %e )ro#)tl& resolved in t"e ne'ative.e a contrar& )osition. Re1uest or ad#ission. Pudicial ad#issions. Escolin+ 2.e co'niFance o t"is docu#ent 0 t"e conditional contract to sell %et-een .. :o-ever$ ad#issions in su)erseded )leadin's #a& %e received in evidence a'ainst t"e )leader$ and clai#s or de enses alle'ed t"erein not incor)orated in t"e a#ended )leadin' s"all %e dee#ed -aived. /@$ R12J Section @. RA. PIGAO V.e or t"at no suc" ad#ission -as #ade. *Sta.no-n to %e -it"in t"e li#its o (urisdiction o t"e court.to res)ondent: It is settled t"at courts -ill onl& consider as evidence t"at -"ic" "as %een or#all& o ered.no-n to (ud'es %ecause o t"eir (udicial unctions. . *1a+ Sec.ercised %& courts -it" caution. ?. ! Eac" o t"e #atters o -"ic" an ad#ission is re1uested s"all %e dee#ed ad#itted unless$ -it"in a )eriod desi'nated in t"e re1uest$ -"ic" s"all not %e less t"an i teen *15+ da&s a ter service t"ereo $ or -it"in suc" urt"er ti#e as t"e court #a& allo. T"e& #a& onl& do so Uin t"e a%sence o o%(ectionU and U-it" t"e .on #otion$ t"e )art& to -"o# t"e re1uest is directed iles and serves u)on t"e )art& re1uestin' t"e ad#ission a s-orn state#ent eit"er den&in' s)eci icall& t"e #atters o -"ic" an ad#ission is re1uested or settin' ort" in detail t"e reasons -"& "e cannot trut" ull& eit"er ad#it or den& t"ose #atters.e or no suc" ad#ission -as #ade or$ in t"e case o a )re>trial ad#ission in civil cases$ to )revent #ani est in(ustice.ANILLO *2AAL+ Be a'ree -it" res)ondent. 1.es (udicial notice o a certain #atter. *P8I. Neit"er can -e consider it o )u%lic . Ot"er-ise$ -e -ould %e den&in' due )rocess o la. Ad#issions o%tained t"rou'" de)ositions$ -ritten interro'atories$ or re1uests or ad#ission are also considered (udicial ad#issions. I#)lied ad#ission.evidence | 1st sem."i%ited -it" t"e re1uest or o t"e trut" o an& #aterial and relevant #atter o act set ort" in t"e re1uest. 8onse1uentl&$ or t"is docu#ent to %e )ro)erl& considered %& us$ it s"ould "ave %een )resented durin' trial and or#all& o ered as evidence. 13 .#andatoril& re1uires us to ta. 8o)ies o t"e docu#ents s"all %e delivered -it" t"e re1uest unless co)ies "ave alread& %een urnis"ed.en t"at t"e re1uisite notoriet& e. /8$ R1A Sec 8. *Li# v. ! At an& ti#e a ter issues "ave %een (oined$ a )art& #a& ile and serve u)on an& ot"er )art& #a& ile and serve u)on an& ot"er )art& a -ritten re1uest or t"e ad#ission %& t"e latter o t"e 'enuineness o an& #aterial and relevant docu#ent descri%ed in and e.e. Kali-at+ 2acts su%(ect o a sti)ulation or a'ree#ent entered into %& t"e )arties at t"e )re>trial o a case constitute (udicial ad#issions %& t"e# -"ic"$ under t"is section$ do not re1uire )roo and cannot %e contradicted unless )reviousl& s"o-n to "ave %een #ade t"rou'" )al)a%le #ista. T"is docu#ent is not a#on' t"e #atters t"e la.

Suc" )art& is )recluded ro# den&in' t"e sa#e unless t"ere is )roo o )al)a%le #ista.IEN *2AAL+ A (udicial ad#ission conclusivel& %inds t"e )art& #a. *?+ Sec."i%ited to$ e. 2011-2012 O%(ections to an& re1uest or ad#ission s"all %e su%#itted to t"e court %& t"e )art& re1uested -it"in t"e )eriod or and )rior to t"e ilin' o "is s-orn state#ent as conte#)lated in t"e )recedin' )ara'ra)" and "is co#)liance t"ere-it" s"all %e de erred until suc" o%(ections are resolved$ -"ic" resolution s"all %e #ade as earl& as )ractica%le.e • B"en itMs s"o-n t"at no suc" ad#ission -as in act #ade o T"is e. SANIIGAN. ! O%(ects as evidence are t"ose addressed to t"e senses o t"e court. Art.ercise o its discretion and %ecause o stron' reasons to su))ort its stand$ #a& relieve a )art& ro# t"e conse1uences o "is ad#ission. O%(ect *Real+ Evidence Sec. • I#eldaMs ailure to s)eci icall& den& t"e e. • Ad#issions o a )art& in "is testi#on& are receiva%le a'ainst "i#. *88a+ Art. L<8IANO TAN V.in' suc" ad#ission and %eco#es conclusive on "i#$ and t"at all )roo s su%#itted %& "i# contrar& t"ereto or inconsistent t"ere-it" s"ould %e i'nored$ -"et"er an o%(ection is inter)osed %& t"e adverse )art& or not. No decree o le'al se)aration s"all %e %ased u)on a sti)ulation o acts or a con ession o (ud'#ent.ecution o said instru#ents.@+: PA is conclusive u)on t"e )art& #a.evidence | 1st sem.a#ined or vie-ed %& t"e court.istence$ #uc" less t"e 'enuineness and due e.in' it and does not re1uire )roo EE8EPTIONS: • B"en itMs s"o-n t"at t"e ad#ission -as #ade t"rou'" )al)a%le #ista. *In re :on. :EIRS O2 PEIRO 8LEKENA V.ILITC A. Bit"dra-al.e ste)s to )revent collusion %et-een t"e )arties and to ta. *2a+ Sec ?.t"e )art& #a.ecuted or delivered. *1a+ B"ere an o%(ect is relevant to a act in issue$ t"e court #a& ac1uire . A custo# #ust %e )roved as a act$ accordin' to t"e rules o evidence. @. 2A?5. 14 ysr REP<.e or t"at no suc" ad#ission -as #ade. 6Present case #ade %& -a& o a))eal under R@5$ as suc"$ )resent recourse a #ere continuation o 8A )roceedin's7 :ERRERA>2ELIE V. T"e e.ACAN *2AA?+ • A -ritten state#ent is nonet"eless co#)etent as an ad#ission even i itMs contained in a docu#ent -"ic" is not itsel e ective or t"e )ur)ose or -"ic" itMs #ade$ eit"er %& reason o ille'alit&$ or inco#)etenc& o a )art& t"ereto$ or %& reason o not %ein' si'ned$ e. ! An& ad#ission #ade %& a )art& )ursuant to suc" re1uest is or t"e )ur)ose o t"e )endin' action onl& and s"all not constitute an ad#ission %& "i# or an& ot"er )ur)ose nor #a& t"e sa#e %e used a'ainst "i# in an& ot"er )roceedin'. R<LES O2 AIKISSI.e ste)s to )revent collusion %et-een t"e )arties and to ta.LI8 V. PEOPLE V. B"en an o%(ect is relevant to t"e act in issue$ it #a& %e e. An ocular ins)ection conducted %& t"e (ud'e -4o notice to or t"e )resence o t"e )arties is invalid$ as an ocular ins)ection is )art o t"e trial. 8A *2AA@+ Ad#issions #ade in a #otion are (udicial ad#issions -"ic" are %indin' on t"e )art& -"o #ade t"e#. III.or a#end it u)on suc" ter#s as #a& %e (ust. 28 @8$ LA Art.e care t"at evidence is not a%ricated or su))ressed. No co#)ro#ise u)on t"e ollo-in' 1uestions s"all %e valid: *1+ T"e civil status o )ersons3 *2+ T"e validit& o a #arria'e or a le'al se)aration3 *?+ An& 'round or le'al se)aration3 *@+ 2uture su))ort3 *5+ T"e (urisdiction o courts3 *L+ 2uture le'iti#e. O%(ect as evidence. Ra ael 8.in' an ad#ission under t"e Rule$ -"et"er e. :EIRS O2 IRENE .ce)tion is ound onl& in t"ose rare instances -"en t"e trial court$ in t"e e. *1A1a+ 8ases ATILLO III V.in' it. • An ad#ission #ade in t"e )leadin's cannot %e controverted %& t"e )art& #a. 8A *1JJN+ GEN R<LE *R12J. In t"e cases re erred to in t"e )recedin' )ara'ra)"$ no (ud'#ent s"all %e %ased u)on a sti)ulation o acts or con ession o (ud'#ent. @8.)ress or i#)lied$ to -it"dra. :e cannot t"erea ter contradict it. 8li#aco+ .ce)tion allo-s one to contradict an ad#ission %& den&in' t"at "e #ade suc" an ad#ission A )art&Ms testi#on& in o)en court #a& override ad#issions "e #ade in "is ans-er. 12. ROIIL ENTERPRISES *2AAL+ An ad#ission #ade in t"e )leadin' cannot %e controverted %& t"e )art& #a.ecution$ o t"e instru#ents %earin' "er si'nature$ -as tanta#ount to a (udicial ad#ission o t"e 'enuineness and due e. In an& case$ t"e 8ourt s"all order t"e )rosecutin' attorne& or iscal assi'ned to it to ta. E ect o ad#ission.in' suc" ad#ission and are conclusive as to "i#$ and t"at all )roo s su%#itted %& "i# contrar& t"ereto or inconsistent t"ere-it" s"ould %e i'nored -"et"er o%(ection is inter)osed %& a )art& or not. 5. 1. 88 12$ 2A?5 Art. ! T"e court #a& allo. In all cases o annul#ent or declaration o a%solute nullit& o #arria'e$ t"e 8ourt s"all order t"e )rosecutin' attorne& or iscal assi'ned to it to a))ear on %e"al o t"e State to ta. LA8SON$ @1? S8RA 2A *2AA?+ Lacson is %ound %& t"e (udicial ad#issions "e #ade in t"e 8A and suc" ad#issions so "old "i# in t"e )roceedin's %e ore t"e S8.e care t"at t"e evidence is not a%ricated or su))ressed. LA.no-led'e t"ereo %& actuall& vie-in' t"e o%(ect$ in -"ic" case suc" o%(ect %eco#es o%(ect *real+ evidence$ or %& receivin' testi#onial evidence t"ereon. @.

Peo)le$ 2AA8+ 8"ain o custod& in dru' cases • Par. P"&sical evidence is a #ute %ut elo1uent #ani estation o trut"$ and it ran. Re1uirin' vie-in' a#ounts to dela&$ inconvenience$ unnecessar& e.s "i'" in our "ierarc"& o trust-ort"& evidence 0 -"ere t"e )"&sical evidence runs counter to t"e testi#onial evidence$ t"e )"&sical evidence s"ould )revail.PI v."e "andled it to )revent su%stitution3 and  "o.ni e used to slas" t"e victi#Ms t"roat$ t"e #an'led ender o a truc. rear>ended %& a %ulldoFer$ etc. i t"e )ur)ose is to esta%lis" t"e contents or tenor t"ereo . State+ o . • A ter its aut"entication$ t"e o%(ect needs to %e o ered in evidence at t"e a))ro)riate ti#e. Also$ in 'ivin' credence to a testi#on&$ t"e court ta. Iro)s o %lood or oil$ dru's in )o-der or#$ etc. in t"e c"ain and #ust testi & to #a. I t"e testi#on& %ears a stri.en in isolation. O%(ects #ade uni1ue: o%(ects t"at are #ade readil& identi ia%le ?. *Lo)eF v.it -as trans erred to anot"er o Eac" o t"e "andlers o t"e evidence is a lin.e.+. *.no-n or )erceived %& t"e use o an& o t"e senses.ed 8"ain o custod& T"e t"ird cate'or& *non>uni1ue o%(ects+ re ers to t"ose o%(ects -"ic" are not readil& identi ia%le$ -ere not #ade identi ia%le or cannot %e #ade identi ia%le *e. 2011-2012 ysr • T"is is to co#)l& -it" t"e ele#ent o co#)etence as an essential in'redient o ad#issi%ilit&. T"e aut"entication #ust %e #ade %& a co#)etent -itness 15 8ate'ories o o%(ect evidence 1.e t"e oundation co#)lete As a #et"od o aut"enticatin' evidence$ t"e c"ain o custod& rule re1uires t"at t"e ad#ission o an e. Suc" o%(ect *real+ evidence -ould %e con usin' or #isleadin' @. @. Evidence #ust %e aut"enticated ?.in' si#ilarit& -it" t"e )"&sical evidence$ t"e testi#on& %eco#es -ort"& o %elie .)enses dis)ro)ortionate to t"e o%(ectMs evidentiar& value ?. <ni1ue o%(ects: o%(ects t"at "ave readil& identi ia%le #ar.a#ination o a )erson #a& %e conducted %& t"e court$ or under its direction$ to s"o• t"e nature$ e. • Pur)ose o esta%lis"in' c"ain o custod&: to 'uarantee t"e inte'rit& o t"e )"&sical evidence and to )revent t"e introduction o evidence -"ic" is not aut"entic *Lester v. Evidence #ust %e relevant 2.s and cannot %e #ar.istence or condition$ • t"e nature o t"e "and-ritin's t"ereon$ • to deter#ine t"e a'e o t"e )a)er used$ or t"e %le#is"es4alterations t"ereon$ as -"ere alsi ication is alle'ed.s 2.. O%(ect evidence a))eals directl& to t"e senses o t"e court. Non>uni1ue o%(ects: o%(ects -it" no identi &in' #ar."e received t"e o%(ect3  "o.tent or location o in(uries$ • "is )"&si1ue$ • "is acial eatures to deter#ine "is rese#%lance and )ossi%le relations"i) to anot"er$ • "is racial ori'in$ • "is )ro%a%le a'e$ or • in t"e case o a -o#an$ to esta%lis" t"e act o )re'nanc&. Ot"er-ise$ t"e& are considered docu#entar& evidence$ i. Tt"e e."i%itin' o%(ect is a'ainst )u%lic )olic&$ #orals or decenc& 2. 8li ord+ • T"ere #ust %e lin. LarraWa'a+ Re1uisites or ad#issi%ilit& o o%(ect evidence 1."i%it %e )receded %& evidence su icient to su))ort a indin' t"at t"e #atter in 1uestion is -"at t"e )ro)onent clai#s it to %e. T"e )"&sical e. *Peo)le v. T"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination cannot %e invo. 1$ /21$ Art. S"o-in'4e. . T"e testi#onial or docu#entar& evidence clearl& )ortra&s t"e o%(ect in 1uestion to render vie-in' unnecessar& 8ourt #a& e. It is -ei'"ed in relation to t"e testi#on& o a -itness."i%it is )ositivel& identi ied t"e c"ain o custod& o )"&sical evidence is irrelevant *State v.es into consideration t"e )"&sical evidence.clude t"e )u%lic ro# t"e vie-in' o indecent o%(ect$ i suc" vie-in' is necessar& in t"e interest o (ustice O%(ect *real+ evidence includes an& article or o%(ect -"ic" #a& %e . II$ RA J1L5: T"e a))re"endin' tea# "avin' initial custod& and control o t"e dru's s"all$ i##ediatel& a ter seiFure and con iscation$ )"&sicall& inventor& and )"oto'ra)" t"e sa#e in t"e )resence o t"e accused or t"e )erson4s ro# -"o# suc" ite#s -ere con iscated and4or seiFed$ or "is4"er re)resentative or counsel$ a re)resentative ro# t"e #edia and t"e IOP$ and an& elected )u%lic o icial -"o s"all %e re1uired to si'n t"e co)ies o t"e inventor& and %e 'iven a co)& t"ereo . #ust s"o-:  "o. T"e o%(ect #ust %e or#all& o ered in evidence • 2or#al o er o evidence is a vital act %e ore t"e ad#ission o evidence %ecause t"e court Gs"all consider no evidence -"ic" "as not %een or#all& o eredH Instances -"en court #a& rel& solel& on testi#onial evidence *no need or o%(ect 6real7 evidence+ 1.actl& -"at its na#e su''ests 0 t"e real t"in' itsel li."i%itMs level o susce)ti%ilit& to un'i%ilit&$ alteration or ta#)erin' 0 -4o re'ard to -"et"er t"e sa#e is advertent or ot"er-ise not 0 dictates t"e level o strictness in t"e a))lication o t"e c"ain o custod& rule.s to t"e c"ain 0 t"e )eo)le -"o actuall& "andled or "ad custod& o t"e o%(ect o Eac" lin.ed a'ainst o%(ect evidence 0 no testi#onial co#)ulsion involved B"en docu#ents are o%(ect *real+ evidence I t"e )ur)ose is to )rove • t"eir e. RIANO: O%(ect or real evidence is e.evidence | 1st sem.e t"e . Re&es$ 2AA8+ O%(ect evidence is not ta. <nder t"is situation$ t"e )ro)onent o t"e evidence #ust esta%lis" a c"ain o custod&.<T -"ere t"e e.

R<LLEPA *2AA?+ • B"en t"e trier o acts o%serves t"e a))earance o a )erson to ascertain "is4"er a'e$ "e is not ta.s #ore elo1uentl& t"an an& nu#%er o -itnesses )ut to'et"er.a#ination o t"e evidence$ t"e evidence %ein' t"e a))earance o t"e )erson. 8ases: PEOPLE V. E)"e#eral electronic co##unications T"ese or#s o co##unications re er to tele)"one conversations$ te.o an o%(ect or scene An ins)ection or vie.in' testi#on&3 2.*RA @2AA+. P"oto'ra)"s <nder t"e electronic evidence rules$ )"oto'ra)"ic evidence o events$ acts or transactions s"all %e ad#issi%le in evidence )rovided: a+ It s"all %e )resented$ dis)la&ed and s"o-n to t"e court3 and %+ It s"all %e identi ied$ e. */16. T"e use o t"e )"oto'ra)"s %& so#e o t"e accused to s"ot"eir alle'ed non>)artici)ation in t"e cri#e is an ad#ission o t"e e. Identit& o t"e s)ea. Suc" a )rocess #ilitates a'ainst t"e ver& conce)t o (udicial notice$ t"e o%(ect o -"ic" is to de a-a& -it" t"e )resentation o evidence.ARIAPE *1J8A+ P"&sical evidence is o t"e "i'"est order and s)ea. Esta%lis"#ent o aut"enticit& and correctness o t"e recordin'3 L.en in violation o t"e Anti>Bireta))in' La.t #essa'es$ c"atroo# sessions$ strea#in' audio$ and ot"er or#s o electronic co##unication$ t"e evidence o -"ic" is not recorded or retained. In t"e case o ta)e recordin's$ t"e -itness s"ould identi & t"e s)ea.ind o evidence lies in its %ein' a correct re)resentation or re)roduction o t"e ori'inal$ and its ad#issi%ilit& is deter#ined %& its accurac& in )ortra&in' t"e scene at t"e ti#e o t"e cri#e. 2011-2012 • A #ere state#ent t"at t"e inte'rit& and evidentiar& value o t"e evidence is not enou'". It #ust %e acco#)anied %& )roo .actness and accurac&. *Peo)le v.ers$ state "o.s to de#onstrate or re)resentX I it does$ t"e evidence -ould %e ad#issi%le.>ra& )icture s"o-n is t"at o t"e )erson$ t"e anato#ical )art or t"e o%(ect involved in t"e case. Iela 8ruF$ 2AA8+ ysr Scienti ic tests$ de#onstrations and e.)lained or aut"enticated %& eit"er i+ T"e )erson -"o #ade t"e recordin'$ or %& ii+ So#e ot"er )erson co#)etent to testi & on t"e accurac& t"ereo In deter#inin' -"et"er )"oto'ra)"s s"ould %e ad#itted$ a trial (ud'e #ust deter#ine -"et"er t"e& are relevant$ and -"et"er a )ro)er oundation "as %een laid.en and t"at t"e . Ad#issi%ilit& re1uire#ents or ta)e recordin's: 1. . PEOPLE V."e reco'niFes t"eir voices and t"at t"e recordin' -as not ta. PEOPLE *1JJ5+ T"e rule in t"is (urisdiction is t"at )"oto'ra)"s$ -"en )resented in evidence$ #ust %e identi ied %& t"e )"oto'ra)"er as to its )roduction and testi ied as to t"e circu#stances under -"ic" t"e& -ere )roduced. Ie#onstrative evidence It re)resents or de#onstrates t"e real t"in'. • T"e value o t"is . Kotion )ictures and recordin's Rules t"at a))l& to )"oto'ra)"s 'enerall& a))l& to t"ese. In>court reenact#ent o #aterial events %& -itnesses "as %een "eld )er#issi%le to "el) illustrate t"e testi#on& o a -itness.evidence | 1st sem. SISON V.no-n sa#)les to )lace t"e sus)ect at t"e scene o t"e cri#e.outside t"e courtroo# s"ould %e #ade in t"e )resence o t"e )arties or at least -it" )revious notice to t"e#T Suc" is )art o t"e trial since evidence is t"ere%& %ein' received.>ra& tec"nician or t"e )"&sician -"o testi ies to t"e co#)etence o t"e )erson ta. PEOPLE V. . • 2orensic INA evidence is "el) ul in )rovin' t"ere -as )"&sical contact %et-een an assailant and a victi#. T"e o)erator o t"e device -as co#)etent3 ?.. CATAR *2AA@+ A )ersonMs INA is t"e sa#e in eac" cell and it does not c"an'e t"rou'"out a )ersonMs li eti#e. • A )ersonMs a))earance$ -"ere relevant$ is ad#issi%le as o%(ect evidence$ t"e sa#e %ein' addressed to t"e senses o t"e court.in' (udicial notice o suc" act3 rat"er$ "e is conductin' an e.ers3 and N. T"e recordin' device -as ca)a%le o ta. I )ro)erl& collected ro# t"e victi#$ cri#e scene or assailant$ INA can %e co#)ared -it" . No c"an'es$ additions or deletions "ave %een #ade3 @. 16 Vie. 8onsider: does t"e evidence su icientl& and accuratel& re)resent t"e o%(ect it see. T"e #anner o t"e )reservation o t"e recordin' Iia'ra#s$ #odels and #a)s Aside ro# t"e re1uire#ent o relevance$ a dia'ra#$ #odel or #a) #ust %e identi ied %& a -itness -"o is a#iliar -it" -"at t"e evidence de)icts$ and t"at t"e sa#e is an accurate re)resentation o t"e scene it )ortra&sT T"e 1uestion as to t"e su icienc& o t"e aut"entication is a #atter o (udicial discretion.actness and accurac& t"ereo .in' it$ t"e )rocedure ta.7$ REE+ • S"all %e )roven %& t"e testi#on& o a )erson -"o -as a )art& to t"e sa#e or %& one -"o "as )ersonal . • P"oto'ra)"s can %e identi ied %& t"e )"oto'ra)"er or %& an& ot"er co#)etent -itness -"o can testi & to its e. T"e testi#on& -as elicited and voluntaril& #ade -4o an& . In t"e a%sence or unavaila%ilit& o suc" -itness$ ot"er co#)etent evidence #a& %e ad#itted. E>ra& )ictures Ad#issi%le -"en s"o-n to "ave %een #ade under circu#stances as to assure t"eir accurac& and -"ere relevant to a #aterial issue in t"e case • E>ra&s )ro)erl& aut"enticated %& t"e .no-led'e t"ereo .ind o induce#ent3 5. Iocu#entar& Evidence .)eri#ents Katter su%(ect to (udicial discretion.

Gori'inal docu#entH or G)ri#ar& evidenceH rule 17 . INOPID<EQ$ PR.est Evidence Rule *R1?A.e o t"e )en -"ic" #ade t"e sur ace or e. ?. Ori'inal o docu#ent. Iocu#entar& evidence.isted -it" t"e )artici)ation t"erein as i#)uted to t"e accused$ t"e ori'inal itsel #ust %e )resented. 1.ER a. On t"e issue as to t"e tele'ra# sent %& t"e sender$ t"e ori'inal is t"e #essa'e delivered or trans#ission.a#ined in court -it"out 'reat loss o ti#e and t"e act sou'"t to %e esta%lis"ed ro# t"e# is onl& t"e 'eneral result o t"e -"ole3 and *d+ B"en t"e ori'inal is a )u%lic record in t"e custod& o a )u%lic o icer or is recorded in a )u%lic o ice. ! Iocu#ents as evidence consist o -ritin' or an& #aterial containin' letters$ -ords$ nu#%ers$ i'ures$ s&#%ols or ot"er #odes o -ritten e. In cri#inal cases -"ere t"e issue is not onl& BRT t"e contents o t"e docu#ent %ut also as to -"et"er suc" docu#ent actuall& e.. B"en a contract is )resented in court to s"o. ! B"en t"e su%(ect o in1uir& is t"e contents o a docu#ent$ no evidence s"all %e ad#issi%le ot"er t"an t"e ori'inal docu#ent itsel $ e. B"enever docu#entar& evidence is involved$ t"e %est evidence rule$ )arol evidence rule$ and "earsa& rule$ or an& one o t"ese rules #a& co#e into )la&.inds.t"at it e. Ori'inal in t"e custod& or under t"e control o t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# t"e evidence is o ered$ and t"e latter ails to )roduce it a ter reasona%le notice ?. B"ere t"e transactions "ave %een recorded in -ritin' %ut t"e contents o suc" are not t"e su%(ect o in1uir&$ . .ists or si#)l& to esta%lis" its condition$ it is not o ered to )rove its contents. @. Britin's E. Iocu#entar& evidence: t"at -"ic" is urnis"ed %& -ritten instru#ents$ inscri)tions and docu#ents o all .)ressions NOTE: or suc" -ritin's or #aterials to %e dee#ed docu#entar& evidence$ t"e sa#e #ust %e o ered as )roo o t"eir contents.a.)osed i#)ression. I t"e issue is t"e inaccurac& o trans#ission$ %ot" tele'ra#s as sent and received are ori'inals. Bills$ -ritten contracts 2. *n+ RIANO: 8ate'ories o docu#ents as evidence 1.ecuted at or a%out t"e sa#e ti#e$ -it" identical contents$ all suc" co)ies are e1uall& re'arded as ori'inals.est evidence rule$ a))lied to docu#entar& evidence$ o)erates as a rule o e. *c+ B"en an entr& is re)eated in t"e re'ular course o %usiness$ one %ein' co)ied ro# anot"er at or near t"e ysr ti#e o t"e transaction$ all t"e entries are li.)ressions E. B"en a docu#ent is )resented to )rove its e.)ression o ered as )roo o t"eir contents.ce)t in t"e ollo-in' cases: *a+ B"en t"e ori'inal "as %een lost or destro&ed$ or cannot %e )roduced in court$ -it"out %ad ait" on t"e )art o t"e o eror3 *%+ B"en t"e ori'inal is in t"e custod& or under t"e control o t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# t"e evidence is o ered$ and t"e latter ails to )roduce it a ter reasona%le notice3 *c+ B"en t"e ori'inal consists o nu#erous accounts or ot"er docu#ents -"ic" cannot %e e..ER doesnMt a))l&. Ori'inal is a )u%lic record in t"e custod& o a )u%lic o icer or is recorded in a )u%lic o ice Non>)roduction o ori'inal docu#ent = )resu#)tion o su))ression o evidence. Ori'inal consists o nu#erous accounts or docu#ents -"ic" canMt %e e.ce)tions.ER a))lies onl& -"en t"e contents o suc" docu#ent is t"e su%(ect o in1uir&.e-ise e1uall& re'arded as ori'inals. . Ie)endin' u)on t"e s)eci ic )ur)ose or -"ic" t"e contents o t"e docu#ent is o ered$ t"ere are certain inevita%le issues -"ic" #a& arise in connection -it" t"e ad#issi%ilit& o t"e docu#ent aside ro# t"e issue o relevance.a#ined in court -it"out 'reat loss o ti#e and t"e act sou'"t to %e esta%lis"ed ro# t"e# is onl& t"e 'eneral result o t"e -"ole @. 2011-2012 Sec. *%+ B"en a docu#ent is in t-o or #ore co)ies e.clusion 0 secondar& *or su%stitutionar&+ evidence cannot ince)tivel& %e introduced as t"e ori'inal -ritin' #ust %e )roduced in court EE8EPTIONS 1. 2. Ori'inal lost4destro&ed4cannot %e )roduced in court -4o %ad ait" on o erorMs )art 2. An& ot"er #aterial containin' #odes o -ritten e. *?a+ Iocu#ent: a deed$ instru#ent$ or ot"er dul& aut"oriFed )a)er %& -"ic" so#et"in' is )roved$ evidenced or set ort". ! *a+ T"e ori'inal o t"e docu#ent is one t"e contents o -"ic" are t"e su%(ect o in1uir&. Tan+ I t"e issue is t"e contents o t"e tele'ra# as received %& t"e addressee$ t"en t"e ori'inal dis)atc" received is t"e %est evidence. *2AA?+ It is a %asic rule o evidence t"at %et-een docu#entar& and oral evidence$ t"e or#er carries #ore -ei'"t.?>8+ Sec. *Peo)le v. *2a+ Sec.evidence | 1st sem... . 8ase: CAP V. RIANO: . BRT docu#ents )re)ared in several co)ies t"rou'" t"e use o car%on s"eets$ t"e S8 "as "eld t"at eac" car%on co)& is considered an ori'inal )rovided t"at t"e -ritin' o a contract u)on t"e outside s"eet$ includin' t"e si'nature o t"e )art& sou'"t to %e c"ar'ed t"ere%&$ )roduces a acsi#ile u)on t"e s"eets %eneat"$ suc" si'nature %ein' t"us re)roduced %& t"e sa#e stro. Ori'inal docu#ent #ust %e )roduced3 e. T"ose -"ic" are not traditionall& considered as -ritin's %ut are actuall& o%(ects %ut -"ic" contain #odes o -ritten e.istence or condition$ it is o ered as real$ not docu#entar&$ evidence.

evidence | 1st sem, 2011-2012 It co#)re"ends a situation -"ere t"e evidence o ered is su%stitutionar& in nature -"en -"at s"ould %e o ered is t"e ori'inal evidence. GEN R<LE: t"e ori'inal o a -ritin' #ust %e )roduced. No reason to a))l& t"e .ER -"en t"e issue does not involve t"e contents o a -ritin' • .ER cannot %e invo;ed unless t"e contents o a -ritin' is t"e su%(ect o (udicial in1uir& Pur)ose o .ER: )revention o raud or #ista;e in t"e )roo o t"e contents o a -ritin'. .asic )re#ise 0 t"e need to )resent to t"e court t"e e,act -ords o a -ritin' -"ere a sli'"t variation o -ords #a& #ean a 'reat di erence in ri'"ts

ysr Re1uire#ents or secondar& evidence to %e ad#issi%le T"ere #ust %e )roo %& satis actor& evidence o : 1. Iue e,ecution o t"e ori'inal Proven t"rou'" t"e testi#on& o eit"er: a. T"e )erson4s -"o e,ecuted it3 %. Person %e ore -"o# its e,ecution as ac;no-led'ed3 or c. An& )erson -"o -as )resent and sa- it e,ecuted and delivered or -"o t"erea ter sa- it and reco'niFed t"e si'natures$ or one to -"o# t"e )arties t"ereto "ad )reviousl& con essed t"e e,ecution t"ereo 2. Loss$ destruction$ or unavaila%ilit& o all suc" ori'inals T"is #a& %e )roved %& an&one -"o$ in t"e (ud'#ent o t"e court$ "ad #ade a su icient e,a#ination in t"e )laces -"ere t"e docu#ent or )a)ers o si#ilar c"aracter are usuall& ;e)t %& t"e )erson in -"ose custod& t"e docu#ent -as and "as %een una%le to ind it$ or -"o "as #ade an& ot"er investi'ation su icient to satis & t"e court t"at t"e docu#ent is indeed lost. Intentional destruction o t"e ori'inals %& a )art& -"o$ "o-ever$ "ad acted in 'ood ait" doesnMt )reclude "is introduction o secondar& evidence o t"e contents t"ereo . ?. Reasona%le dili'ence and 'ood ait" in t"e searc" or or atte#)t to )roduce t"e ori'inal

B"en docu#ent is #erel& collateral in issue A docu#ent is collateral in issue -"en t"e )ur)ose o introducin' t"e docu#ent is not to esta%lis" its ter#s %ut to s"o- acts t"at "ave no re erence to its contents li;e its e,istence$ condition$ e,ecution or deliver&. Baiver o .ER .ER #a& %e -aived i not raised in t"e trial.
B"at to do to a))l& .ER 1. Ieter#ine t"e #atter in1uired into. • Procedural co#)liance: re1uires )resentation o t"e ori'inal docu#ent • So lon' as t"e ori'inal is availa%le$ no ot"er evidence can %e su%stituted or t"e ori'inal 2. B"at i t"e ori'inal cannot %e )resented in evidenceX a. 2ind an ade1uate le'al e,cuse or t"e ailure to )resent t"e ori'inal • Instances -"en t"e ori'inal does not "ave to %e )roduced even -"en t"e contents o t"e doc are t"e su%(ects o in1uir& *R1?A$ /?+: *a+ B"en t"e ori'inal "as %een lost or destro&ed$ or cannot %e )roduced in court$ -it"out %ad ait" on t"e )art o t"e o eror3 *%+ B"en t"e ori'inal is in t"e custod& or under t"e control o t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# t"e evidence is o ered$ and t"e latter ails to )roduce it a ter reasona%le notice3 *c+ B"en t"e ori'inal consists o nu#erous accounts or ot"er docu#ents -"ic" cannot %e e,a#ined in court -it"out 'reat loss o ti#e and t"e act sou'"t to %e esta%lis"ed ro# t"e# is onl& t"e 'eneral result o t"e -"ole3 and *d+ B"en t"e ori'inal is a )u%lic record in t"e custod& o a )u%lic o icer or is recorded in a )u%lic o ice. %. Present a secondar& evidence sanctioned %& Ro8

B"en t"e ori'inal is outside t"e courtMs (urisdiction$ secondar& evidence is ad#issi%le. *PN. v. Olila+ B"ere t"e la- s)eci icall& )rovides or t"e class and 1uantu# o secondar& evidence to esta%lis" t"e contents o a docu#ent$ or %ars secondar& evidence o a lost docu#ent$ suc" re1uire#ent is controllin'. Reconstitution o docu#ents %& t"e court t"rou'" secondar& evidence is 'overned %& Act No. ?11A. RIANO: <nder R1?A.5$ secondar& evidence #a& %e ad#itted onl& %& la&in' t"e %asis or its )roduction. T"is re1uires co#)liance -4 t"e .: 1. O eror #ust )rove t"e e,ecution and e,istence o t"e ori'inal docu#ent 2. O eror #ust s"o- t"e cause o its unavaila%ilit& ?. O eror #ust s"o- t"at t"e unavaila%ilit& -as not due to "is %ad ait". .urden o )roo in esta%lis"in' loss or destruction o t"e ori'inal is on t"e )ro)onent o t"e secondar& evidence. Sec. L. B"en ori'inal docu#ent is in adverse )art&Ss custod& or control. ! I t"e docu#ent is in t"e custod& or under t"e control o adverse )art&$ "e #ust "ave reasona%le notice to )roduce it. I a ter suc" notice and a ter satis actor& )roo o its e,istence$ "e ails to )roduce t"e docu#ent$ secondar& evidence #a& %e )resented as in t"e case o its loss. *5a+ Sec. 8. Part& -"o calls or docu#ent not %ound to o er it. ! A )art& -"o calls or t"e )roduction o a docu#ent and ins)ects t"e sa#e is not o%li'ed to o er it as evidence. *La+

Present t"e ori'inal$ e,ce)t -"en &ou can (usti & its unavaila%ilit& in t"e #anner )rovided or %& t"e Ro8.
Sec. 5. B"en ori'inal docu#ent is unavaila%le. ! B"en t"e ori'inal docu#ent "as %een lost or destro&ed$ or cannot %e )roduced in court$ t"e o eror$ u)on )roo o its e,ecution or e,istence and t"e cause o its unavaila%ilit& -it"out %ad ait" on "is )art$ #a& )rove its contents %& a co)&$ or %& a recital o its contents in so#e aut"entic docu#ent$ or %& t"e testi#on& o -itnesses in t"e order stated. *@a+ 18

evidence | 1st sem, 2011-2012 No )articular or# o notice is re1uired$ as lon' as it airl& a))rises t"e ot"er )art& as to -"at )a)ers are desired. Even an oral de#and in o)en court or suc" )roduction at a reasona%le ti#e t"erea ter -ill su ice. Suc" notice #ust$ "o-ever$ %e 'iven to t"e adverse )art&$ or "is attorne&$ even i t"e docu#ent is in t"e actual )ossession o a t"ird )erson. B"ere recei)t o t"e ori'inal o a letter is ac;no-led'ed on a car%on co)& t"ereo $ t"ereMs no need or a notice to t"e ot"er )art& to )roduce t"e ori'inal o t"e letter. *P"il Read&>Ki, 8oncrete 8o. v. Villacorta+ Note t"at t"e du)licate co)&$ i co#)lete$ is itsel an ori'inal co)& and t"e onl& )oint in issue is t"e recei)t o t"e %asic ori'inal co)& t"ereo . T"e adverse )art&Ms (usti ied re usal or ailure to )roduce t"e docu#ent doesnMt 'ive rise to t"e )resu#)tion o su))ression o evidence$ or create an un avora%le in erence$ a'ainst "i#. It onl& aut"oriFes t"e introduction o secondar& evidence. B"ere suc" docu#ent is )roduced$ t"at docu#ent is not necessaril& ad#issi%le in evidence$ <NLESS t"e re1uisites or ad#issi%ilit& are )resent. Rule o )roduction o docu#ents under R1?A Procured %& #ere notice to t"e adverse )art& 0 re1Mts or suc" notice #ust %e co#)lied -4 as condition )recedent or su%se1uent introduction o secondar& evidence %& t"e )ro)onent > Presu))oses t"at t"e doc to %e )roduced is intended as evidence or t"e )ro)onent -"o is )resu#ed to "ave ;no-led'e o its contents$ secondar& evidence t"ereo %ein' availa%le in case o its non>)roduction Rule o )roduction o docu#ents under R2N Situation: docu#ent is eit"er assu#ed to %e avora%le to t"e )art& in )ossession t"ereo or t"at t"e )art& see;in' its )roduction is not su icientl& in or#ed o t"e contents o t"e sa#e > Production o suc" doc is in t"e nature o a #ode o discover& and can %e sou'"t onl& %& )ro)er #otion in T8$ %ut is )er#itted onl& u)on 'ood cause s"o-n 8ases:

ysr

VIA. IE 8ORP<S V. .RA.ANG8O *1JL?+ ItMs not necessar&$ in order to ad#it evidence o t"e contents o lost instru#ent$ t"at t"e -itnesses s"ould %e a%le to testi & -it" ver%al accurac& to its contents3 it is su icient i t"e& are a%le to state it in su%stance. ItMs enou'" i intelli'ent -itnesses "ave read t"e )a)er and state su%stantiall& its contents and i#)ort -it" reasona%le accurac&. • To insist on co#)lete ver%al accurac& -ould %e in e ect to )ro"i%it entirel& t"e )roo o lost docu#ents %& recollection. VILLA REC TRANSIT$ IN8. V. 2ERRER *1JL8+ Re1uisites or ad#issi%ilit& o secondar& evidence -"en t"e ori'inal is in t"e custod& o t"e adverse )art&: 1. O))onentMs )ossession o t"e ori'inal • It is enou'" t"at t"e circu#stances are suc" as to indicate t"at t"e -ritin' is in "is )ossession or under "is control 2. Reasona%le notice to o))onent to )roduce t"e ori'inal • ItMs not re1uired t"at t"e )art& entitled to custod& o t"e instru#ent s"ould$ on %ein' noti ied to )roduce it$ ad#it "avin' it in "is )ossession. • Secondar& evidence is ad#issi%le -"ere "e denies "avin' it in "is )ossession. T"e )art& callin' or suc" evidence #a& introduce a co)& t"ereo as in t"e case o loss. ?. Satis actor& )roo o its e,istence @. 2ailure or re usal o o))onent to )roduce t"e ori'inal in court 8OKPANIA KARITIKA V. A2B< *1JNN+ Ori'inal -ritin's #ust %e )roduced EE8EPT -"en ori'inal consists o nu#erous accounts or docu#ents -"ic" cannot %e e,a#ined in court -it"out 'reat loss o ti#e and t"e act sou'"t to %e esta%lis"ed ro# t"e# is onl& t"e 'eneral result o t"e -"ole. Volu#inous c"aracter o t"e records s"ould %e esta%lis"ed. T"e records s"ould also %e #ade accessi%le to adverse )art& so t"at t"e correctness o t"e su##ar& #a& %e tested on cross>e,a#ination. IE VERA V. AG<ILAR *1JJ?+ Secondar& evidence is ad#issi%le -"en t"e ori'inal docu#ents -ere actuall& lost or destro&ed. Prior to introduction o suc" secondar& evidence$ t"e )ro)onent #ust esta%lis" t"e or#er e,istence o t"e instru#ent. • 8orrect order o )roo : e,istence$ e,ecution$ loss$ contents. • T"e destruction o t"e instru#ent #a& %e )roved %& an& )erson ;no-in' t"e acts. All ori'inals *du)licates or counter)arts+ #ust %e accounted or %e ore usin' co)ies. • No e,cuse or non>)roduction o t"e -ritin' itsel can %e re'arded as esta%lis"ed until a))ears t"at all o its )arts are unavaila%le. 8ITI.ANR N.A. KASTER8ARI V. TEOIORO *2AA?+ • .e ore a )art& is allo-ed to adduce secondar& evidence to )rove t"e contents o t"e ori'inal$ t"e o eror #ust )rove t"e : 1. e,istence or due e,ecution o t"e ori'inal3 2. loss and destruction o t"e ori'inal or t"e reason or its non>)roduction in court3 and

Re1uisites or .ER e,ce)tion ? *nu#erous accounts4docs+ to a))l& 1. Volu#inous c"aracter o t"e records #ust %e esta%lis"ed 2. Suc" records #ust %e #ade accessi%le to t"e adverse )art& so t"at t"eir correctness #a& %e tested on cross> e,a#ination
Sec. N. Evidence ad#issi%le -"en ori'inal docu#ent is a )u%lic record. ! B"en t"e ori'inal o docu#ent is in t"e custod& o )u%lic o icer or is recorded in a )u%lic o ice$ its contents #a& %e )roved %& a certi ied co)& issued %& t"e )u%lic o icer in custod& t"ereo . *2a+ T"is section co#)le#ents e,ce)tion @ to .ER. .& s)eci ic )rovision o R1?2$ suc" docu#ent #a& %e evidenced %& an o icial )u%lication t"ereo or %& a co)& attested %& t"e o icer "avin' t"e le'al custod& o t"e record */2@+$ and in t"e case o an aut"oriFed )u%lic record o a )rivate -ritin'$ t"e sa#e #a& also %e )roved %& a co)& t"ereo attested %& t"e le'al ;ee)er o t"e record */2N+.

19

evidence | 1st sem, 2011-2012 ?. • on t"e o erorMs )art$ t"e a%sence o %ad ait" to -"ic" t"e unavaila%ilit& o t"e ori'inal can %e attri%uted. 8orrect order o )roo : e,istence$ e,ecution$ loss$ contents. At t"e sound discretion o t"e court$ t"is order #a& %e c"an'ed i necessar&. B"en #ore t"an one ori'inal co)& e,ists$ it #ust a))ear t"at all o t"e# "ave %een lost$ destro&ed$ or cannot %e )roduced in court %e ore secondar& evidence can %e 'iven o an& one. A )"otoco)& #a& not %e used -it"out accountin' or t"e ot"er ori'inals.

ysr *%+ T"e ailure o t"e -ritten a'ree#ent to e,)ress t"e true intent and a'ree#ent o t"e )arties t"ereto3 *c+ T"e validit& o t"e -ritten a'ree#ent3 or *d+ T"e e,istence o ot"er ter#s a'reed to %& t"e )arties or t"eir successors in interest a ter t"e e,ecution o t"e -ritten a'ree#ent. T"e ter# Ua'ree#entU includes -ills. *Na+ PER is %ased u)on t"e consideration t"at -"en t"e )arties "ave reduced t"eir a'ree#ent on a )articular #atter into -ritin'$ all t"eir )revious and conte#)oraneous a'ree#ents on t"e #atter are #er'ed t"erein. *Ie GuF#an v. 8al#a+ Parol evidence: an& evidence aliunde$ -"et"er oral or -ritten$ -"ic" is intended or tends to var& or contradict a co#)lete and en orcea%le a'ree#ent e#%odied in a docu#ent PER doesnMt a))l&$ and #a& not )ro)erl& %e invo;ed %& eit"er )art& to t"e liti'ation a'ainst t"e ot"er$ -"ere at least one )art& to t"e suit is not a )art& or )riv& o a )art& to t"e -ritten instru#ent in 1uestion and doesnMt %ase a clai# or assert a ri'"t ori'inatin' in t"e instru#ent o t"e relation esta%lis"ed t"ere%&. T"us$ i one o t"e )arties to t"e case is a co#)lete stran'er to t"e contract involved t"erein$ "eMs not %ound %& t"is rule and can introduce e,trinsic evidence a'ainst t"e e icac& o t"e -ritin'. *Lec"u'as v. 8A+ Parol evidence rule Pro"i%its t"e var&in' o t"e ter#s o a -ritten a'ree#ent .est evidence rule Pro"i%its introduction o su%stitutionar& evidence in lieu o t"e ori'inal doc$ re'ardless o B4N it varies t"e contents o t"e ori'inal A))lies to all ;inds o -ritin's Invo;ed %& an& )art to an action re'ardless o B4N suc" )art& "as )artici)ated in t"e -ritin' involved

TENE.RO V. 8A *2AA@+ T"ere is a%solutel& no re1uire#ent in t"e la- t"at a #arria'e contract needs to %e su%#itted to t"e civil re'istrar as a condition )recedent or t"e validit& o a #arria'e. T"e #ere act t"at no record o a #arria'e e,ists does not invalidate t"e #arria'e$ )rovided all t"e re1uisites or its validit& are )resent. Iocu#entar& evidence as to t"e a%sence o a record is 1uite di erent ro# docu#entar& evidence as to t"e a%sence o a #arria'e cere#on&$ or docu#entar& evidence as to t"e invalidit& o a #arria'e. .PI V. 8ASA KONTESSORI INTERNATIONALE *2AA@+ 2or'er& cannot %e )resu#ed. It #ust %e esta%lis"ed %& clear$ )ositive and convincin' evidence. <nder t"e .ER as a))lied to docu#entar& evidence li;e t"e c"ec;s in 1uestion$ no secondar& or su%stitutionar& evidence #a& ince)tivel& %e introduced$ as t"e ori'inal -ritin' itsel #ust %e )roduced in court. .ut -"en$ -4o %ad ait" on t"e o erorMs )art$ t"e ori'inal c"ec;s "ave alread& %een destro&ed or cannot %e )roduced in court$ secondar& evidence #a& %e )roduced. Even BRT docu#entar& evidence$ t"e .ER a))lies onl& -"en t"e contents o a docu#ent 0 suc" as t"e dra-erMs si'nature on a c"ec; 0 is t"e su%(ect o in1uir&. LEE V. PEOPLE *2AA@+ T"e i#)ortance o t"e )recise ter#s o -ritin's in t"e -orld o le'al relations$ t"e alli%ilit& o t"e "u#an #e#or& as relia%le evidence o t"e ter#s$ and t"e "aFards o inaccurate or inco#)lete du)licate are t"e concerns addressed %& t"e .ER. T"e rule does not a))l& to )roo o acts collateral to t"e issues 8ONSOLIIATEI .ANR V. IEL KONTE KOTOR BORRS T"e onl& actual rule t"e Y%est evidenceM )"rase denotes toda& is t"e rule re1uirin' t"e )roduction o t"e ori'inal -ritin'. *Kc8or#ic;+ In li'"t o t"e dan'ers o #istrans#ission$ acco#)an&in' t"e use o -ritten co)ies or o recollection$ lar'el& avoided t"rou'" )rovin' t"e ter#s %& )resentin' t"e -ritin' itsel $ t"e )re erence or t"e ori'inal -ritin' is (usti ied. 2. Parol Evidence Rule *R1?A.J+ Sec. J. Evidence o -ritten a'ree#ents. ! B"en t"e ter#s o an a'ree#ent "ave %een reduced to -ritin'$ it is considered as containin' all t"e ter#s a'reed u)on and t"ere can %e$ %et-een t"e )arties and t"eir successors in interest$ no evidence o suc" ter#s ot"er t"an t"e contents o t"e -ritten a'ree#ent. :o-ever$ a )art& #a& )resent evidence to #odi &$ e,)lain or add to t"e ter#s o -ritten a'ree#ent i "e )uts in issue in "is )leadin': *a+ An intrinsic a#%i'uit&$ #ista;e or i#)er ection in t"e -ritten a'ree#ent3 20

A))lies onl& to docu#ents contractual in nature E,ce)tion: -ills Invo;ed onl& -"en t"e controvers& is %et-een t"e )arties to t"e -ritten a'ree#ent$ t"eir )rivies$ or an& )art& directl& a ected t"ere%& *e.'. cestui 1ue trust+

2or t"e )arol evidence to %e ad#issi%le$ t"e #ista;e or i#)er ection o t"e docu#ent$ or its ailure to e,)ress t"e true intent and a'ree#ent o t"e )arties$ or t"e validit& o t"e a'ree#ent #ust %e )ut in issue %& t"e )leadin's. An intrinsic a#%i'uit& in t"e -ritten a'ree#ent is nore1uired to %e )ut in issue in t"e )leadin' in order t"at )arol evidence t"erein #a& %e ad#itted.

Kista;e under t"e irst e,ce)tion re ers to a #ista;e o act -"ic" is #utual to t"e )arties$ or -"ere t"e innocent )art& -as i#)osed u)on %& un air dealin' o t"e ot"er. I#)er ection includes an inaccurate state#ent in t"e a'ree#ent$ or inco#)leteness in t"e -ritin'$ or t"e )resence o inconsistent )rovisions t"erein. T"ere is latent a#%i'uit& -"en t"e -ritin' on its ace a))ears clear and una#%i'uous %ut t"ere are collateral #atters or circu#stances -"ic" #a;e t"e #eanin' uncertain$ or -"ere a -ritin' ad#its o 2 constructions %ot" o -"ic" are in "ar#on& -4 t"e lan'ua'e used. *I'nacio v. Re#enteria+

)rior or conte#)oraneous collateral )arol a'ree#ents %et-een t"e )arties$ %ut suc" evidence #a& %e received$ re'ardless o B4N t"e -ritten a'ree#ent contains re erence to suc" collateral a'ree#ent.tend so ar as to )reclude t"e ad#ission o e. :ALILI *1J5?+ Plainti Ms act or state#ent -as sou'"t to %e introduced to )rove t"e re)resentations or induce#ents$ or raud$ -4 -"ic" or %& -"ic" "e secured t"e ot"er )art&Ms consent t"ereto. T"e )ro"i%ition does not a))l& -"ere t"e )ur)ose o t"e )arol evidence is to s"o-: • T"at no -ritten contract ever e.)lain circu#stances under -"ic" an a'ree#ent -as #ade is )er#itted -"en it is necessar& to e. Patent or e.isted$ • T"at t"e #inds o t"e )arties never #et on t"e ter#s o suc" a contract$ • T"at t"e& never #utuall& a'reed to enter into suc" a contract$ and • T"at t"ere never e.trinsic evidence to s"o.trinsic a#%i'uit& is suc" a#%i'uit& -"ic" is a))arent on t"e ace o t"e -ritin' itsel and re1uires so#et"in' to %e added in order to ascertain t"e #eanin' o t"e -ords used. B"en t"e o)eration o t"e contract is #ade to de)end u)on t"e occurrence o an event$ -"ic"$ or t"at reason is a condition )recedent$ suc" #a& %e esta%lis"ed %& )arol evidence. GAR8IA PLANTATION 8O. No e.cludin' )arol evidence to var& or contradict a -ritin' does not e.)ressl& e.)ress trusts on i##ova%les *88 1@@?+ Art. T"e ollo-in' contracts are unen orcea%le$ unless t"e& are rati ied: *1+ T"ose entered into in t"e na#e o anot"er )erson %& one -"o "as %een 'iven no aut"orit& or le'al re)resentation$ or -"o "as acted %e&ond "is )o-ers3 *2+ T"ose t"at do not co#)l& -it" t"e Statute o 2rauds as set ort" in t"is nu#%er. No e. %. • Britten a'ree#ent )resu#ed to contain all t"e ter#s$ nevert"eless does not e.$ at t"e ti#e o t"e sale$ o t"e a#ount and .)ress trust concernin' an i##ova%le or an& interest t"erein #a& %e )roved %& )arol evidence.ind o )ro)ert& sold$ ter#s o sale$ )rice$ na#es o t"e )urc"asers and )erson on -"ose account t"e sale is #ade$ it is a su icient #e#orandu#3 *e+ An a'ree#ent o t"e leasin' or a lon'er )eriod t"an one &ear$ or or t"e sale o real )ro)ert& or o an interest t"erein3 * + A re)resentation as to t"e credit o a t"ird )erson.)ress t"e true intent o t"e )arties$ )arol evidence is inad#issi%le to var& t"e ter#s o t"e a'ree#ent. 2REI BILSON 9 8O. LANI SETTLEKENT IEVT. In t"e ollo-in' cases an a'ree#ent "erea ter #ade s"all %e unen orcea%le %& action$ unless t"e sa#e$ or so#e note or #e#orandu#$ t"ereo $ %e in -ritin'$ and su%scri%ed %& t"e )art& c"ar'ed$ or %& "is a'ent3 evidence$ t"ere ore$ o t"e a'ree#ent cannot %e received -it"out t"e -ritin'$ or a secondar& evidence o its contents: *a+ An a'ree#ent t"at %& its ter#s is not to %e )er or#ed -it"in a &ear ro# t"e #a.)ressl& allo-s t"e evidence to %e introduced -"en t"e validit& o an instru#ent is )ut in issue %& t"e )leadin's. • T"e PER e.t"e true consideration o a contract *88 1?5@+$ or t"e -ant or ille'alit& t"ereo $ or t"e inca)acit& o t"e )arties$ or t"e act t"at t"e contract -as ictitious or a%solutel& si#ulated$ or t"at t"ere -as raud in t"e induce#ent.in' t"ereo 3 *%+ A s)ecial )ro#ise to ans-er or t"e de%t$ de ault$ or #iscarria'e o anot"er3 *c+ An a'ree#ent #ade in consideration o #arria'e$ ot"er t"an a #utual )ro#ise to #arr&3 *d+ An a'ree#ent or t"e sale o 'oods$ c"attels or t"in's in action$ at a )rice not less t"an ive "undred )esos$ unless t"e %u&er acce)t and receive )art o suc" 'oods and c"attels$ or t"e evidences$ or so#e o t"e#$ o suc" t"in's in action or )a& at t"e ti#e so#e )art o t"e )urc"ase #one&3 %ut -"en a sale is #ade %& auction and entr& is #ade %& t"e auctioneer in "is sales %oo. *88 1@@?+ Re or#ation o a contract$ as a relie $ is re'ulated %& 88 1?5J> 1?L8.$ IN8. 1@A?.ce)tion -"ic" in e ect aut"oriFes an in1uir& into t"e validit& o t"e a'ree#ent$ PE #a& %e ad#itted to s"o. 1@A5. 1@@?. Related )rovisions a. LIQARRAGA :ERKANOS *1J2N+ T"e rule e.clude ot"er evidence o t"e circu#stances under -"ic" t"e a'ree#ent -as #ade$ or to -"ic" it relates$ or to e. PALAN8A V.)ress trusts concernin' an i##ova%le or an& interest t"erein #a& %e )roved %& )arol evidence.cluded ro# t"e PER. 2011-2012 ysr Art. 2 o Article 1@A?$ are rati ied %& t"e ailure to o%(ect to t"e )resentation o oral evidence to )rove t"e sa#e$ or %& t"e acce)tance o %ene it under t"e#. RO.AC *1JN8+ B"ere t"ere is no alle'ation in t"e co#)laint t"at t"ere -as an& #ista.)lain an intrinsic a#%i'uit&. *?+ T"ose -"ere %ot" )arties are inca)a%le o 'ivin' consent to a contract. • B"ere )arties )ro"i%ited ro# )rovin' said re)resentations or induce#ents$ on t"e 'round t"at t"e a'ree#ent "ad alread& %een entered into$ it -ould %e i#)ossi%le to )rove #isre)resentation or raud. *1J18+ T"e introduction o evidence to e.e or i#)er ection in t"e -ritten a'ree#ent or t"at it ailed to e. SERRANO *1J1@+ T"e )ro"i%ition a'ainst t"e introduction o )arol evidenceT -as desi'ned to )revent alteration$ c"an'e$ #odi ication$ variation or contraction o t"e ter#s o a -ritten instru#ent ad#ittedl& e.evidence | 1st sem.LES V.isted an& consideration u)on -"ic" suc" an a'ree#ent could %e ounded. Pur)ose o second e. T"ese are e. <nder t"e t"ird e. E. Statute o 2rauds *88 1@A?$ 1@A5+ Art.ce)tion: to ena%le t"e court to ascertain t"e true intention o t"e )arties or t"e true nature o t"e transaction %et-een t"e )arties. 8ases KA<LINI V. 8ontracts in rin'in' t"e Statute o 2rauds$ re erred to in No.istin' EE8EPT in cases s)eci icall& na#ed t"erein.)lain intrinsic a#%i'uit&. 82I O2 AL. PNR V. V. 21 . BOOI:O<SE V.

E. Inter)retation accordin' to intention3 'eneral and )articular )rovisions. So a )articular intent -ill control a 'eneral one t"at is inconsistent -it" it. Bitnesses3 t"eir 1uali ications. Bit"out -itness$ no evidence can ever %e aut"enticated. 1L. *8+ Sec. *J+ Sec. ! In t"e construction o an instru#ent$ t"e intention o t"e )arties is to %e )ursued3 and -"en a 'eneral and a )articular )rovision are inconsistent$ t"e latter is )ara#ount to t"e or#er. 1?. Inter)retation accordin' to circu#stances. Inter)retation o Iocu#ents Znot in outline[ Sec. *1?+ Sec. ! B"en t"e c"aracters in -"ic" an instru#ent is -ritten are di icult to %e deci)"ered$ or t"e lan'ua'e is not understood %& t"e court$ t"e evidence o )ersons s. • Identi ication )recedes aut"entication.)erts and inter)reters to %e used in e.illed in deci)"erin' t"e c"aracters$ or -"o understand t"e lan'ua'e$ is ad#issi%le to declare t"e c"aracters or t"e #eanin' o t"e lan'ua'e. Inter)retation o a -ritin' accordin' to its le'al #eanin'.trinsic evidence a'ainst t"e e icac& o t"e -ritin'. *1L+ Sec. 11. 2A. a .2A+ Sec. 2or t"e rules on inter)retation or construction o -ills$ see 88 N88>NJ@. 15. It also includes t"e a%sence o an& actor t"at -ould dis1uali & "i# ro# %ein' a -itness.e t"eir . 8A *1JJL+ T"e PER does not s)eci & t"at t"e -ritten a'ree#ent %e a )u%lic docu#ent. ! In t"e construction o an instru#ent$ -"ere t"ere are several )rovisions or )articulars$ suc" a construction is$ i )ossi%le$ to %e ado)ted as -ill 'ive e ect to all. PO. 8A *1J8L+ T"e PER does not a))l&$ and #a& not )ro)erl& %e invo.en -"ic" is t"e #ost avora%le to t"e )art& in -"ose avor t"e )rovision -as #ade. *11+ Sec. ! T"e lan'ua'e o a -ritin' is to %e inter)reted accordin' to t"e le'al #eanin' it %ears in t"e )lace o its e.no-n t"eir )erce)tion to ot"ers$ #a& %e -itnesses RIANO: Testi#onial or oral evidence: Evidence elicited ro# t"e #out" o t"e -itness as distin'uis"ed ro# real and docu#entar& evidence 8o#)etence o a -itness re ers to "is )ersonal 1uali ications to testi &.t succeedin' section$ all )ersons -"o can )erceive$ and )erceivin'$ can #a. V.AL<COT V. ! E.LETE *2AAN+ B"en t"e ter#s o an a'ree#ent are reduced to -ritin'$ it is dee#ed to contain all t"e ter#s a'reed u)on and no evidence o suc" ter#s can %e ad#itted ot"er t"an t"e contents o t"e a'ree#ent itsel .)lainin' certain -ritin's. Britten -ords control )rinted. • PER not a))lica%le -"ere t"e controvers& is %et-een one o t"e )arties to t"e docu#ent and t"ird )ersons • T"us$ i one o t"e )arties to t"e case is a co#)lete stran'er to t"e contract involved t"erein$ "eMs not %ound %& t"is rule and can introduce e. *1A+ Sec. 1J.evidence | 1st sem. ysr si'ni ication$ and -ere so used and understood in t"e )articular instance$ in -"ic" case t"e a'ree#ent #ust %e construed accordin'l&.t"at t"e& "ave a local$ tec"nical$ or ot"er-ise )eculiar 22 1.e .ed %& eit"er )art& to t"e liti'ation a'ainst t"e ot"er$ -"ere at least one o t"e )arties to t"e suit is not )art& or a )riv& o a )art& to t"e -ritten instru#ent in 1uestion and does not %ase a clai# on t"e instru#ent or assert a ri'"t ori'inatin' in t"e instru#ent or t"e relation esta%lis"ed t"ere%&. Peculiar si'ni ication o ter#s. T"e ad#ission o an& evidence re1uires its identi ication. Inter)retation accordin' to usa'e. ! B"en t"e ter#s o an a'ree#ent "ave %een intended in a di erent sense %& t"e di erent )arties to it$ t"at sense is to )revail a'ainst eit"er )art& in -"ic" "e su))osed t"e ot"er understood it$ and -"en di erent constructions o a )rovision are ot"er-ise e1uall& )ro)er$ t"at is to %e ta.ecution$ unless t"e )arties intended ot"er-ise. 8onstruction in avor o natural ri'"t. Duali ication o Bitnesses *R1?A. 8. IN8IONG$ PR. 18. Testi#onial Evidence LE8:<GAS V. No suc" alle'ation "ad %een #ade %& )etitioners in t"is case. 1@. *15+ Sec. ! 2or t"e )ro)er construction o an instru#ent$ t"e circu#stances under -"ic" it -as #ade$ includin' t"e situation o t"e su%(ect t"ereo and o t"e )arties to it$ #a& %e s"o-n$ so t"at t"e (ud'e #a& %e )laced in t"e )osition o t"ose -"o lan'ua'e "e is to inter)ret. ! An instru#ent #a& %e construed accordin' to usa'e$ in order to deter#ine its true c"aracter. 12. ! B"en an instru#ent consists )artl& o -ritten -ords and )artl& o a )rinted or#$ and t"e t-o are inconsistent$ t"e or#er controls t"e latter.e. Reli'ious or )olitical %elie $ interest in t"e outco#e o t"e case$ or conviction o a cri#e unless ot"er-ise )rovided %& la-$ s"all not %e 'round or dis1uali ication. 1N. LAP<LAP< 2O<NIATION$ IN8. V. ! T"e ter#s o a -ritin' are )resu#ed to "ave %een used in t"eir )ri#ar& and 'eneral acce)tation$ %ut evidence is ad#issi%le to s"o. *12+ Sec. . 8A *2AA@+ B"ile )arol evidence is ad#issi%le to e. *1N+ Rules or inter)retation o contracts are )rovided %& 88 1?NA> 1?NJ. ! B"en an instru#ent is e1uall& susce)ti%le o t-o inter)retations$ one in avor o natural ri'"t and t"e ot"er a'ainst it$ t"e or#er is to %e ado)ted.no-n )erce)tion to ot"ers$ #a& %e -itnesses.)ress t"e true a'ree#ent o t"e )arties$ t"en )arol evidence is ad#issi%le to )rove t"e true a'ree#ent o t"e )arties. 1A. *18a+ GEN R<LE: all )ersons -"o can )erceive$ and )erceivin'$ can #a. Instru#ent construed so as to 'ive e ect to all )rovisions. O T-o constructions$ -"ic" )re erred. *1@+ Sec.)lain t"e #eanin' o -ritten contracts$ it cannot serve t"e )ur)ose o incor)oratin' into t"e contract additional conte#)oraneous conditions -"ic" are not #entioned at all in -ritin'$ unless t"ere "as %een raud or #ista.ce)t as )rovided in t"e ne. 2011-2012 • :o-ever$ i t"e de endant set u) t"e a ir#ative de ense t"at t"e contract #entioned in t"e co#)laint does not e.

At t"e ti#e t"e act to %e testi ied to occurred suc" t"at "e could receive correct i#)ressions t"ereo 3 2.inco#)etenc& are a))arent. :a&a'+ Presu#)tion in avor o co#)etence o -itness GEN R<LE: a )erson -"o ta. *1Ja+ *Iis+1uali ications o -itnesses are deter#ined as o t"e ti#e said -itnesses are )roduced or e. .in' . • A )art& -"o desires to 1uestion t"e co#)etence o a -itness #ust do so %& #a.a#ination in court or at t"e ta.a#ination$ is suc" t"at t"e& are inca)a%le o intelli'entl& #a.no-n t"eir )erce)tion to ot"ers3 *%+ 8"ildren -"ose #ental #aturit& is suc" as to render t"e# inca)a%le o )erceivin' t"e acts res)ectin' -"ic" t"e& are e. T"is #a& serve as 'round or attac. :e #ust not )ossess t"e dis1uali ications i#)osed %& laor t"e rules 8redi%ilit& o a -itness re ers to t"e -ei'"t and t"e trust-ort"iness or relia%ilit& o t"e testi#on&. It %eco#es relevant onl& i t"e -itness -as under t"e in luence o dru's at t"e ti#e "e is testi &in' or at t"e ti#e t"e events in 1uestion -ere o%served.e eit"er an oat" or an a ir#ation • R1?2$ /1 re1uires t"at t"e e. :e #a& %e co#)etent$ %ut "is testi#on& #a& not %e 'iven #uc" -ei'"t %& t"e court or no -ei'"t at all i t"e court dee#s "i# not -ort"& o %elie .no-led'e o t"e act to -"ic" "e testi ies -as o%tained in adult"ood. )lace lon' %e ore t"eir )roduction as -itnesses.evidence | 1st sem. 2. T"e a%ilit& to re#e#%er -"at "as %een )erceived3 and %.ce)t t"e testi#on& o said accused3 *c+ T"e testi#on& o said accused can %e su%stantiall& corro%orated in its #aterial )oints3 *d+ Said accused does not a))ear to %e t"e #ost 'uilt&3 and *e+ Said accused "as not at an& ti#e %een convicted o an& o ense involvin' #oral tur)itude. *n+ %.in' t"e credi%ilit& o t"e -itness. T"e a%ilit& to co##unicate t"e re#e#%ered )erce)tion • B"en dea >#utes are co#)etent as -itnesses: a. ! B"en t-o or #ore )ersons are (ointl& c"ar'ed -it" t"e co##ission o an& o ense$ u)on #otion o t"e )rosecution %e ore restin' its case$ t"e court #a& direct one or #ore o t"e accused to %e disc"ar'ed -it" t"eir consent so t"at t"e& #a& %e -itnesses or t"e state -"en$ a ter re1uirin' t"e )rosecution 23 8onsiderations o court in deter#inin' co#)etenc& o c"ild -itness 0 "is4"er ca)acit& 1. 8an co##unicate t"eir ideas t"rou'" a 1uali ied inter)reter Add t"e ollo-in': 1. Related )rovisions a.LI8 *2AA@+ Re1uire#ents o a c"ildMs co#)etence as a -itness: a. under oat" or a ir#ation 2. 8an understand and a))reciate t"e sanctit& o an oat"3 %. 88 821 Art.. • Duestions concernin' t"e credi%ilit& o a -itness are %est addressed to t"e sound discretion o t"e trial court.no-n "is )erce)tion to ot"ers. BRT c"ildren o tender &ears$ itMs su%#itted t"at t"eir co#)etence at t"e ti#e o t"e occurrence to %e testi ied to s"ould also %e ta. REP<.en into account$ es)eciall& i suc" event too.es t"e stand as a -itness is )resu#ed to %e a%le to testi &.. :e #ust ta.e . Kental ca)acit& or i##aturit& */21$ R1?A+ Sec. Iisc"ar'e o accused to %e state -itness. 821. 2011-2012 ysr to )resent evidence and t"e s-orn state#ent o eac" )ro)osed state -itness at a "earin' in su))ort o t"e disc"ar'e$ t"e court is satis ied t"at: *a+ T"ere is a%solute necessit& or t"e testi#on& o t"e accused -"ose disc"ar'e is re1uested3 *%+ T"e is no ot"er direct evidence availa%le or t"e )ro)er )rosecution o t"e o ense co##itted$ e. :e can )erceive3 and in )erceivin' • T"e -itness #ust "ave )ersonal .no-led'e o t"e acts surroundin' t"e su%(ect #atter o "is testi#on& 2. 8a)acit& o co##unication T"ere is no s"o-in' t"at as a c"ild$ clai#ant did not )ossess t"e ore'oin' 1uali ications.a#ination o a -itness in a trial or "earin' s"all %e done . Iea >#utes are co#)etent -itnesses -"en t"e& can understand and a))reciate t"e sanctit& o an oat"$ can co#)re"end acts t"e&Mre 'oin' to testi & to and can co##unicate t"eir ideas t"rou'" a 1uali ied inter)reter. 8an co#)re"end acts t"e& are 'oin' to testi & to3 and c. 8a)acit& o recollection c. Kental unsoundness o t"e -itness at t"e ti#e t"e act to %e testi ied to occurred a ects onl& "is credi%ilit&. Iis1uali ication %& reason o #ental inca)acit& or i##aturit&. :e can #a. *Peo)le v. • A )revaricatin' -itness or one -"o "as 'iven contradictin' testi#on& is still a co#)etent -itness. T"e )"rase Gunsound #indH includes an& #ental a%erration$ -"et"er or'anic or unctional$ or induced %& dru's or "&)nosis.in' an o%(ection as soon as t"e acts tendin' to s"o. T"e ollo-in' are dis1uali ied ro# %ein' -itnesses to a -ill: *1+ An& )erson not do#iciled in t"e P"ili))ines3 *2+ T"ose -"o "ave %een convicted o alsi ication o a docu#ent$ )er(ur& or alse testi#on&. 8ase: RE8TO V. Nevert"eless$ as lon' as t"e -itness can conve& ideas %& -ords or si'ns and 'ive su icientl& intelli'ent ans-ers to 1uestions )ro)ounded$ s4"e is a co#)etent -itness even i s4"e is ee%le>#inded$ a #ental retardate$ or a sc"iFo)"renic.a#ined and o relatin' t"e# trut" ull&. ItMs not necessar& t"at a -itnessM . /1N$ R11J$ Ro8 Sec. To co#)re"end t"e o%li'ation o an oat"3 and . 21. • Involves 2 actors: a. 8a)acit& o o%servation %.in' o t"eir de)ositions. 1N.asic 1uali ications o a -itness 1. • Iru' a%use -ill not render a )erson inco#)etent to testi &. ! T"e ollo-in' )ersons cannot %e -itnesses: *a+ T"ose -"ose #ental condition$ at t"e ti#e o t"eir )roduction or e.

Identit& o interests %et-een "us%and and -i e 2.no-n "is )erce)tion$ "e is considered a co#)etent -itness. PEOPLE V. T"e rule t"at t"e in(ur& #ust a#ount to a )"&sical -ron' u)on t"e )erson is too narro. Not"in' in t"e tenor o t"e rule allo-s a contrar& vie-. Karital dis1uali ication *R1?A. SANTOS *2AAL+ Trend in )rocedural la. Ia1ui'an$ 1uotin' 8ar'ill v.22+ Sec.22$ t"e #arital ID in cri#inal cases is li#ited to cri#es co##itted a'ainst t"e ot"er or t"e latterMs direct descendant4ascendant. ROIRIG<EQ *1JL8+ B"ere t"e -i e is a co>de endant in a suit c"ar'in' "er and "er "us%and -it" collusive raud$ s"e cannot %e called as an adverse )art& -itness$ as t"is -ill violate t"e #arital ID rule. 8A+ <nless a c"ildMs testi#on& is )unctured -4 serious inconsistencies as to lead one to %elieve t"at "e -as coac"ed$ i "e can )erceive and #a. RAKIREQ *2AA5+ S)eci ic reasons or t"e Karital ID Rule *s)ousal i##unit&+: 1.e t"e# . 24 NOTE: t"e court s"ould ta. State+ B"ere t"e civil case is %et-een a s)ouse and t"e direct descendants or ascendants o t"e ot"er$ t"e #arital ID rule still a))lies. *OrdoWo v.ce)t in t"ose cases aut"oriFed %& t"e rule. T"e a ected s)ouse #a& still invo. PEOPLE V. 8ases: LEQAKA V.a#ination i t"e sa#e -ill urt"er t"e interest o (ustice. T"e rule does not )ro"i%it a testi#on& or or a'ainst t"e ot"er a ter t"e #arria'e is dissolved.)ressl&. 22. To relate t"ose acts trul& at t"e ti#e "e is o ered as a -itness ysr T"is rule is %ased on societ&Ms intent to )reserve t"e #arria'e relations and )ro#ote do#estic )eace. A #entall& retarded )erson #a& %e a credi%le -itness.ra#let+ EE8EPTIONS to t"e Karital ID Rule A s)ouse #a& testi & or or a'ainst t"e ot"er even -it"out t"e consent o t"e latter in t"e . instances: 1. T"e testi#on& covered %& t"e #arital ID rule not onl& consists o utterances %ut also t"e )roduction o docu#ents. ALVAREQ V. *Re)u%lic v. Polic& o t"e la. ! Iurin' t"eir #arria'e$ neit"er t"e "us%and nor t"e -i e #a& testi & or or a'ainst t"e ot"er -it"out t"e consent o t"e a ected s)ouse$ e.e t"e rule %& o%(ectin' to t"e testi#on& as lon' as t"e testi#on& is o ered durin' t"e #arria'e. *State v.no-n "is )erce)tion to ot"ers.istence o t"e #arria'e$ it does not #atter i t"e acts su%(ect o t"e testi#on& occurred or ca#e to t"e . 8ases: PEOPLE V. T"e %ene it o t"e rule #a& %e -aived and it #a& %e -aived i#)liedl& or e. Pro"i%itin' a testi#on& in avor o t"e s)ouse is intended to discoura'e t"e co##ission o )er(ur&.= to 'uard t"e securit& and con idences o )rivate li e$ even at t"e ris. T"e %etter rule is t"at$ -"en an o ense directl& attac.istin' as o t"e ti#e o t"e o er o testi#on& *Arro&o v.. ?.0 'ive -ide latitude to courts in e.e into account "is ca)acit& or o%servation$ recollection$ and co##unication. B"ere t"ere is -ant o do#estic tran1uilit& t"ere is dan'er o )unis"in' one s)ouse t"rou'" t"e "ostile testi#on& o t"e ot"er NOTE: -"ere t"e #arital and do#estic relations are so strained$ t"ese considerations no lon'er a))l&.ercisin' control over 1uestionin' o a c"ild -itness • 8"ild -itnesses #a& testi & in narrative or# and leadin' 1uestions #a& %e allo-ed %& T8 in all sta'es o t"e e.evidence | 1st sem. <nder R1?A.no-led'e o t"e -itness>s)ouse %e ore t"e #arria'e.e . Karital ID rule under R1?A. . I one -ere to testi & or or a'ainst t"e ot"er$ t"ere is a conse1uent dan'er o )er(ur& ?. • :is inca)acit& at t"e ti#e o )erce)tion$ alt"ou'" -it"out le'al e ect on "is co#)etenc& to testi &$ -ould concededl& "ave an adverse e ect on "is credi%ilit&. IEA<NA *2AA2+ GEN R<LE: lunatics or )ersons a ected -4 insanit& are ad#issi%le as -itnesses$ i t"e& "ave su icient understandin' to a))re"end t"e o%li'ation o an oat" and are ca)a%le o 'ivin' correct accounts o t"e #atters t"at t"e& "ave seen or "eard BRT t"e 1uestions at issue. o an occasional ailure o (ustice$ and to )revent do#estic disunion and un"a))iness @. AFur+$ and 2+ t"at t"e ot"er s)ouse is a )art& to t"e action.ce)tion to t"e statute. *Peo)le v. *2AA5+ Kental retardation )er se does not a ect credi%ilit&. Iis1uali ication %& reason o #arria'e. In a civil case %& one a'ainst t"e ot"er3 or 2. 2011-2012 ?. I testi#on& or or a'ainst t"e ot"er s)ouse is o ered durin' t"e e. *2Aa+ In order t"at t"e #arital dis1uali ication rule -ill a))l&$ itMs necessar& t"at: 1+ t"e #arria'e is valid and e. T"e acce)tance o "is4"er testi#on& de)ends on t"e 1ualit& o "is4"er )erce)tions and t"e #anner s4"e can #a.e .ce)t in a civil case %& one a'ainst t"e ot"er$ or in a cri#inal case or a cri#e co##itted %& one a'ainst t"e ot"er or t"e latterSs direct descendants or ascendants. 8idro+ RIANO: T"e #ental inca)acit& o t"e -itness at t"e ti#e o "is )erce)tion o t"e events su%(ect o t"e testi#on& does not a ect "is co#)etenc& as lon' as "e is co#)etent at t"e ti#e "e is )roduced or e.. O%(ections to t"e co#)etenc& o t"e s)ouse )resented to testi & a'ainst t"e ot"er #a& %e -aived as in t"e case o ot"er -itnesses 'enerall&.no-n to t"e court.22 or%ids t"e "us%and or -i e to testi & or or a'ainst t"e ot"er -it"out t"e consent o t"e a ected s)ouse e. RIANO: . In a cri#inal case or a cri#e co##itted %& one a'ainst t"e ot"er$ or t"e latterMs direct descendants or ascendants. KA8APAL$ PR..a#ination to #a.s or directl& and vitall& i#)airs t"e con(u'al relations$ it co#es -it"in t"e e..

• T"e la. As suc"$ t"e rule "as no a))lication to #ere -itnesses 2. VianFon+ RIANO: T"e o%(ect o t"e rule is to 'uard a'ainst t"e te#)tation to 'ive alse testi#on& in re'ard to t"e transaction on t"e )art o t"e survivin' )art& and t"ere%& )ut t"e )arties u)on e1ual ter#s.ecutor or ad#inistrator as re)resentative o t"e deceased or i t"e )lainti is t"e )erson o unsound #ind • B"en t"e action %rou'"t is not Ga'ainstH t"e estate$ or not u)on a clai# or de#and Ga'ainstH t"e estate 0 t"e clai#$ ro# t"e tenor o t"e rule$ is %& its nature civil %ecause t"e estate itsel cannot %e cri#inall& lia%le T"e rule does not )ro"i%it testi#on& %& a #ere -itness to t"e transaction %et-een t"e )lainti and t"e deceased and -"o "as no interest in suc" transaction. Iis1uali ication %& reason o deat" or insanit& o adverse )art&. T"e rule does not alto'et"er intend to .a#inin' t"e -itness on t"e )ro"i%ited testi#on&3 or c.ecutor or ad#inistrator or ot"er re)resentative o a )erson deceased or o unsound #ind ItMs necessar& t"at t"e de endant is %ein' sued and de ends in suc" re)resentative ca)acit&$ and not in "is individual ca)acit&. PereF+ T"e )rotection o t"e rule -ould include t"e "eirs o t"e deceased de endant -"o are su%stituted or t"e latter under R?. ?. )lace %e ore t"e deat" o t"e deceased.a. 8A+ T"e rule a))lies re'ardless o -"et"er t"e deceased died %e ore or a ter t"e suit a'ainst "i# is iled$ )rovided "eMs alread& dead at t"e ti#e t"e testi#on& is sou'"t to %e 'iven *.2?+ Sec.1L$ and t"e 'uardians o )ersons o unsound #ind -"o are sued in suc" re)resentative ca)acit& under RJL. *2Aa+ Survivors"i) ID Rule$ a.evidence | 1st sem. O erin' evidence to re%ut t"e testi#on&. :o-ever$ even i t"e )ro)ert& involved "as alread& %een (udiciall& ad(udicated to t"e "eirs$ t"e& are still )rotected under t"is rule a'ainst suc" )ro"i%ited testi#on& as t"e& are considered as t"e re)resentatives o t"e deceased *GoWi v. KENIEQONA V. • <nderl&in' )rinci)le o )ro"i%ition: to )rotect t"e intestate estate ro# ictitious clai#s . 8ases: TONG8O V.-as desi'ned to aid in arrivin' at t"e trut" and -as not desi'ned to su))ress t"e trut". T"e case is a'ainst t"e e.does not a))l& and a -itness is co#)etent to testi & -"en t"e actions -ere not %rou'"t Ya'ainstM t"e estate$ or u)on clai#s Ya'ainstM t"e estate. 8ross>e. T"e case is u)on a clai# or de#and a'ainst t"e estate o suc" )erson -"o is deceased or o unsound #ind T"e rule doesnMt a))l& -"ere itMs t"e ad#inistrator -"o %rin's an action to recover )ro)ert& alle'edl& %elon'in' to t"e estate *Ton'co v.. *Tan v. 2ailin' to o%(ect to t"e testi#on&3 or %. 2?. VIANQON *1J2N+ T"e o%(ect and )ur)ose o 6IKS7 is to 'uard a'ainst t"e te#)tation to 'ive alse testi#on& in re'ard to t"e transaction in 1uestion on t"e )art o t"e survivin' )art&. :ence$ t"is )rotection #a& %e -aived %&: a. Karasi'an+$ or is intended to )rove a raudulent transaction o t"e deceased *On' 8"ua v.. Iead KanMs Statute *R1?A.e t"e #arital ID rule -"ic" is a co#)lete and a%solute ID Re1uisites or IKS to a))l& 1.a#ines t"ereon *Ton'co v. 8A+ or cross>e. 25 ysr T"e )ro"i%ition does not a))l& -"ere t"e testi#on& is o ered to )rove a clai# less t"an -"at is esta%lis"ed under a -ritten docu#ent *Icard v. IE GOITIA *1J?A+ T"e la. Bitness o ered or e.a%ao v. 8arr+$ )rovided suc" raud is irst esta%lis"ed %& evidence aliunde B"en IKS dis1uali ication is -aived I t"e de endant doesnMt ti#el& o%(ect to t"e ad#ission o suc" evidence or testi ies on t"e )ro"i%ited #atters *Asturias v.tends onl& to t"e )art& or "is assi'nor or t"e )erson in -"ose %e"al t"e case is )rosecuted. Testi#on& to %e 'iven is on a #atter o act occurrin' %e ore t"e deat" o suc" deceased )erson or %e ore suc" )erson %eca#e o unsound #ind Includes an& #atter o act -4c %ears u)on a transaction or co##unication %et-een t"e -itness and t"e decedent even t"ou'" -it"out t"e )resence or )artici)ation o t"e latter *Stuart v. T"e -itness is #erel& )recluded ro# testi &in' on )articular to)ics. ! Parties or assi'nor o )arties to a case$ or )ersons in -"ose %e"al a case is )rosecuted$ a'ainst an e. VianFon+$ or t"e action is %& t"e "eirs o a deceased )lainti -"o -ere su%stituted or t"e latter *Ardina v. Ale(andro+ @. T"e survivors"i) ID rule is intended to %ene it t"e estate o t"e deceased or insane )erson. T"e la.ecutor or ad#inistrator or ot"er re)resentative o a deceased )erson$ or a'ainst a )erson o unsound #ind$ u)on a clai# or de#and a'ainst t"e estate o suc" deceased )erson or a'ainst suc" )erson o unsound #ind$ cannot testi & as to an& #atter o act occurrin' %e ore t"e deat" o suc" deceased )erson or %e ore suc" )erson %eca#e o unsound #ind. 8A+ T"e rule -ill not a))l&: • B"ere t"e )lainti is t"e e.a#ination is a )art& )lainti $ or t"e assi'nor o said )art&$ or a )erson in -"ose %e"al a case is )rosecuted Suc" )lainti #ust %e t"e real )art& in interest. 2011-2012 @.)ro"i%its a -itness directl& interested in a clai# a'ainst t"e decedentMs estate ro# testi &in' u)on a #atter o act -4c too. T"us$ o erin' t"e testi#on& o a so>called Gdisinterested -itnessH is not a trans'ression o t"e rule since t"e )ro"i%ition e. Lord+ Pur)ose o IKS: discoura'e )er(ur& and )rotect t"e estate ro# ictitious clai#s.ee) t"e -itness out o t"e stand alto'et"er. VIA.?. Iead KanMs Statute 8onstitutes onl& a )artial ID as t"e -itness is onl& )ro"i%ited ro# testi &in' on t"e #atters t"erein s)eci ied$ unli.

8arr$ %e ore t"e testi#onies o -itnesses -ere allo-ed to %e introduced t"e raud )er)etrated %& t"e deceased "ad %een esta%lis"ed %e&ond all dou%t$ not %& #ere )re)onderance o t"e evidence alone.2@+ I8ARI V. • .ed BRT a con idential co##unication %et-een t"e s)ouses durin' said #arria'e ?. GO 8:I G<N V."olders o a cor)oration are not dis1uali ied ro# testi &in' or or a'ainst t"e cor)oration -"ic" is a )art& to an action u)on a clai# or de#and a'ainst t"e estate o a deceased )erson as to an& #atter o act occurrin' %e ore t"e deat" o suc" deceased )erson.)ressl& or i#)liedl&. G<ERRERO V.e-ise de)rives t"e conversation o )rotection unless t"e c"ildren are too &oun' to understand -"at is said. 8o##unications in )rivate %et-een : 9 B are )resu#ed to %e con idential.2@*a+7 Sec. AG9P *1J@J+ Inas#uc" as 6IKS7 dis1uali ies onl& )arties or assi'nors o )arties$ t"e o icers and4or stoc. • 2ROK 8ASE: B"ere t"e )ur)ose o t"e oral testi#on& is to )rove a lesser clai# t"an -"at #i'"t %e -arranted %& clear -ritten evidence$ to avoid )re(udice to t"e estate o t"e deceased$ t"e la. Karital co##unications 6R1?A.. ! T"e ollo-in' )ersons cannot testi & as to #atters learned in con idence in t"e ollo-in' cases: *a+ T"e "us%and or t"e -i e$ durin' or a ter t"e #arria'e$ cannot %e e.a#ines )lainti as to #atters occurrin' durin' deceasedMs li eti#e3 ANI • Re) iles a counterclai# a'ainst )lainti IKS canMt %e invo.es )lainti Ms de)osition$ OR counsel or re) cross>e.ce)t in a civil case %& one a'ainst t"e ot"er$ or in a cri#inal case or a cri#e co##itted %& one a'ainst t"e ot"er or t"e latterSs direct descendants or ascendants3 .ed onl& %& t"e )ersons )rotected t"ereunder and #a& %e -aived %& said )ersons in t"e sa#e #anner$ eit"er e.clusion rule. • Aside ro# t"e act t"at raud #ust %e )roved as a act %& a clear )re)onderance o evidence %ecause raud is a cri#inal c"ar'e$ t"ere is an added 'round in t"e case at %ar or re1uirin' a "i'" 1uantu# o )roo o t"e raud. Includes acts$ occurrences Karital Privile'ed 8o##unication Rule 6R1?A. ST.ce)tion to 6IKS7 is -"ere t"e decedent "ad %een 'uilt& o raud. RAQON V. 8on idential in or#ation received ro# a t"ird )erson is not covered %& t"e )rivile'e.22+ Ioes not re er to con idential co##unications %et-een t"e s)ouses. 2011-2012 • T"is )rotection s"ould not %e treated as an a%solute %ar or )ro"i%ition ro# t"e ilin' o (ust clai#s a'ainst t"e decedentMs estate. Re1uisites or ID %& reason o #arital )rivile'e to a))l& 1. IA8 *1JJ2+ IKS #a& not %e invo. • I c"ildren o t"e a#il& are )resent t"is li. 8A *1JL?+ 6IKS7 -aived -"ere no ti#el& o%(ected "as %een #ade a'ainst t"e ad#ission o suc" evidence and one o t"e )etitioners -as #ade to testi & on suc" )ro"i%ited #atters covered %& t"e e. A testi#on& avora%le to t"e estate or to t"e insane )erson is not %arred since t"e rule is desi'ned to )rotect t"e interest o t"e estate o t"e deceased or insane )erson.ed -"ere )art& testi ies as to co##unications #ade or contracts entered into -4 t"e a'ent o t"e decedent -"ile t"e latter -as alive.ed -"en t"e case -as not iled a'ainst t"e ad#inistrator o t"e estate$ nor -as it iled u)on clai#s a'ainst t"e estate. AST<RIAS V. T"e rule "as %een ado)ted to )ro#ote (ustice and not to s"ield raud."as no reason or its a))lication. a. Privile'ed co##unication *R1?A.evidence | 1st sem. KASIGAN *1J@1+ 2ROK RIANO: T"e -itness is #erel& )recluded ro# testi &in' on )articular to)ics. Privile'e is invo. 5.)lained account o t"e transaction. 8LAIREMS REALTC 9 8O.<T i a t"ird )erson *ot"er t"an a c"ild o t"e a#il&+ is )resent -it" t"e . Valid #arital relation 2. 8:<A *2AA1+ IKS )rovides t"at i one )art& to t"e alle'ed transaction is )recluded ro# testi &in' %& deat"$ insanit&$ or ot"er #ental disa%ilities$ t"e survivin' )art& is not entitled to t"e undue advanta'e o 'ivin' "is o-n uncontradicted and une. ysr -it"in t"e )ro"i%ition o IKS$ )rivate res)ondent is dee#ed to "ave -aived t"e rule. LI8:A<8O V.a#ined -it"out t"e consent o t"e ot"er as to an& co##unication received in con idence %& one ro# t"e ot"er durin' t"e #arria'e e. S<NGA>8:AN V. 8A *1J8L+ Baiver 6o IKS7 occurs -"ere: • Re)resentative o estate ta. 8O 8:O *1J55+ An e.. In t"e case o On' 8"ua v. Iis1uali ication %& reason o )rivile'ed co##unication. Grantin' t"at )etitionerMs testi#on& 6as re'ards t"e true nature o transaction -4 t"e deceased7 is 26 O%(ections under t"e ID rules can %e invo. *1J8?+ IKS does not a))l&: • To a -itness -"o is not a )art& or assi'nor o a )art& or a )erson in -"ose %e"al a case is )rosecuted • B"ere t"e case is not a clai# or de#and a'ainst t"e estate o a deceased )erson GOÑI V. T"e s)ouse a'ainst -"o# suc" evidence is %ein' o ered "as not 'iven "is4"er consent to suc" testi#on& RIANO: Since t"e a))lication o t"e rule re1uires a con idential in or#ation received %& one s)ouse ro# t"e ot"er durin' t"e #arria'e$ in or#ation ac1uired %& a s)ouse %e ore t"e #arria'e even i received con identiall& -ill not all s1uarel& -it" R1?A$ /2@*a+ %ut divul'in' t"e sa#e #a& %e o%(ected to under R1?A$ /22 u)on )ro)er o%(ection as lon' as t"e in or#ation is sou'"t to %e revealed durin' t"e #arria'e t"rou'" a testi#on& or or a'ainst t"e a ected s)ouse. Karital ID Rule *R1?A. 2@.2@*a+7 Re ers to con idential co##unications received %& one s)ouse ro# t"e ot"er durin' t"e #arria'e A))lies onl& to testi#onies o a .no-led'e o t"e co##unicatin' s)ouse$ t"is stretc"es t"e -e% o con idence %e&ond t"e #arital )air$ and t"e co##unication is un)rivile'ed.

ee) co##unications to "is attorne& con idential is )redicated u)on t"e clientMs %elie t"at "e is consultin' a la-&er in t"at ca)acit& and "as #ani ested "is intention to see. Bit"out suc" intention$ co##on reason su''ests t"at t"e in or#ation is not con idential. PA8O. %.no-led'e o -"ic" "as %een ac1uired in suc" ca)acit&3 .ist 0 enou'" t"at t"e co##unication or advice %e G-it" a vie. In t"e course o t"e )ro essional e#)lo&#ent3 or %.A *2AAL+ T"e #arital )rivile'e rule$ %ein' a rule o evidence$ #a& %e -aived %& ailure o t"e clai#ant to o%(ect ti#el& to its . T"e declaration is intended to %e co##unicated a ter t"e "us%andMs deat" %ecause it -as #ade in t"e urt"erance o (ustice.-4c dee#s it necessar& to 'uard t"e securit& and con idences o )rivate li e even at t"e ris. • Instant case: in a )rosecution or #urder$ t"e -i e -as allo-ed to testi & as to "er "us%andMs d&in' declaration re'ardin' t"e identit& o t"e assailant %ecause t"ere -as no intent o con identialit& in t"e in or#ation. intended to %e #ade )u%lic3 2..a#ination o a s)ouse as to #atters received in con idence %& one ro# t"e ot"er durin' t"e #arria'e ysr )resentation or %& an& conduct t"at #a& %e construed as i#)lied consent. #ade in t"e )resence o t"ird )arties -"o are stran'ers to t"e attorne&>client relations"i) Period to %e considered or a))lication o t"e )rivile'e = t"at date -"en t"e )rivile'ed co##unication -as #ade %& t"e client to t"e attorne& in relation to eit"er a cri#e co##itted in t"e )ast or BRT a cri#e intended to %e co##itted in t"e uture. 2@*%+7 Section 2@. Preli#inar& co##unications #ade or t"e )ur)ose o creatin' t"e attorne&>client relations"i) are -it"in t"e )rivile'e T"e co##unications covered %& t"e )rivile'e include ver%al state#ents and docu#ents or )a)ers entrusted to t"e attorne&$ and o acts learned %& t"e attorne& t"rou'" t"e act or a'enc& o "is client. RIANO: Re1uisites: 1.ul )ur)ose3 @. )ro essional le'al advice.tin'uis"ed and t"e co##unication$ i ot"er-ise co#)etent$ %eco#es ad#issi%le. B"ere a -ant o do#estic tran1uilit& e.toH includes )reli#inar& ne'otiations -it"in t"e )rivile'e T"e )rivile'e o a client to . PEOPLE V.tended to co##unications #ade or t"e )ur)ose o securin' t"e services o counsel even i t"e counsel later re uses t"e )ro essional relations"i).. Bit" a vie. T"e co##unication or advice #ustMve %een 'iven eit"er: a. intended or an unla. 27 8ases: <S V.to )ro essional e#)lo&#ent Per ected attorne&>client relations"i) not re1uired or t"e )rivile'e to e. 2011-2012 or in or#ation even )rior to t"e #arria'e 0 in t"is sense$ it is %roader %ecause it )revents testi#on& or or a'ainst t"e s)ouse on an& act and not #erel& a disclosure o con idential in or#ation 8an no lon'er %e invo. 8ARLOS *1J25+ B"ere a )rivile'ed co##unication ro# one s)ouse to anot"er co#es into t"e "ands o a t"ird )art&$ -4o collusion and voluntar& disclosure on t"e )art o eit"er o t"e s)ouses$ t"e )rivile'e is e. Attorne&>client )rivile'e 6R1?A.. o an occasional ailure o (ustice$ and -4c re(ects suc" evidence %ecause its ad#ission -ould lead to do#estic disunion and un"a))iness d. Identit& o interests %. Att&>client )rivile'e IOES NOT APPLC to co##unications: 1.to$ )ro essional e#)lo&#ent$ nor can an attorne&Ss secretar&$ steno'ra)"er$ or cler. %e e. ! T"e ollo-in' )ersons cannot testi & as to #atters learned in con idence in t"e ollo-in' cases: . Polic& o la. *%+ An attorne& cannot$ -it"out t"e consent o "is client$ %e e. intended to %e co##unicated to ot"ers3 ?.ists$ t"ere is dan'er o )unis"in' one s)ouse t"rou'" t"e ot"erMs "ostile testi#on& EE8EPTIONS: • In civil actions %et-een t"e s)ouses • In cri#inal cases or o enses co##itted %& one a'ainst t"e ot"er REASON 2OR EE8EPTIONS: B"ere #arital and do#estic relations are so strained t"at t"ereMs no #ore "ar#on& to %e )reserved or )eace and tran1uilit& -4c #a& %e distur%ed LA8<ROK V. • Insertion o t"e clause G-it" a vie.toH )ro essional e#)lo&#ent • :ence$ t"e )rivile'e is e.a#ined$ -it"out t"e consent o t"e client and "is e#)lo&er$ concernin' an& act t"e . ANTIPOLO *1J1L+ 2or t"e in or#ation to %e con idential$ it #ust %e #ade durin' and %& reason o t"e #arital relations and is intended not to %e s"ared -it" ot"ers. 2RAN8IS8O *1J@N+ Reasons or )ro"i%ition: a. T"e co##unication or advice #ust "ave %een 'iven in con idence ?. PEOPLE V.ed once t"e #arria'e is dissolved T"e )ro"i%ition is a testi#on& or or a'ainst t"e ot"er con idential nature received %& one s)ouse ro# t"e ot"er durin' t"e #arria'e 0 does not include acts #erel& o%served %& t"e s)ouse <NLESS suc" acts are intended as a #eans o conve&in' con idential co##unication %& one to t"e ot"er T"e )rivile'e does not cease (ust %ecause t"e #arria'e "as ended B"at is )ro"i%ited is t"e e. received ro# t"ird )ersons not actin' in %e"al o or as a'ents o t"e client3 or 5. 8onse1uent dan'er o )er(ur& c. A co##unication #ade %& t"e client to t"e attorne& or an advice 'iven %& t"e attorne& to "is client 2. Iis1uali ication %& reason o )rivile'ed co##unication..a#ined as to an& co##unication #ade %& t"e client to "i#$ or "is advice 'iven t"ereon in t"e course o $ or -it" a vie.evidence | 1st sem.

T"ere is no )articular #ode %& -"ic" a con idential co##unication s"all %e #ade %& a client to "is attorne&.. T"e la-&er>client con identialit& )rivile'e and la-&erMs lo&alt& to "is client e.a#ined as to an& advice or treat#ent 'iven %& "i# or an& in or#ation -"ic" "e #a& "ave ac1uired in attendin' suc" )atient in a )ro essional ca)acit&$ -"ic" in or#ation -as necessar& to ena%le "i# to act in ca)acit&$ and -"ic" -ould %lac.e u)on t"e advice o t"e attorne&$ Tin e ect$ "e is *or )ersoni ies+ t"e cor)oration -"en "e #a. KER8AIO V. • I t"e client see. REGALA V.ar.)ectation t"at it -ill %e revealed to ot"ers. SANIIGAN.ARTON V.ACAN *1JJL+ 28 • PEOPLE V. T"e e. T"e state#ents o t"e client need not "ave %een #ade to t"e attorne& in )erson. VITRIOLO T"e #ere relation o attorne& and client does not raise a )resu#)tion o con identialit&.s la-&erMs advice BRT a cri#e t"e or#er "as co##itted$ "e is 'iven t"e )rotection o t"e )rivile'e -"ic" cannot %e %ro.en %& t"e attorne& -4o t"e clientMs consent.ul )ur)ose )revents t"e )rivile'e ro# attac"in'. *<S v. T"ere can %e no attorne&> client )rivile'e -"ere t"e in or#ation is 'iven -it" t"e e.e "is disclosure to t"e la-&er$ and t"e )rivile'e -ould a))l&. T"e )rivile'e does not e.s le'al assistance..e no notice o t"e #anner in -"ic" it -as o%tained. B"ere disclosure -ould o)en t"e client to civil lia%ilit&$ "is identit& is )rivile'ed.ul end.ACAN *1JJN+ T"e rule on attorne&>client )rivile'e "as al-a&s re erred to Gan& co##unication$H -it"out distinction or 1uali ication. I t"e client -aives t"e )rivile'e$ no one else includin' t"e attorne& can invo. • T"ose #ade to t"e attorne&Ms secretar&$ cler. • T"e sa#e )rivile'e does not attac" -it" re'ard to a cri#e -"ic" a client intends to co##it t"erea ter or in t"e uture and or )ur)oses o -"ic" "e see.s t"e la-&erMs advice. • I t"e e#)lo&ee #a. doctrine$ non>)rivile'ed in or#ation$ suc" as t"e identit& o t"e client$ is )rotected i t"e revelation o suc" in or#ation -ould necessaril& reveal )rivile'ed in or#ation.in' le'al advice.tends even a ter t"e ter#ination o t"e relations"i). *c+ A )erson aut"oriFed to )ractice #edicine$ sur'er& or o%stetrics cannot in a civil case$ -it"out t"e consent o t"e )atient$ %e e. B"ere t"e aut"enticit& o suc" a docu#ent is ad#itted$ t"e court -ill ta. T"e content o an& client co##unication to a la-&er lies -it"in t"e )rivile'e i it is relevant to t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e le'al )ro%le# on -"ic" t"e client see.no-led'e ac1uired %& suc" e#)lo&ees in suc" ca)acit& are covered %& t"e )rivile'e.e it. SANIIGAN. P"&sician>)atient )rivile'e 6R1?A.er+ 2or t"e )rivile'e to e. Re1uisites: 1. LECTE ASP:ALT *1J2@+ B"en a docu#ent$ containin' ad#issions o t"e client$ co#es to t"e "and o a t"ird )art&$ and reac"es t"e adversar&$ it is ad#issi%le in evidence.tend to co##unications -"ere t"e clientMs )ur)ose is t"e urt"erance o a uture intended cri#e or raud$ or or t"e )ur)ose o co##ittin' a cri#e or a tort or t"ose #ade in urt"erance o illicit activit&. • T"e )rivile'e is not con ined to ver%al or -ritten co##unications #ade %& t"e client to "is attorne&$ %ut e. 2011-2012 • It is enou'" i "e reasona%l& %elieves t"at t"e )erson consulted is a la-&er$ alt"ou'" in act "e is not as in t"e case o a detective )retendin' to %e a la-&er.evidence | 1st sem. T"e co##unication #ade %& a client to "is attorne& #ust "ave %een trans#itted or t"e )ur)ose o see.ist$ )a&#ent o a ee is not essential. 2or t"e a))lication o t"e )rivile'e$ t"e )eriod to %e considered is t"e date -"en t"e )rivile'ed co##unication -as #ade %& t"e client to t"e attorne& in relation to eit"er a cri#e co##itted in t"e )ast or BRT a cri#e intended to %e co##itted in t"e uture..in' t"e co##unication$ o -"atever ran. *Peo)le v. In relation to t"e attorne&$ t"e )rivile'e is o-ned %& t"e client. Landor + • ysr 8lient identit& is )rivile'ed -"ere a stron' )ro%a%ilit& e. <S *1J81+ T"e attorne&>client )rivile'e a))lies -"en t"e client is a cor)oration. T"e co##unications #a& re er to antici)ated liti'ations or #a& not re er to an& liti'ation at all.e a su%stantial )art in a decision a%out an& action -"ic" t"e cor)oration #a& ta.to suc" relations"i) or suc" .ul )ur)ose or in urt"erance o a la. Iis1uali ication %& reason o )rivile'ed co##unication. <nder t"e last lin.tends as -ell to in or#ation co##unicated %& t"e client to t"e attorne& %& ot"er #eans. ORIENT INS<RAN8E V. 8ases: . 2or la-&er>client co##unication to %e )rivile'ed$ it #ust %e or a la. <PPO:N 8OKPANC V. T"e )"&sician is aut"oriFed to )ractice #edicine$ sur'er& or o%stetrics3 . ! T"e ollo-in' )ersons cannot testi & as to #atters learned in con idence in t"e ollo-in' cases: . or steno'ra)"er or trans#ission to t"e attorne& or t"e )ur)ose o t"e )ro essional relations"i) or -it" a vie. 2@*c+7 Section 2@. "e #a& %e$ is in a )osition to control or even to ta. . c.ists t"at revealin' t"e clientMs na#e -ould i#)licate t"at client in t"e ver& activit& or -"ic" "e sou'"t t"e la-&erMs advice.istence o an unla.en t"e re)utation o t"e )atient3 . ..e ore t"e state#ents o t"e client and t"e advice o t"e attorne& can %e dee#ed as )rivile'ed$ t"e sa#e s"ould "ave %een intended to %e con idential. T"e client #ust intend t"e co##unication to %e con idential.es t"e -"ole docu#ent ad#issi%le 0 )rivile'e is -aived as to ot"er )arts o t"e sa#e -ritin'. • • T"e )rivile'e is not con ined to co##unications re'ardin' actual )endin' cases. REVILLA *1J?A+ T"e introduction in evidence %& one )art& o )art o a -ritin' 6)rivile'ed #atter7 #a. T"e )rotection o t"e )rivile'e -ill 'enerall& survive t"e clientMs deat".

in' a disclosure o t"e con ession -it"out t"e consent o t"e )erson con essin'. 8A *1JJ2+ T"e )rivile'e is not violated %& )er#ittin' a )"&sician to 'ive e.a#inations are 'enerall& intended to %e divul'ed in court$ . ! T"e ollo-in' )ersons cannot testi & as to #atters learned in con idence in t"e ollo-in' cases: .a#iner$ t"e )art& e.ed in a civil case$ -"et"er t"e )atient is a )art& t"ereto or not ysr aside ro# t"e act t"at t"e doctorMs services -ere not or )ur)oses o #edical treat#ent.no-led'e o t"e )atient ac1uired t"rou'" t"e )"&sician>)atient relations"i). • T"e )riest or #inister "earin' t"e con ession in "is )ro essional ca)acit& is )ro"i%ited ro# #a. o Note: t"e )riest or #inister #ust %e dul& ordained or consecrated %& "is sect. T"e co##unication -as #ade to t"e )u%lic o icer in o icial con idence3 and 29 T"e )rivile'e IOES NOT APPLC -"ere: 1.clude ro# "is consideration "is )ersonal . e.& re1uestin' and o%tainin' a re)ort o t"e e. Iis1uali ication %& reason o )rivile'ed co##unication. an& treat#ent 'iven to t"e client3 ?.$ under t"e seal o t"e con essional.)ert o)inion testi#on&. d. 8o##unication is irrelevant to )ro essional e#)lo&#ent3 ?. @... t"e in or#ation -as intended to %e #ade )u%lic3 or 5..ul )ur)ose3 as -"en itMs intended or t"e co##ission or conceal#ent o a cri#e3 @. *21a+ Re1uisites: 1.or o t"e rules. T"e )rivile'e survives t"e deat" o t"e )atient. ! T"e ollo-in' )ersons cannot testi & as to #atters learned in con idence in t"e ollo-in' cases: .a#ine "i# in res)ect o t"e sa#e #ental or )"&sical e.tends to an& advice 'iven %& t"e #inister or )riest. t"at t"e in or#ation sou'"t to %e disclosed -ould tend to %lac. *@+ <nder R28$ t"e results o t"e )"&sical and #ental e. Suc" o)inion #ust e. 8learl&$ t"is does not all -it"in t"e clai#ed )ro"i%ition.ul one. ! ..a#ination so ordered or %& ta. Sec.. 8ases: LIK V.a#ined durin' "is ter# o o ice or a ter-ards$ as to co##unications #ade to "i# in o icial con idence$ -"en t"e court inds t"at t"e )u%lic interest -ould su er %& t"e disclosure. T"ere could also %e a -aiver %& o)eration o la. T"e )rivile'e re1uires t"at t"e co##unications -ere #ade )ursuant to a reli'ious dut& en(oined in t"e course o t"e disci)line o t"e sect or deno#ination to -"ic" t"e& %elon' and #ust %e con idential and )enitential in c"aracter$ e. T"e )rivile'e does not a))l& to s"ield t"e co##ission o a cri#e or -"en t"e )ur)ose is an unla.evidence | 1st sem. t"e co##unication -as not 'iven in con idence3 2. T"e )rivile'e also e. NOTE: t"e co##unication #ust %e #ade )ursuant to con essions o sins. T"e )rivile'e #a& %e -aived %& t"e )atient. 2011-2012 2. t"e co##unication -as #ade or an unla.a#ination.in' t"e con ession$ %e e. Rationale: to encoura'e t"e )atient to reel& disclose all t"e #atters -"ic" #a& aid in t"e dia'nosis in t"e treat#ent o a disease or an in(ur& T"e in or#ation -"ic" cannot %e disclosed re ers to: 1.a#ined as to an& con ession #ade to or an& advice 'iven %& "i# in "is )ro essional c"aracter in t"e course o disci)line en(oined %& t"e c"urc" to -"ic" t"e #inister or )riest %elon's3 . • B"ere t"e )enitent discussed %usiness arran'e#ents -it" t"e )riest$ t"e )rivile'e does not a))l&. an& advice 'iven to t"e client3 2..en t"e )atientMs re)utation3 and T"e )rivile'e is invo.en t"e re)utation o t"e )atient T"e rule doesnMt re1uire t"at t"e )"&sician>)atient relations"i) %e a result o a contractual relations"i). 8A *1JJ@+ In t"e instant case$ t"e )erson a'ainst -"o# t"e )rivile'e is clai#ed is not one dul& aut"oriFed to )ractice #edicine$ sur'er&$ or o%stetrics. ItMs necessar& or t"e o)eration o t"e )rivile'e t"at t"e )"&sician is actin' in "is G)ro essional ca)acit&H and t"at t"e advice or treat#ent is 'iven or ac1uired in suc" ca)acit&. State secrets 6/2@*e+$ R1?A7 Section 2@. t"ere -as a -aiver o t"e )rivile'e eit"er %& )rovisions o contract or laRIANO: T"e )rivile'e a))lies to a civil case$ -"et"er t"e )atient is a )art& or not.a#ination o a )erson$ -"en ordered %& t"e court$ are intended to %e #ade )u%lic$ "ence t"e& can %e divul'ed in t"at )roceedin' and cannot %e o%(ected to on t"e 'round o )rivile'e. ?. Also$ results o auto)sies or )ost#orte# e. RIANO: T"e )erson #a.a#ined or #a& t"erea ter e.a#ined -aives an& )rivile'e "e #a& "ave in t"at action or an& ot"er involvin' t"e sa#e controvers&$ re'ardin' t"e testi#on& o ever& ot"er )erson -"o "as e. an& in or#ation ac1uired in attendin' suc" )atient )rovided t"at t"e advice$ treat#ent or in or#ation -as #ade or ac1uired in a )ro essional ca)acit& and -as necessar& to ena%le "i# to act in t"at ca)acit&3 and @.a#ination o Persons ..ecuted %& #edical )ractitioners.. Baiver o )rivile'e.in' t"e de)osition o t"e e. Iis1uali ication %& reason o )rivile'ed co##unication.'. T"e in or#ation -as ac1uired or t"e advice or treat#ent -as 'iven %& "i# in "is )ro essional ca)acit& or t"e )ur)ose o treatin' and curin' t"e )atient3 T"e in or#ation$ advice or treat#ent$ i revealed$ -ould %lac.in' t"e con ession "olds t"e )rivile'e. :e is si#)l& t"e )atientMs "us%and -"o -is"es to testi & on a docu#ent e. RRO:N V. @. Priest4#inister>)enitent )rivile'e 6/2@*d+$ R1?A7 Section 2@. *e+ A )u%lic o icer cannot %e e. *d+ A #inister or )riest cannot$ -it"out t"e consent o t"e )erson #a. Rule 28: P"&sical and Kental E.

*8"aveF v. SENATE V.an. ERKITA *2AAL+ E.in' institutions as a result o suc" violation$ ne'li'ence$ a%use$ #al easance$ #is easance or ailure to e. *2Aa+ . ! No )erson #a& %e co#)elled to testi & a'ainst "is )arents$ ot"er direct ascendants$ c"ildren or ot"er direct descendants.o Sentral or t"ird )arties: Provided$ "o-ever$ T"at an& data or in or#ation re1uired to %e su%#itted to t"e President and4or t"e 8on'ress$ or to %e )u%lis"ed under t"e )rovisions o t"is Act s"all not %e considered con idential. T"ereMs no s)eci ic )rovision in t"e 8entral .an'. Eac" s)ouse s"all )ro)ortionatel& %ear t"e a#il& e.ercise e. RIANO: National securit& #atters and State secrets are con idential.e in an& case a'ainst an& o "is )arents$ direct ascendants$ c"ildren$ or direct descendants. '.an'. Act+$ /1L.ecutive )rivile'e to %e invo. 8ase: PEOPLE V.an'.ed$ t"ere #ust %e a or#al clai# o t"e )rivile'e$ lod'ed %& t"e "ead o t"e de)art#ent -"ic" "as control o t"e #atter$ and t"at a or#al and )ro)er clai# o t"e )rivile'e re1uires a )recise and certain reason or )reservin' con identialit&$ %ut 8on'ress #ust not re1uire t"e e. Secrets involvin' #ilitar&$ di)lo#atic and national securit& #atters and in or#ation on investi'ations o cri#es %& la30 .ecutive )rivile'e. 5?$ as a#ended %& RA 1@NN+ <nder RA 5?$ t"e )u%lis"er$ editor or dul& accredited re)orter o an& ne-s)a)er$ #a'aFine or )eriodical o 'eneral circulation cannot %e co#)elled to reveal t"e source o an& ne-s re)ort or in or#ation a))earin' in said )u%lication -"ic" -as related in con idence to "i#$ unless t"e court or a :ouse or co##ittee o 8on'ress inds t"at suc" revelation is de#anded %& t"e securit& o t"e State. Ne-s#anMs Privile'e *RA No.an. P8GG+ Presidential co##unications all under t"e )rotection o e. Parental and ilial )rivile'e Section 25.oard or t"e Governor3 or *2+ t"e use o suc" in or#ation or )ersonal 'ain or to t"e detri#ent o t"e Govern#ent$ t"e .oard$ o icials$ e.ER *1JN8+ 2.evidence | 1st sem. 215.e ot"er )rivile'es. TESTIKONIAL PRIVILEGE . A court -ill #ost li.ecutive to state t"e reasons or t"e clai# -it" suc" )articularit& as to co#)el t"e disclosure o t"e in or#ation -"ic" t"e )rivile'e is #eant to )rotect. Res)onsi%ilit&.)enses. 2011-2012 ysr en orce#ent a'encies %e ore t"e )rosecution o t"e accused -ere e.ot" )arental and ilial )rivile'es are 'ranted to an& )erson$ -"ic" )rivile'es a'ainst co#)ulsor& testi#on& "e can invo.AN8O 2ILIPINO V.e #ilitar&$ di)lo#atic and national securit& secrets. INVEN8ION *2AA?+ T"e rule on ilial )rivile'e re ers to a )rivile'e not to testi &$ -"ic" can %e invo.o Sentral or: *1+ t"e disclosure o an& in or#ation o a con idential nature$ or an& in or#ation on t"e discussions or resolutions o t"e Konetar& .oard deli%erations on t"e closure o .a#iners$ and e#)lo&ees o t"e .el& u)"old t"e )rivile'e. Related )rovision: 88 215 Art.8entral .OARI *1J8L+ Ta)es and transcri)ts o Konetar& .o Sentral$ or is -it" )rior aut"oriFation o t"e Konetar& .an'.ercise e.traordinar& dili'ence in t"e )er or#ance o "is duties s"all %e "eld lia%le or an& loss or in(ur& su ered %& t"e .ed or -aived li.ecutive )rivile'e: t"e )o-er o t"e 'overn#ent to -it""old in or#ation ro# t"e )u%lic$ t"e courts$ and t"e 8on'ress T"ere are certain t&)es o in or#ation -"ic" t"e 'overn#ent #a& -it""old ro# t"e )u%lic li.e#)ted ro# t"e ri'"t to in or#ation.o Sentral -"o -ill ull& violate t"is Act or -"o are 'uilt& o ne'li'ence$ a%uses or acts o #al easance or #is easance or ail to e. T"at )u%lic interest -ould su er %& t"e disclosure o suc" co##unication$ as in t"e case o State secrets.o Sentral or ot"er %an.oard$ or a%out t"e con idential o)erations o t"e .an'. 8ases: . Parental and ilial )rivile'e. B"ere no )u%lic interest -ould %e )re(udiced$ t"is rule does not a))l&.2 #a& %e con idential$ %ut t"e& are not necessaril& a%solute and )rivile'ed. Act -4c )ro"i%its a%solutel& t"e courts ro# conductin' an in1uir& on said deli%erations -"en t"ese are relevant or #aterial to a #atter su%(ect o a suit )endin' %e ore it.an'. KONETARC . RA NL5? *Ne. 8ase: IN T:E KATTER O2 2AR. Senate: or t"e clai# o e. > Ke#%ers o t"e Konetar& . Neri v.traordinar& dili'ence.o Sentral$ unless t"e disclosure is in connection -it" t"e )er or#ance o o icial unctions -it" t"e . Si#ilar res)onsi%ilit& s"all a))l& to #e#%ers$ o icers$ and e#)lo&ees o t"e .

It does not include "is testi#on& as a -itness in court.no-led'e L. /1?$ R1?2 Section 1?.)ress Kade onl& %& t"e )art& "i#sel and$ in so#e instances$ are ad#issi%le a'ainst "is co>accused Ieclaration a'ainst interest Kade a'ainst t"e )ro)rietar& or )ecuniar& interest o t"e )art& Ad#ission Need not %e #ade a'ainst t"e )art&Ms )ro)rietar& or )ecuniar& interest$ alt"ou'" it -ill 'reatl& en"ance its )ro%ative -ei'"t i it %e so #ade Kade %& t"e )art& "i#sel and is a )ri#ar& evidence and co#)etent t"ou'" "e %e )resent in court and read& to testi & Kade an& ti#e Kade %& a )erson -"o is eit"er deceased or una%le to testi & Kade ante lite #ota# 31 . Tia 2on'+ o :o-ever$ or a reenact#ent to %e 'iven an& evidentiar& -ei'"t$ t"e validit& and e icac& o t"e con ession #ust irst %e s"o-n. Rno-in'l& and voluntaril& #ade @. A leadin' 1uestion )ro)ounded to a -itness #a&$ %& reactin' to an in erence in "is #ind$ cause "i# to testi & in accordance -4 t"e su''estion %& t"e 1uestion3 "is ans-er PART TBO I. // 2L 9 ?2$ R1?A Section 2L. *Peo)le v. It is not ad#issi%le in evidence. Ad#issions a'ainst Interest 1. *22+ AIKISSION: an& state#ent o act #ade %& a )art& a'ainst "is interest or un avora%le to t"e conclusion or -"ic" "e contends or is inconsistent -it" t"e acts alle'ed %& "i#.e ore a -itness can %e i#)eac"ed %& evidence t"at "e "as #ade at ot"er ti#es state#ents inconsistent -it" "is )resent testi#on&$ t"e state#ents #ust %e related to "i#$ -it" t"e circu#stances o t"e ti#es and )laces and t"e )ersons )resent$ and "e #ust %e as.tra(udicial state#ent o a )art& -"ic" is %ein' ur'ed or ad#ission in court. . Involves #atters o act$ not o la2.evidence | 1st sem. *1L+ Leadin' 1uestion: one -4c su''ests to t"e -itness t"e ans-er desired. *Peo)le v.)ress or tacit Ka& %e #ade %& t"ird )ersons and$ in certain cases$ are ad#issi%le a'ainst a )art& 8on ession A state#ent o act -"ic" involves an ac. ! An act or declaration #ade in t"e )resence and -it"in t"e "earin' or o%servation o a )art& -"o does or sa&s not"in' -"en t"e act or declaration is suc" as naturall& to call or action or co##ent i not true$ and -"en )ro)er and )ossi%le or "i# to do so$ #a& %e 'iven in evidence a'ainst "i#. • Eloi'n#ent: causin' t"e disa))earance or non> availa%ilit& o -itnesses Ad#ission A state#ent o act -"ic" does not involve an ac. Adverse to t"e ad#itterMs interests$ ot"er-ise it -ould %e sel >servin' and inad#issi%le Sel >servin' declaration: one -"ic" "as %een #ade e.)ected i t"e )art& still "as to resort to a -ritten re)l&. :o. T"e act ad#itted or t"e in erence to %e dra-n ro# "is silence is #aterial to t"e issue T"e rule on ad#ission %& silence a))lies -"ere a )erson -as sur)rised in t"e act *<S v. Anc"eta+ • Voluntar& )artici)ation in a reenact#ent o t"e cri#e conducted %& t"e )olice is considered a tacit ad#ission o co#)licit&. Kisleadin' 1uestion: one -4c assu#es acts not in evidence or -4o su icient %asis or -4c assu#es testi#on& or )roo -4c "as not %een 'iven. :e #ust "ave "eard or o%served t"e act or declaration o t"e ot"er )erson 2. :e #ustMve "ad an interest to o%(ect$ suc" t"at "e -ould naturall& "ave done so i t"e state#ent -as not true 5. :e #ustMve "ad t"e o))ortunit& to den& it ?. AIKISSIONS ANI 8ON2ESSIONS A. 8ate'orical and de inite ?. 2011-2012 ysr Section ?2. Sel >servin' testi#on&: t"e e. Re1uisites or ad#ission to %e ad#issi%le: 1. Ad#ission o a )art&. Ad#ission %& silence. Also$ evidence o atte#)ts to su))ress evidence$ as %& destruction o docu#entar& evidence or eloi'n#ent o -itnesses$ are ad#issi%le under t"e sa#e rationale. :e #ustMve understood t"e state#ent @. • B"ere t"e state#ent -as not #ade in antici)ation o a uture liti'ation$ t"e sa#e cannot %e considered sel > servin'.a&+ or even i "e is alread& in t"e custod& o t"e )olice *Peo)le v. ! T"e act$ declaration or o#ission o a )art& as to a relevant act #a& %e 'iven in evidence a'ainst "i#. ! . T"e rule does not a))l& i t"e state#ents adverse to t"e )art& -ere #ade in t"e course o an o icial investi'ation *<S v.-itness i#)eac"ed %& evidence o inconsistent state#ents. T"e acts -ere -it"in "is . de la 8ruF+ 2.ed on t"e t"eor& t"at -"ile t"e )art& -ouldMve i##ediatel& reacted %& a denial i t"e state#ents -ere orall& #ade in "is )resence$ suc" )ro#)t res)onse can 'enerall& not %e e. Re1uisites to %e ad#issi%le a'ainst a )art& as an ad#ission %& silence: 1. I t"e state#ents %e in -ritin' t"e& #ust %e s"o-n to t"e -itness %e ore an& 1uestion is )ut to "i# concernin' t"e#. :o-ever$ i t"ere -as no suc" #utual corres)ondence$ t"e rule is rela.)lain t"e#.no-led'#ent o 'uilt or lia%ilit& Ka& %e e.no-led'#ent o 'uilt or lia%ilit& Kust %e e.tra(udiciall& %& t"e )art& to avor "is interests.ed -"et"er "e #ade suc" state#ents$ and i so$ allo-ed to e. Navoa+ T"e rule a))lies to adverse state#ents in -ritin' i t"e )art& -as carr&in' on a #utual corres)ondence -it" t"e declarant. It "as no a))lication to a court declaration. 2li'"t ro# (ustice is an ad#ission %& conduct and circu#stantial evidence o consciousness o 'uilt.

to %e )resented %& t"e )ro)onent$ as in t"e case o su%scri%in' -itnesses to a -ill. T"e acts -ere -it"in "is . Iela 8ruF+ Gen rule: a )art& -"o voluntaril& o ers t"e testi#on& o a -itness in t"e case is %ound %& t"e testi#on& o said -itness.AI IE8ISION7 T"e rule allo-in' silence o a )erson to %e ta. Kust a))ear t"at )art& "eard and understood t"e state#ent %. *Escoto v.evidence | 1st sem. Kolo+ It is %elieved t"at i t"e )rior inconsistent state#ent a))ears in a de)osition o t"e adverse )art&$ and not a #ere -itness$ t"at adverse )art& -"o testi ies #a& %e i#)eac"ed -4o la&in' t"e )redicate$ as suc" )rior state#ents are in t"e 32 ysr nature o ad#issions o said adverse )art&.e state#ents o a )art& to t"e case 8ases: P:ILIPPINE TR<ST 8O. B"ere a -itnessM )revious state#ents are o ered as evidence o an ad#ission$ and not #erel& to i#)eac" "i#$ t"e rule on la&in' a )redicate does not a))l& *Puan Cs#ael 9 8o.e.a#ination o a -itness -"o is i##ature3 a'ed 9 in ir#3 in %ad )"&sical condition3 uneducated3 i'norant o $ or unaccusto#ed to$ court )roceedin's3 ine. 8on ront "i# -4 suc" state#ents$ -4 t"e circu#stances under -4c t"e& -ere #ade3 2. Pineda+ Leadin' 1uestions #a& %e )er#itted in t"e e. ESTATE O2 PES<S S.ein' an ad#ission a'ainst interest$ t"e docu#ents are t"e %est evidence -"ic" a ords t"e 'reatest certaint& o t"e acts in dis)ute.it or resi'nation. 8ontradictor& evidence 2.its su))ort ro# "i# as President and co##ander>in>c"ie .OTI8A RAKIREQ *1J?2+ Ad#ission #ade in testi#on& -as adverse to "is interest 0 considered (udicial ad#ission PEOPLE V. E. • Re1uisites: a. . Evidence o %ias$ interest$ )re(udice$ or inco#)etence A )art& can )eac" "is o-n -itness onl& %&: 1.en as an ad#ission %& "i# R<2INA PATIS 2A8TORC V. or understand t"e En'lis" lan'ua'e or onl& i#)er ectl& a#iliar t"ere-it". :o. Evidence o %ad c"aracter @.)lain t"e inconsistenc&. as evidence or t"e latter or to i#)eac" or contradict said )art& de)onent t"rou'" inconsistent state#ents t"erein. • Pones e. :ostile -itness3 2. 2011-2012 #a& %e Yan ec"o o t"e 1uestionM t"an a 'enuine recollection o events. T"us$ under R2?. Evidence o )rior inconsistent state#ents In t"e case o "ostile -itnesses$ adverse )art& -itnesses or involuntar& -itnesses$ t"e& can also %e i#)eac"ed %& ot"er #odes o i#)eac"#ent$ aside ro# contradictor& state#ents and )rior inconsistent state#ents #ade %& t"e#. B"ere t"e -itness is t"e adverse )art& or t"e re)resentative o a (uridical )erson -4c is t"e adverse )art&3 and ?. IESIERTO *2AA1+ An ado)tive ad#ission is a )art&Ms reaction to a state#ent or action %& anot"er )erson -"en it is reasona%le to treat t"e )art&Ms reaction as an ad#ission o so#et"in' stated or i#)lied %& t"e ot"er )erson.t"e nature and location o t"e lot su%(ect o a land re'istration a))lication3 it is derived ro# a "&dro'ra)"ic surve& -"ic" is .@*%+$ t"e de)osition o an adverse )art& #a& %e used %& an& )art& or an& )ur)ose$ i.in' in co#)re"ension o 1uestions or slo. Tantoco+ A )art& can i#)eac" t"e adverse )art&Ms -itness %&: 1.to understand3 dea 9 du#%3 or una%le to s)ea.alu&ot+ :o-ever$ suc" de ect in t"e i#)eac"#ent o t"e -itness is dee#ed -aived i no o%(ection on t"at 'round is raised -"en t"e docu#ent involved is o ered or ad#ission. PARAGSA *1JN8+ 6Sir: .LI8 *2AAN+ A "&dro'ra)"ic #a) is not t"e %est evidence to s"o. Give "i# a c"ance to e. As. AL<SITAIN *2AA@+ • • . :as"i#+ and t"e sa#e -ould a))l& to li. Evidence o )rior inconsistent state#ents ?. *Peo)le v. C<P<I8O V. B"en t"e -itness is not voluntaril& o ered %ut is re1uired %& la. REP<.H Petitioner did not o%(ect to t"e su''ested o)tion %ut si#)l& said "e could never leave t"e countr&.H • In t"e An'ara Iiar&$ t"e o)tions o t"e )etitioner started to d-indle -"en t"e ar#ed orces -it"dre. State#ent -as in res)ect to so#e #atter a ectin' "is ri'"ts or in -"ic" "e -as t"en interested$ and callin'$ naturall&$ or an ans-er d. V. Rationale or rule 0 )resu#)tion t"at no #an -ould declare an&t"in' a'ainst "i#sel unless suc" declaration -as true It does not #atter t"at t"e ad#ission -as sel >servin' -"en it -as #ade$ so lon' as it is a'ainst t"e )art&Ms )resent clai#.)lain t"e discre)ancies$ t"e i#)eac"#ent is inco#)lete. Sec. *2ernandeF v. "i# -"et"er "e #ade suc" state#ents3 and ?.en as an i#)lied ad#ission o t"e trut" o state#ents uttered in "is )resence is a))lica%le in cri#inal cases.ec. T"us$ E. :e -as at li%ert& to inter)ose a denial c. T"e act ad#itted or t"e in erence to %e dra-n ro# "is silence -ould %e #aterial to t"e issue ESTRAIA V. PetitionerMs silence on t"is and ot"er related su''estions can %e ta. *<S v. ANTIG<A .)lains t"at t"e G%asis or ad#issi%ilit& o ad#issions #ade vicariousl& is t"at arisin' ro# t"e rati ication or ado)tion %& t"e )art& o t"e state#ents -"ic" t"e ot"er )erson "ad #ade. Senate President Pi#entel to advise )etitioner to consider t"e o)tion o Gdi'ni ied e.no-led'e e.)erienced3 unso)"isticated3 ee%le> #inded3 con used 9 a'itated3 terri ied3 ti#id or e#%arrassed -"ile on t"e stand3 lac. o <nless t"e -itness is 'iven t"e o))ortunit& to e. *Peo)le v.ce)tions: 1.$ Inc. An'ara "ad to as.to i#)eac" a -itness %& )rior inconsistent state#ents: %& la&in' t"e )redicate 1. 8ontradictor& evidence: ot"er testi#on& o t"e sa#e -itness$ or ot"er evidence )resented %& "i# in t"e sa#e case$ %ut not t"e testi#on& o anot"er -itness Prior inconsistent state#ents: oral or docu#entar& state#ents #ade %& t"e -itness sou'"t to %e i#)eac"ed on occasions ot"er t"an t"e trial in -"ic" "e is testi &in'. Evidence contradictor& to "is testi#on& 2. v.

PEOPLE *2AAL+ O er o co#)ro#ise %& accused #a& %e received in evidence as an i#)lied ad#ission o 'uilt in cri#inal cases EE8EPT in cases involvin' 1uasi>o enses or cri#inal ne'li'ence or t"ose allo-ed %& la. Ad#ission %& t"ird )art&.to %e co#)ro#ised. 6Ocular ins)ections tru#) #a)7 .s o cri#inal action a'ainst "i#. 5.to %e co#)ro#ised$ an o er o co#)ro#ised %& t"e accused #a& %e received in evidence as an i#)lied ad#ission o 'uilt. /1* +$ R11L // 1 9 2$ R118 /2A@$ RA 8@2@$ Ta. // 2$ @$ L$ 9 1A$ PI No. An o er to )a& or t"e )a&#ent o #edical$ "os)ital or ot"er e. A )lea o 'uilt& later -it"dra-n$ or an unacce)ted o er o a )lea o 'uilt& to lesser o ense$ is not ad#issi%le in evidence a'ainst t"e accused -"o #ade t"e )lea or o er.ce)t t"ose alread& iled in court and t"ose involvin' raud. INS<LAR L<K. Re or# Act o 1JJN ysr An o er to )a& or t"e actual )a&#ent o t"e #edical$ "os)ital or ot"er e.ce)tions: 1. LAK. Insular Lu#%er+ 8RIKINAL 8ASES An o er o co#)ro#ise is an i#)lied ad#ission o 'uilt$ alt"ou'" t"e accused #a& %e )er#itted to )rove t"at suc" o er -as not #ade under consciousness o 'uilt %ut #erel& to avoid t"e ris. *Peo)le v.. /?1: T"ird )erson is a )riv& o t"e )art& Section ?@. T"e a#end#ent re'ardin' t"e inad#issi%ilit& o a )lea o 'uilt& later -it"dra-n or an unacce)ted o er to )lead 'uilt& to a lesser o ense is a conse1uence o t"e )resent )rovisions in cri#inal )rocedure on )lea %ar'ainin'. O er o co#)ro#ise not ad#issi%le.)enses occasioned %& an in(ur& is not ad#issi%le in evidence as )roo o civil or cri#inal lia%ilit& or t"e in(ur&.AT<LANON V. /2N$ R1?A Section 2N.ce)t as "ereina ter )rovided.)enses %& reason o t"e victi#Ms in(uries is not ad#issi%le to )rove civil or cri#inal lia%ilit& t"ere or. In cri#inal cases$ e. 8o#)ro#ises @. • :o-ever$ t"e accused #a& s"o. 2011-2012 #ainl& used or navi'ation )ur)oses. 6/1* +$ R11L3 // 192$ R1187 ?. Si#ilar acts as evidence. 15A8 A#ica%le settle#ent at %aran'a& level 8ases: VARAIERO V.evidence | 1st sem. 2.)rovides t"at t"e )a&#ent o an& internal revenue ta.no-led'e3 identit&$ )lan$ s&ste#$ sc"e#e$ "a%it$ custo# or usa'e$ and t"e li. GOIOC *1JJ5+ Generall&$ an o er o co#)ro#ise in a cri#inal case is ad#issi%le as evidence a'ainst t"e )art& #a. B"ile ra)e cases can in e ect %e co#)ro#ised %& actual #arria'e o t"e )arties since cri#inal lia%ilit& is e. 8. Res Inter Alios Acta *// 28 9 ?@$ R1?A+ Section 28. 8IVIL 8ASES As a rule$ an o er o co#)ro#ise in a civil case is not a tacit ad#ission o lia%ilit& and cannot %e )roved over t"e o%(ection o t"e o eror$ unless suc" o er is clearl& not onl& to G%u& )eaceH %ut a#ounts to an ad#ission o lia%ilit&$ t"e o ered co#)ro#ise %ein' directed onl& to t"e a#ount to %e )aid. 1.II *2AA?+ Plea or or'iveness is analo'ous to an atte#)t to co#)ro#ise$ and an o er o co#)ro#ise %& accused #a& %e received in evidence as an i#)lied ad#ission o 'uilt .ce)t t"ose involvin' 1uasi>o enses *cri#inal ne'li'ence+ or t"ose allo-ed %& la. An o er o #arria'e %& t"e accused$ durin' t"e investi'ation o t"e ra)e case$ is also an ad#ission o 'uilt. *25a+ 2irst %ranc" o t"e rule o Gres inter alios acta alteri nocere non de%etH E.ER *1J2@+ GEN R<LE: o er o co#)ro#ise is inad#issi%le EE8EPTION: -"ere a#ount na#ed in t"e o er to acce)t a certain su# in settle#ent a))ears to "ave %een arrived at as a air esti#ate o value$ it is relevant *t"us ad#issi%le+ PEOPLE V.in' it. /?A: T"ird )erson is a co>cons)irator ?.tin'uis"ed$ an o er to co#)ro#ise or a #onetar& consideration$ and not to #arr& t"e victi#$ is an i#)lied ad#ission o 'uilt. /2J: B"ere t"e t"ird )erson is a )artner$ a'ent$ (oint o-ner$ (oint de%tor or "as a (oint interest -it" t"e )art& 2. Ka& all under /2J$ R1?A 8ri#inal cases involvin' cri#inal ne'li'ence$ or t"e 1uasi> o enses conte#)lated in RP8 ?L5$ are allo-ed to %e co#)ro#ised under t"e a#end#ent to t"is section$ "ence an o er o settle#ent is not an i#)lied ad#ission o 'uilt. *El Varadero de Kanila vs.e.t"at t"e o er -as #ade #erel& to avoid t"e inconvenience o i#)rison#ent or so#e ot"er reason (usti &in' a clai# t"at t"e o er -as not an ad#ission o 'uilt PEOPLE V. #a& %e co#)ro#ised$ and all cri#inal violations #a& li. *@8a+ . Good Sa#aritan doctrine 33 In )rosecutions or violation o t"e internal revenue la-s$ suc" o ers o co#)ro#ise are not ad#issi%le in evidence as t"e la. ! T"e ri'"ts o a )art& cannot %e )re(udiced %& an act$ declaration$ or o#ission o anot"er$ e. ! In civil cases$ an o er o co#)ro#ise is not an ad#ission o an& lia%ilit&$ and is not ad#issi%le in evidence a'ainst t"e o eror. KanFano: t"e atte#)t o t"e )arents o t"e accused to settle t"e case -it" t"e co#)lainant -as considered an i#)lied ad#ission o 'uilt 0 X\ Note: atte#)t to settle #ade durin' trial. ValdeF+ Peo)le v.e-ise %e co#)ro#ised$ e. ! Evidence t"at one did or did not do a certain t"in' at one ti#e is not ad#issi%le to )rove t"at "e did or did not do t"e sa#e or si#ilar t"in' at anot"er ti#e3 %ut it #a& %e received to )rove a s)eci ic intent or .

EE8EPTIONS: B"ere evidence o si#ilar acts #a& )rove a. *Acenas v. ! T"e act or declaration o a )artner or a'ent o t"e )art& -it"in t"e sco)e o "is aut"orit& and durin' t"e e.evidence | 1st sem. SANIIGAN.t"at "e "ad aut"orit& to con ess (ud'#ent 0 suc" #ust %e clear.istence o t"e )artners"i) or a'enc&$ #a& %e 'iven in evidence a'ainst suc" )art& a ter t"e )artners"i) or a'enc& is s"o-n %& evidence ot"er t"an suc" act or declaration. V. *8ruF v. Duerol+ %. a )lan4s&ste#4sc"e#e d.cons)irac&. T"e sa#e rule a))lies to t"e act or declaration o a (oint o-ner$ (oint de%tor$ or ot"er )erson (ointl& interested -it" t"e )art&. esta%lis"ed custo#s$ usa'es$ and t"e li. /2J$ R1?A Section 2J. a s)eci ic intent or . 2011-2012 Second %ranc" o res inter alios acta * irst %ranc" is R1?A / 28: t"e ri'"ts o a )art& cannot %e )re(udiced %& an act$ declaration$ or o#ission o anot"er+ ysr a. Re1uisites or a))lication: 1. *Paucian v. Proo o cons)irac& #ost re1uentl& #ade %& evidence o a c"ain o circu#stances onl& PEOPLE V.ce)tions to t"e Res Inter Alios Acta Rule 1. Ad#ission %& cons)irator.istence o t"e assent o #inds involved in a cons)irac& #a& %e$ and ro# t"e secrec& o t"e cri#e$ usuall& #ust %e$ in erred %& t"e court ro# )roo o acts and circu#stances -"ic"$ ta.tra(udicial acts or state#ents and not to testi#on& 'iven on t"e -itness stand at t"e trial -"ere 34 .ce)tion. :ence$ t"e evidentiar& rule 'uards a'ainst t"e )ractical inconvenience o tr&in' collateral issues and )rotractin' t"e trial and )revents sur)rise or ot"er #isc"ie )re(udicial to liti'ants. R12N. Sison+ 8ases: A8ENAS V.t"at -"at a )erson "as done at one ti#e is )ro%ative o t"e contention t"at "e "as done a si#ilar act at anot"er ti#e. As a rule$ state#ents #ade a ter a )artners"i) "as %een dissolved do not all -it"in t"is e. *2N+ T"is rule a))lies onl& to e. • B"ere t"e ad#issions are #ade in connection -4 t"e -indin' u) o t"e )artners"i) a airs$ said ad#issions are still ad#issi%le as t"e )artner is actin' as an a'ent o "is co>)artners in said -indin'>u). Ad#ission %& cons)irators */?A$ R1?A+ Section ?A.en$ t"at is$ in solidu#$ and not #anco#unada. Ad#ission %& a co>)artner or a'ent Ad#issions %& counsel are ad#issi%le a'ainst t"e client as t"e or#er acts in re)resentation and as an a'ent o t"e client$ su%(ect to t"e li#itation t"at t"e sa#e s"ould not a#ount to a co#)ro#ise */2?$ R1?8+ or con ession o (ud'#ent. Ad#ission %& co>)artner or a'ent. Iran'$ Peo)le v.no-led'e %. T"at t"e )artners"i)$ a'enc&$ or (oint interest is esta%lis"ed %& evidence ot"er t"an t"e act or declaration3 2. Liera+ Evidence o anot"er cri#e is inad#issi%le -"ere t"e evidence is to )rove t"at t"e accused co##itted anot"er cri#e -"oll& inde)endent o t"at or -"ic" "e is on trial."is )resence at t"e scene o t"e cri#e *Peo)le v. a s)eci ic "a%it e. E.ACAN *2AA?+ Iirect )roo is not essential to s"o.en to'et"er$ a))arentl& indicate t"at t"e& are #erel& )arts o so#e co#)lete -"ole. T"e )"rase G(oint de%torH s"ould %e understood accordin' to its #eanin' in t"e co##on la. 8A+ T"e ad#issi%ilit& o si#ilar acts or )revious conduct -ould de)end on t"e )ur)oses or -"ic" suc" conduct or acts are o ered. Suc" act or declaration #ust "ave %een #ade durin' t"e e.s&ste# ro# -"ic" t"e )rovision -as ta. *Peo)le v. ! T"e act or declaration o a cons)irator relatin' to t"e cons)irac& and durin' its e. identit& c. NLR8 *2AAL+ A (ud'#ent a))rovin' a co#)ro#ise a'ree#ent cannot "ave t"e e ect o res (udicata u)on non>si'natories since t"e re1uire#ent o identit& o )arties is not satis ied 0 t"e union "as no aut"orit& to co#)ro#ise t"e individual clai#s o #e#%ers -"o didnMt consent to t"e settle#ent 2.21 o t"e old Ro8 states t"at s)ecial aut"orit& is needed to co#)ro#ise t"eir clientMs liti'ation P:IL. PO<RNALISTS$ IN8. Evidence o si#ilar acts or occurrences co#)els t"e de endant to #eet alle'ations not #entioned in t"e co#)laint$ con uses "i# in "is de ense$ raises a variet& o relevant issues$ and diverts t"e attention o t"e court ro# t"e issues i##ediatel& %e ore it. Asinas+ RIANO: T"e rule )ro"i%its t"e ad#ission o G)ro)ensit& evidence$H evidence t"at tends to s"o.istence o t"e )artners"i)$ a'enc&$ or (oint interest Re er to 88 18A? *on )artners+$ 1J1A *a'ents+$ @8N *co> o-ners+$ and 1222 *solidar& de%tors+. /2?$ R1?8 • • A))lies to %ot" civil and cri#inal cases Strictl& en orced in all cases -"ere a))lica%le GEN R<LE: Evidence t"at one did or did not do a certain t"in' at one ti#e is not ad#issi%le to )rove t"at "e did or did not do t"e sa#e or si#ilar t"in' at anot"er ti#e. 8ases: ALVIQO V.e Evidence o anot"er cri#e is ad#issi%le in a )rosecution or ro%%er& -"ere it "as t"e tendenc& to identi & t"e accused or s"o. T"e e. T"e act or declaration is -it"in t"e sco)e o t"e )artners"i)$ a'enc&$ or (oint interest3 and ?. SISON *1JL?+ Attorne& or de endants a'reed to (ud'#ent on con ession a'ainst "is clients: records do not s"o. GA<IIA *2AA@+ Alle'ed o er o co#)ro#ise %& de endantMs )arents cannot )re(udice de endant )er res inter alios acta • t"eir actions canMt a ect "i# as "e -as not a )art& to said conversation • it -as not s"o-n t"at "e -as )riv& to t"e o er t"e& #ade to t"e victi#Ms #ot"er I.istence$ #a& %e 'iven in evidence a'ainst t"e co> cons)irator a ter t"e cons)irac& is s"o-n %& evidence ot"er t"an suc" act o declaration.

in' suc" state#ents.no-led'#ent o 'uilt #ade %& an accused in a cri#inal case$ -it"out an& e. .a#ine t"e declarant *Peo)le v. T"e ad#ission -as #ade durin' t"e e. ViFcarra+ E.cul)ator& state#ent or e.istence o t"e alle'ed cons)irac&$ %ut a ter said alle'ed cons)irac& "ad alread& ceased 0 rule on ad#ission %& cons)irator canMt %e availed o PREAGIIO V. 8on essions Note: T"ese are not re1uired in ad#issions durin' t"e trial as t"e co>accused can cross>e. ! B"ere one derives title to )ro)ert& ro# anot"er$ t"e act$ declaration$ or o#ission o t"e latter$ -"ile "oldin' t"e title$ in relation to t"e )ro)ert&$ is evidence a'ainst t"e or#er.tra(udicial con ession inad#issi%le o T"e e. Ale're+ E.adilla+ 8ases: PEOPLE V. Ka& %e oral or in -ritin' • I in -ritin'$ it need not %e under oat" T"e act t"at t"e e. Relation o )rivit& %et-een t"e )art& and t"e declarant 2. In order t"at t"e e. *Peo)le v.RERA *1JN@+ State#ent not #ade durin' t"e e. *28+ 35 1. 8A.tra(udicial acts or declarations$ not to testi#on& 'iven on t"e -itness stand at t"e trial -"ere t"e de endant "as t"e o))ortunit& to cross>e.2N a))lies onl& to e. E.tra(udicial con ession o an accused is %indin' onl& u)on "i#sel and is not ad#issi%le a'ainst "is co>accused. IEL ROSARIO *1JA5+ B"ere one derives title to real )ro)ert& ro# anot"er$ t"e declaration4act4o#ission o t"e latter in relation to t"e )ro)ert& is evidence a'ainst t"e or#er onl& -"en #ade -"ile t"e latter "olds t"e title REP<.LI8 V.tra(udicial con ession: one #ade in an& ot"er )lace or occasion and cannot sustain a conviction unless corro%orated %& evidence o t"e cor)us delicti *R1??. /??$ R1?A Section ??. 8onse1uentl&$ an ad#ission o one in )rivit& -it" a )art& to t"e record is co#)etent. Ka& %e (udicial or e.istence o t"e cons)irac&3 and ?. T"e declarations o a )erson are ad#issi%le a'ainst a )art& -"enever a G)rivit& o estateH e. RIANO: GPriviesH: )ersons -"o are )arta. SANIIGAN. Serrano+ and$ %esides$ t"ese are ad#issions a ter t"e cons)irac& "as ended.tra(udicial state#ents o a co>accused #a& %e ta. *2Ja+ 8on ession: a cate'orical ac. 2011-2012 t"e )art& adversel& a ected t"ere%& "as t"e o))ortunit& to cross>e. SANIIGAN. -"ere t"e acts in said ad#ission are con ir#ed in t"e individual e. Ad#ission is in relation to said )ro)ert& Privit& in estate #a& "ave arisen %& succession %& acts #ortis causa or %& acts inter vivos.evidence | 1st sem. Ad#ission -as #ade %& t"e declarant$ as )redecessor>in> interest$ -"ile "oldin' t"e title to t"e )ro)ert& ?. i #ade in t"e )resence o t"e latter -"o e. Suc" cons)irac& is s"o-n %& evidence aliunde3 2.t"e )ro%a%ilit& o t"e latterMs )artici)ation in t"e o ense.tra(udicial ad#issions.ACAN *2AA?+ T"e individual and se)arate ad#issions o eac" res)ondent %ind all o t"e# )ursuant to //2J and ?1$ R1?A o t"e Rules o 8ourt. Ad#ission %& )rivies */?1$ R1?A+ Section ?1. *Peo)le v.tra(udicial • • Pudicial con ession: one #ade %e ore a court in -"ic" t"e case is )endin' and in t"e course o le'al )roceedin's t"erein and$ %& itsel $ can sustain a conviction even in ca)ital o enses E.tra(udicial con ession o an accused cannot %e used a'ainst "is co>accused as t"e res inter alios acta rule a))lies to %ot" e.a#ine t"e declarant ?.tra(udicial ad#issions #ade %& a cons)irator a ter t"e cons)irac& "ad ter#inated and even %e ore trial are not ad#issi%le a'ainst t"e co>cons)irator$ EE8EPT: 1. as circu#stantial evidence to s"o.ACAN *2AA5+ R1?A.tra(udicial con ession -as #ade -"ile t"e accused -as under arrest does not render it inad#issi%le -"ere t"e sa#e -as #ade and ad#itted )rior to t"e 1JN? 8onstitution.ers or "ave an interest in an& action or t"in'$ or an& relation to anot"er 8ases: 8ITC O2 KANILA V.?+ o An& or# o coercion renders t"e e. Nierra+ An ad#ission %& a cons)irator is ad#issi%le a'ainst "is co> cons)irator i : 1. ! T"e declaration o an accused ac.tra(udicial con essions and ad#issions. as a circu#stance to deter#ine a -itnessM credi%ilit&3 or @.tra(udicial con essions #ade %& t"e co> cons)irators a ter t"eir a))re"ension3 ?.)lanation.no-led'in' "is 'uilt o t"e o ense c"ar'ed$ or o an& o ense necessaril& included t"erein$ #a& %e 'iven in evidence a'ainst "i#. ysr Re1uire#ents to %e ad#issi%le: 1.a#ine t"e declarant. *Peo)le v.istence o cons)irac& #a& %e in erred ro#: • T"e acts o t"e accused • T"e con essions o t"e accused • Pri#a acie )roo t"ereo B"ere t"ere is no inde)endent evidence o t"e alle'ed cons)irac&$ t"e e.)ressl& or i#)liedl& a'reed t"erein as$ in t"e latter case$ it -ould %e a tacit ad#ission under /?23 2. 8on ession. T"e ad#ission relates to t"e cons)irac& itsel .ists %et-een t"e declarant and t"e )art&$ t"e ter# G)rivit& o estateH 'enerall& denotin' a succession in ri'"ts. Ad#ission %& )rivies. *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v.en into consideration in (ud'in' t"e testi#on& o a -itness$ it is necessar& t"at t"e state#ents are #ade %& several accused$ t"e sa#e are all in #aterial res)ects identical$ and t"ere could "ave %een no collusion a#on' said co> accused in #a.  EE8EPTIONS: . Serrano+ • T"e re1uire#ent t"at t"e cons)irac& #ust )reli#inaril& %e )roved %& evidence ot"er t"an t"e cons)iratorMs ad#ission a))lies on to e.

ed i "e understood -"at "e -as told$ %ut "e -as never as. Secret detention )laces$ solitar&$ inco##unicado$ or ot"er si#ilar or#s o detention are )ro"i%ited. T"e onus is on t"e de ense to )rove t"at it -as involuntar& or "avin' %een o%tained %& violence$ inti#idation$ t"reat or )ro#ise o re-ard or lenienc& • B"& involuntar& con essions are inad#issi%le o <nrelia%le o :u#anitarian considerations o Le'al considerations o t"eir %ein' violative o t"e constitutional ri'"t a'ainst sel > incri#ination @.istence o a certain act or result or#in' t"e %asis o t"e cri#inal c"ar'e$ and %+ t"e e.s 1uestions to 'et in o etc. . T"ere #ust %e inde)endent )roo o t"e cor)us delicti. d. 8ases: PEOPLE V. BANG 8:<EN KING *1JJL+ Si'natures o t"e accused on t"e %o. T"e %elated arrival o t"e la-&er$ even i )rior to t"e si'nin' o t"e uncounseled 6e. 12. ! An e. ItMs a co##on act #ade u) o 2 t"in's: a+ t"e e. *?+ . III$ Sec. S<AREQ *1JJN+ Ioctrine o interloc. Re1uire#ents or con ession to %e ad#issi%le: 1.)ress and cate'orical ac. At suc" )oint$ t"e )erson %ein' interro'ated #ust %e assisted %& counsel.evidence | 1st sem. %. PEOPLE V.es 6t"e& -ere #ade to si'n -"ile at NAIA and a'ain on %a's -"en alread& ta. de la 8ruF+ ?.tra(udicial con ession is inad#issi%le. It does not re er to testi#on& or a con ession o%tained t"rou'" an ille'al arrest. 8o>accused i#)liedl& ac1uiesced in or ado)ted said con ession %& not 1uestionin' its trut" ulness Accused )ersons voluntaril& and inde)endentl& e.in' con essions+$ corro%orated %& ot"er evidence and -it"out contradiction %& t"e co>accused -"o -as )resent Accused ad#itted acts stated %& con essant a ter %ein' a))rised o suc" con ession T"e& are c"ar'ed as co>cons)irators o t"e cri#e con essed %& one o t"e accused and said con ession is used onl& as corro%oratin' evidence 8on ession is used as circu#stantial evidence to s"o. 8or)us delicti: t"e %od& or su%stance o t"e cri#e T"e actual co##ission %& so#eone o t"e )articular cri#e c"ar'ed. Inad#issi%le evidence ter#ed as G ruit o t"e )oisonous treeH re ers to o%(ect$ not testi#onial evidence3 it also re ers to an o%(ect seiFed in t"e course o an ille'al searc" and seiFure.no-led'#ent o 'uilt 2.istence o a cri#inal a'enc& as t"e cause o t"e act or t"e result. 2011-2012 a. 8OKPIL *1JJ5+ Ri'"t to counsel attac"es u)on t"e start o investi'ation *-"en investi'atin' o icer as.en in custod&7$ -"ic" are tanta#ount to uncounseled e. Given voluntaril& • 8on essions are )resu#ed to %e voluntar&. E. III o t"e 1J8N 8onstitution • Baiver o ri'"t to counsel durin' custodial investi'ation #ust %e #ade -it" t"e assistance o counsel • B"en t"e accused -as #erel& told o "is constitutional ri'"ts and as. I t"e )erson cannot a ord t"e services o counsel$ "e #ust %e )rovided -it" one. '. // 12 9 1N$ Art. No violation o /12$ Art. ysr c. 8on ession #ust involve an e. Proved -"en t"e evidence on record s"o-s t"at t"e cri#e )rosecuted "ad %een co##itted A #ere voluntar& e. No )erson s"all %e co#)elled to %e a -itness a'ainst "i#sel . III$ Sec.tra(udicial con ession is corro%orated %& ot"er evidence o record Re er to notes under )revious )art *R1?A. III$ 1J8N 8onstitution Art. *1+ An& )erson under investi'ation or t"e co##ission o an o ense s"all "ave t"e ri'"t to %e in or#ed o "is ri'"t to re#ain silent and to "ave co#)etent and inde)endent counsel )re era%l& o "is o-n c"oice.ecuted identical con essions -it"out conclusion *interloc. *<S v.s"all )rovide or )enal and civil sanctions or violations o t"is section as -ell as co#)ensation to t"e re"a%ilitation o victi#s o torture or si#ilar )ractices$ and t"eir a#ilies.tra(udicial7 con ession does not cure t"e de ect. T"ese ri'"ts cannot %e -aived e.in' con essions *EE8EPTION to RIAA and "earsa& rule • Alt"ou'" an e.t"e )ro%a%ilit& o )artici)ation %& t"e co>cons)irator 8on essant testi ied or "is co>de endant 8o>cons)iratorMs e. Intelli'entl& #ade 5.ercise or avail "i#sel o suc" ri'"ts$ "is e. T"e evidence #a& %e circu#stantial %ut$ (ust t"e sa#e$ t"ere s"ould %e so#e evidence su%stantiatin' t"e con ession. 2. *2+ No torture$ orce$ violence$ t"reat$ inti#idation$ or an& ot"er #eans -"ic" vitiate t"e ree -ill s"all %e used a'ainst "i#.es it ad#issi%le 36 e.tra(udicial con essions$ are inad#issi%le as evidence or %ein' unconstitutional. PEOPLE V.??+.tra(udicial con ession #ade %& an accused$ s"all not %e su icient 'round or conviction$ unless corro%orated %& evidence o cor)us delicti.tra(udicial con ession$ not su icient 'round or conviction.ed -"et"er "e -anted to e.tra(udicial con ession uncorro%orated %& inde)endent )roo o t"e cor)us delicti is insu icient to sustain a (ud'#ent o conviction. • B"ere t"e ver%al e.ce)t in -ritin' and in t"e )resence o counsel.tra(udicial con ession is ad#issi%le onl& a'ainst t"e con essant$ (uris)rudence #a.tra(udicial con ession -as #ade -it"out counsel$ %ut s)ontaneousl& #ade %& t"e accused i##ediatel& a ter t"e assault$ t"e sa#e is ad#issi%le not under t"e con ession rule$ %ut as )art o t"e res 'estae$ aside ro# t"e consideration t"at no custodial investi'ation -as involved. 2acts ad#itted #ust %e constitutive o a cri#inal o ense ?. /?$ R1?? Section ?.+. *?+ An& con ession or ad#ission o%tained in violation o t"is or Section 1N "ereo s"all %e inad#issi%le in evidence a'ainst "i#. Art. *@+ T"e la. 1N.

t"at t"e accused in a cri#inal case "as co##itted a cri#e -"oll& inde)endent o t"e o ense or -"ic" "e is on trial. T"ereMs no %etter evidence o ne'li'ence t"an t"e re1uenc& o accidents. )lace -"en t"ere -as as &et no le'al i#)edi#ent to t"e sa#e$ t"e& 'ive no rational %asis or t"e in erence t"at t"e& -ould %e continued a ter co#)lainantMs #arria'e "ad created suc" i#)edi#ent and #ade continuance o se. <nacce)ted o er. PINEIA *1J18+ GEN R<LE: evidence o ot"er o enses co##itted %& a de endant is inad#issi%le. III o 8onstitution$ as RP8152 dee#s a %aran'a& ca)tain as a )erson in aut"orit& *t"ere ore "e canMt %e inde)endent in suc" instance+ PEOPLE V.t"e )ro%a%ilit& o )artici)ation %& an accused co> cons)irator$ t"at con ession is receiva%le as evidence a'ainst "i#. II. PEOPLE V.co#)lained o $ and too. IRANG *1J?N+ GEN R<LE: evidence o anot"er cri#e %& a de endant is inad#issi%le in a )rosecution or ro%%er& EE8EPTION: -"en itMs ot"er-ise relevant$ as -"ere it tends to identi & de endant as )er)etrator o ro%%er& c"ar'ed$ or tends to s"o. <LIT *2AA@+ State#ent #ade to %aran'a& c"air#an is ad#issi%le in evidence 0 de endant -as not under arrest or under custodial investi'ation -"en "e 'ave "is state#ent Suc" tender o )a&#ent #ust$ "o-ever$ %e ollo-ed %& consi'nation o t"e a#ount in court in order to )roduce t"e e ects o valid )a&#ent. 8onsi'nation alone s"all )roduce t"e sa#e e ect in t"e ollo-in' cases: .en orce#ent o icer or )ur)oses o a))l&in' /12*1 9 ?+$ Art. • AN EE8EPTION: itMs )er#issi%le to ascertain de endantMs . 1+ 2+ ?+ @+ 5+ ysr B"en t"e creditor is a%sent or un. KANALO *2AAL+ T"e act t"at ot"er lot %u&ers -ere allo-ed to )a& t"e %alance o t"e )urc"ase )rice o lots )urc"ased %& t"e# in 12A or 18A #ont"l& install#ents does not constitute evidence t"at EEI also a'reed to 'ive res)ondents t"e sa#e #ode and ti#eline o )a&#ent. 37 Testi#onial .ual relations %et-een de endants a cri#e.aran'a& c"air not a la. T"e e. 8ONI<8T AS EVIIEN8E A.tra(udicial con ession #ust also %e tested or voluntariness *t"at is$ i it -as 'iven reel& %& t"e con essant -4o an& or# o coercion or induce#ent+. B"ere con ession is used as circu#stantial evidence to s"o. ! An o er in -ritin' to )a& a )articular su# o #one& or to deliver a -ritten instru#ent or s)eci ic )ersonal )ro)ert& is$ i re(ected -it"out valid cause$ e1uivalent to t"e actual )roduction and tender o t"e #one&$ instru#ent$ or )ro)ert&. *KcLau'"lin v.ANR V. *11NLa+ • PEOPLE V.evidence | 1st sem. • One cri#e does not *tend to+ )rove anot"er$ <NLESS t"ereMs suc" a relation %et-een t"e# t"at )roo o one tends to )rove t"e ot"er.no-led'e and intent and to i. ASINAS *1J2J+ GEN R<LE: evidence is not ad#issi%le -"ic" s"o-s or tends to s"o. ! Evidence t"at one did or did not do a certain t"in' at one ti#e is not ad#issi%le to )rove t"at "e did or did not do t"e sa#e or si#ilar t"in' at anot"er ti#e3 %ut it #a& %e received to )rove a s)eci ic intent or . Voluntar& %. Si#ilar acts as evidence. 88 125L 88 125L. I t"e creditor to -"o# tender o )a&#ent "as %een #ade re uses -it"out (ust cause to acce)t it$ t"e de%tor s"all %e released ro# res)onsi%ilit& %& t"e consi'nation o t"e t"in' or su# due. Si#ilar acts4unacce)ted o er 1. 8A+ 8ases: <S V.no-n$ or does not a))ear at t"e )lace o )a&#ent3 B"en "e is inca)acitated to receive t"e )a&#ent at t"e ti#e it is due3 B"en$ -it"out (ust cause$ "e re uses to 'ive a recei)t3 B"en t-o or #ore )ersons clai# t"e sa#e ri'"t to collect3 B"en t"e title o t"e o%li'ation "as %een lost. III. 2.no-led'e3 identit&$ )lan$ s&ste#$ sc"e#e$ "a%it$ custo# or usa'e$ and t"e li.tra(udicial con ession to %e ad#issi%le: a. "is ne'li'ence. // ?@ 9 ?5$ R1?A Section ?@. RAPEQA *2AAN+ A con ession is ad#issi%le in evidence i it is satis actoril& s"o-n to ave %een o%tained -4in t"e li#its i#)osed %& t"e 8onstitution. TOKAD<IN *2AA@+ A %aran'a& ca)tain -"o is also a la-&er cannot %e considered inde)endent and co#)etent counsel -it"in /12*1 9 ?+$ Art.ual relations sou'"t to %e )roved -ere ar re#oved in )oint o ti#e ro# t"e illicit act 6o concu%ina'e7 no.cluded$ ne'li'ence is intensi ied$ and raudulent intent #a& even %e esta%lis"ed. PEOPLE V.OSTON . *@Ja+ T"is section is #erel& an evidentiar& co#)le#ent to t"e rule on tender o )a&#ent.)ress d. o I de endant "as on #ore t"an one occasion )er or#ed si#ilar acts$ accident in 'ood ait" is )ossi%l& e. In -ritin' PEOPLE V. . :EARSAC R<LE A."is )resence at t"e scene or in t"e vicinit& o t"e cri#e at t"e ti#e c"ar'ed$ or -"en itMs evidence o a circu#stance connected -it" t"e cri#e NI8OLAS V. III o 8onstitution PEOPLE V.e.ASE *2AAA+ Re1uire#ents or e. ENRID<EQ *1J55+ B"ere t"e )revious se.no-led'e *// ?L>@N$ R1?A+ • . *@8a+ Section ?5. . E. Kade -it" assistance o co#)etent and inde)endent counsel c. 2011-2012 as corro%orative evidence o ot"er acts t"at tend to esta%lis" t"e 'uilt o "is co>accused.

no-led'e$ %elie $ #otive$ 'ood or %ad ait"$ etc.)erience *R1?A /@J+ :earsa& evidence One t"at is not %ased on oneMs )ersonal )erce)tion %ut %ased on t"e . v.no-led'e3 "earsa& e. Valero$ Peo)le v. E. • EE8EPTION: inde)endentl& relevant state#ents . 8usi Pr.a#ine. Billia#s+ B"ere t"e state#ents or -ritin's attri%uted to a )erson not on t"e -itness stand are %ein' o ered not to )rove t"e trut" o t"e acts stated t"erein %ut onl& to )rove t"at t"ose state#ents -ere actuall& #ade or t"ose -ritin's -ere e. Ola+ :earsa& evidence alone #a& %e insu icient to esta%lis" a act in issue %ut -"en no o%(ection is inter)osed t"ereto$ it is$ li.ased on t"e )ersonal . A'uel+ 38 ysr RIANO: Evidence is called "earsa& -"en its )ro%ative orce de)ends$ in -"ole or in )art$ on t"e co#)etenc& and credi%ilit& o so#e )ersons ot"er t"an t"e -itness %& -"o# it is sou'"t to )roduce it *Estrada v. 2011-2012 Section ?L. *2AA5+ <nless t"e a iant is )resented as a -itness$ an a idavit is considered "earsa&.evidence | 1st sem.t"at )lainti #ade suc" state#ents. V. Iesierto$ Resolution on KR+ Ne-s)a)er cli))in's or acts )u%lis"ed in t"e ne-s)a)ers are "earsa& and "ave no evidentiar& value unless su%stantiated %& )ersons -it" )ersonal . 2.no-led'e or )ersonal conclusions o t"e -itness %ased on "is s.t"at it -as #ade$ t"en t"e state#ent is not "earsa&.ill$ trainin'$ or e. o credi%ilit& o a -itness *Estrada v.no-led'e o ot"ers to )rove t"e trut" o t"e #atter asserted in an out>o >court declaration *R1?A /?L+ B"ere a state#ent is not o ered or t"e trut" o t"e contents o t"e conversation$ %ut onl& to s"o. ! A -itness can testi & onl& to t"ose acts -"ic" "e . 8onse1uentl&$ i a )art& does not o%(ect to t"e "earsa& evidence$ t"e sa#e is ad#issi%le$ as a )art& can -aive "is ri'"t to cross>e.no-led'e o said acts. *Peo)le v. Ele#ents o "earsa& evidence 1.no-led'e o so#e ot"er )erson not on t"e -itness stand. 8alaunan+ :o-ever$ it "as also %een "eld t"at "earsa& evidence not o%(ected to #a& %e ad#issi%le %ut$ -"et"er o%(ected to or not$ "as no )ro%ative value and$ as o))osed to direct )ri#ar& evidence$ t"e latter al-a&s )revails.a#)les: t"ose #ade %& a )erson > s"o-in' "is state o #ind *#ental condition$ . *Peo)le v. Sandi'an%a&an$ Se%astian Sr. o )ersonal .no-led'e o t"e #atter testi ied to. B"& "earsa& evidence is e. It is t"e )ur)ose or -"ic" t"e evidence is o ered -"ic" -ould deter#ine -"et"er t"e sa#e is "earsa& or not. 8ases: RI8:KONI V. :earsa&$ as de ined %& R8A16c7 o t"e 2ederal Rules o Evidence: a state#ent *oral or -ritten assertion or nonver%al conduct intended %& t"e )erson as an assertion+$ ot"er t"an t"e one #ade %& t"e declarant -"ile testi &in' at t"e trial or "earin'$ o ered in evidence to )rove t"e trut" o t"e #atter asserted. T"e -itness -"o testi ies t"ereto is co#)etent %ecause "e "eard t"e sa#e or sa.no-s o "is )ersonal . AN8:<ELO *1JA5+ Ie ense -itness told %& de endant$ GPlainti a'reed to cure #e or P"P 2AA$ no c"ar'e i success ulH 0 t"is is "earsa& *and as suc" inad#issi%le+$ as t"e -itness didnMt .t"e e.no-led'e$ %elie $ intention$ ill -ill$ and ot"er e#otion+ > -"ic" s"o. Iesierto+. Alt"ou'" "earsa& evidence )resu))oses lac.ecuted$ suc" evidence is not covered %& t"e "earsa& evidence rule.e an& ot"er evidence$ to %e considered and 'iven t"e i#)ortance it deserves. Testi#on& 'enerall& con ined to )ersonal .ce)t as ot"er-ise )rovided in t"ese rules. Out>o >court state#ent • I#)lied ro# an out>o >court state#ent is t"e act t"at t"e -itness "as no )ersonal .no-led'e o t"e trut" o t"e act asserted %& a -itness$ t"e )ur)ose or -"ic" t"e evidence is o ered is a vital ele#ent o "earsa& evidence.$ IN8. All "e . KALACAN INS<RAN8E 8O. *Peo)le v.ecution o t"e docu#ent$ as t"ese are #atters o act derived ro# "is o-n )erce)tion and t"e )ur)ose is onl& to )rove eit"er t"at t"e state#ent -as #ade or t"e tenor t"ereo .$ 8orne(o Sr. *?Aa+ :EARSAC EVIIEN8E R<LE *R1?A.no.e > ro# -"ic" an in erence #a& %e #ade as to t"e state o #ind o anot"er *.no-led'e o t"e -itness %ut on t"e . o t"e latter+ > -"ic" #a& identi & t"e date$ )lace$ and )erson in 1uestion > s"o-in' t"e lac. Garc"itorena+ T"us$ a -itness #a& testi & to t"e state#ents #ade %& a )erson i $ or instance$ t"e act t"at suc" state#ents -ere #ade %& t"e latter -ould indicate t"e latterMs #ental state or )"&sical condition 0 doctrine o inde)endentl& relevant state#ents$ t"at is$ inde)endent o -"et"er t"e acts stated are true or not$ t"e& are relevant since t"e& are t"e acts in issue or are circu#stantial evidence o t"e acts in issue.cluded T"e )art& a'ainst -"o# it is )resented is de)rived o "is ri'"t and o))ortunit& to cross>e. *Kanliclic v. O)inion evidence .?L+ An& evidence$ -"et"er oral or docu#entar&$ is "earsa& i its )ro%ative value is not %ased on t"e )ersonal .no-s is t"at de endant told "i# t"atMs -"at )lainti said.a#ine t"e )ersons to -"o# t"e state#ents or -ritin's are attri%uted. *Peo)le v. v. LEA KER INI<STRIES$ IN8.cluded."is )"&sical condition$ as illness and t"e li.no-led'e3 t"at is$ -"ic" are derived ro# "is o-n )erce)tion$ e. Re)eated and o ered %& t"e -itness in court to )rove t"e trut" o t"e #atters asserted %& t"e state#ent • B"ere a state#ent is not o ered or t"e trut" o t"e #atter asserted %ut is o ered or an evidentiar& )ur)ose not de)endent on t"e trut" o t"e #atters asserted$ t"e state#ent is non>"earsa&. As lon' as an out>o >court state#ent is o ered or a non> "earsa& )ur)ose *a )ur)ose ot"er t"an to )rove t"e trut" o t"e #atter asserted+$ t"e state#ent is ad#issi%le i it "as relevance to t"e #atter in issue.

no-n to t"e adverse )art& t"e intention to o er suc" state#ent and its )articulars to )rovide "i# a air o))ortunit& to o%(ect I t"e c"ild is availa%le$ t"e court s"all$ u)on #otion o t"e adverse )art&$ re1uire t"e c"ild to %e )resent at t"e )resentation o t"e "earsa& state#ent or cross> e. ante #orte# state#ent or state#ent in articulo #ortis Re1uisites 1. ESTRAIA V. Entries in t"e course o %usiness "... IESIERTO T"e %an on "earsa& does not include state#ents -"ic" are relevant inde)endentl& o -"et"er t"e& are true or not$ li.)osed to severe )s&c"olo'ical in(ur&+$ t"e act o suc" circu#stance #ust %e )roved %& t"e )ro)onent and t"e "earsa& testi#on& s"all %e ad#itted onl& i corro%orated %& ot"er ad#issi%le evidence ?. Virre&+3 or .ce)tions In t"is connection$ t"e court is allo-ed to ad#it videota)e and audiota)e in>de)t" or disclosure intervie-s as evidence$ )rovided it is s"o-n t"at a+ t"e c"ild -itness is una%le to testi & )er /28*c+ o t"e Rule on E. T"at deat" is i##inent and t"e declarant is conscious o t"e act A declaration -ill %e dee#ed as "avin' %een #ade under t"e consciousness o i##inent deat"$ in consideration o : a+ T"e -ords or state#ents o t"e declarant on t"e sa#e occasion3 %+ :is conduct at t"e ti#e t"e declaration -as #ade *<S v.ce)tion to t"e "earsa& rule in c"ild a%use cases :earsa& testi#on& o a c"ild descri%in' an& act or atte#)ted act o se.ce)tions are -arranted %& t"e necessit& or suc" evidence and4or t"e assu#)tion t"at$ in t"e ordinar& course o events$ t"e sa#e are trust-ort"&."is )"&sical condition$ as illness and t"e li. Learned treatises . AA>@>AN>S8+ 0 s)ecial e. State#ents o a )erson -"ic" s"o. Act or declaration a'ainst )edi'ree d. ! T"e declaration o a d&in' )erson$ #ade under t"e consciousness o an i#)endin' deat"$ #a& %e received in an& case -"erein "is deat" is t"e su%(ect o in1uir&$ as evidence o t"e cause and surroundin' circu#stances o suc" deat".a#ination %& t"e adverse )art&.e . S)eci ic E.e a )articular state#ent or is clearl& s"o-n to %e t"e state#ent o t"e c"ild and not t"e )roduct o i#)ro)er su''estion3 c+ t"at t"e videota)e and audiota)e #ac"ine or device -as ca)a%le o recordin' testi#on&3 d+ t"at t"e )erson o)eratin' t"e device -as co#)etent to o)erate it3 e+ t"at t"e videota)e or audiota)e is aut"entic and correct3 and + t"at t"e recordin' "as %een dul& )reserved.a#ination o a 8"ild Bitness+ 1. oundational #atters #ust %e esta%lis"ed: a+ t"e )art& o erin' t"e videota)e or audiota)e$ #ust disclose t"e identit& o all individuals )resent and at all ti#es includes t"eir i#a'es and voices3 %+ t"at t"e state#ent -as not #ade in res)onse to 1uestionin' calculated to lead t"e c"ild to #a. Testi#on& or de)osition at a or#er trial *Re'alado: lo'icall&$ t"is is not an e.. Ieclaration a'ainst interest c. NOTE: /28 o t"e Rule on E.-as conducted %& dul& trained #e#%ers o a #ultidisci)linar& tea# or re)resentatives o laen orce#ent or c"ild )rotective services$ in situations -"ere c"ild a%use is sus)ected$ so as to deter#ine -"et"er c"ild a%use occurred.%e ad#itted in an& cri#inal )roceedin'$ su%(ect to certain )rere1uisites and t"e ri'"t o cross>e.a#ined or "ad t"e o))ortunit& to cross>e.a#ination o a 8"ild Bitness *AK No.evidence | 1st sem. T"e ad#issi%ilit& o suc" "earsa& state#ents s"all %e deter#ined %& t"e court in li'"t o s)eci ied su%(ective and o%(ective considerations -"ic" )rovide su icient indicia o relia%ilit& o t"e c"ild -itness.e iii.no-led'e$ %elie $ #otive$ 'ood4%ad ait" etc.ce)tion to t"e "earsa& rule$ or it re1uires or its ad#issi%ilit& t"at t"e )art& "ad eit"er cross>e. o t"e latter+ iv. State#ents o a )erson s"o-in' "is state o #ind *#ental condition$ . 1.a. Entries in o icial records i.ual a%use #a& no. T"ose state#ents -"ic" are circu#stantial evidence o t"e act in issue i. I&in' declarations %.?N>@N+ a. 2011-2012 A re)ort #ade %& a )erson is ad#issi%le i itMs intended to )rove t"e tenor$ not t"e trut"$ o t"e state#ents. State#ents s"o-in' t"e lac. o credi%ilit& o a -itness . 8o##ercial lists and t"e li.a#ine t"e -itness at said or#er trial+ T"ese e.a#ination %& t"e adverse )art& B"en t"e c"ild is unavaila%le *deceased$ su ers ro# )"&sical in ir#it&$ #ental illness$ loss o #e#or&$ or %ecause t"e c"ild -ill %e e.a#ination o a 8"ild Bitness3 and %+ t"e intervie.ce)tions to :earsa& Rule *R1?A.e state#ents o a )erson to s"o-$ a#on' ot"ers$ "is state o #ind$ #ental condition$ .no-led'e$ %elie $ intention$ ill -ill$ and ot"er e#otions+ ii. T"ose state#ents -"ic" are t"e ver& acts in issue %.e (. State#ents -"ic" #a& identi & t"e date$ )lace and )erson in 1uestion v. Aside ro# t"e a%ove re1uire#ents$ t"e . 2a#il& re)utation or tradition re'ardin' )edi'ree e. State#ents o a )erson ro# -"ic" an in erence #a& %e #ade as to t"e state o #ind o anot"er *. */2J. I&in' declaration *R1?A. I&in' declaration. Rule on E.?N+ Section ?N.. 8o##on re)utation . ysr T"e )ro)onent s"all #a.no-led'e$ %elie $ intention$ ill -ill$ and ot"er e#otions. 2. Inde)endent o t"e trut" or alsit& o t"e state#ent 'iven in t"e re)ort$ t"e act t"at it "as %een #ade is relevant. RIANO: Re1uisites 39 a. Rinds o inde)endentl& relevant state#ents: a. Part o t"e res 'estae '. *?1a+ 1+ ICING IE8LARATIONS 11 E.

en in "is identi ication o "is assailant.%e introduced in a cri#inal or a civil action and t"e relevance is satis ied -"ere t"e su%(ect o in1uir& is t"e deat" o t"e declarant "i#sel . Pacinto+. Ta. Kalacon$ Peo)le v. it do-n *Peo)le v.e suc" declarations inco#)etent evidence *Peo)le v. Avila$ Peo)le v.ustos+ or o)inions$ i#)ressions or conclusions o t"e declarant *State v. State+ RIANO: As an e. :orn+ are not ad#issi%le3 %ut all acts relatin' to t"e cause o suc" deat" are ad#issi%le -"et"er t"e sa#e are in avor or a'ainst t"e accused *<S v. .evidence | 1st sem.e a careless and alse accusation.a#ination$ a d&in' declaration "as to %e acce)ted -it" ut#ost care and s"ould %e considered in li'"t o all t"e acts )roved in t"e case. Antonio+. *Peo)le v. Odencio+. E. A #ere consciousness o deat" is not enou'"T t"e declarant #ust %e conscious t"at t"e deat" is near and certain$ and 40 . Garcia$ Peo)le v.ce)tion to t"e rule a'ainst "earsa& evidence$ a d&in' declaration is evidence o t"e "i'"est order and is entitled to ut#ost credence since no )erson a-are o "is i#)endin' deat" -ould #a. T"us$ -"ere t"e declarant stated t"at "e -ould not die i treated$ suc" state#ent indicates an a-areness o deat" and t"e nature o "is -ound and "is deat" an "our later 1uali ies suc" state#ent into a d&in' declaration$ or$ at least$ as )art o t"e res 'estae *Peo)le v.ed as to -"et"er "e %elieved "e -ould die and to -"ic" "e re)lied GI cannot ascertainH and "e died t"e ollo-in' da&$ "is state#ent is ad#issi%le %ot" as )art o t"e res 'estae and as a d&in' declaration. As lon' as t"e relevance is clear$ a d&in' declaration #a& no. Sa%io+ :o-ever$ t"e ti#e interval %et-een t"e declaration and t"e deat" o t"e declarant #a& %e ta. Ievaras+ or even 1@ da&s later *Peo)le v. Aniel$ Peo)le v. Aniel+. A d&in' declaration #a& %e attac.ed as to -"et"er "e t"ou'"t "e -ould die$ re)lied: > GI donMt .t"e cause o deat" o t"e deceased$ and t"e circu#stances under -"ic" t"e assault -as #ade u)on "i#. ysr T"at t"e declaration is o ered in a case -"erein t"e declarantMs deat" is t"e su%(ect o in1uir& A ter a d&in' declaration is )roved and ad#itted as suc"$ its credi%ilit& and -ei'"t s"ould %e deter#ined %& t"e courts under t"e sa#e rules used in testin' t"e -ei'"t and credi%ilit& o an& ot"er testi#onial evidence. T"e 6s)ouse7 o t"e declarant #a& testi & to t"e sa#e$ eit"er or t"e )rosecution or as a de ense -itness$ and t"is does not violate t"e #arital )rivile'e as a d&in' declaration is not considered a con idential co##unication %et-een t"e s)ouses *<S v. *Peo)le v. 8erilla+. Sara%ia+$ es)eciall& -"ere "e died an "our t"erea ter *Peo)le v. KartineF+. Anti)olo$ Peo)le v.rioso$ Peo)le v. Ara(a+.no-led'e as to t"e acts %& "i# asserted could not %e tested %& cross> e. It is t"us ad#issi%le$ to )rovide t"e identit& o t"e accused and t"e deceased$ to s"o. B"ere$ s"ortl& a ter "e -as -ounded$ t"e victi# -as as. T"e intervenin' ti#e ro# t"e #a. T"at t"e declaration relates to acts -"ic" t"e victi# is co#)etent to testi & to @. 8astellon$ Peo)le v. T"at t"e declaration re ers to t"e cause and surroundin' circu#stances o suc" deat" State#ents re errin' to t"e antecedents o t"e ate ul encounter *Peo)le v. ?. T"e reason or its ad#issi%ilit& is necessit& and trust-ort"iness *Peo)le v. Gueron+ B"ere t"e viction$ -"en as. *Peo)le v. LanFa+ 2. 2011-2012 c+ T"e serious nature o "is -ounds as -ould necessaril& en'ender a %elie on "is )art t"at "e -ould not survive t"ere ro# *Peo)le v. Kallari+ -"ic" is a 1uestion o act or t"e trial court to deter#ine *Peo)le v. I t"e ante #orte# state#ent -as #ade orall&$ t"e -itness -"o "eard it #a& testi & t"ereto$ -it"out necessaril& re)roducin' t"e e.in' o t"e declaration u) to t"e actual deat" o t"e declarant is i##aterial$ as lon' as t"e declaration -as #ade under t"e consciousness o i#)endin' deat" *<S v.en into account -"ere t"e declaration is a#%i'uous as to -"et"er t"e declarant %elieved t"at "is deat" -as i##inent -"en "e #ade suc" declaration. 8le#ente$ <S v. Anti)olo+.ed on t"e 'round t"at an& o t"e re1uisites or its ad#issi%ilit& are not )resent$ and t"e sa#e #a& %e i#)eac"ed in t"e sa#e #anner as t"e testi#on& o an& ot"er -itness on t"e stand *<S v. It is t"e %elie in i#)endin' deat" at t"e ti#e t"e state#ent -as #ade$ and not t"e ra)id succession o deat"$ t"at renders t"e d&in' declaration ad#issi%le. Ola+ Suc" actors as -"ere t"e acts narrated %& t"e declarant "ave occurred under circu#stances o sur)rise$ ra)idit&$ and con usion$ s"ould not %e lost %& oversi'"t$ %ecause t"e accurac& o "is o%servation o t"e occurrences %e ore "i# could %e %lurred %& suc" disorder and ra)idit& o events and$ t"ere ore$ "e could %e #ista.in' into consideration$ too$ t"at t"e source$ accurac& and co#)leteness o t"e declarantMs .act -ords as lon' as "e can 'ive t"e su%stance t"ereo $ and i t"e deceased "ad an unsi'ned d&in' declaration$ t"e sa#e #a& %e used as a #e#orandu# %& t"e -itness -"o too. Kallare+ A d&in' declaration #a& %e oral or -ritten or #ade %& si'ns -"ic" could %e inter)reted and testi ied to %& a -itness t"ereto. *Peo)le v.tra+$ and as lon' as no retraction -as #ade %& t"e declarant until "is de#ise. Sanc"eF$ Ionnell& v. *Peo)le v. As )resentl& -order$ R1?A /?N no lon'er )laces an& li#itation on t"e t&)e o action in -"ic" a d&in' declaration #a& %e introduced. A#erican (uris)rudence is to t"e e ect t"at d&in' declarations are on t"e sa#e ootin' as testi#on& o a -itness on t"e stand and -"atever -ould dis1uali & suc" -itness -ould also #a. . B"ere t"e 'ravit& o t"e -ound did not di#inis"$ t"e ad#issi%ilit& o t"e d&in' declaration is not a ected %& t"e act t"at t"e declarant died "ours or da&s later *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v.no-$H "is declaration -as not #ade under t"e consciousness o "is i##inent deat" and does not 1uali & as an ante #orte# state#ent$ alt"ou'" t"e sa#e -as ad#itted as )art o t"e res 'estae since it -as #ade i##ediatel& a ter t"e incident. La1uinon+ > GIt all de)ends$H and "is condition "ad )ro'ressivel& i#)roved$ "is state#ents t"erea ter cannot %e considered as a d&in' declaration.

Ieclaration a'ainst interest *R1?A. ysr Ieclarant "ad no #otive to alsi & and %elieved suc" declaration to %e true Ad#issions a'ainst interest T"ose #ade %& a )art& to a liti'ation or %& one in )rivit& -it" or identi ied in le'al interest -it" suc" )art& Ad#issi%le B4N t"e declarant is availa%le as a -itness Ieclarations a'ainst interest T"ose #ade %& a )erson -"o is neit"er a )art& nor in )rivit& -it" a )art& to t"e suit. Act or declaration a%out )edi'ree.isted PAREL V. PEOPLE *2AAL+ T"e act t"at t"e victi#Ms state#ent constituted a d&in' declaration does not )reclude it ro# %ein' ad#itted as )art o t"e res 'estae$ i t"e ele#ents o %ot" are )resent.)ression o all t"at "e intended to sa& as conve&in' "is #eanin' in res)ect o suc" act. ! T"e act or declaration o a )erson deceased$ or una%le to testi &$ in . Toledo+. Pedi'ree *R1?A. IE POCA *1JJ1+ To %e ad#issi%le$ a d&in' declaration #ust %e co#)lete in itsel 0 t"e state#ent o an& 'iven act s"ould %e a ull e. T"e state#ent relates to a act a'ainst t"e interest o t"e declarant ?.?8+ Section ?8. *?2a+ 2+ IE8LARATION AGAINST INTEREST Re1uisites 1. t"e declarantMs %elie t"at "e is 'oin' to die soon #a& %e s"o-n circu#stantiall& %& t"e o%vious atal 1ualit& o t"e -ound$ %& t"e state#ents #ade to t"e victi# %& t"e )"&sician t"at "is condition is "o)eless$ or %& so#e ot"er circu#stances *Peo)le v.ce)tion to t"e "earsa& rule Ad#issi%le onl& -"en t"e declarant is unavaila%le as a -itness A declaration a'ainst interest is t"e o))osite o a sel >servin' declaration *a state#ent avora%le to or intended to advance t"e interests o t"e declarant+. 8OKILING *2AA@+ An ante>#orte# state#ent is evidence o t"e "i'"est order. T"is -ould %e a (usti ia%le t"eor& since under our )enal la-s a )erson cri#inall& lia%le is also civill& lia%le$ and is sustained under t"e )resent a#ended rule -"ic" does not deli#it or distin'uis" as to t"e interest a'ainst -"ic" t"e declaration is #ade. Ieclarant #ust not %e availa%le to testi & %. A)art ro# t"e state#ents o t"e declarant$ consciousness o an i#)endin' deat" #a& %e esta%lis"ed %& ot"er circu#stances suc" as t"e nature o t"e in(ur& and t"e conduct o t"e declarant.en in t"e "us" o its i#)endin' )resence. LAD<INON *1J85+ • B"en t"e deceased -as in dou%t as to B4N "e -ould die$ "is d&in' declaration is not ad#issi%le as an ante> #orte# declaration. PEOPLE V.illed t"e victi#$ #ade %& a declarant -"o died s"ortl& t"erea ter$ is ad#issi%le -"ere anot"er )erson -as su%se1uentl& c"ar'ed as t"e . • A d&in' declaration is ad#issi%le as )art o t"e res 'estae -"en t"e declarantMs state#ent -as #ade i##ediatel& a ter t"e incident and "e "ad no su icient ti#e to concoct a c"ar'e a'ainst t"e accused.. Silan' 8ruF$ Peo)le v. ?. 8A Previous reco'nition %& a )art& in )"&sical )ossession o t"e )ro)ert& in dis)ute o t"e o-ners"i) in anot"er constitutes a declaration a'ainst t"e interest o t"e or#er and #a& %e received in evidence not onl& a'ainst suc" )art& -"o #ade t"e declaration or "is successors in interest %ut also a'ainst t"ird )ersons. Toledo and :ol'ado+. At t"e ti#e "e #ade said declaration t"e declarant -as a-are t"at t"e sa#e -as contrar& to "is a oresaid interest 41 @.IO *1J81+ It is t"e %elie in i#)endin' deat" at t"e ti#e t"e state#ent -as #ade$ and not t"e ra)id succession o deat"$ t"at renders t"e d&in' declaration ad#issi%le.?J+ Section ?J.. PEOPLE V. Ieclarant is dead or una%le to testi & 2. 8ases: VIA8R<8IS V.evidence | 1st sem. KART<RILLAS V. 8ases: PEOPLE V. Ieclaration a'ainst interest. 8A Re1uisites o declaration a'ainst interest: a. 8"an Lin Batt+ A d&in' declaration #a& %e attac. T"e& are secondar& evidence %ut constitute an e. V. 2<ENTES$ PR. PR<IEN8IO T"e t"eor& under -"ic" declarations a'ainst interest are received in evidence not-it"standin' t"e& are "earsa& is t"at t"e necessit& o t"e occasion renders t"e rece)tion o suc" evidence advisa%le and$ urt"er t"at t"e relia%ilit& o suc" declaration asserts acts a'ainst "is o-n )ecuniar& or #oral interest. RIANO: As a rule$ t"e interest a'ainst -"ic" t"e declaration #a& "ave %een #ade s"ould %e eit"er a )ecuniar& or #oral interest$ %ut in our (urisdiction$ t"e declaration could %e a'ainst oneMs )enal interest %ecause i one ad#its to a cri#e$ "e is also civill& lia%le$ a lia%ilit& t"at is )ecuniar& *Peo)le v. SA. PEOPLE V.ed in t"e sa#e #anner as one -ould do to a testi#on& in o)en court. 2011-2012 -"at is said #ust "ave %een s)o. 8ircu#stances #ust render it i#)ro%a%le t"at a #otive to alsi & e. Ieclaration #ust concern a act co'niFa%le %& t"e declarant c. 2. 8onse1uentl&$ a sel >servin' declaration is inad#issi%le as %ein' "earsa& i t"e declarant is unavaila%le as a -itness. A declaration ad#ittin' t"at "e -as t"e one -"o . ! T"e declaration #ade %& a )erson deceased$ or una%le to testi &$ a'ainst t"e interest o t"e declarant$ i t"e act is asserted in t"e declaration -as at t"e ti#e it -as #ade so ar contrar& to declarantSs o-n interest$ t"at a reasona%le #an in "is )osition -ould not "ave #ade t"e declaration unless "e %elieved it to %e true$ #a& %e received in evidence a'ainst "i#sel or "is successors in interest and a'ainst t"ird )ersons.iller o t"e sa#e victi#$ under t"e t"eor& t"at said declaration -as one a'ainst t"e )enal interest o t"e declarant *Peo)le v. It is doctrinal t"at -"en a )erson is at t"e )oint o deat"$ ever& #otive o alse"ood is silenced.

! 8o##on re)utation e. Re1uisites %e ore evidence on )edi'ree -ill %e ad#issi%le: a. T"ere #ust %e so#e inde)endent )roo o t"is act. Konu#ents and inscri)tions in )u%lic )laces #a& %e received as evidence o co##on re)utation.does not re1uire t"at t"e entries in 6deceasedMs da&%oo.e$ #a& %e received as evidence o )edi'ree. T"e relations"i) %et-een t"e declarant or actor and t"e su%(ect is s"o-n %& evidence ot"er t"an suc" act or declaration Relations"i) #ust %e )reli#inaril& )roved %& direct or circu#stantial evidence. @. KAKIGO • • Alt"ou'" a )erson can "ave no )ersonal . 2011-2012 res)ect to t"e )edi'ree o anot"er )erson related to "i# %& %irt" or #arria'e$ #a& %e received in evidence -"ere it occurred %e ore t"e controvers&$ and t"e relations"i) %et-een t"e t-o )ersons is s"o-n %& evidence ot"er t"an suc" act or declaration. 8"aracter T"e in"erent 1ualities o a )erson Re)utation T"e o)inion o "i# %& ot"ers RIANO: T"e declaration a%out )edi'ree #a& %e received in evidence i t"e relations"i) is s"o-n %& evidence ot"er t"an t"e declaration. 8ases: GRAVAIOR V.istin' in a a#il& )revious to 42 . PEOPLE V. It e#%races also acts o a#il& "istor& inti#atel& connected -it" )edi'ree.s or c"arts$ en'ravin's on rin's$ a#il& )ortraits and t"e li. Suc" state#ent )revails over t"e #ere o)inion o t"e trial (ud'e *<S v. ALEGAIO T"e -ord G)edi'reeH under R1?A. 8ases: 2ERRER V.?J7 TISON V. Ka#i'o+.O<T PEIIGREE T"e )edi'ree o a )erson #a& %e )roved %& t"e act or declaration o a relative Re1uisites 1. T"e act or declaration -as #ade ante lite# #ota#$ or )rior to t"e controvers& ysr t"e controvers&$ in res)ect to t"e )edi'ree o an& one o its #e#%ers$ #a& %e received in evidence i t"e -itness testi &in' t"ereon %e also a #e#%er o t"e a#il&$ eit"er %& consan'uinit& or a init&.7 %e #ade at t"e sa#e ti#e as t"e occurrence o t"ose events3 "ence$ t"e -ritten #e#orandu# in t"e sa#e is not su%(ect to t"e de ect attri%uted to it. T"e actor or declarant is dead or una%le to testi & 2. A'adas+ %ut cannot 'enerall& )revail over t"e secondar& state#ent o t"e at"er *<S v.ists3 t"e 'eneral or su%stantiall& undivided re)utation$ as distin'uis"ed ro# a )artial or 1uali ied one$ alt"ou'" it need not %e unani#ous. Evan'elista+. T"e -itness testi &in' to t"e re)utation or tradition re'ardin' t"e )edi'ree o t"e )erson #ust %e a #e#%er o t"e a#il& o said )erson 5.istin' )revious to t"e controvers&$ res)ectin' acts o )u%lic or 'eneral interest #ore t"an t"irt& &ears old$ or res)ectin' #arria'e or #oral c"aracter$ #a& %e 'iven in evidence.evidence | 1st sem. 8A GEN R<LE: -"ere t"e )art& clai#in' see.isted )revious to t"e controvers& c.no-n or e. *?@a+ @+ 2AKILC REP<TATION OR TRAIITION REGARIING PEIIGREE Re1uisites 1.@A+ Section @A. T"e rules do not re1uire an& s)eci ic de'ree o relations"i)$ %ut t"e -ei'"t to -"ic" suc" act or declaration is entitled #a& %e a ected %& t"e de'ree o relations"i). *?5+ 5+ 8OKKON REP<TATION General re)utation3 t"e de inite o)inion o t"e co##unit& in -"ic" t"e act to %e )roved is . T"e -ord U)edi'reeU includes relations"i)$ a#il& 'enealo'&$ %irt"$ #arria'e$ deat"$ t"e dates -"en and t"e )laces -"ere t"ese ast occurred$ and t"e na#es o t"e relatives. Suc" re)utation or tradition #ust "ave e. Entries in a#il& %i%les or ot"er a#il& %oo. EE8EPTION: re1uire#ent o ot"er )roo t"an declarantMs state#ents as to relations"i) does not a))l& -"ere it is sou'"t to reac" t"e estate o t"e declarant "i#sel and not #erel& to esta%lis" a ri'"t t"rou'" "is declarations to t"e )ro)ert& o so#e ot"er a#il& #e#%er. *??a+ ?+ A8T OR IE8LARATION A.no-led'e o t"e date o "is %irt"$ "e #a& testi & as to "is a'e as "e "ad learned it ro# "is )arents and relatives and "is testi#on& in suc" case in an assertion o a a#il& tradition. T"at t"e re)utation or tradition o t"e )edi'ree o t"e )erson concerned e. @. 2a#il& re)utation or tradition re'ardin' )edi'ree.@1+ Section @1. 8o##on re)utation *R1?A. 8o##on re)utation. ! T"e re)utation or tradition e.?J includes relations"i)$ a#il& 'enealo'&$ %irt"$ #arria'e$ deat"$ t"e dates -"en and t"e )laces -"ere t"ese acts occurred and t"e na#es o t"e relatives. 8ontrovers& in res)ect to t"e )edi'ree o an& o t"e #e#%ers o a a#il& b. T"e -itness testi &in' t"ereto #ust %e a #e#%er$ %& consan'uinit& or a init&$ o t"e sa#e a#il& as t"e su%(ect 2. 2a#il& tradition *R1?A.s recover& a'ainst a relative co##on to %ot" clai#ant and declarant$ %ut not ro# t"e declarant "i#sel or t"e declarantMs estate$ t"e relations"i) o t"e declarant to t"e co##on relative #a& not %e )roved %& t"e declaration itsel . Kade ante lite #ota# %& a deceased relative$ 6declaration in veri ied )leadin' as to )etitionerMs a'e7 is at once a declaration re'ardin' )edi'ree -it"in t"e intend#ent and #eanin' o 6R1?A. T"e act or declaration is #ade %& a )erson related to t"e su%(ect %& %irt" or #arria'e ?. IE IN8:A<STI T"e la.isted in t"at a#il& ante lite# #ota# A )ersonMs state#ent as to "is date o %irt" and a'e$ as "e learned o t"ese ro# "is )arents or relatives$ is an ante lite# #ota# declaration o a a#il& tradition *Gravador v.

2urt"er$ onl& suc" state#ents as a))ear to "ave %een involuntaril& and si#ultaneousl& -run' ro# t"e -itness %& t"e i#)act o t"e occurrence are ad#issi%le. Part o res 'estae. 8ase: 8ITC O2 KANILA V. ?. T"e )rinci)al act$ t"e res 'estae$ is a startlin' occurrence 2. Peo)le v. Karria'e Koral c"aracter 8o##on re)utation #a& %e esta%lis"ed eit"er %& t"e testi#onial evidence o co#)etent -itnesses$ %& #onu#ents and inscri)tions in )u%lic )laces$ or %& docu#ents containin' state#ents o re)utation. So$ also$ state#ents acco#)an&in' an e1uivocal act #aterial to t"e issue$ and 'ivin' it a le'al si'ni icance$ #a& %e received as )art o t"e res 'estae.@2+ Section @2. Suc" testi#on&$ "o-ever$ does not constitute t"e Gco##on re)utationH re erred to.era#e+. .in' )lace or i##ediatel& )rior or su%se1uent t"ereto -it" res)ect to t"e circu#stances t"ereo $ #a& %e 'iven in evidence as )art o res 'estae. 2acts o )u%lic or 'eneral interest #ore t"an ?A &ears old Katters o )u%lic interest T"ose o national interest Katters o 'eneral interest T"ose a ectin' in"a%itants o a )articular re'ion or co##unit& ysr Re ers to a+ S)ontaneous state#ents in connection -it" a startlin' occurrence relatin' to t"at act and in e ect or#in' )art t"ereo Re1uisites 1. Al%an$ Peo)le v.illin'$ t"e state#ent is ad#issi%le as )art o t"e res 'estae *Peo)le v.al%as+. . ! State#ents #ade %& a )erson -"ile a startin' occurrence is ta. LanFa$ c . A%%oc$ Peo)le v. . 2011-2012 <nder R1?A /@1$ t"e c"aracter o a )erson is )er#itted to %e esta%lis"ed %& "is co##on re)utation.evidence | 1st sem. T"e interval o ti#e %et-een t"e startlin' occurrence and t"e state#ent de)ends u)on t"e circu#stances3 %ut suc" state#ent #ust "ave %een #ade -"ile t"e declarant -as under t"e i##ediate in luence o t"e startlin' occurrence$ "ence it is 'enerall& re1uired to "ave %een #ade i##ediatel& )rior or su%se1uent to t"e event. "as %een co##itted Trust-ort"iness o declaration %ased u)on its %ein' 'iven under an a-areness o i#)endin' deat" T"e co##on re)utation o suc" #atters$ -"ic" is re1uired to "ave e."ours t"erea ter *Peo)le v. B"ile$ as a rule$ t"e re)utation o a )erson s"ould %e t"at e.no-n.illin' *Peo)le v. Ad#issi%le to )rove t"e . 8o##on re)utation is e1uivalent to universal re)utation.istin' in t"e )lace -"ere "e is %est .istin' in t"e )lace o "is residence$ it #a& also %e t"at e. v. IEL ROSARIO 6VMs testi#on&$ -4c consisted o -"at "e "ad learned ro# so#e o t"e oldest residents in t"at section o t"e cit&7 -as introduced %& t"e 8it& o Kanila a))arentl& or t"e )ur)ose o )rovin' t"at t"e cit& -as 'enerall& considered t"e o-ner o t"e land$ dra-in' ro# t"is act t"e )resu#)tion o actual o-ners"i).istin' or t"at len't" o ti#e. 8orteFano+. Siscar+.e-ise %e [?A &ears old and$ t"ere ore$ can %e esta%lis"ed onl& %& )ersons -"o "ave "ad . *<S v. State#ents or outcries as )art o t"e res 'estae "ave %een ad#itted to esta%lis" t"e identit& o t"e assailant *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. Also$ t"e c"aracter o a )lace as an o)iu# (oint #a& %e )roved %& its co##on re)utation in t"e co##unit&. Res 'estae *R1?A. 8"oa 8"io.ed ords"ire+ B"ile co##on re)utation in t"e co##unit& #a& esta%lis" a #atter o )u%lic or 'eneral interest$ #arria'e or #oral c"aracter$ it cannot esta%lis" )edi'ree. Tula'an+ Res 'estae in connection -it" a "o#icidal act Ka& %e t"at o t"e . cases *NOTE: In an& o t"e t"ree cases$ it is necessar& t"at t"e co##on re)utation e. Re&es$ Peo)le v. L. :o-ever$ i t"e declarant -as rendered unconscious a ter t"e startlin' occurrence$ "is state#ents relative t"ereto u)on re'ainin' consciousness are still )art o t"e res 'estae re'ardless o t"e ti#e t"at intervened in %et-een. Tu#ali)$ Peo)le v. 2. *?La+ L+ PART O2 RES GESTAE Res 'estae: literall& #eans Gt"in's doneH 43 B"ile t"e victi#Ms state#ents #a& not 1uali & as a d&in' declaration %ecause it -as not #ade under t"e consciousness o i#)endin' deat" *Peo)le v.+: 1. T"e state#ents re er to t"e occurrence in 1uestion and its attendin' circu#stances *Peo)le v. Pascual$ Peo)le v.isted ante lite# #ota#. Iiva+$ to )rove t"e co#)licit& o anot"er .al%as$ Peo)le v. T"is is esta%lis"ed %& re)utation in t"e a#il& and not in t"e co##unit&. Re&es+ or t"at o a t"ird )erson T"e state#ent #a& )recede$ acco#)an&$ or %e #ade a ter t"e "o#icidal act -as co##itted Pusti ication in t"e s)ontaneit& o t"e state#ent I&in' declarations 8an %e #ade onl& %& t"e victi# Kade onl& a ter t"e "o#icidal attac.+ 8o##on re)utation is "earsa& li. Ara(a+ or a e.iller "i#sel a ter or durin' t"e .ce)tion to t"e "earsa& rule$ %ut is ad#issi%le %ecause o trust-ort"iness *Re'. Pala#os+$ it #a& still %e ad#issi%le as )art o t"e res 'estae i it -as #ade i##ediatel& a ter t"e incident *Peo)le v. . I t"e state#ent -as #ade under t"e in luence o a startlin' event and t"e declarant did not "ave t"e o))ortunit& to concoct or contrive a stor&$ even i #ade J "ours a ter t"e . :o-ever$ -"ere t"e ele#ents o %ot" are )resent$ t"e state#ent #a& %e ad#itted %ot" as a d&in' declaration and as )art o t"e res 'estae *Peo)le v.isted ante lite# #ota#$ #ust li.e an& ot"er e.no-led'e o t"at act or suc" len't" o ti#e$ or %& #onu#ents and inscri)tions e. T"e state#ents or#in' )art t"ereo -ere #ade %e ore t"e declarant "ad t"e o))ortunit& to contrive ?.

Entries -ere #ade in t"e ordinar& or re'ular course o %usiness or dut& *2K Ca) Tico 9 8o. N. Gonda&ao+. T"e )erson -"o #ade t"e entr& #ust %e dead$ out o t"e countr& or una%le to testi & 2.in' t"e entries testi & t"at t"e account -as )re)ared under "is su)ervision and t"at t"e entries -ere re'ularl& entered in t"e ordinar& course o %usiness *Ce.<SINESS Re1uisites 1.t"e acts t"erein stated$ #a& %e received as )ri#a acie evidence$ i suc" )erson #ade t"e entries in "is )ro essional ca)acit& or in t"e )er or#ance o dut& and in t"e ordinar& or re'ular course o %usiness or dut&. *. Entries -ere #ade in "is )ro essional ca)acit& or in t"e )er or#ance o a dut&$ -"et"er le'al$ contractual$ #oral$ or reli'ious *<S v. RKN T"e rule in res 'estae a))lies -"en t"e declarant "i#sel did not testi & and )rovided t"at t"e testi#on& o t"e -itness -"o "eard t"e declarant co#)lies -4 t"e . T"e res 'estae or )rinci)al act to %e c"aracteriFed #ust %e e1uivocal 2. ! Entries #ade at$ or near t"e ti#e o transactions to -"ic" t"e& re er$ %& a )erson deceased$ or una%le to testi &$ -"o -as in a )osition to . Notes ta. Entries in t"e )a&roll$ %ein' entries in t"e ordinar& course o %usiness$ en(o& t"e )resu#)tion o re'ularit& under R1?A /@? *Sa)io v. PEOPLE V.P POOL O2 A88REIITEI 8OKPANIES V. re1uire#ents: a.cla#ations -"ic" #a& "ave %een #ade %e ore$ durin' or i##ediatel& su%se1uent to t"e startlin' occurrence. Ter# Gver%al actH is used to denote t"at suc" state#ents are t"e ver%al )arts o t"e e1uivocal act o -"ic" suc" state#ents are e.en re'ardin' a transaction %& a )erson -"o is not a )art& t"ereto and -"o "as not %een re1uested to ta. Entries in t"e course o %usiness. Garcia+ I t"e entrant is availa%le as a -itness$ t"e said entries -ill not %e ad#itted as an e. o t"e cler.s or e#)lo&ees -"o individuall& #ade t"e entries in a lon' account. T"e state#ent is a re le.no.)lained.$ Ltd. State#ents -ere #ade %e ore t"e declarant "ad t"e ti#e to contrive or devise a alse"ood3 and c. ysr I. 2011-2012 )erson in t"e cri#e *<S v. GutierreF+ RIANO: T"e e. action rat"er t"an a deli%erate act$ instinctive rat"er t"an deli%erate. LATACAIA T"e utterances se)aratel& #ade %& t"e victi# to eac" o t"e -itnesses -ere correctl& a))reciated as )art o t"e res 'estae$ since t"e& "ad %een #ade i##ediatel& a ter a startlin' occurrence and "ad co#)lied -4 t"e . Ton' 2ire 9 Karine Insurance v. L<NGACAN 8o#)lainantMs revelation cannot %e considered as )art o t"e res 'estae 0 "er state#ent #ust %e s)ontaneous and #ade at a ti#e -"en t"ere -as no o))ortunit& or "er to concoct "er o-n stor&. Entrant -as in a )osition to . State#ents -ere s)ontaneous3 %.ce)tion to t"e "earsa& rule$ %ut t"e& #a& nevert"eless %e availed o %& said entrant as a #e#orandu# to re res" "is #e#or& -"ile testi &in' on t"e transactions re lected t"erein.orro#eo v. Ioes t"e state#ent acco#)an& t"e e1uivocal actX 8ases: PEOPLE V.evidence | 1st sem. Bill t"e state#ent acco#)an&in' t"e a#%i'uous or e1uivocal act e.e#)t %usiness records ro# t"e "earsa& rule *R8 /1+. Kade i##ediatel& %e ore$ durin'$ and a ter t"e startlin' occurrence3 and c. %+ State#ents acco#)an&in' an e1uivocal act$ ot"er-ise .s or ot"er e#)lo&ees #a. RIANO: T"e ad#issi%il& o a s)ontaneous state#ent is anc"ored on t"e t"eor& t"at t"e state#ent -as uttered under circu#stances -"ere t"e o))ortunit& to a%ricate is a%sent. Entries in t"e course o %usiness *R1?A. T"e state#ents #ust acco#)an& t"e e1uivocal act @.ce)tion is co##onl& encountered in %reac" o contract suits and suits or collection o a su# o #one&. T"e state#ents #ust concern t"e occurrence in 1uestion and its i##ediate attendin' circu#stances. T"e o%(ector "as to consider t"e : 1. Is t"e e1uivocal act #aterial to t"e issueX @. Re&es$ Peo)le v.)ressl& e. <ndaloc 8onstruction+ 8ases: 8AND<E V. Suc" act #ust %e #aterial to t"e issue ?. re1uisites: a. T"e& related t"e circu#stances t"ereo .no-n as ver%al acts$ on t"e t"eor& t"at t"e& are t"e ver%al )arts o t"e act to %e e. It is su icient t"at t"e )erson -"o su)ervises t"e -or. Lo)eF Vito$ 8"a)#an v. Re1uisites 1.@?+ Section @?. Serrano+ ?. Gardner+ In t"e )resentation and ad#ission as evidence o entries #ade in t"e re'ular course o %usiness$ t"ere is no overridin' necessit& to %rin' into court all t"e cler. Rules on Electronic Evidence also e. de Vera+ 5. v. Iavid+$ and to esta%lis" an ad#ission o lia%ilit& on t"e )art o t"e accused *Peo)le v.e do-n suc" notes are not )art o t"e res 'estae.)lain t"e act or 'ive le'al si'ni icance to itX ?. T"e state#ents 'ive a le'al si'ni icance to t"e e1uivocal act Suc" ver%al acts #ust "ave %een #ade at t"e ti#e$ and not a ter$ t"e e1uivocal act -as %ein' )er or#ed unli. *R1?2 /1L3 8an' Cui v. 8A 44 . Entries -ere #ade at or near t"e ti#e o t"e transactions to -"ic" t"e& re er *2i'ueras v.e s)ontaneous e.)lanator&$ "ence t"e& constitute )art o t"is or# o res 'estae.no. T"e )rinci)al act *res 'estae+ is a startlin' occurrence3 %.t"e act stated in t"e entries @. Is t"ere an act t"at is e1uivocal or a#%i'uousX 2. *?Na+ N+ ENTRIES IN T:E 8O<RSE O2 . 8A+ RIANO: O%(ections to t"e ad#issi%ilit& o ver%al acts de)end u)on B4N t"e )ro)onent "as esta%lis"ed t"e oundations or ad#issi%ilit&.

8."i%its in t"e nature o entries in )u%lic records$ #ade in t"e )er or#ance o t"eir dut& %& )u%lic o icers$ are )ri#a acie evidence o t"e acts stated t"erein. T"e entrant #ust "ave %een co#)etent -it" res)ect to t"e acts stated in "is entries.s to %e ad#itted in evidence Zsee notes a%ove[ SAIAGNOT V.AR V. Entrant "ad )ersonal . 8A Re1uisites or co##ercial lists: a. ES8O. Suc" state#ent is contained in a list$ re'istet$ )eriodical or ot"er )u%lis"ed co#)ilation3 c. T"e entries #ade in t"e s"i)Ms lo'%oo.*A rica v. L<NA 8erti ications issued %& 'overn#ent o ices *and certi ied to %& aut"oriFed )ersonnel -"o -ere clot"ed -it" aut"orit& and dut& to issue suc" certi ications+$ -it"out testi#on& o t"e )erson 'ivin' t"e certi ication$ is su icient and co#)etent evidence -4c is an e. J. Due Pin'+$ a cas" %oo. PEOPLE V.RIEL Entries in o icial records$ as in t"e case o a )olice %lotter$ are onl& )ri#a acie evidence o t"e acts stated t"erein. Asensi+$ or an o icial return or certi icate *Kanalo v.28 -"ic" allo-s t"e ad#ission o said docu#ent. ! Entries in o icial records #ade in t"e )er or#ance o "is dut& %& a )u%lic o icer o t"e P"ili))ines$ or %& a )erson in t"e )er or#ance o a dut& s)eciall& en(oined %& la-$ are )ri#a acie evidence o t"e acts t"erein stated.@L+ Section @L. T"e& are not conclusive. Learned treatises *R1?A. %& a )erson )er or#in' a dut& re1uired %& la.)ert in t"e su%(ect testi ies$ t"at t"e -riter o t"e state#ent in t"e treatise$ )eriodical or )a#)"let is reco'niFed in "is )ro ession or callin' as e. Ro%les Trans+ Entries in o icial records T"e entrant$ i a )rivate individual$ #ust "ave acted )ursuant to a s)eci ic le'al dut& *Gs)eciall& en(oined %& la-H+ No suc" re1uire#ent or t"e ad#issi%ilit& o entries in o icial records Entries in t"e course o %usiness It is su icient t"at t"e entrant #ade t"e entries )ursuant to a dut&$ eit"er le'al$ contractual$ #oral$ or reli'ious To %e ad#issi%le$ t"e )erson -"o #ade suc" entries #ust %e dead or una%le to testi & ysr t"at suc" records or certi icates s"ould %e aut"enticated as )rivate -ritin's *<S v. Suc" docu#ents$ "o-ever$ are not conclusive evidence. 1A. ! A )u%lis"ed treatise$ )eriodical or )a#)"let on a su%(ect o "istor&$ la-$ science$ or art is ad#issi%le as tendin' to )rove t"e trut" o a #atter stated t"erein i t"e court ta. SAN GA. REINIER PA8I2I8 INTML S:IPPING T"e s"i)Ms lo'%oo. *?8+ 8+ ENTRIES IN O22I8IAL RE8ORIS Re1uisites 1.ter 9 8o. 1JA$ c"urc" re'istries are no lon'er )u%lic -ritin's. Learned treatises. 88 L8 re1uires t"e sole#niFin' o icer to . Evan'elista+.a)tis#al certi icates or )aroc"ial records o %a)tis# are not )u%lic or o icial records and are not )roo o relations"i) or iliation o t"e c"ild %a)tiFed *2ortus v. At an& rate$ t"e co)& o t"e certi icate trans#itted to t"e )u%lic o icer as re1uired %& la%eco#es a )u%lic docu#ent and a certi ied co)& t"ereo is ad#issi%le in evidence -it"out )rior aut"entication *<S v. 58 and t"e )assa'e o Act No. *?J+ J+ 8OKKER8IAL LISTS ANI T:E LIRE E.to .ee).ce)tion to t"e "earsa& rule )er R1?A.a#)les: #ortalit& ta%les$ acce)ted actuarial and annuit& ta%les 8ase: PNO8 S:IPPING V.no-led'e o t"e acts stated %& "i# or suc" acts -ere ac1uired %& "i# ro# re)orts #ade %& )ersons under a le'al dut& to su%#it t"e sa#e *Sal#on$ Ie. *@Aa+ 45 . T"e entries -ere #ade %& a )u%lic o icer in t"e )er or#ance o "is duties or %& a )erson in t"e )er or#ance o a dut& s)eciall& en(oined %& la. ItMs a state#ent o #atters o interest to )ersons en'a'ed in an occu)ation3 %.are )ri#a acie evidence o t"e acts stated in t"e lo'%oo. Said co#)ilation is )u%lis"ed or t"e use o )ersons en'a'ed in t"at occu)ation3 and d. Suc" entries -ere dul& entered in a re'ular #anner in t"e o icial records An o icial record #a& %e a re'ister *<S v.+ 2.. :o-ever$ t"e& are ad#issi%le as evidence o t"e acts stated t"erein BRT #arria'es sole#niFed %& t"e )riest -it"out t"e necessit& o callin' "i#.evidence | 1st sem. Novero$ Arde v. v Bi(an'co+ ?. 8alte. *<S v. 8o##ercial lists and t"e li. 8o##ercial lists *R1?A. Anicoc"e+. A ter t"e )ro#ul'ation o GO No.@5+ Section @5. T"eir )ro%ative value #a& eit"er %e su%stantiated or nulli ied %& ot"er co#)etent evidence. is t"e o icial record o a s"i)Ms vo&a'e -4c its ca)tain is o%li'ated %& la. It is necessar&$ "o-ever$ . 2011-2012 Re1uisites or cor)orate %oo.ee) a record o suc" #arria'es. Entries in o icial records.e. 8onse1uentl&$ -"ile t"e )riest -"o o iciates at a %a)tis# acts )ursuant to a le'al dut& in recordin' t"e acts o suc" %a)tis# in a re'ister$ suc" entries in t"e re'ister are not ad#issi%le to )rove t"e date o %irt" o t"e c"ild or its relation to )articular )ersons *Re#i'io v. O icial records *R1?A. Orti'a+$ as t"e entrant )riest -as not co#)etent to testi & -it" res)ect to t"e trut" o t"ese latter acts.)ert in t"e su%(ect. D<E PING E. 8ases: <S V. ! Evidence o state#ents o #atters o interest to )ersons en'a'ed in an occu)ation contained in a list$ re'ister$ )eriodical$ or ot"er )u%lis"ed co#)ilation is ad#issi%le as tendin' to )rove t"e trut" o an& relevant #atter so stated i t"at co#)ilation is )u%lis"ed or use %& )ersons en'a'ed in t"at occu)ation and is 'enerall& used and relied u)on %& t"e# t"erein. de Vera+.@@+ Section @@. ItMs 'enerall& used and relied u)on %& )ersons in t"e sa#e occu)ation. T"is section s"ould %e read in con(unction -4 R1?2.es (udicial notice$ or a -itness e.@@.

a#ination #ust %e accorded a )art& at t"e ti#e t"e testi#onial evidence is actuall& )resented a'ainst "i# durin' t"e trial or "earin'. v.e.nall$ 8it& o Kanila v.)ert on t"e su%(ect testi ies to t"e e.)ressions o vie-s -ere #ade %& t"e court t"erein "ave no )ro%ative value.en %& de)osition is anc"ored on t"e 'round t"at suc" testi#on& is "earsa&$ i.o t"ose Guna%le to testi &H conte#)lated in R1?A /@N *Tan v. T"e reason or t"is rule is t"at t"e )arties are not t"e sa#e and di erent rules o evidence are a))lica%le to eac" case *Kanantan v.evidence | 1st sem. T"e& a#ount to not"in' #ore t"an an order or (ud'#ent$ -"ic" is not )art o t"e (ud'#ent *Re%ullida v. Al#ario+ 2. It is$ t"ere ore$ an o icial docu#ent -"ose )u%lication constituted a leadin' event o 'eneral interest and -"ose )rovisions are -idel& .)ro)erl& included in t"is e. • . Said docu#ents can %e ad#itted t"e& %ein' )art o t"e testi#onies o -itnesses t"at "ave %een ad#itted.@N+ Section @N.a collateral act relevant to t"e issue in t"e civil action . 8ourt ta. A%aroa+.a#ine "i#. B"atever in or#al e.uc. Bitness is dead or una%le to testi & *Guevara v.allantine Scale o Values$ -4c -as e#%odied in a %ill t"e President sent to 8on'ress or enact#ent in 1J@5$ "as %een re)eatedl& a))lied %& P"ili))ine courts in nu#erous cases. A. Said (ud'#ent is accordin'l& ad#issi%le in evidence in t"e civil action %rou'"t to en orce said su%sidiar& lia%ilit& *c . A%aroa+ :o-ever$ it -as su%se1uentl& "eld t"at a (ud'#ent o conviction$ in t"e a%sence o collusion %et-een t"e accused and t"e o ended )art&$ is %indin' and conclusive u)on t"e )erson su%sidiaril& lia%le not onl& -it" re'ard to "is su%sidiar& lia%ilit& %ut also -it" re'ard to t"e a#ount t"ereo *Kiranda v.s$ )u%lis"ed indin's o scientists all -it"in t"is e.)ert -itness Le'al treatises are no. 6Ltd. B"ere t"e -itnesses in 1uestion are availa%le$ %ut t"e& re used to testi &$ t"e& do not co#e -it"in t"e le'al )urvie. :is testi#on& or de)osition -as 'iven in a or#er case or )roceedin'$ (udicial or ad#inistrative$ %et-een t"e sa#e )arties or t"ose re)resentin' t"e sa#e interests ?.ce)tion i an e. A (ud'#ent in a cri#inal )roceedin' Tcannot %e read in evidence in a civil action a'ainst a )erson not a )art& t"ereto to esta%lis" an& act t"erein deter#ined. Reller 9 8o. Kalate Gara'e+.in' o t"e de)osition3 or nor#all&$ t"e o))ortunit& or cross>e. Kanila Electric+ Said (ud'#ent cannot$ in a civil action arisin' ro# t"e co##ission o a cri#e$ or in -"ic" t"e co##ission o said cri#e is collateral$ %e ad#itted to )rove )lainti Ms cause o action$ or de endantMs de ense$ and -"atever indin's o act are #ade %& t"e T8 in t"e decision are not %indin' u)on t"e )arties to t"e civil action.)ertise o t"e -riter or i t"e court ta. 2011-2012 1A+ LEARNEI TREATISES Re1uisites 1. 8A$ Toledo Pr.in' o t"e de)osition$ %ut o%(ectin' to its ad#issi%ilit& in court as evidence$ )etitioner did not assu#e inconsistent )ositions.in' o t"e de)osition cannot$ -it"out #ore$ %e considered a -aiver o t"e ri'"t to o%(ect to its ad#issi%ilit& as evidence in t"e trial )ro)er.ut as (uris)rudence teac"es$ it #atters not t"at o))ortunit& or cross>e. 8ALA<NAN T"ou'" R1?A. T"e or#er case involved t"e sa#e su%(ect as t"at in t"e )resent case$ alt"ou'" on di erent causes o action @. :e is not$ t"us$ esto))ed ro# c"allen'in' t"e ad#issi%ilit& o t"e de)osition (ust %ecause "e )artici)ated in t"e ta. Kanila Electric+. In )artici)atin'$ t"ere ore$ in t"e ta. SeWeres+ 8ases: SALES V. • In ine$ t"e act o cross>e.ce)tion to t"e "earsa& rule.INO As a rule$ t"e inad#issi%ilit& o testi#on& ta. T"e sa#e are testi ied to %& an e.a#ination -as a orded durin' t"e ta.$ t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# it is o ered "as no o))ortunit& to cross>e.no-n and "ave )la&ed an i#)ortant )art in t"e conte#)orar& )olitical "istor& o t"e countr&$ o -"ic" courts could ta. 8A$ citin' Al#eida 8"antan'co v. OPINION R<LE 46 Re1uisites 1. T"e issue testi ied to %& t"e -itness in t"e or#er trial is t"e sa#e issue involved in t"e )resent case 5.e (udicial co'niFance. Prior testi#on& *R1?A. IV. Suc" ina%ilit& s"ould )roceed ro# a 'rave cause$ al#ost a#ountin' to deat"$ as -"en t"e -itness is old and "as lost t"e )o-er o s)eec".@N s)ea. T"e adverse )art& "ad an o))ortunit& to cross>e.a#ine t"e de)onent at t"e ti#e "is testi#on& is o ered. Pa(arito v. Testi#on& or de)osition at a or#er )roceedin'. RIANO: :istor& %oo. SA.in' t"ereo .7 v. KANLI8LI8 V. Suc" (ud'#ent #a& onl& %e ad#itted in evidence in a civil case %& -a& o induce#ent$ or to s"o.ed as res (udicata *Al#eida 8"antan'co v. 8ase: ESTRAIA V. 11.a#ine t"e -itness in t"e or#er case Su%se1uent ailure or re usal to a))ear at t"e second trial$ or "ostilit& since testi &in' at t"e irst trial$ does not a#ount to ina%ilit& to testi &. Peo)le+ T"e ad#issi%ilit& o a )rior (ud'#ent$ and not t"e )revious testi#on&$ in a cri#inal action is 'overned %& di erent rules. Estrella+ Pud'#ent in t"e cri#inal )roceedin' cannot %e read in evidence in t"e civil action to esta%lis" an& act t"erein deter#ined even t"ou'" %ot" actions involve t"e sa#e act or o#ission.es (udicial notice t"ereo 3 OR 2. T"e #atter is res inter alios and cannot %e invo. ! T"e testi#on& or de)osition o a -itness deceased or una%le to testi &$ 'iven in a or#er case or )roceedin'$ (udicial or ad#inistrative$ involvin' t"e sa#e )arties and su%(ect #atter$ #a& %e 'iven in evidence a'ainst t"e adverse )art& -"o "ad t"e o))ortunit& to cross>e.LE T"e .s onl& o testi#on& and de)osition$ it does not #ean t"at docu#ents ro# a or#er case or )roceedin' cannot %e ad#itted. NO. T"e (ud'#ent can onl& )rove t"at a certain de endant "as %een convicted o a cri#e and sentenced to t"e )enalt& t"erein i#)osed *Ara#%ulo v. Eller#an 9 .es (udicial notice o suc" act. *@1a+ 11+ TESTIKONC PRO8EEIING OR IEPOSITION AT A 2ORKER ysr *Ed.a#inin' t"e de)onent durin' t"e ta.

no-led'e3 *%+ A "and-ritin' -it" -"ic" "e "as su icient a#iliarit&3 and *c+ T"e #ental sanit& o a )erson -it" -"o# "e is su icientl& ac1uainted.no-led'e o t"e "and-ritin' o suc" )erson. "o. . . *@?a+ Section 5A.s$ c"aracteristics and discre)ancies in and %et-een 'enuine and alse s)eci#ens o -ritin' -4c -ould ordinaril& esca)e detection %& an untrained o%server.+ E.eli"ood or )ro%a%ilit& o )aternit&. t"e )ossi%ilit& o conta#ination o t"e sa#)les3 @.sa#)les -ere collected3 2. ! T"e o)inion o -itness is not ad#issi%le$ e.)ert -itnesses on #atter re1uirin' s)ecial . O)inion o ordinar& -itnesses *R1?A. -"et"er t"e )ro)er standards and )rocedure -ere ollo-ed in conductin' t"e tests3 and L. GEN R<LE *R1?A. GEN R<LE: e. R1?2. 8ourts$ "o-ever$ are not necessaril& %ound %& t"e e. )rocedure ollo-ed in anal&Fin' t"e sa#)les3 5. Valle(o ado)ted t"e . State Assurance 8o.5A+ re: a.tent o t"e e. Trainin' and education %. Identit& o )erson a%out -"o# "e "as ade1uate .)erience or studies o t"e -itness. R1?A. ! T"e o)inion o a -itness or -"ic" )ro)er %asis is 'iven$ #a& %e received in evidence re'ardin' ! *a+ t"e identit& o a )erson a%out -"o# "e "as ade1uate .)erience or trainin' -"ic" "e s"o-n to )osses$ #a& %e received in evidence. t"e 1uali ication o t"e anal&st -"o conducted t"e test.)ress an o)inion.o a orei'n countr& is not necessaril& %indin' on our courts. "o.no-n to all #en o co##on )erce)tion$ suc" as t"e value o ordinar& "ouse"old articles *Galian v. :o.)ert testi#on& de)ends lar'el& on t"e e. Evidence res)ectin' t"e "and-ritin' #a& also %e 'iven %& a co#)arison$ #ade %& t"e -itness or t"e court$ -it" -ritin's ad#itted or treated as 'enuine %& t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# t"e evidence is o ered$ or )roved to %e 'enuine to t"e satis action o t"e (ud'e.)ert evidence is ad#issi%le 1.)ertMs indin's. ! T"e o)inion o a -itness on a #atter re1uirin' s)ecial .$ Ltd.)ert -itness One -"o %elon's to t"e )ro ession or callin' to -"ic" t"e su%(ect #atter o t"e in1uir& relates and -"o )ossesses s)ecial . 8. Kental sanit& o )erson "eMs su icientl& ac1uainted -4 d.evidence | 1st sem. T"e )resent rule reco'niFes t"e validit& o and 'ives o icial reco'nition to INA test results arisin' ro# )ro)erl& conducted standards and )rocedures in t"e collection$ "andlin'$ and anal&sis o t"e sa#)les %& a 1uali ied anal&st. Ordinar& #atters .s"e -as %orn$ -"at s"e is su erin' ro#$ and -"at "er attain#ents are$ s"e 47 B"en e.)ert de)ends u)on t"e assistance "e #a& a ord in )ointin' out distin'uis"in' #ar.J] as t"e #ini#u# nu#erical esti#ate or t"e li.@8+: -itnessM o)inion is inad#issi%le EE8EPTIONS 1.no-led'e$ s.)ert evidence. T"e results o %lood 'rou)in' tests on t"e iliation o a c"ild$ co#)etentl& conducted %& 1uali ied )ersons$ are ad#issi%le and conclusive on t"e non>)aternit& o a )erson over t"e c"ild.)ert.)ert -itness. 2011-2012 A..@8>5A Section @8.ce)t as indicated in t"e ollo-in' sections. ItMs onl& -"ere t"e su%(ect o in1uir& is o suc" a tec"nical nature t"at a la&#an can )ossi%l& "ave no .no-led'e on 1uestions on -4c "e )ro)oses to e.no-led'e$ s. :and-ritin' "e is su icientl& a#iliar -4 c. T8s s"ould re1uire at least JJ.)ert to elicit "is o)inion. • T"ereMs no de inite standard o deter#inin' t"e de'ree o s.)ertise$ and 2. T"e testi#on& o a -itness s.illed in t"e un-ritten la.ill$ e. t"e -itness "as %een 1uali ied as an e. E#otion$ %e"avior$ condition or a))earance o a )erson "e "as o%served e.ed o an e.@J+ 2. T"e value o t"e o)inion o a "and-ritin' e. I<RANAN I t"e #ot"er o an o ended )art& in a ra)e case .no-led'e t"at a -itness #ust )ossess in order to testi & as an e.ill or . Particular$ irst>"and a#iliarit& -it" t"e acts o t"e case c.)ert evidence re'arded as )urel& advisor& in c"aracter :&)ot"etical 1uestions #a& %e as.22 Section 22. O)inion o e. O)inion o ordinar& -itnesses.'enuineness o "and-ritin' )roved.no-led'e t"ereo t"at courts #ust de)end and rel& u)on e. 8ases: PEOPLE V.no-s t"e )art&Ms )"&sical and #ental condition$ "o. T"e value o e.ill$ e. Presentation o aut"orities or standards u)on -"ic" "is o)inion is %ased • ysr B4N courts are %ound %& t"e testi#on& o an e. General rule.no-led'e %. 'uidelines to %e used %& courts in assessin' t"e )ro%ative value o INA evidence: 1. ! T"e "and-ritin' o a )erson #a& %e )roved %& an& -itness -"o %elieves it to %e t"e "and-ritin' o suc" )erson %ecause "e "as seen t"e )erson -rite$ or "as seen -ritin' )ur)ortin' to %e "is u)on -"ic" t"e -itness "as acted or %een c"ar'ed$ and "as t"us ac1uired . Rule on INA Evidence Peo)le v. t"e #atter to %e testi ied to is one t"at re1uires e.)ert. *2?a+ T"is section #erel& enu#erates t"e #et"ods o )rovin' "and-ritin' %ut does not 'ive )re erence or )riorit& to a )articular #et"od. O)inion o e. • 2ollo-in' actors #ust %e )resent: a.t"e& -ere "andled3 ?. T"e -itness #a& also testi & on "is i#)ressions o t"e e#otion$ %e"avior$ condition or a))earance o a )erson.)erience or trainin' -"ic" "e )ossesses *R1?A.)ert de)ends 'reatl& u)on t"e nature o t"e su%(ect o in1uir&. *@2+ Section @J.

. /L$ RA 85A5 Section L. a sus)ect to a cri#e$ or to a%solve one erroneousl& accused$ -"ere %iolo'ical evidence is availa%le. *1N+ 8.U PEOPLE V.evidence | 1st sem..ot" civil and cri#inal cases A -itnessM %ad #oral c"aracter #a& al-a&s %e )roved %& eit"er )art&$ %ut not evidence o "is 'ood c"aracter$ unless it "as %een i#)eac"ed. RIANO: 8"aracter: t"e a''re'ate o t"e #oral 1ualities -4c %elon' to and distin'uis" an individual )erson3 t"e 'eneral results o oneMs distin'uis"in' attri%utes. • 2. KAPILE 8ourts are not %ound %& e.Rule on INA Evidence$ t"e courts are aut"oriFed$ a ter due "earin' and notice$ #otu )ro)rio to order a INA testin'. ?+ T"e 'ood or %ad #oral c"aracter o t"e o ended )art& #a& %e )roved i it tends to esta%lis" in an& reasona%le de'ree t"e )ro%a%ilit& or i#)ro%a%ilit& o t"e o ense c"ar'ed. T"ere #ust %e clear indications #ilitatin' a'ainst "er credi%ilit& ot"er t"an "er %ein' a )erson o ill re)ute. T"e o ended )art&Ms 'ood or %ad #oral c"aracter #a& al-a&s %e )roved %& eit"er )art& as lon' as suc" evidence tends to esta%lis" t"e *i#+)ro%a%ilit& o t"e o ense c"ar'ed. 8ases: PEOPLE V. .in' and irasci%le dis)osition$ t"e )roo #ust %e o "is 'eneral re)utation in t"e co##unit& and not o isolated and s)eci ic acts.tent t"at t"e court inds$ t"at suc" evidence is #aterial and relevant to t"e case. 8ri#inal cases • Prosecution #a& not at t"e outset )rove t"e accusedMs %ad #oral c"aracter -4c is )ertinent to t"e #oral trait involved in t"e o ense c"ar'ed. ysr Eit"er )art&Ms #oral c"aracter cannot %e )roved <NLESS itMs )ertinent to t"e issue o c"aracter involved in t"e case .A.Ut"at it "as )roduced a reasona%le %elie o i##inent dan'er in t"e #ind o t"e accused and a (usti ia%le conviction t"at a )ro#)t de ensive action -as necessar&.IERA B"ile it is true t"at -"en t"e de ense o t"e accused is t"at "e acted in sel >de ense$ "e #a& )rove t"e deceased to "ave %een o a 1uarrelso#e$ )rovo. 2011-2012 is co#)etent to testi & on t"e #atter even t"ou'" s"e is not a )s&c"iatrist. ! Evidence o t"e 'ood c"aracter o a -itness is not ad#issi%le until suc" c"aracter "as %een i#)eac"ed. 8:ENG Loose #orals )er se is not a 'round to discredit a -itness.)ert testi#onies. R1?A. 2+ <nless in re%uttal$ t"e )rosecution #a& not )rove "is %ad #oral c"aracter -"ic" is )ertinent to t"e #oral trait involved in t"e o ense c"ar'ed. SOLIKAN B"ile 'ood or %ad c"aracter #a& %e availed o as an aid to deter#ine t"e )ro%a%ilit& or i#)ro%a%ilit& o t"e co##ission o an o ense$ suc" is not necessar& in #urder$ -"ere t"e . T"e )ro%le# o t"e evaluation o e. R1?2. 1@. BRT t"e nature or su%stance o t"e c"aracter evidence -4c #a& %e ad#issi%le$ t"e rules re1uire t"at: • As to t"e A88<SEI$ suc" c"aracter evidence #ust %e )ertinent to t"e #oral trait involved in t"e o ense c"ar'ed *e. . PEOPLE V. 8:ARA8TER AS EVIIEN8E EE8EPTION: Proo o #urder victi#Ms %ad c"aracter is inad#issi%le i t"e cri#e -as co##itted t"rou'" treac"er& or )re#editation$ in t"e sa#e #anner t"at t"e ra)e victi#Ms %ad #oral c"aracter is inad#issi%le i t"e cri#e -as co##itted %& violence or inti#idation. PEOPLE V. T"e )roo o suc" c"aracter #a& onl& %e allo-ed in "o#icide cases to s"o.)ert testi#on& is le t to t"e discretion o t"e trial court -"ose rulin' t"ereu)on is not revie-a%le in t"e a%sence o an a%use o t"at discretion. > In )rosecutions or ra)e$ evidence o co#)lainantSs )ast se. ?. 8ivil cases . V.51 Sec. • A non>e.)ert -itness #a& 'ive "is o)inion as to t"e *in+sanit& o anot"er$ -"en %ased u)on conversations or dealin's "e "as "ad -it" suc" )erson$ or u)on "is a))earance$ or u)on an& act %earin' u)on "is #ental condition$ -4 t"e -itnessM o-n .illin' is co##itted t"rou'" treac"er& o )re#editation. Ra)e S"ield. In esta a or )er(ur&$ -"ere a )ersonMs #oral trait or "onest& or )ro%it& is involved+ • • As to O22ENIEI PERSON$ itMs su icient t"at suc" c"aracter evidence #a& esta%lis" in an& reasona%le de'ree t"e *i#+)ro%a%ilit& o t"e o ense c"ar'ed As to BITNESSES$ suc" c"aracter evidence #ust re er to "is 'eneral re)utation or trut"$ "onest& or inte'rit&$ t"at is$ as a ectin' "is credi%ilit& • T"e deter#ination o -"et"er <#anito is t"e at"er o AAAMs c"ild$ -"ic" #a& %e acco#)lis"ed t"rou'" INA testin'$ is #aterial to t"e air and correct ad(udication o t"e instant a))eal. :o-ever$ i t"e accused in "is de ense atte#)ts to )rove "is 'ood #oral c"aracter$ )rosecution can introduce evidence o suc" %ad #oral c"aracter at t"e re%uttal sta'e. Evidence o 'ood c"aracter o -itness.ce)tions: ! *a+ In 8ri#inal 8ases: 1+ T"e accused #a& )rove "is 'ood #oral c"aracter -"ic" is )ertinent to t"e #oral trait involved in t"e o ense c"ar'ed.no-led'e and o%servation$ "e "avin' irst testi ied to suc" conversations$ dealin's$ a))earance or ot"er o%served acts$ as t"e %asis or "is o)inion.ual conduct$ o)inion t"ereo or o "is4"er re)utation s"all not %e ad#itted unless$ and onl& to t"e e. <KANITO • INA )rint or identi ication tec"nolo'& is reco'niFed as a uni1uel& e ective #eans to lin.1@ Sec. ILAO>D<IANAC V. *c+ In t"e case )rovided or in Rule 1?2$ Section 1@$ *@La$ @Na+ Rules on ad#issi%ilit& o c"aracter evidence 1. <nder /@ o t"e Ne. 8"aracter evidence not 'enerall& ad#issi%le3 e. 51. 48 A. *%+ In 8ivil 8ases: Evidence o t"e #oral c"aracter o a )art& in civil case is ad#issi%le onl& -"en )ertinent to t"e issue o c"aracter involved in t"e case.

2011-2012 8S8 V. )ursuant to t"e )rinci)le t"at a )art& -"o %eco#es a -itness in "is o-n %e"al )laces "i#sel in t"e sa#e )osition as an& ot"er -itness$ and #a& %e i#)eac"ed %& an attac. 49 .evidence | 1st sem. on "is c"aracter or re)utation.ELAGAN • Alt"ou'" s"e is t"e o ended )art&$ Ka'dalena$ %& testi &in' in "er o-n %e"al $ o)ened "ersel to c"aracter or re)utation attac.62@7 In ot"er -ords$ -"at is to %e deter#ined is t"e c"aracter or re)utation o t"e )erson at t"e ti#e o t"e trial and )rior t"ereto$ %ut not at a )eriod re#ote ro# t"e co##ence#ent o t"e suit. ysr • Settled is t"e )rinci)le t"at evidence o oneMs c"aracter or re)utation #ust %e con ined to a ti#e not too re#ote ro# t"e ti#e in 1uestion. .

In a cri#inal case$ t"e e1ui)oise rule )rovides t"at -"ere t"e evidence is evenl& %alanced$ t"e constitutional )resu#)tion o innocence tilts t"e scales in avor o t"e accused. *1a$ 2a+ . .istence or non> e. EE8EPTION: B"ere t"e ne'ative o an issue does not )er#it o direct )roo $ or -"ere t"e acts are #ore i##ediatel& -it"in t"e . 2acts -4c are o (udicial notice *R12J+ 2.<RIEN O2 PROO2 ANI PRES<KPTIONS A.i'encies o t"e case in t"e course o t"e trial Generall& deter#ined %& develo)#ents at t"e trial$ or %& t"e )rovisions o t"e su%stantive la. To%ias+ GEN R<LE: )rosecution "as %urden o )rovin' t"e cri#inal c"ar'e i itMs )redicated on a ne'ative alle'ation or t"at a ne'ative aver#ent is an essential ele#ent o a cri#e B"at need not %e )roved 1.urden o )roo *R1?1. In %ot" civil and cri#inal cases$ t"e %urden o evidence lies -4 t"e )art& assertin' an a ir#ative alle'ation.urden o )roo is t"e dut& o a )art& to )resent evidence on t"e acts in issue necessar& to esta%lis" "is clai# or de ense %& t"e a#ount o evidence re1uired %& la-. T"e )lainti Ms clai# -4c "e #ust )rove is s)elled out in "is co#)laint.LE -"ere t"e evidence )resented is not e1uall& -ei'"t&$ suc" as -"ere )rosecution evidence is over-"el#in' 8ases: PEOPLE V. R<IE8ON KGKT.istence o acts necessar& or t"e )rosecution o "is action or de ense to esta%lis" t"e sa#e %& t"e re1uisite 1uantu# o evidence. In suc" case$ t"e decision s"ould %e a'ainst t"e )art& -4 t"e %urden o )roo . B"ere %urden o )roo is on t"e )lainti and t"e evidence does not su''est t"at t"e scale o (ustice s"ould -ei'" in "is avor court s"ould render verdict or de endant.urden o )roo .urden o )roo to esta%lis" t"at de endant o-es )lainti re#ains -4 t"e latter3 %urden o )roo to esta%lis" t"at t"e loan "as %een )aid re#ains -4 de endant t"rou'"out t"e liti'ation PART T:REE I. *Industrial 2inance v.AR V.urden o )roo : onus )ro%andi O%li'ation i#)osed u)on a )art& -"o alle'es t"e e. Ne'ative alle'ations donMt "ave to %e )roved e.or )rocedural rules -4c #a& relieve t"e )art& ro# )resentin' evidence on t"e act alle'ed *i.A GEN R<LE: i a cri#inal c"ar'e is )redicated on a ne'ative alle'ation$ or t"at a ne'ative aver#ent is an essential ele#ent o a cri#e$ t"e )rosecution "as t"e %urden o )rovin' t"e c"ar'e. ! . SAK.e-ise )rove are ound in "is ans-er to t"e co#)laint. . T"e %urdens o )roo o %ot" )arties do not s"i t durin' t"e course o t"e trial. Presu#)tions o act: derived -"oll& and directl& ro# t"e circu#stances o t"e )articular case %& #eans o t"e co##on e.urden o evidence S"i ts ro# )art& to )art& de)endin' u)on t"e e. E. 8AKA8:O In ad#inistrative cases or dis%ar#ent or sus)ension a'ainst la-&ers$ t"e 1uantu# o )roo re1uired is clearl& )re)onderant evidence and t"e %urden o )roo rests u)on t"e co#)lainant. .ed rules and or# a )art o t"e s&ste# o (uris)rudence o 8onclusive4a%solute )resu#)tions o Iis)uta%le4re%utta%le )resu#)tions RIANO: 50 ..evidence | 1st sem.ce)t -"ere suc" are essential )arts o t"e 8OA or de ense in a civil case$ or are essential in'redients o t"e o ense in a cri#inal case or t"e de enses t"ereto. LEVI STRA<SS 9 8O. Ie endantMs de enses -"ic" "e #ust li.e.ed %& t"e )leadin's.$ an GavoidanceH o t"e clai#$ -"ic" )ri#a acie$ t"e )lainti alread& "as %ecause o t"e de endantMs o-n ad#issions in t"e )leadin's.e. It is on t"e latter$ i in "is ans-er "e alle'es an a ir#ative de ense$ -"ic" is not a denial o an essential in'redient in t"e )lainti Ms cause o action$ %ut is one -"ic"$ i esta%lis"ed$ -ill %e a 'ood de ense 0 i. 2LORENIO T"e onus )ro%andi rests u)on "i# -"o invo. KA8ALA. )resu#)tions$ (udicial notice 9 ad#issions+ E1ui)oise rule Re ers to a situation -"ere t"e )artiesM )ieces o evidence are evenl& %alanced or t"ereMs dou%t on -"ic" side t"e evidence )re)onderates. Duantu# o evidence re1uired: • 8ivil cases: )re)onderance o evidence • 8ri#inal cases: evidence o 'uilt %e&ond reasona%le dou%t • ad#inistrative cases: su%stantial evidence *onl& suc" relevant evidence as a reasona%le #ind #i'"t acce)t as su icient to su))ort a conclusion+ .urden o )roo IoesnMt s"i t 0 re#ains t"rou'"out t"e trial -4 t"e )art& u)on -"o# itMs i#)osed Generall& deter#ined %& )leadin's iled %& a )art& . 8ORP.1+ Section 1. 2011-2012 ysr T"e %urden o )roo is i. PEOPLE V. PEOPLE V.es insanit& as an e.no-led'e o t"e accused$ t"e onus )ro%andi rests u)on "i#. Presu#)tions o la-: reduced to i. NOT APPLI8A. 2acts -4c are )resu#ed *R1?1+ • Presu#)tion: an in erence o t"e e. .ro# t"e )roo o ot"er acts a.)erience o #an.istence o a act -"ic" courts are )er#itted to dra. V. PAPENAIO In cri#inal cases %urden o )roo as to o ense c"ar'ed lies -4 )rosecution$ and a ne'ative act #ust %e )roved i it is an essential in'redient o t"e cri#e 0 %urden o )roo -4 )rosecution to )rove t"at t"e irear# used %& t"e accused in co##ittin' t"e o ense c"ar'ed -as not )ro)erl& licensed.ind %.e#)tin' circu#stance$ and "e #ust )rove it %& clear and convincin' evidence. 2acts -4c are (udiciall& ad#itted *R12J+ ?. In civil cases$ t"e %urden o )roo #a& %e on eit"er t"e )lainti or t"e de endant.

TRANS>ASIA S:IPPING In t"e course o trial in a civil case$ once )lainti #a. Kin'oa+ ysr 88 11NL also la&s do-n )resu#)tion t"at interest "as %een )aid i t"e )rinci)al is received %& t"e creditor -it"out reservation *(+ T"at a )erson ound in )ossession o a t"in' ta. It -as co##itted recentl& ?.)rovidin' t"at t"e )resu#)tion o innocence #a& %e overco#e %& a contrar& )resu#)tion ounded u)on t"e e.ercise o (urisdiction3 *o+ T"at all t"e #atters -it"in an issue raised in a case -ere laid %e ore t"e court and )assed u)on %& it3 and in li. T"e evidence is #aterial 2. 2. Le'islature #a& )rovide or )ri#a acie evidence o 'uilt )rovided t"ere %e a rational connection %et-een t"e acts )roved and t"e ulti#ate acts )resu#ed. T"e )art& "ad t"e o))ortunit& to )roduce t"e sa#e ?.)erience o "u#an conduct$ and declarin' -"at evidence s"all %e su icient to overco#e suc" )resu#)tion. T"e cri#e -as actuall& co##itted 2.en in t"e doin' o a recent -ron' ul act is t"e ta. Possession is airl& recent ?. 2011-2012 PR<IENTIAL G<ARANTEE V.evidence | 1st sem. Said evidence is availa%le onl& to said )art& B"en t"is )resu#)tion doesnMt a))l& • Evidence in 1uestion is e1uall& availa%le to %ot" )arties • Evidence is #erel& corro%orative$ cu#ulative$ or unnecessar& • Su))ression is not -ill ul • T"e su))ression is an e.)iration o 1A da&s a ter #ailin'$ unless t"e court )rovides ot"er-ise$ -"ile service %& re'istered #ail is co#)lete u)on actual recei)t %& t"e o ice -4in 5 da&s ro# date o irst notice$ t"e service is co#)lete at t"e e. *?a+ Pars. B88+ R1?. Accused is una%le to satis actoril& e. Senda&die'o+ 2or )resu#)tion in )ar *v+ to arise$ it #ust %e )roved t"at t"e letter -as )ro)erl& addressed -it" )osta'e )re)aid and t"at it -as actuall& #ailed *Nava v.clusive Si#ilar rationale to )ar *(+: i a )erson "ad in "is )ossession a alsi ied docu#ent and "e #ade use o it$ ta.ul act -as done -it" an unla. ! T"e ollo-in' are instances o conclusive )resu#)tions: *a+ B"enever a )art& "as$ %& "is o-n declaration$ act$ or o#ission$ intentionall& and deli%eratel& led to anot"er to %elieve a )articular t"in' true$ and to act u)on suc" %elie $ "e cannot$ in an& liti'ation arisin' out o suc" declaration$ act or o#ission$ %e )er#itted to alsi & it: *%+ T"e tenant is not )er#itted to den& t"e title o "is landlord at t"e ti#e o co##ence#ent o t"e relation o landlord and tenant %et-een t"e#.es out a )ri#a acie case in "is avor$ t"e dut& or t"e %urden o evidence s"i ts to de endant to controvert )lainti Ms )ri#a acie case$ ot"er-ise$ a verdict #ust %e returned in avor o )lainti . 8onclusive )resu#)tions.)lained %& an& innocent ori'in 2. .ul intent3 *c+ T"at a )erson intends t"e ordinar& conse1uences o "is voluntar& act3 *d+ T"at a )erson ta. ?.)lain "is )ossession t"ereo Necessar& to conclusivel& )rove )ossession t"at: 1.ercises acts o o-ners"i) over$ are o-ned %& "i#3 *.)iration o suc" ti#e.+ T"at a )erson in )ossession o an order on "i#sel or t"e )a&#ent o t"e #one&$ or t"e deliver& o an&t"in'$ "as )aid t"e #one& or delivered t"e t"in' accordin'l&3 *l+ T"at a )erson actin' in a )u%lic o ice -as re'ularl& a))ointed or elected to it3 *#+ T"at o icial dut& "as %een re'ularl& )er or#ed3 *n+ T"at a court$ or (ud'e actin' as suc"$ -"et"er in t"e P"ili))ines or else-"ere$ -as actin' in t"e la. Possession #ust %e une.ercise o a )rivile'e * + T"at #one& )aid %& one to anot"er -as due to t"e latter3 *'+ T"at a t"in' delivered %& one to anot"er %elon'ed to t"e latter3 *"+ T"at an o%li'ation delivered u) to t"e de%tor "as %een )aid3 *i+ T"at )rior rents or install#ents "ad %een )aid -"en a recei)t or t"e later one is )roduced3 .1A states t"at service o )leadin's %& #ail is co#)lete u)on t"e e. ! T"e ollo-in' )resu#)tions are satis actor& i uncontradicted$ %ut #a& %e contradicted and overco#e %& ot"er evidence: *a+ T"at a )erson is innocent o cri#e or -ron'3 *%+ T"at an unla. Sec. 8IR+$ and i said letter -asnMt returned to t"e sender$ itMs )resu#ed t"at t"e addressee received it *Se%astian v.en advanta'e o it and )ro ited t"ere%&$ t"e )resu#)tion is t"at "e is t"e #aterial aut"or o t"e alsi ication *Peo)le v. Possession is e.ul e.2>@+ Sec.. Stolen )ro)ert& ound in t"e )ossession o t"e accused @. <nder t"e doctrine o esto))el$ t"e )erson #a. *Peo)le v. Presu#)tions *R1?1.e #anner t"at all #atters -it"in an issue raised in a dis)ute su%#itted or ar%itration -ere laid %e ore t"e ar%itrators and )assed u)on %& t"e#3 *)+ T"at )rivate transactions "ave %een air and re'ular3 *1+ T"at t"e ordinar& course o %usiness "as %een ollo-ed3 *r+ T"at t"ere -as a su icient consideration or a contract3 *s+ T"at a ne'otia%le instru#ent -as 'iven or indorsed or a su icient consideration3 *t+ T"at an endorse#ent o ne'otia%le instru#ent -as #ade %e ore t"e instru#ent -as overdue and at t"e )lace -"ere t"e instru#ent is dated3 *u+ T"at a -ritin' is trul& dated3 *v+ T"at a letter dul& directed and #ailed -as received in t"e re'ular course o t"e #ail3 2acts needed )roven %e ore an in erence o 'uilt ro# )ossession o recentl& stolen 'oods can %e #ade 1.er and t"e doer o t"e -"ole act3 ot"er-ise$ t"at t"in's -"ic" a )erson )ossess$ or e.es ordinar& care o "is concerns3 *e+ T"at evidence -ill ull& su))ressed -ould %e adverse i )roduced3 No constitutional o%(ection to a la. Iis)uta%le )resu#)tions. a 9 %: esto))el in )ais.in' t"e re)resentation cannot clai# %ene it ro# t"e -ron' "e "i#sel co##itted. :o-ever$ t"ere #ust %e conclusive )roo t"at a irst notice -as sent to t"e addressee as t"e )resu#)tion t"at 51 Re1uisites or a))lication o )resu#)tion t"at evidence -ill ull& su))ressed -ould %e adverse i )roduced 1.

"as %een o%e&ed3 *''+ T"at a )rinted or )u%lis"ed %oo. *. or industr&.$ )ur)ortin' contain re)orts o cases ad(ud'ed in tri%unals o t"e countr& -"ere t"e %oo. is )u%lis"ed$ contains correct re)orts o suc" cases3 *ii+ T"at a trustee or ot"er )erson -"ose dut& it -as to conve& real )ro)ert& to a )articular )erson "as actuall& conve&ed it to "i# -"en suc" )resu#)tion is necessar& to )er ect t"e title o suc" )erson or "is successor in interest3 *((+ T"at e.ce)t or su%)ar @$ t"is )ara'ra)" is ta. . *2+ A c"ild %orn a ter one "undred ei'"t& da&s ollo-in' t"e cele%ration o t"e su%se1uent #arria'e is considered to "ave %een conceived durin' suc" #arria'e$ even t"ou'" it %e %orn -it"in t"e t"ree "undred da&s a ter t"e ter#ination o t"e or#er #arria'e.ist continues as lon' as is usual -it" t"in's o t"e nature3 * + T"at t"e la.ce)t or t"ose o succession. E. T"e distinction assu#es si'ni icance in 1uestions o successional ri'"ts to t"e a%senteeMs estate arisin' ro# "is )resu#)tive deat".is "eld t"at BRT t"e ordinar& %ut continued a%sence o N41A45 &ears conte#)lated in t"e irst 2 su%)ara'ra)"s$ t"e a%sentee is )resu#ed to "ave died at t"e end o said )eriod$ %ut t"at in t"e 1uali ied a%sence -"ere t"e a%sentee -as in dan'er o deat" under t"e conte#)lated circu#stances t"erein$ t"e a%sentee is )resu#ed to "ave died at t"e ti#e "e -as e. In case o disa))earance$ -"ere t"ere is a dan'er o deat" t"e circu#stances "ereina%ove )rovided$ an a%sence o onl& t-o &ears s"all %e su icient or t"e )ur)ose o contractin' a su%se1uent #arria'e. %e t"e sa#e$ t"e older3 5+ I one %e under i teen or over si. I "e disa))eared a ter t"e a'e o sevent&> ive &ears$ an a%sence o ive &ears s"all %e su icient in order t"at "is succession #a& %e o)ened. Santos+ *-+ T"at a ter an a%sence o seven &ears$ it %ein' un. 8astillo+ I $ "o-ever$ t"e )ost#aster certi ies t"at suc" notice -as sent$ suc" )resu#)tion arises and overrides t"e addresseeMs contrar& clai#.ce)t t"at t"e or#er noincludes ter#ination o t"e )rior #arria'e or causes ot"er t"an t"e deat" o t"e "us%and$ in line -it" 28 1L8.ul contract o #arria'e3 *%%+ T"at )ro)ert& ac1uired %& a #an and a -o#an -"o are ca)acitated to #arr& eac" ot"er and -"o live e.es$ accordin' to t"e ollo-in' rules: 1+ I %ot" -ere under t"e a'e o i teen &ears$ t"e older is dee#ed to "ave survived3 2+ I %ot" -ere a%ove t"e a'e si.$ %attle$ or con la'ration$ and it is not s"o-n -"o died irst$ and t"ere are no )articular circu#stances ro# -"ic" it can %e in erred$ t"e survivors"i) is deter#ined ro# t"e )ro%a%ilities resultin' ro# t"e stren't" and t"e a'e o t"e se.no-n -"et"er or not t"e a%sentee still lives$ "e is considered dead or all )ur)oses$ e. T"e a%sentee s"all not %e considered dead or t"e )ur)ose o o)enin' "is succession till a ter an a%sence o ten &ears.or act3 *&+ T"at t"in's "ave "a))ened accordin' to t"e ordinar& course o nature and ordinar& nature "a%its o li e3 *F+ T"at )ersons actin' as co)artners "ave entered into a contract o co)artnes"i)3 *aa+ T"at a #an and -o#an de)ortin' t"e#selves as "us%and and -i e "ave entered into a la. 2011-2012 o icial dut& "as %een re'ularl& )er or#ed does not a))l& to t"is situation. Par *dd+ -as ta.en )art in ar#ed "ostilities$ and "as %een #issin' or our &ears3 *?+ A )erson -"o "as %een in dan'er o deat" under ot"er circu#stances and -"ose e.$ )ur)ortin' to %e )rinted or )u%lis"ed %& )u%lic aut"orit&$ -as so )rinted or )u%lis"ed3 *""+ T"at a )rinted or )u%lis"ed %oo.t&$ t"e or#er is dee#ed to "ave survived3 @+ I %ot" %e over i teen and under si.+ T"at ac1uiescence resulted ro# a %elie t"at t"e t"in' ac1uiesced in -as con or#a%le to t"e la. %e di erent$ t"e #ale is dee#ed to "ave survived$ i t"e se.clusivel& -it" eac" ot"er as "us%and and -i e -it"out t"e 52 ysr %ene it o #arria'e or under void #arria'e$ "as %een o%tained %& t"eir (oint e orts$ -or. *. :o-ever$ in an& case$ %e ore #arr&in' a'ain$ t"e s)ouse )resent #ust institute a su##ar& )roceedin' as )rovided in t"e 2a#il& 8ode and in t"e rules or declaration o )resu#)tive deat" o t"e a%sentee$ -it"out )re(udice to t"e e ect o rea))earance o t"e a%sent s)ouse.)osed to suc" dan'er or )eril 0 at t"e start o t"e @>&ear )eriod stated t"erein. *ee+ T"at a t"in' once )roved to e. *cc+ T"at in cases o co"a%itation %& a #an and a -o#an -"o are not ca)acitated to #arr& eac" ot"er and -"o "ave ac1uire )ro)erl& t"rou'" t"eir actual (oint contri%ution o #one&$ )ro)ert& or industr&$ suc" contri%utions and t"eir corres)ondin' s"ares includin' (oint de)osits o #one& and evidences o credit are e1ual.arra#eda v. *dd+ T"at i t"e #arria'e is ter#inated and t"e #ot"er contracted anot"er #arria'e -it"in t"ree "undred da&s a ter suc" ter#ination o t"e or#er #arria'e$ t"ese rules s"all 'overn in t"e a%sence o )roo to t"e contrar&: *1+ A c"ild %orn %e ore one "undred ei'"t& da&s a ter t"e sole#niFation o t"e su%se1uent #arria'e is considered to "ave %een conceived durin' suc" #arria'e$ even t"ou'" it %e %orn -it"in t"e t"ree "undred da&s a ter t"e ter#ination o t"e or#er #arria'e.en ro# 88 ?JA 9 ?J1. *2erraren v.ce)t or )ur)oses o succession$ -"en t-o )ersons )eris" in t"e sa#e cala#it&$ suc" as -rec.t&$ and t"e ot"er %et-een t"ose a'es$ t"e latter is dee#ed to "ave survived. T"e ollo-in' s"all %e considered dead or all )ur)oses includin' t"e division o t"e estate a#on' t"e "eirs: *1+ A )erson on %oard a vessel lost durin' a sea vo&a'e$ or an aircra t -it" is #issin'$ -"o "as not %een "eard o or our &ears since t"e loss o t"e vessel or aircra t3 *2+ A #e#%er o t"e ar#ed orces -"o "as ta.evidence | 1st sem.istence "as not %een .no-n or our &ears3 *@+ I a #arried )erson "as %een a%sent or our consecutive &ears$ t"e s)ouse )resent #a& contract a su%se1uent #arria'e i "e or s"e "as -ell> ounded %elie t"at t"e a%sent s)ouse is alread& deat".t&$ and t"e se.en ro# 88 25J$ -"ic" )rovided or )resu#)tions o )aternit&$ e. A vie.t&$ t"e &oun'er is dee#ed to "ave survived3 ?+ I one is under i teen and t"e ot"er a%ove si.

T"e deat"s occurred in a cala#it& 2.C.ANR V. No )resu#)tion o le'iti#ac& or ille'iti#ac&.tract ro# t"e accusedMs o-n li)s$ a'ainst "is -ill$ ad#ission o "is 'uilt.)lain "is )ossession satis actoril&. T"e ri'"t is a )ro"i%ition a'ainst t"e use o )"&sical or #oral co#)ulsion to e.e ore an in erence o 'uilt arisin' ro# )ossession o recentl& stolen 'oods can %e #ade$ "o-ever$ t"e ollo-in' %asic acts need to %e )roven %& t"e )rosecution: 1+ t"at t"e cri#e -as co##itted3 2+ t"at t"e cri#e -as co##itted recentl&3 ?+ t"at t"e stolen )ro)ert& -as ound in t"e )ossession o t"e de endant3 .to "ave %een re'ularl& )er or#ed.a#ination o -itnesses )resented in a trial or "earin' s"all %e done in o)en court$ and under oat" or a ir#ation. and K.e-ise cannot %e invo. <nless t"e -itness is inca)acitated to s)ea.evidence | 1st sem. ! T"e e. B"oever alle'es t"e le'iti#ac& or ille'iti#ac& o suc" c"ild #ust )rove "is alle'ation. SANIIGAN.. • Provides a )resu#)tion o si#ultaneit& in t"e deat"s o t"e )ersons called to succeed eac" ot"er In t"is case$ t"e testi#on& o )etitionerMs o-n -itness destro&ed t"is )resu#)tion %& ad#ittin' t"at -"en t"e docu#ent -as notariFed$ 8. PEOPLE S<RTIIA V. Re1uire#ents or )resu#)tion o survivors"i) in )ar *((+ to arise 1. 2011-2012 ysr and @+ t"at t"e de endant is una%le to e. 53 • . Sec.act co)& o 88 2L1 0 s"ould )ro)erl& a))l& -"en t"e dissolution o t"e #arria'e is %& reason o causes ot"er t"an t"e "us%andMs deat".)lained %& an& innocent ori'in3 2+ t"e )ossession #ust %e airl& recent3 and ?+ t"e )ossession #ust %e e. PRESENTATION O2 EVIIEN8E A.a#ination o -itnesses 1. Par *.ed in t"e )resent case$ it a))earin' t"at t"e e. II. Revilla+. T"e se)aration #a& %e a le'al se)aration or a se)aration de acto *Garcia v.clusive. loans$ #one& #ar.as to t"e e ect on t"e ri'"ts o t"e )arties.o t"e second re1uire#ent.:. *5a+ T"e )resu#)tion is t"e sa#e as t"e rule in 88 @? e.et )lace#ents and ot"er und sources in t"eir de ense.+ Not re1uired t"at t"e )arties )eris"ed in a cala#it& Onl& a))lies in 1uestions o successional ri'"ts Par *((+ Parties #ustMve )eris"ed in a cala#it& A))lies onl& -"ere t"e deat"s occurred durin' a cala#it& and a))lies to cases not involvin' successional ri'"ts Provides or )resu#)tions o survivors"i) • 2or )ur)oses #oreover o conclusivel& )rovin' )ossession$ t"e ollo-in' considerations "ave to %e e#)"asiFed: 1+ t"e )ossession #ust %e une. KA. E.$ or t"e 1uestions calls or a di erent #ode o ans-er$ t"e ans-ers o t"e -itness s"all %e 'iven orall&.?$ suc" )resu#)tion is re%utta%le.ed %& )etitioners.tort co##unications ro# t"e accused. T"us$ re'ardin' t"e t"ird rule$ i one is a one>da& old c"ild and t"e ot"er is L1 &ears old$ it canMt %e )resu#ed t"at t"e c"ild survived$ in vie. 8ases: PEOPLE V. T"ere are no )articular circu#stances ro# -"ic" it can %e in erred t"at one died a"ead o t"e ot"er.a#inin' doctor -as re#iss in t"e )er or#ance o "is duties as a #edico>le'al o icer.in' "is si'nature on t"e docu#ent. @. PILIPINAS . ! T"ere is no )resu#)tion o le'iti#ac& o a c"ild %orn a ter t"ree "undred da&s ollo-in' t"e dissolution o t"e #arria'e or t"e se)aration o t"e s)ouses. KAG.AN<A It is true t"at a 'overn#ent doctorMs )ost>#orte# e. Suc" notariFation is useless since t"ere is no trut" -"atsoever to t"e notar& )u%licMs state#ent or ac.ANR O2 KALINAO T"e e ect o a le'al )resu#)tion u)on a %urden o )roo is to create t"e necessit& o )resentin' evidence to #eet t"e le'al )resu#)tion or t"e )ri#a acie case created t"ere%&$ and -"ic" i no )roo to t"e contrar& is )resented and o ered$ -ill )revail. ONG V.no-led'#ent t"at t"e )erson -"o e.a#ination to %e done in o)en court. :ence$ t"e notar& )u%lic did not -itness 8.C. Said )rovision "as %een su%stantiall& re)roduced in 28 1LJ. As )rovided under R1?1. *L+ E. GLEE 8:EKI8AL LA. did not a))ear %e ore t"e notar& )u%lic.ce)t t"at it o#its t"e last clause t"erein -4c states Gand t"ere s"all %e no trans#ission o ri'"ts ro# one to t"e ot"er$H since said clause is a rule o su%stantive la.a#ination is )resu#ed %& la. R<RAL .ecuted t"e docu#ent )ersonall& a))eared %e ore "i# and t"e sa#e -as "is ree and voluntar& act. T"e %urden o )roo re#ains -"ere it is$ %ut %& t"e )resu#)tion$ t"e one -"o "as t"at %urden is relieved or t"e ti#e %ein' ro# introducin' evidence in su))ort o t"e aver#ent$ %ecause t"e )resu#)tion stands in t"e )lace o evidence unless re%utted. T"is re%utta%le )resu#)tion$ "o-ever$ cannot %e success ull& invo. *1a+ Section 2.<NGA V. *. R1?2. Proceedin's to %e recorded..ORATORIES T"e )resu#)tion t"at o icial dut& "as %een re'ularl& )er or#ed is not conclusive. In t"is case$ )etitioners are not co#)elled to )resent t"e#selves as -itnesses in re%uttin' t"e )resu#)tion esta%lis"ed %& la-. E. T"e& #a& )resent docu#ents evidencin' t"e )ur)orted %an.ACAN T"e constitutional assurance o t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel incri#ination li. a i.1>2 Section 1.+ T"at i t"ere is a dou%t$ as %et-een t-o or #ore )ersons -"o are called to succeed eac" ot"er$ as to -"ic" o t"e# died irst$ -"oever alle'es t"e deat" o one )rior to t"e ot"er$ s"all )rove t"e sa#e3 in t"e a%sence o )roo $ t"e& s"all %e considered to "ave died at t"e sa#e ti#e. It is si#)l& a )ro"i%ition a'ainst le'al )rocess to e. ! T"e entire )roceedin's o a trial or "earin'$ includin' t"e 1uestions )ro)ounded to a -itness and "is ans-ers t"ereto$ t"e state#ents #ade %& t"e (ud'e or an& o t"e )arties$ counsel$ or -itnesses -it" re erence to t"e case$ s"all %e recorded %& #eans o s"ort"and or stenot&)e or %& ot"er #eans o recordin' ound suita%le %& t"e court.

• S8 #a& ado)t si#)li ied )rocedures -"ic" #a& )rovide t"at a idavits and counter>a idavits #a& %e ad#itted in lieu o oral testi#on&. *2a+ GEN R<LE: To %e ad#issi%le$ t"e testi#on& o t"e -itness #ust %e 'iven in o)en court. An& o%(ection to t"e ad#issi%ilit& o evidence s"ould %e #ade at t"e ti#e suc" evidence is o ered or as soon t"erea ter as t"e o%(ection to its ad#issi%ilit& %eco#es a))arent$ ot"er-ise t"e o%(ection -ill %e considered -aived and suc" evidence -ill or# )art o t"e records o t"e case as co#)etent and ad#issi%le evidence.a#ination o c"ild -itness • Presented in a "earin' or an& )roceedin' • Ione in o)en court PEOPLE V.a#ination o a 8"ild Bitness ysr PEOPLE V. In cri#inal cases$ %& de)ositions or conditional e. In civil cases$ %& de)ositions )er R2? 9 2@ 2.in' it t"at "is attestation or )ro#ise is #ade under an i##ediate sense o "is res)onsi%ilit& to God.a#ined on t"e nature o t"e oat" and t"e need or "er to tell t"e -"ole trut"$ t"e co#)etenc& o t"e -itness and t"e trut" o "er testi#on& are i#)airedT • I a )art& a'ainst -"o# a -itness is )resented %elieves t"at t"e -itness is inco#)etent or is not a-are o "is o%li'ation and res)onsi%ilit& to tell t"e trut" and t"e conse1uence o "i# testi &in' alsel&$ suc" )art& #a& )ra& or leave to conduct a voire dire e.$ or t"e 1uestion calls or a di erent #ode o ans-er 8ourt #a& e.)ression$ -"ic" #a& con ir# or detract ro# t"e -ei'"t o "is testi#on&.tent to -"ic" suc" e.P 12J$ su##ar& )rocedure #a& %e aut"oriFed %& t"e S8 in s)ecial cases li. R1?2. • La)se o ti#e is a #atter t"at t"e trial court -ould consider in -ei'"in' t"e credi%ilit& o -itnesses and t"eir testi#onies. Nevert"eless$ court itsel #a& )ro)ound 1uestions eit"er on direct or cross>e. :o-ever$ it is t"e ri'"t o a -itness: 1+ To %e )rotected ro# irrelevant$ i#)ro)er$ or insultin' 1uestions$ and ro# "ars" or insultin' de#eanor3 2+ Not to %e detained lon'er t"an t"e interests o (ustice re1uire3 ?+ Not to %e e.a#ination on suc" -itness to test "is co#)etenc&..P 12J Per .a#ined e.$ Inc.clude t"e )u%lic and )ersons -"o donMt "ave a direct interest in t"e case *includin' )ress+ -"en t"e c"ild is testi &in'.ce)t onl& as to #atters )ertinent to t"e issue3 @+ Not to 'ive an ans-er -"ic" -ill tend to su%(ect "i# to a )enalt& or an o ense unless ot"er-ise )rovided %& la-3 or 8ases: 54 .a#ination. Kanalo+ A -itnessM testi#on& in court cannot %e considered sel > servin' since "e can %e su%(ected to cross>e.cluded on t"e sa#e 'round as "earsa& evidence$ i. E. T"e o%(ect o t"e rule is to a ect t"e conscience o t"e -itness and t"us co#)el "i# to s)ea. Revised Rule on Su##ar& Procedure Rule on E.ed Testi#on& s"all %e recorded @.a#ination #a& %e conducted rests in its discretion and -onMt %e controlled in t"e a%sence o a%use o discretion to t"e )re(udice o eit"er )art& *Peo)le v. A -itness #ust %e sensi%le to t"e o%li'ation o an oat" %e ore "e can %e )er#itted to testi &. 8ourt #a& a))oint a acilitator *c"ild )s&c"olo'ist$ )s&c"iatrist$ social -or. Koreno+$ or #a& su''est 1uestions t"at s"ould %e )ro)ounded %& counsel *E. It is onl& -"en t"e -itness testi ies orall& t"at t"e (ud'e #a& "ave a true idea o "is countenance$ #anner and e. Enri1ueF+ 8ourt s"ould %e 'iven reasona%le lee-a& to ascertain t"e trut" 0 e.a#ination. • It cannot %e ar'ued t"at si#)l& %ecause a c"ild -itness is not e. *8o v. ?. 8ertainl&$ t"e )"&sical condition o t"e -itness -ill reveal "is ca)acit& or accurate o%servation and #e#or&$ and "is de)ort#ent and )"&sio'no#& -ill reveal clues to "is c"aracter.a#inations )er R11J. de)rivation o t"e ri'"t o cross>e. 2011-2012 A transcri)t o t"e record o t"e )roceedin's #ade %& t"e o icial steno'ra)"er$ stenot&)ist or recorder and certi ied as correct %& "i# s"all %e dee#ed )ri#a acie a correct state#ent o suc" )roceedin's. 8A+ Sel >servin' evidence: one #ade out o court and is e. *Peo)le v.a#ination is not allo-ed %& Ro8. . Rule on t"e 8onduct o Pre>Trial *AK No.a#ination o t"e -itness *Peo)le v.+ i it deter#ines t"at t"e c"ild is una%le to understand or res)ond to 1uestions as. .ISIA • An oat" is de ined as an out-ard )led'e$ 'iven %& t"e )erson ta. EstenFo+ Testi#on& o -itness s"ould %e elicited %& 1uestions o counsel. Ri'"ts o a -itness • • • • Ans-er o -itness s"all %e 'iven orall&$ unless -itness is inca)acitated to s)ea.e.1$ or %& t"e records o t"e )reli#inar& investi'ation$ under R115.e e(ect#ent$ tra ic la. A?>1>AJ> S8+ 1.evidence | 1st sem. GO • T"e #ain and essential )ur)ose o re1uirin' a -itness to a))ear and testi & orall& at a trial is to secure or t"e adverse )art& t"e o))ortunit& o cross>e. Indeed$ t"e 'reat -ei'"t 'iven t"e indin's o act o t"e trial (ud'e in t"e a))ellate court is %ased u)on "is "avin' "ad (ust t"at o))ortunit& and t"e assu#)tion t"at "e too.er$ etc. t"e trut"$ and also to la& "i# o)en to )unis"#ent or )er(ur& in case "e -ill ull& alsi ies.? Section ?.a#ination 2. advanta'e o it to ascertain t"e credi%ilit& o t"e -itnesses. T"ese can onl& %e o%served %& t"e (ud'e i t"e -itness testi ies orall& in court. Kic"ael 9 8o. ! A -itness #ust ans-er 1uestions$ alt"ou'" "is ans-er #a& tend to esta%lis" a clai# a'ainst "i#.12>15 9 R12?.violation$ etc. Ri'"ts and o%li'ations o a -itness. EE8EPTIONS: 1. /?L$ . v.1* + Kere )resentation o t"e a idavits o )rosecution -itnesses su%(ect to cross>e.

*?a$ 1Ja+ ysr . EE8EPTION: i##unit& statutes -"erein t"e -itness is 'ranted i##unit& ro# cri#inal )rosecution or o enses ad#itted in "is testi#on& 8lasses o i##unit& states 0 see Gal#an v.eltran case: accused o)ened t"e issue on "is direct e. An& )erson -"o voluntaril& 'ives in or#ation a%out an& violation o Articles 21A$ 211$ and 212 o t"e RP83 RA ?A1J$ as a#ended3 Section ?@5 o t"e Internal Revenue 8ode and Section ?LA@ o t"e Tari and 8usto#s 8ode and ot"er )rovisions o t"e said 8odes )enaliFin' a%use or dis"onest& on t"e )art o t"e )u%lic o icials concerned3 and ot"er la-s$ rules and re'ulations )unis"in' acts o 'ra t$ corru)tion and ot"er or#s o o icial a%use3 and -"o -illin'l& testi ies a'ainst an& )u%lic o icial or e#)lo&ee or suc" violation s"all %e e. .oard o Kedical E. 2011-2012 5+ Not to 'ive an ans-er -"ic" -ill tend to de'rade "is re)utation$ unless it to %e t"e ver& act at issue or to a act ro# -"ic" t"e act in issue -ould %e )resu#ed. As suc"$ "e -aived "is ri'"t a'ainst sel > incri#ination on t"e issue$ and could %e cross>e. it re ers to "is )revious inal conviction or an o ense BRT accused in cri#inal cases$ R115.e#)t ro# )rosecution or )unis"#ent or t"e o ense -it" re erence to -"ic" "is in or#ation and testi#on& -ere 'iven$ and #a& )lead or )rove t"e 'ivin' o suc" in or#ation and testi#on& in %ar o suc" )rosecution: Provided3 t"at t"is i##unit& #a& %e en(o&ed even in cases -"ere t"e in or#ation and testi#on& are 'iven a'ainst a )erson -"o is not a )u%lic o icial %ut -"o is a )rinci)al$ or acco#)lice$ or accessor& in t"e co##ission o an& o t"e a%ove>#entioned violations: Provided$ urt"er$ t"at t"is i##unit& #a& %e en(o&ed %& suc" in or#ant or -itness not-it"standin' t"at "e o ered or 'ave t"e %ri%e or 'i t to t"e )u%lic o icial or "is acco#)lice or suc" 'i t or %ri%e>'ivin'3 and Provided$ inall&$ t"at t"e ollo-in' conditions concur: 1. . ?.RI. . v.t )a'e 2.er#udeF v. In eit"er instance$ t"e ri'"t s"ould %e seasona%l& invo. Ten'co+ T"e accused also "as t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >de'radation. Sa#son+ B"ere$ in a dis%ar#ent case$ t"e co#)lainant on cross> e.er#udeF v. B"en "e #a& validl& re use to ans-er: 1.s$ )a)ers$ corres)ondence$ #e#oranda and ot"er records on t"e 'round t"at t"e testi#on& or evidence$ docu#entar& or ot"er-ise$ re1uired o "i# #a& tend to incri#inate "i# or su%(ect "i# to )rosecution3 %ut no individual s"all %e )rosecuted cri#inall& or or on account o an& transaction$ #atter or t"in' concernin' -"ic" "e is co#)elled$ a ter "avin' clai#ed "is )rivile'e a'ainst sel >incri#ination$ to testi & or )roduce evidence$ docu#entar& or ot"er-ise$ e. See#in'l& con lictin' decisions B"ere$ in a )rosecution or alsi ication$ t"e accused too. T"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination is availa%le in cri#inal$ civil$ or ad#inistrative cases.eltran v. 8astillo+ It e. *SuareF v. <nder t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination$ i "is ans-er -ill tend to su%(ect "i# to )unis"#ent or an o ense3 or 2. /8$ RA 1?NJ Sec.a#ined t"ereon li. *.el+ T"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination$ -"ic" #a& %e invo.LI8 O22I8ERS Sec.e t"at )rivile'e as 1uestioned testi#on& can co#e onl& ro# a cor)orate o icer or EE -"o "as a )ersonalit& distinct ro# t"at o t"e cor)oration.ERC ANI OT:ER GRA2T 8ASES AGAINST P<. S"e did not o)en t"e issue in "er direct e. 8.ut a -itness #ust ans-er to t"e act o "is )revious inal conviction or an o ense. GEN R<LE: Bitness 'ranted t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel > incri#ination.a#iners+ T"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination is 'ranted onl& in avor o individuals 0 cor)orations cannot invo. Protection a'ainst sel >incri#ination. 1. suc" 1uestion is directed to t"e ver& act at issue or to a act ro# -"ic" t"e act at issue -ould %e )resu#ed$ or %.a#ination "e can %e co#)elled to 'ive a sa#)le o "is "and-ritin' and it -as not a denial o "is ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination.ed and #a& %e -aived. *Pascual$ Pr.RI.a#ination denied aut"ors"i) o certain "and-ritten letters$ s"e could not %e co#)elled to 'ive sa#)les o "er "and-ritin' as it -ould a#ount to a denial o "er ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination in a )ossi%le c"ar'e or )er(ur&. Neit"er t"e res)ondent nor an& ot"er )erson s"all %e e. t"e stand and testi ied den&in' "is aut"ors"i) o t"e alle'ed alsi ied si'nature$ on cross>e.er#udeF case: testi#on& 'iven %& co#)lainant -"o$ unli.ES ANI OT:ER GI2TS ANI TO T:EIR A88OKPLI8ES IN . <nder t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >de'radation$ i "is ans-er -ill "ave a direct tendenc& to de'rade "is c"aracter <NLESS a.e an& ot"er -itness.e t"e stand alto'et"er$ %ut in ot"er cases or )roceedin's$ a )art& #a& %e co#)elled to ta. *:ale v.a#ination.e an accused )erson$ could not re use to testi & -it"out an un avora%le in erence %ein' dra-n a'ainst "er. *. T"e in or#ation #ust re er to consu##ated violations o an& o t"e a%ove>#entioned )rovisions o la-$ rules and re'ulations3 2.ed %& t"e accused$ #a& %e -it" re erence to t"e o ense involved in t"e sa#e case -"erein "e is c"ar'ed or to an o ense or -"ic" "e #a& %e c"ar'ed and tried in anot"er case3 BRT a -itness$ t"e o ense involved is one or -4c "e #a& %e tried in anot"er case.evidence | 1st sem.cused ro# attendin' and testi &in' or ro# )roducin' %oo.tends to ad#inistrative )roceedin's -it" a cri#inal4)enal as)ect.e t"e stand alt"ou'" "e #a& o%(ect to incri#inatin' 1uestions. 8astillo+ Reconciliation o t"e t-o decisions . T"e in or#ation and testi#on& are necessar& or t"e conviction o t"e accused )u%lic o icer3 55 A -itness cannot re use to ans-er 1uestions #aterial to t"e in1uir& even i it #a& tend to esta%lis" a clai# a'ainst "i#. :en.ce)t t"at suc" individual so testi &in' s"all not %e e. Pa#aran ne.1*e+ )rovides or "is ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination 0 "e #a& re use to ta. *.e#)t ro# )rosecution and conviction or )er(ur& or alse testi#on& co##itted in so testi &in' or ro# ad#inistrative )roceedin's. PI N@J GRANTING IKK<NITC 2ROK PROSE8<TION TO GIVERS O2 .a#ination as it -as raised durin' cross$ t"us s"e didnMt -aive t"e )rivile'e a'ainst sel >incri#ination o "er o-n volition or %& acts i#)uta%le to "er.

8. T"e ri'"t to re use to ta.oard. Sec.a#ination. It is not t"e c"aracter o t"e suit involved %ut t"e nature o t"e )roceedin's t"at controls. <se i##unit&: )ro"i%its use o -itnessM co#)elled testi#on& and its ruits in an& #anner in connection -4 t"e cri#inal )rosecution o t"e -itness • Kerel& testi &in' and4or )roducin' evidence doesnMt render t"e -itness i##une ro# )rosecution des)ite "is invocation o t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination.a#ination o an individual -itness. o %asis.a#ined not onl& u)on #atters testi ied to %& "i# on "is direct e. @.clusion o evidence ta. :ence$ dictates o air )la& de#and t"at Generals Ver 9 Olivas s"ouldMve %een in or#ed o t"eir ri'"ts to re#ain silent %& t"e A'rava .a#ination$ and also on suc" ot"er #atters as #a& %e allo-ed %& t"e court in its discretion. ! A ter t"e cross>e. 56 • ysr T"us$ or a )art& in a civil case to )ossess t"e ri'"t to re use to ta.a#ination3 its )ur)ose and e.a#ination$ #a& %e allo-ed %& t"e court in its discretion.e t"e -itness stand$ t"e civil case #ust also )arta.ut t"ere is an e.a#ined %& t"e adverse )art& as to #an& #atters stated in t"e direct e. *8u))s v.a#ine t"e -itness on #atters stated in "is re>direct e. In suc" a case$ t"e )u%lic o icer so denounced s"all %e entitled to an& action$ civil or cri#inal$ a'ainst said in or#ant or -itness.tensivel& cross>e. *.a#ination$ t"e adverse )art& #a& re>cross>e.. State+ B"ere t"e -itness is an un-illin' or "ostile -itness so declared %& t"e court or is an adverse )art&$ t"e cross> e.a#ination$ %ut also on all #atters relevant to t"e issue.a#ination %& t"e )ro)onent3 *%+ 8ross>e.e o t"e nature o a cri#inal )roceedin' Order o e. ! T"e order in -"ic" t"e individual -itness #a& %e e. 8IR+ B"ere$ "o-ever$ in a cri#inal case t"e )rosecution -itness -as e.evidence | 1st sem. PAKARAN 8lasses o i##unit& statutes a. As lon' as t"e suit is cri#inal in nature$ t"e )art& t"ereto can alto'et"er decline to ta.a#ined %& t"e )art& callin' "i#$ to e. Sec.A O%tainin' INA sa#)les ro# an accused in a cri#inal case or ro# t"e res)ondent in a )aternit& case$ contrar& to t"e %elie o res)ondent in t"is action$ -ill not violate t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination.a#ination$ itMs o%(ectiona%le or lac.a#ination %& t"e o))onent3 *c+ Re>direct e. T"e S8 "as ruled t"at t"e ri'"t a'ainst sel > incri#ination is (ust a )ro"i%ition on t"e use o )"&sical or #oral co#)ulsion to e.tent.ac"rac" Kotor v.)lain or su))le#ent "is ans-ers 'iven durin' t"e cross>e.a#ined on t"e essential ele#ents o t"e cri#e and -"at re#ained or urt"er cross>e.a#ination$ or connected t"ere-it"$ -it" su icient ullness and reedo# to test "is accurac& and trut" ulness and reedo# ro# interest or %ias$ or t"e reverse$ and to elicit all i#)ortant acts %earin' u)on t"e issue.a#ination s"all onl& %e on t"e su%(ect #atter o "is e.a#ination$ 1uestions on #atters not dealt -it" durin' t"e cross>e. T"is )rivile'e a))lies onl& to evidence t"at is Gco##unicativeH in essence ta.a#ination. T"e )arties t"ereto can onl& re use to ans-er i incri#inatin' 1uestions are )ro)ounded.a#ined is as ollo-s: *a+ Iirect e. Re>cross>e.a#ination$ t"e -itness #a& %e cross>e. T"e i##unit& 'ranted "ereunder s"all not attac" s"ould it turn out su%se1uentl& t"at t"e in or#ation and4or testi#on& is alse and #alicious or #ade onl& or t"e )ur)ose o "arassin'$ #olestin' or in an& -a& )re(udicin' t"e )u%lic o icer denounced.a#ination 8. ! <)on t"e ter#ination o t"e direct e.tent.a#ination>in>c"ie o a -itness %& t"e )art& )resentin' "i# on t"e acts relevant to t"e issue. ! <)on t"e conclusion o t"e re> direct e. 5.en under duress.a#ination %& t"e o))onent. ! Iirect e. Sec. T"e in or#ant or -itness "as not %een )reviousl& convicted o a cri#e involvin' #oral tur)itude.a#ination o an accused -"o testi ies as a -itness in "is o-n %e"al .a#ination>in>c"ie . L.en ro# "is %od& -"en it #a& %e #aterial. B"en cross>e.ed on cross>e.tort co##unication *testi#onial evidence+ ro# a de endant$ not an e. It is t"e o)inion o t"e 8ourt t"at said e.ce)tion 0 a )art& -"o is not an accused in a cri#inal case is allo-ed not to ta. B"en t"e 1uestion -4c assu#es acts not on record is as. Sec. :eMs #erel& saved ro# t"e use a'ainst "i# o suc" state#ents or evidence -4c "e "ad %een co#)elled to )roduce not-it"standin' "is "avin' seasona%l& invo.ed said ri'"t a'ainst sel >incri#ination %.e t"e -itness stand. AL. Order in t"e e. R1?2. Suc" in or#ation and testi#on& are not &et in t"e )ossession o t"e State3 @.e t"e -itness stand in ad#inistrative cases4)roceedin's t"at )artoo. 2011-2012 ?. 8ases: GALKAN V.ce)tion a))lies to )arties in civil actions -"ic" are cri#inal in nature.a#ination %& t"e )ro)onent3 *d+ Re>cross>e.a#ination o t"e -itness "as %een concluded$ "e #a& %e re>e.e t"e stand does not 'enerall& a))l& to )arties in ad#inistrative cases or )roceedin's.en ro# t"e record. o t"e nature o a cri#inal )roceedin' or analo'ous to a cri#inal )roceedin'.e t"e -itness stand. Re>direct e. T"is is t"e sa#e as t"e li#itation o t"e cross>e.@>1A Sec.a#ination3 its )ur)ose and e. On re>direct>e. :ERRERA V. Iirect e. A -itness #a& %e cross>e. Suc" in or#ation and testi#on& can %e corro%orated on its #aterial )oints3 and 5. Transactional i##unit&: 'rants i##unit& to -itness ro# )rosecution or an o ense to -4c "is co#)elled testi#on& relates PI 188L 'rants onl& use i##unit&. 2.a#ination$ itMs o%(ectiona%le or %ein' #isleadin'3 i on direct e.a#ination is not and cannot %e done or co#)leted due to causes attri%uta%le to t"e )art& -"o o ered t"e -itness$ t"e unco#)leted testi#on& is t"ere%& rendered inco#)etent and s"ould %e stric. LIK As a rule$ onl& an accused in a cri#inal case can re use to ta. Sec. 8ross>e. N. ..a#ination.a#ination is t"e e. 1. ROSETE V. .a#ination -as t"e #atter o )rice or re-ard -4c -as treated t"erein as #erel& an a''ravatin' circu#stance$ "is ailure to a))ear or urt"er cross .

asic )ur)oses o cross>e.in' in co#)re"ension o 1uestions or slo. ! A ter t"e e.a#ination o a -itness %& %ot" sides "as %een concluded$ t"e -itness cannot %e recalled -it"out leave o t"e court. SANTOS A (ud'e #a& e.a#ination on #atters covered %& direct e. :e #a& see. .a#ination$ "is recall or urt"er e.tract t"e trut". I. It cannot %e ta. 2. Sec. R115.)erienced3 unso)"isticated3 ee%le>#inded3 con used 9 a'itated3 terri ied3 ti#id or e#%arrassed -"ile on t"e stand3 lac. To ena%le counsel to i#)eac" or to i#)air t"e -itnessM credi%ilit& I -itness dies %e ore "is cross>e. Iela 8ruF+ Kisleadin' 1uestion: one -4c assu#es acts not in evidence or -4o su icient %asis or -4c assu#es testi#on& or )roo -4c "as not %een 'iven. Part& #a& not i#)eac" "is o-n -itness.ce)t t"at it #a& %e s"o-n %& t"e e.a#inations )articularl& -"en t"e -itness is as.in' t"e -itness "is o-n accordance -it" 6la-7. ! E. T"e court -ill 'rant or -it""old leave in its discretion$ as t"e interests o (ustice #a& re1uire.a#ination o t"e -itness$ or t"e record o t"e (ud'#ent$ t"at "e "as %een convicted o an o ense.en a'ainst "i# i t"e clari icator& 1uestions "e )ro)ounds "a))en to reveal certain trut"s -"ic" tend to destro& t"e t"eor& o one )art&.out relevant and #aterial testi#on& t"ou'" t"at testi#on& #a& tend to su))ort or re%ut t"e )osition ta.a#ine a -itness on #atters not e#%raced in "is direct e.en out onl& BRT t"e testi#on& not covered %& t"e cross>e.a#ination o a c"ild under t"e condition t"at t"e sa#e -ill urt"er t"e interests o (ustice. 2011-2012 t"ereon -ill not -arrant t"e stri. PROV. RIANO: Leadin' 1uestions are not a))ro)riate in direct and re>direct e.11>15 Sec..a#ined on #aterial )oints and t"erea ter ailed to a))ear and could not %e )roduced des)ite a -arrant or "is arrest.a#ination: 1. Pineda+ • Leadin' 1uestions #a& %e )er#itted in t"e e. R1?2.a#ination o a -itness -"o is i##ature3 a'ed 9 in ir#3 in %ad )"&sical condition3 uneducated3 i'norant o $ or unaccusto#ed to$ court )roceedin's3 ine. It is not allo-ed.a#ine or cross>e.a#ine a -itness. Recallin' -itness. :o-ever$ -"ere suc" e.a#inin' )art& desires is a leadin' 1uestion. :is silence s"all not in an& #anner )re(udice "i#3 8ases: 8APITOL S<. to dra. 1. VERT<IES V. *Peo)le v. As to a c"ild -itness$ R1?2.en %& one or t"e ot"er )art&. *Peo)le v. O2 NEGROS O88IIENTAL A )art& #a& cross>e.to 57 ysr understand3 dea 9 du#%3 or una%le to s)ea.ed to testi & a%out a #a(or ele#ent o t"e cause o action or de ense.a#$ es)eciall& since urt"er cross could not %e conducted due to t"e -itnessM su%se1uent deat"$ a circu#stance not attri%uta%le to t"e )rosecution.a#ination o a 8"ild Bitness. *Escoto v.a#ine and t"e testi#on& 'iven on direct e. *Peo)le v. :e #a& )ro)ound clari icator& 1uestions to test t"e credi%ilit& o t"e -itness and to e. 1A.a#ination is over$ "is testi#on& on t"e direct #a& %e stric.a#ination.a#ination. *1@+ B"ere all sides in t"e case "ave concluded -itness e. ! A 1uestion -"ic" su''ests to t"e -itness t"e ans-er -"ic" t"e e.ce)t -it" res)ect to -itnesses re erred to in )ara'ra)"s *d+ and *e+ . . Seneris+ Sa#e rule ollo-ed -"ere )rosecution -itness -as e. PEOPLE V. J. A #isleadin' 1uestion is one -"ic" assu#es as true a act not &et testi ied to %& t"e -itness$ or contrar& to t"at -"ic" "e "as )reviousl& stated. Leadin' and #isleadin' 1uestions.ut t"is does not #ean t"at a )art& %& doin' so is #a.tensivel& cross>e. I#)eac"#ent o -itnesses 1. ! A -itness #a& %e i#)eac"ed %& t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# "e -as called$ %& contradictor& evidence$ %& evidence t"at "is 'eneral re)utation or trut"$ "onestl&$ or inte'rit& is %ad$ or %& evidence t"at "e "as #ade at ot"er ti#es state#ents inconsistent -it" "is )resent$ testi#on&$ %ut not %& evidence o )articular -ron' ul acts$ e.a#ination o t"e -itness -ill %e received or allo-ed to re#ain in t"e record. Ri'"ts o accused at trial.)ressl& reserved %& a )art& -4 t"e a))roval o t"e court$ t"en "is recall is a #atter o ri'"t. 12.a#ination "as not %een concluded$ or i t"e recall o t"e -itness -as e.ce)t: *a+ On cross e.a#ine a -itness %ut ailed to avail "i#sel o it$ "e necessaril& or eits t"e ri'"t to cross>e.a#ination is discretionar& -4 t"e court as t"e interest o (ustice re1uires.a#ination. *15+ Sec. 11. Sec. d+ To testi & as a -itness in "is o-n %e"al %ut su%(ect to cross>e.IIVISION V. <nder t"e latter rule$ t"e court #a& allo. • A leadin' 1uestion )ro)ounded to a -itness #a&$ %& reactin' to an in erence in "is #ind$ cause "i# to testi & in accordance -4 t"e su''estion %& t"e 1uestion3 "is ans-er #a& %e Yan ec"o o t"e 1uestionM t"an a 'enuine recollection o events.1A s"ould %e dee#ed %& /2A o t"e Rule on E.leadin' 1uestions in ALL sta'es o e.rin' out acts avora%le to counselMs client not esta%lis"ed %& t"e direct testi#on& 2.1*d+ Sec.a#ination3 *%+ On )reli#inar& #atters3 *c+ B"en t"ere is a di icult& is 'ettin' direct and intelli'i%le ans-ers ro# a -itness -"o is i'norant$ or a c"ild o tender &ears$ or is o ee%le #ind$ or a dea >#ute3 *d+ O an un-illin' or "ostile -itness3 or *e+ O a -itness -"o is an adverse )art& or an o icer$ director$ or #ana'in' a'ent o a )u%lic or )rivate cor)oration or o a )artners"i) or association -"ic" is an adverse )art&.evidence | 1st sem. or understand t"e En'lis" lan'ua'e or onl& i#)er ectl& a#iliar t"ere-it". Goros)e+ RIANO: .<ENA2LOR B"ere a )art& "as "ad t"e o))ortunit& to cross>e. It is not allo-ed$ e. .. 0 In all cri#inal )rosecutions$ t"e accused s"all %e entitled to t"e ollo-in' ri'"ts: . I#)eac"#ent o adverse )art&Ss -itness.in' out o "is direct e. Leadin' 1uestion: one -4c su''ests to t"e -itness t"e ans-er desired.

tend to "i#.@ 58 . o <nless t"e -itness is 'iven t"e o))ortunit& to e. 8ontradictor& evidence: ot"er testi#on& o t"e sa#e -itness$ or ot"er evidence )resented %& "i# in t"e sa#e case$ %ut not t"e testi#on& o anot"er -itness 2airness de#ands t"at t"e i#)eac"in' #atter %e raised in t"e cross>e. *1L+ GEN R<LE: a )art& -"o voluntaril& o ers t"e testi#on& o a -itness in t"e case is %ound %& t"e testi#on& o said -itness. T"us$ under R2?.clusion and se)aration o -itnesses. Evidence o %ias$ interest$ )re(udice$ or inco#)etence A )art& can i#)eac" "is o-n -itness onl& %&: 1. B"ere a -itnessM )revious state#ents are o ered as evidence o an ad#ission$ and not #erel& to i#)eac" "i#$ t"e rule on la&in' a )redicate does not a))l& *Puan Cs#ael 9 8o. :ostile -itness3 2.clusion also a))lies to t"e accused in a cri#inal case.e ore a -itness can %e i#)eac"ed %& evidence t"at "e "as #ade at ot"er ti#es state#ents inconsistent -it" "is )resent testi#on&$ t"e state#ents #ust %e related to "i#$ -it" t"e circu#stances o t"e ti#es and )laces and t"e )ersons )resent$ and "e #ust %e as. Prior inconsistent state#ents ysr Oral or docu#entar& state#ents #ade %& t"e -itness sou'"t to %e i#)eac"ed on occasions ot"er t"an t"e trial in -"ic" "e is testi &in'. *Peo)le v.a#ination #ust onl& %e on t"e su%(ect #atter o "is e. . Lua 8"u+ 2.ed -"et"er "e #ade suc" state#ents$ and i so$ allo-ed to e. Evidence o )rior inconsistent state#ents ?. :e #a& also %e i#)eac"ed and cross>e. *18+ T"e )o-er o e. Sandal+ or 'ive little -ei'"t to "is testi#on&$ aside ro# "is lia%ilit& or conte#)t.-itness i#)eac"ed %& evidence o inconsistent state#ents.a#ination>in>c"ie . 15.clusion o t"e )rinci)al -itness o t"e 'overn#ent durin' t"e "earin' o a cri#inal case and it #a& not$ on t"at count alone$ %e considered as an a%use o "is discretion. Evidence contradictor& to "is testi#on& 2. E. v. Give "i# a c"ance to e.51 Sec. :as"i#+ and t"e sa#e -ould a))l& to li. :o.e state#ents o a )art& to t"e case Sec. *La$ Na+ Sec. A -itness #a& %e considered as un-illin' or "ostile onl& i so declared %& t"e court u)on ade1uate s"o-in' o "is adverse interest$ un(usti ied reluctance to testi &$ or "is "avin' #isled t"e )art& into callin' "i# to t"e -itness stand. ! Evidence o t"e 'ood c"aracter o a -itness is not ad#issi%le until suc" c"aracter "as %een i#)eac"ed. 1?.evidence | 1st sem. R2?.ce)t %& evidence o "is %ad c"aracter. *Peo)le v. 8on ront "i# -4 suc" state#ents$ -4 t"e circu#stances under -4c t"e& -ere #ade3 2.clusion a))lies onl& to t"e -itnesses and not to t"e )arties in a civil case.to i#)eac" a -itness %& )rior inconsistent state#ents: %& la&in' t"e )redicate 1. T"e sa#e ri'"t a'ainst e. As.clude ro# t"e court an& -itness not at t"e ti#e under e. *PaeF v.)lain t"e#. ! .e. 8ontradictor& evidence 2. *<S v.)lain t"e inconsistenc&.clusion o -itnesses durin' t"e trial cannot %e understood to e. B"ere t"e -itness is t"e adverse )art& or t"e re)resentative o a (uridical )erson -4c is t"e adverse )art&3 and ?.a#ined. B"en t"e -itness is not voluntaril& o ered %ut is re1uired %& la.@*%+$ t"e de)osition o an adverse )art& #a& %e used %& an& )art& or an& )ur)ose$ i. ! On an& trial or "earin'$ t"e (ud'e #a& e. Evidence o 'ood c"aracter o -itness.)lain t"e discre)ancies$ t"e i#)eac"#ent is inco#)lete. Evidence o %ad c"aracter @. Tantoco+ A )art& can i#)eac" t"e adverse )art&Ms -itness %&: 1.a#ination o t"e -itness sou'"t to %e i#)eac"ed %& allo-in' "i# to ad#it or den& a #atter to %e used as t"e %asis o i#)eac"#ent %& contradictor& evidence. as evidence or t"e latter or to i#)eac" or contradict said )art& de)onent t"rou'" inconsistent state#ents t"erein. 1@. EE8EPTIONS: 1.eren'uer+ I t"e -itness violates t"e order o e.e)t se)arate and to %e )revented ro# conversin' -it" one anot"er until all s"all "ave %een e. *2ernandeF v. • :o. T"e (ud'e #a& also cause -itnesses to %e .a#ined %& t"e adverse )art&$ %ut suc" cross>e.to %e )resented %& t"e )ro)onent$ as in t"e case o su%scri%in' -itnesses to a -ill.alu&ot+ :o-ever$ suc" de ect in t"e i#)eac"#ent o t"e -itness is dee#ed -aived i no o%(ection on t"at 'round is raised -"en t"e docu#ent involved is o ered or ad#ission.$ Inc. 2011-2012 o Section 1A$ t"e )art& )roducin' a -itness is not allo-ed to i#)eac" "is credi%ilit&.clusion$ t"e court #a& %ar "i# ro# testi &in' *Peo)le v. "i# -"et"er "e #ade suc" state#ents3 and ?. Evidence o )rior inconsistent state#ents In t"e case o "ostile -itnesses$ adverse )art& -itnesses or involuntar& -itnesses$ t"e& can also %e i#)eac"ed %& ot"er #odes o i#)eac"#ent$ aside ro# contradictor& state#ents and )rior inconsistent state#ents #ade %& t"e#. A )art& to an action "as a ri'"t to %e )resent in court -"ile "is case is %ein' tried$ and t"e rule aut"oriFin' t"e e. T"e un-illin' or "ostile -itness so declared$ or t"e -itness -"o is an adverse )art&$ #a& %e i#)eac"ed %& t"e )art& )resentin' "i# in all res)ects as i "e "ad %een called %& t"e adverse )art&$ e. 8ontraril&$ it is -it"in t"e )o-er o t"e trial (ud'e to re use to order t"e e.a#ination$ so t"at "e #a& not "ear t"e testi#on& o ot"er -itnesses. . I t"e state#ents %e in -ritin' t"e& #ust %e s"o-n to t"e -itness %e ore an& 1uestion is )ut to "i# concernin' t"e#. Kolo+ It is %elieved t"at i t"e )rior inconsistent state#ent a))ears in a de)osition o t"e adverse )art&$ and not a #ere -itness$ t"at adverse )art& -"o testi ies #a& %e i#)eac"ed -4o la&in' t"e )redicate$ as suc" )rior state#ents are in t"e nature o ad#issions o said adverse )art&. See R1?A.

@. T"e 1uestions -ere indeed care ull& )"rased and so#eti#es %ased on "er Sinu#)aan' Sala&sa& to #a.t"at t"e sa#e -as correctl& -ritten or recorded3 %ut in suc" case t"e -ritin' or record #ust %e )roduced and #a& %e ins)ected %& t"e adverse )art&$ -"o #a&$ i "e c"ooses$ cross e.H A))lies -"ere t"e -itness does not recall t"e acts involved$ and is entitled to lesser -ei'"t T"is )rovision a))lies onl& -"en it is s"o-n %e ore"and t"at t"ere is a need to re res" t"e #e#or& o t"e -itness. • PEOPLE V. A<T:ENTI8ATION ANI PROO2 O2 IO8<KENTS . *1Aa+ 2irst sentence = Grevival o )resent #e#or&.H A))lies i t"e -itness re#e#%ers t"e acts re'ardin' "is entries and is entitled to 'reater -ei'"t 59 ysr Second sentence = Grevival o )ast recollection. In t"e sa#e vein$ t"e )rosecutionMs re erral to PONALCNMs Sinu#)aan' Sala&sa& to re res" "er #e#or& -as also reasona%le. 8ase: O22I8E O2 T:E 8O<RT AIKINISTRATOR V. ! B"en )art o an act$ declaration$ conversation$ -ritin' or record is 'iven in evidence %& one )art&$ t"e -"ole o t"e sa#e su%(ect #a& %e in1uired into %& t"e ot"er$ and -"en a detac"ed act$ declaration$ conversation$ -ritin' or record is 'iven in evidence$ an& ot"er act$ declaration$ conversation$ -ritin' or record necessar& to its understandin' #a& also %e 'iven in evidence. B"en -itness #a& re er to #e#orandu#.ce)tional circu#stances e.ne. In ot"er -ords$ -"ere t"e -itness "as testi ied inde)endentl& o or a ter "is testi#on& "as %een re res"ed %& a #e#orandu# o t"e events in dis)ute$ suc" #e#orandu# is not ad#issi%le as corro%orative evidence. IELA 8R<Q T"e leadin' 1uestions -ere neit"er conclusions o acts #erel& )ut into t"e #out" o PONALCN nor )re)ared state#ents -"ic" s"e #erel& con ir#ed as true. E.orro#eo v. 8A+ Sec.in' t"e de)osition -as an o icer$ director$ or #ana'in' a'ent o a )u%lic or )rivate cor)oration$ )artners"i)$ or association -"ic" is a )art& #a& %e used %& an adverse )art& or an& )ur)ose3 c+ T"e de)osition o a -itness$ -"et"er or not a )art&$ #a& %e used %& an& )art& or an& )ur)ose i t"e court inds: *1+ t"at t"e -itness is dead3 or *2+ t"at t"e -itness resides at a distance #ore t"an one "undred *1AA+ . At t"e trial or u)on t"e "earin' o a #otion or an interlocutor& )roceedin'$ an& )art or all o a de)osition$ so ar as ad#issi%le under t"e rules o evidence$ #a& %e used a'ainst an& )art& -"o -as )resent or re)resented at t"e ta.t"e de)osition to %e used3 and d+ I onl& )art o a de)osition is o ered in evidence %& a )art&$ t"e adverse )art& #a& re1uire "i# to introduce all o it -"ic" is relevant to t"e )art introduced$ and an& )art& #a& introduce an& ot"er )arts. So$ also$ a -itness #a& testi & ro# suc" -ritin' or record$ t"ou'" "e retain no recollection o t"e )articular acts$ i "e is a%le to s-ear t"at t"e -ritin' or record correctl& stated t"e transaction -"en #ade3 %ut suc" evidence #ust %e received -it" caution. III.no-led'e$ t"e& could onl& corro%orate "er testi#on& t"at s"e #ade t"e entries as s"e received t"e %ills. 18. KORANTE <nder R1?2. Ri'"t to ins)ect -ritin' s"o-n to -itness.ed to e. B"ere t"e -itness "as testi ied inde)endentl& o or a ter "is #e#or& "as %een re res"ed %& a #e#orandu# o t"e events in dis)ute$ suc" #e#orandu# is not ad#issi%le as corro%orative evidence$ since a -itness #a& not %e corro%orated %& an& -ritten state#ent )re)ared -"oll& %& "i#. 1N.ness$ in ir#it&$ or i#)rison#ent3 or *@+ t"at t"e )art& o erin' t"e de)osition "as %een una%le to )rocure t"e attendance o t"e -itness %& su%)oena3 or *5+ u)on a))lication and notice$ t"at suc" e. *11a+ Si#ilar rule )rovided or in use o de)ositions 0 see R2?. *Ja+ 8ases: 8AND<E V.)lain t"e a))arent inconsistenc&. *.e PONALCN understand t"e i#)ort o t"e 1uestions. 1L.e it desira%le$ in t"e interest o (ustice and -it" due re'ard to t"e i#)ortance o )resentin' t"e testi#on& o -itnesses orall& in o)en court$ to allo.1?$ a -itness #a& %e i#)eac"ed %& s"o-in' t"at suc" t-o contradictin' state#ents are under oat".evidence | 1st sem.a#ine t"e -itness u)on it$ and #a& read it in evidence.@*d+ Sec.1L>18+ Sec. As t"e entries in 1uestion -ere not #ade %ased on )ersonal . <se o de)ositions.1A$ t"e #e#orandu# used to re res" t"e #e#or& o t"e -itness does not constitute evidence$ and #a& not %e ad#itted as suc"$ or t"e si#)le reason t"at t"e -itness "as (ust t"e sa#e to testi & on t"e %asis o re res"ed #e#or&. B"en )art o transaction$ -ritin' or record 'iven in evidence$ t"e re#ainder$ t"e re#ainder ad#issi%le.in' o t"e de)osition or -"o "ad due notice t"ereo $ in accordance -it" an& one o t"e ollo-in' )rovisions: a+ An& de)osition #a& %e used %& an& )art& or t"e )ur)ose o contradictin' or i#)eac"in' t"e testi#on& o de)onent as a -itness3 %+ T"e de)osition o a )art& or o an& one -"o at t"e ti#e o ta.ce)tion = -"en t"e )ro)er )redicate o "is ailin' #e#or& is )riorl& laid do-n. ! A -itness #a& %e allo-ed to re res" "is #e#or& res)ectin' a act$ %& an&t"in' -ritten or recorded %& "i#sel or under "is direction at t"e ti#e -"en t"e act occurred$ or i##ediatel& t"erea ter$ or at an& ot"er ti#e -"en t"e act -as res" in "is #e#or& and .ist as to #a. Re erence to -ritin' *R1?2. In order to i#)eac" "is testi#on& to %e inconsistent -it" t"e s-orn state#ent$ t"e s-orn state#ent alle'ed to %e inconsistent -it" t"e su%se1uent one s"ould "ave %een s"o-n and read to "i# and$ t"erea ter$ "e s"ould "ave %een as. T"e )ur)ose o re res"in' t"e recollection o a -itness is to ena%le %ot" t"e -itness and "er )resent testi#on& to %e )ut airl& and in t"eir )ro)er li'"t %e ore t"e court. 8A • <nder R1?2.ilo#eters ro# t"e )lace o trial or "earin'$ or is out o t"e P"ili))ines$ unless it a))ears t"at "is a%sence -as )rocured %& t"e )art& o erin' t"e de)osition3 or *?+ t"at t"e -itness is una%le to attend or testi & %ecause o a'e$ sic. T"e #e#orandu# used to re res" t"e #e#or& o t"e -itness does not constitute evidence$ and #a& not %e ad#itted as suc"$ %ecause t"e -itness "as (ust t"e sa#e to testi & on t"e %asis o re res"ed #e#or&. 2011-2012 Sec. E. ! B"enever a -ritin' is s"o-n to a -itness$ it #a& %e ins)ected %& t"e adverse )art&.

e)t is in orei'n countr&$ t"e certi icate #a& %e #ade %& a secretar& o t"e e#%ass& or le'ation$ consul 'eneral$ consul$ vice consul$ or consular a'ent or %& an& o icer in t"e orei'n service o t"e P"ili))ines stationed in t"e orei'n countr& in -"ic" t"e record is . 2N.H T"ose ac. 2011-2012 A. Pu%lic record o a )rivate docu#ent.to t"e entered t"erein. Pu%lic docu#ents are: a+ T"e -ritten o icial acts$ or records o t"e o icial acts o t"e soverei'n aut"orit&$ o icial %odies and tri%unals$ and )u%lic o icers$ -"et"er o t"e P"ili))ines$ or o a orei'n countr&3 %+ Iocu#ents ac.1J$ 2?>?A Sec. ! A -ritten state#ent si'ned %& an o icer "avin' t"e custod& o an o icial record or %& "is de)ut& t"at a ter dili'ent searc" no record or entr& o a 60 1.1J*a+$ and .e)t$ e. *Bildvalle& S"i))in' 8o. A%sent t"e attestation o t"e o icer "avin' t"e le'al custod& o t"e records and t"e certi icate to t"at e ect %& a P"ili))ine orei'n service o icer$ a #ere co)& o t"e orei'n docu#ent is not ad#issi%le as evidence to )rove t"e orei'n la-.no-led'ed %e ore )ersons aut"oriFed to ad#inister oat"s are )u%lic docu#ents %ut are urt"er 'overned %& Sec. A orei'n decision )ur)ortin' to %e t"e -ritten record o an act o an o icial %od& or tri%unal o a orei'n countr& is a )u%lic -ritin' under R1?2.e)t$ and aut"enticated %& t"e seal o "is o ice. Sec.arcelon+ EE8EPTION: -"ere a s)ecial rule o la. Borld-ide Insurance+ A clai# or t"e en orce#ent o a orei'n (ud'#ent can %e %rou'"t onl& %e ore t"e re'ular courts and not in an ad#inistrative a'enc&. *Re)u%lic v.ce)t last -ills and testa#ents3 and c+ Pu%lic records$ . T"e attestation #ust %e under t"e o icial seal o t"e attestin' o icer$ i t"ere %e an&$ or i "e %e t"e cler. Proo o lac.re1uires )roo t"ereo des)ite its %ein' a docu#ent ac.e)t in t"e P"ili))ines$ o )rivate docu#ents re1uired %& la.ecution and o t"e date o t"e latter. ! Iocu#ents consistin' o entries in )u%lic records #ade in t"e )er or#ance o a dut& %& a )u%lic o icer are )ri#a acie evidence o t"e acts t"erein stated. 28. Sec. 1J. 2@. *2@a+ Sec. I t"e o ice in -"ic" t"e record is . 25. o record. ?A$ as in t"e case o )ro%ate o notarial -ills -"ere t"e testi#on& o t"e attestin' -itnesses are still re1uired or its )ro%ate *R1?2. ! An aut"oriFed )u%lic record o a )rivate docu#ent #a& %e )roved %& t"e ori'inal record$ or %& a co)& t"ereo $ attested %& t"e le'al custodian o t"e record$ -it" an a))ro)riate certi icate t"at suc" o icer "as t"e custod&.no-led'e %e ore a notar& )u%lic e. *2Aa+ <nder t"e rules o evidence$ o icial docu#ents are G)u%lic docu#ents.ecution *Antillon v.evidence | 1st sem. .$ Ltd.no-led'ed in accordance -4 Sec. *25a+ Sec.e)t -4o a court order$ suc" as a su%)oena duces tecu#$ and even t"e court cannot order its re#oval t"ere ro#.H Private docu#ents re1uired %& la. 8A+ Sec. ?A$ -"ile co##ercial and )rivate docu#ents all under G)rivate docu#ents. 2@ 9 25 o t"e sa#e Rule. 2?. 2N. I a )rivate -ritin' itsel is inserted o iciall& into a )u%lic record$ its record4recordation4incor)oration into t"e )u%lic record %eco#es a )u%lic docu#ent$ %ut t"at does not #a. 8lasses o Iocu#ents. All ot"er -ritin's are )rivate. All ot"er )u%lic docu#ents are evidence$ even a'ainst a t"ird )erson$ o t"e act -"ic" 'ave rise to t"eir e. Proo o o icial record. Acco#)anied %& a certi icate o t"e P"ili))ine di)lo#atic or consular re)resentative to t"e orei'n countr& certi &in' t"at suc" attestin' o icer "as t"e custod& o t"e docu#ent • T"is re1uire#ent is intended to (usti & t"e 'ivin' o ull ait" and credit to t"e 'enuineness o a docu#ent in a orei'n countr& *Valencia v. B"at attestation o co)& #ust state. ! An& )u%lic record$ an o icial co)& o -"ic" is ad#issi%le in evidence$ #ust not %e re#oved ro# t"e o ice in -"ic" it is . Irre#ova%ilit& o )u%lic record. o a court "avin' a seal$ under t"e seal o suc" court.e t"e )rivate -ritin' itsel a )u%lic docu#ent so as to #a.to %e entered in )u%lic records are considered as )u%lic docu#ents and are su%(ect to Sec.NL 9 ?A+ Re1uisites or ad#issi%ilit& o co)& o orei'n o icial docu#ent 1. ! B"enever a co)& o a docu#ent or record is attested or t"e )ur)ose o evidence$ t"e attestation #ust state$ in su%stance$ t"at t"e co)& is a correct co)& o t"e ori'inal$ or a s)eci ic )art t"ereo $ as t"e case #a& %e. Lo)eF+ A docu#ent$ to %e )u%lic$ #ust %e an o icial -ritten act o a )u%lic o icer.e it ad#issi%le -4o aut"entication. Attested %& t"e o icer "avin' le'al custod& o t"e records or %& "is de)ut&3 and 2. ! T"e record o )u%lic docu#ents re erred to in )ara'ra)" *a+ o Section 1J$ -"en ad#issi%le or an& )ur)ose$ #a& %e evidenced %& an o icial )u%lication t"ereo or %& a co)& attested %& t"e o icer "avin' t"e le'al custod& o t"e record$ or %& "is de)ut&$ and acco#)anied$ i t"e record is not . EE8EPTION: -"en essential to t"e (ust deter#ination o a )endin' case NOTE t"at t"is rule re ers onl& to a )u%lic record an o icial co)& o -4c could %e #ade availa%le to t"e interested )art and is ad#issi%le in evidence. ! 2or t"e )ur)ose o t"eir )resentation evidence$ docu#ents are eit"er )u%lic or )rivate. /2@: re1uire#ents or ad#issi%ilit& in evidence o a orei'n )u%lic docu#ent. v. Pu%lic docu#ents ysr #ust %e )roved in accordance -4 Secs. Pu%lic docu#ents as evidence. 2L. *2La+ Sec.e)t in t"e P"ili))ines$ -it" a certi icate t"at suc" o icer "as t"e custod&.ce)t u)on order o a court -"ere t"e ins)ection o t"e record is essential to t"e (ust deter#ination o a )endin' case. R1?2. GEN R<LE: Pu%lic docu#ents 'enerall& include notarial docu#ents and are ad#issi%le in evidence -4o t"e necessit& o )reli#inar& )roo as to its aut"enticit& and due e. *2Na+ A )u%lic record cannot %e re#oved ro# t"e o ice in -4c it is .

Koreover$ t"e rule on "earsa& evidence ad#its o several e. Anicoc"e+ or voluntar& reco'nition o a c"ild. Sun Li e Assurance+ . ! Ever& instru#ent dul& ac. Ka(orit& co##ences u)on t"e attain#ent o t"e a'e o t-ent&>one &ears. LAQARO Eit"er t"e testi#on& o a re)resentative o $ or a certi ication ro#$ t"e PNP 2irear#s and E.@@ *Entries in o icial records+.28 o t"e sa#e Rules allo-s t"e ad#ission o t"e said docu#ent.a)tis#al certi icates are not su icient to )rove )aternit& *Arde v.e)t o said )u%lic docu#ent and aut"enticated %& t"e seal o "is o ice. *Iu)ilas v. ?.ind o docu#ent t"at is )resented in evidence.no-led'ed %e ore a notar& )u%lic or ot"er co#)etent o icer in a orei'n countr&$ it canMt %e ad#itted in evidence in P"ili))ine courts <NLESS itMs certi ied as suc" in accordance -4 R1?2.)losive O ice attestin' t"at a )erson is not a licensee o an& irear# -ould su ice to )rove %e&ond reasona%le dou%t t"e second ele#ent o )ossession o ille'al irear#s.(udicial record i#)eac"ed. 2J. *2J+ Sec.2A*a+ Also$ t"e Iu%ai decision is acco#)anied %& a docu#ent -"ic" )ur)orts to %e an En'lis" translation o t"at decision$ %ut t"at translation is le'all& de ective. *Ka"ilu# v.ce)tions esta%lis"ed %& t"is 8ode in s)ecial cases.ist in t"e records o "is o ice$ acco#)anied %& a certi icate as a%ove )rovided$ is ad#issi%le as evidence t"at t"e records o "is o ice contain no suc" record or entr&.ercises a )ro ession or callin'$ or -"en t"e at"er or #ot"er "as contracted a su%se1uent #arria'e. E ect o 2ailure to Sta#) Ta.<T it "as %een "eld t"at a deat" certi icate is ad#issi%le to )rove t"e residence o t"e deceased at t"e ti#e o "is deat".e#)ted t"ere ro#$ as in t"e case o %a)tis#al4%irt" certi icates o contractin' )arties to a #arria'e *28 1?+. ?A. *?1a+ Pu%lic docu#ents #a& %e )roved %&: 1. Includes o icial entries or iles$ o icial acts o a (udicial o icer$ and (ud'#ent o t"e court Sec. 88@A8 88@A?.t-ent&>t"ree &ears o a'e cannot leave t"e )arental "o#e -it"out t"e consent o t"e at"er or #ot"er in -"ose co#)an& s"e lives$ e. :o. *Lo)eF v.ecuted and ac. *Peo)le v.no-led'ed or )roved and certi ied as )rovided %& la-$ #a& %e )resented in evidence -it"out urt"er )roo $ t"e certi icate o ac. GSIS+ ysr NOTE: B"ile reco'niFin' t"e )ri#ac& o a %irt" certi icate as )roo o t"e victi#Ms a'e$ S8 "eld t"at in t"e a%sence o suc" evidence$ t"e victi#Ms #inorit& #a& %e )roved %& ot"er docu#entar& evidence suc" as "er %a)tis#al certi icate or ot"er aut"entic records. One suc" e.ce)tions. Not-it"standin' t"e )rovisions o t"e )recedin' article$ a dau'"ter a%ove t-ent&>one %ut %elo. Llandelar+ A deat" certi icate is not )roo o t"e cause o deat"$ its )ro%ative value %ein' con ined onl& to t"e act o deat"$ and t"e state#ent t"erein contained re'ardin' t"e duration o illness and t"e cause o deat" are #ere "earsa&. *Adriano v. T"e )erson -"o "as reac"ed #a(orit& is 1uali ied or all acts o civil li e$ save t"e e.ecution 0 t"e act o %a)tis# and t"e date t"ereo 0 and is t"ere ore "earsa& and inad#issi%le evidence even as to t"e date o %a)tis# unless t"e )riest -"o )er or#ed t"e %a)tis#al rites and #ade t"e certi icate is )roduced. *Garcia 2ule v. *. de Pesus+ :o-ever$ a %a)tis#al certi icate issued a ter t"e S)anis" re'i#e is a )rivate docu#ent and cannot even %e considered )ri#a acie evidence o t"e act t"at 'ave rise to its e.a%le Iocu#ent.evidence | 1st sem.?@ re1uires t"at docu#ents -ritten in a non>o icial lan'ua'e *Ara%ic+ s"all not %e ad#itted as evidence unless acco#)anied %& a translation into En'lis" or S)anis" or 2ili)ino. > An instru#ent$ docu#ent or )a)er -"ic" is re1uired %& lato %e sta#)ed and -"ic" "as %een si'ned$ issued$ acce)ted or trans erred -it"out %ein' dul& sta#)ed$ s"all not %e recorded$ nor s"all it or an& co)& t"ereo or an& record o trans er o t"e sa#e %e ad#itted or used in evidence in an& court until t"e re1uisite sta#) or sta#)s are a i. T"e ori'inal co)&3 2. 8A+ B"ere t"e SPA is e. An o icial )u%lication t"ereo 3 or ?.ce)t to %eco#e a -i e$ or -"en s"e e. NLR8 • T"e Iu%ai decision -as not )ro)erl& )roved %e ore t"e POEA. T"e Iu%ai decision )ur)orts to %e t"e -ritten act or record o an act o an o icial %od& or tri%unal o a orei'n countr&$ and t"ere ore a )u%lic -ritin' under R1?2. R1?2.arce%al+ . • PEOPLE V. /2A1$ RA 8@2@ NIR8$ Sec. 8a%acun'an+ Onl& %a)tis#al certi icates issued %& t"e )riests durin' t"e S)anis" re'i#e are considered )u%lic docu#ents. A certi ied true co)& t"ereo B"en a 8T8 is )resented$ / 2@ 9 25 )rovide -"at s"ould a))ear in t"e certi ication or attestation o said true co)& and -4c #ust "ave t"e docu#entar& sta#) a i. Relative to t"is )rovision$ R1?2. *?21a+ 8 . *Peo)le v. ItMs )resu#ed t"at t"e re1uisite sta#)s "ave %een a i. 88 @A2. *Sison v. 8ases: PA8I2I8 ASIA OVERSEAS S:IPPING 8ORP.ecution o t"e instru#ent or docu#ent involved. *?Aa+ RIANO: Pudicial record: t"e record o (udicial )roceedin's.ed t"ereto in order to %e ad#issi%le */2A1$ RA 8@2@+$ <NLESS s)eci icall& e. 2A1. 2011-2012 s)eci ied tenor is ound to e.no-led'#ent %ein' )ri#a acie evidence o t"e e. V.ce)tion is t"at )rovided or under R1?A. ! An& (udicial record #a& %e i#)eac"ed %& evidence o : *a+ -ant o (urisdiction in t"e court or (udicial o icer$ *%+ collusion %et-een t"e )arties$ or *c+ raud in t"e )art& o erin' t"e record$ in res)ect to t"e )roceedin's. Proo o notarial docu#ents.ed t"ereto and cancelled.2@ %& a secretar& o t"e e#%ass& or le'ation$ consul>'eneral4consul4vice> consul4consular a'ent or %& an& o icer in t"e orei'n service o t"e P"ili))ines stationed in t"e orei'n countr& in -4c t"e record is . 61 . Kalvar+ 2. 8A+ T"e )ro%ative value o )u%lic instru#ents de)ends on t"e .erciles v. .ed to t"e ori'inal co)& o a docu#ent -"ere onl& t"e car%on co)ies t"ereo are availa%le.

SEVILLA V.evidence | 1st sem.e ore an& )rivate docu#ent o ered as aut"entic is received in evidence$ its due e.no-n %& t"e -riter Rule o aut"entication o t"e adverse )art& . ?2. 22.t"e )erson -ritin' t"e instru#ent */2A6a7+ 2.ecuted or -ritten3 or %+ . B"en evidence o aut"enticit& o )rivate docu#ent not necessar&.er$ or %& a su%scri%in' -itness. *22a+ Sec.2A>22$ ?2>??+ Sec.1?A.@J+ /22 #erel& enu#erates t"e #et"ods o )rovin' "and-ritin' %ut does not 'ive )re erence or )riorit& to a )articular #et"od *Lo)eF v.ILLONES Iocu#ents consistin' o entries in )u%lic records #ade in t"e )er or#ance o a dut& %& a )u%lic o icer are )ri#a acie evidence o t"e acts t"erein stated. :o-ever$ t"eir )ro%ative -ei'"t #ust %e evaluated not in isolation %ut in con(unction -it" ot"er evidence adduced %& t"e )arties in t"e controvers&$ #uc" #ore so in t"is case -"ere t"e contents o a co)& t"ereo su%se1uentl& re'istered or docu#entation )ur)oses is %ein' contested. A -itness -"o actuall& sa.)ert evidence *R. Seal.5A6%7+ ?. 8ED<E^A V. :o.. SORIANO V. A -itness a#iliar -4 suc" "and-ritin' */22+ and -"o can 'ive "is o)inion t"ereon$ suc" o)inion %ein' an e.er Genuineness o #a. ! Iocu#ents -ritten in an uno icial lan'ua'e s"all not %e ad#itted as evidence$ unless acco#)anied -it" a translation into En'lis" or 2ili)ino.H 1J8N 8onsti: t"e o icial lan'ua'es are 2ili)ino and$ until ot"er-ise )rovided %& la-$ En'lis"$ -4 t"e re'ional lan'ua'es as au.ecution and aut"enticit& #ust %e )roved eit"er: a+ . Evidence res)ectin' t"e "and-ritin' #a& also %e 'iven %& a co#)arison$ #ade %& t"e -itness or t"e court$ -it" -ritin's ad#itted or treated as 'enuine %& t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# t"e evidence is o ered$ or )roved to %e 'enuine to t"e satis action o t"e (ud'e. T"e -ritin' is a )u%lic docu#ent or record )er /1J ?. . It #ust on its ace a))ear to %e 'enuine. IEL2IN V. 62 Ioctrine o sel >aut"entication B"ere t"e acts in t"e -ritin' could onl& "ave %een .iliar& o icial lan'ua'es in t"e re'ion 8ases: .& an&one -"o sa. E. Proo o )rivate docu#ent. *2?a+ R1?2. PEOPLE A )rivate docu#ent ac1uires t"e c"aracter o a )u%lic docu#ent -"en it %eco#es )art o an o icial record and is certi ied %& a )u%lic o icer dul& aut"oriFed %& la-. *??a+ Sec.ce)tion to t"e o)inion rule *R. ! T"e "and-ritin' o a )erson #a& %e )roved %& an& -itness -"o %elieves it to %e t"e "and-ritin' o suc" )erson %ecause "e "as seen t"e )erson -rite$ or "as seen -ritin' )ur)ortin' to %e "is u)on -"ic" t"e -itness "as acted or %een c"ar'ed$ and "as t"us ac1uired .8 T"e aut"enticit& and due e. IA8 <nder R1?2.er.2A>22: rules on aut"entication o )rivate docu#ents ysr B"ere t"e re)l& o t"e adverse )art& re ers to and a ir#s t"e trans#ittal to "i# and "is recei)t o t"e letter in 1uestion$ a co)& o -"ic" t"e )ro)onent is o erin' as evidence Instances -"en aut"entication o a docu#ent is NOT re1uired 1. . 21.ecuted$ %& evidence o t"e 'enuineness o t"e "and-ritin' o t"e #a.no-led'ed$ )roved$ or certi ied in accordance -4 /?A @.ARTOLOKE V. ! B"ere a )rivate docu#ent is #ore t"an t"irt& &ears old$ is )roduced ro# t"e custod& in -"ic" it -ould naturall& %e ound i 'enuine$ and is un%le#is"ed %& an& alterations or circu#stances o sus)icion$ no ot"er evidence o its aut"enticit& need %e 'iven. An& ot"er )rivate docu#ent need onl& %e identi ied as t"at -"ic" it is clai#ed to %e. ! T"ere s"all %e no di erence %et-een sealed and unsealed )rivate docu#ents inso ar as t"eir ad#issi%ilit& as evidence is concerned.ecution and aut"enticit& o a )rivate -ritin' #ust %e )roved eit"er %& an&one -"o sat"e -ritin' e.'enuineness o "and-ritin' )roved. PI 155 *1JN?+ )rovides t"at Gt"e S)anis" lan'ua'e s"all continue to %e reco'niFed as an o icial lan'ua'e in t"e P"ili))ines -"ile i#)ortant docu#ents in 'overn#ent iles are in t"e S)anis" lan'ua'e and not translated into eit"er En'lis" or Pili)ino lan'ua'e. Nevert"eless$ t"is )resu#)tion is dis)uta%le and is satis actor& onl& i uncontradicted$ and #a& %e overco#e %& ot"er evidence to t"e contrar&. A co#)arison %& t"e court o t"e 1uestioned "and-ritin' and ad#itted 'enuine s)eci#ens t"ereo */22+ @. T"e -ritin' is an ancient docu#ent$ under t"e re1uisites o /21 2. GALIT Pu%lic docu#ents %& t"e#selves #a& %e ade1uate to esta%lis" t"e )resu#)tion o t"eir validit&.t"e docu#ent e.21$ t"e due e. Private docu#ents *R1?2. *21a+ Sec.ecution o t"e docu#ent "as %een e. 2A. T"e aut"enticit& and due e.& evidence o t"e 'enuineness o t"e si'nature or "and-ritin' o t"e #a. . ItMs a notarial docu#ent ac.OLANTE • An ancient docu#ent is one t"at is *1+ #ore t"an ?A &ears old$ *2+ ound in t"e )ro)er custod&$ and *?+ un%le#is"ed %& an& alteration or %& an& circu#stance o sus)icion. To avoid interru)tion o )roceedin's$ )arties or t"eir attorne&s are directed to "ave suc" translation )re)ared %e ore trial. Iocu#entar& evidence in an uno icial lan'ua'e.ecution o a )rivate docu#ent are )roved$ inter alia$ %& evidence o t"e 'enuineness o t"e "and-ritin' o t"e #a. 2011-2012 KONTEVERIE V. 8A+ Sec.erMs "and-ritin' )roved %&: 1.)ressl& or i#)liedl& ad#itted %& a ailure to den& t"e sa#e under oat"$ as in t"e case o actiona%le docu#ents )er R8.1?A. ??.no-led'e o t"e "and-ritin' o suc" )erson. 8ARIENAS T"e )resu#)tion o re'ularit& o o icial acts #a& %e re%utted %& a ir#ative evidence o irre'ularit& or ailure to )er or# a dut&. ! .

to e. 1. Alteration in docu#ent$ "o. Aut"entication o Electronic Iocu#ents Sec.2A -"ic" states t"e Karital 8onsent -as #erel& a (urat$ and t"us a )rivate docu#ent -"ose e. Alteration in docu#ents *R1?2.2A$ %e ore a )rivate docu#ent is ad#itted in evidence$ it #ust %e aut"enticated eit"er %& t"e )erson -"o e. T"e sa#e #ustMve %een dul& identi ied %& testi#on& dul& recorded3 and 2.t #essa'es are covered %& Section 1*. Kanner o aut"entication. 8ases: 8A. Anc"eta+ RIANO: B"en or#al o er o evidence is not re1uired 1. As a rule$ t"e )ro)onent #ust s"o. In a su##ar& )roceedin'$ as itMs a )roceedin' -"ere t"ereMs no ull>%lo-n trial 63 . ysr %+ %& evidence t"at ot"er a))ro)riate securit& )rocedures or devices as #a& %e aut"oriFed %& t"e Su)re#e 8ourt or %& la.ecution t"ereo . SAL<I • KALACAN INS<RAN8E V. Iocu#entar& and o%(ect evidence s"all %e o ered a ter t"e )resentation o a )art&Ss testi#onial evidence.ed in t"e sense t"at evidence not or#all& o ered can %e ad#itted %& t"e T8 )rovided t"e . 0 . VIIALLON>KAGTOLIS V.no-led'e t"ereo .t"at t"e alteration -as #ade %& anot"er$ -it"out "is concurrence$ or -as #ade -it" t"e consent o t"e )arties a ected %& it$ or -as ot"er-ise )ro)erl& or innocent #ade$ or t"at t"e alteration did not c"an'e t"e #eanin' or lan'ua'e o t"e instru#ent. ! T"e )art& )roducin' a docu#ent as 'enuine -"ic" "as %een altered and a))ears to "ave %een altered a ter its e. > A docu#ent electronicall& notariFed in accordance -it" t"e rules )ro#ul'ated %& t"e Su)re#e 8ourt s"all %e considered as a )u%lic docu#ent and )roved as a notarial docu#ent under t"e Rules o 8ourt.no-led'ed$ an& )erson -"o -as )resent and sa.U <nder Section 2$ Rule 11 o REE$ GE)"e#eral electronic co##unications s"all %e )roven %& t"e testi#on& o a )erson -"o -as a )art& to t"e sa#e or -"o "as )ersonal .it e. re1uire#ents are )resent: 1. *?5+ Sec.e#)ted ro# t"e rule on aut"entication. T"e )ur)ose or -"ic" t"e evidence is o ered #ust %e s)eci ied. Suc" o er s"all %e done orall& unless allo-ed %& t"e court to %e done in -ritin'. T"us$ an a idavit does not auto#aticall& %eco#e a )u%lic docu#ent (ust %ecause it contains a notarial (urat. 8.ed. *n+ T"e literal i#)ort o /?@ "as %een rela.ecution$ sa. 8OKKISSION ON E8<KENI8AL KISSION R1?2.+$ Rule 2 o t"e REE$ -"ic" )rovides: UE)"e#eral electronic co##unication re ers to tele)"one conversations$ te.2A.evidence | 1st sem. ?5.e o er.ecution and aut"enticit& re1uired )roo under R1?2. ?1.PE8TION *R1?2. NLR8 :and-ritten listin' and unsi'ned co#)uter )rintouts -"ic" are unaut"enticated are unrelia%le. 8A T"e )resu#)tion o re'ularit& does not "old true -it" res)ect to t"e 6notariFed7 Karital 8onsent -"ic" is a )rivate -ritin'. T"e )erson see.?1+ Sec.it and reco'niFed t"e si'natures$ or t"e )erson to -"o# t"e )arties to t"e instru#ents "ad )reviousl& con essed e. :ERNANIEQ T"e )art& )roducin' a docu#ent as 'enuine -"ic" "as %een altered in a )art #aterial to t"e 1uestion in dis)ute #ust account or t"e alteration. .ecution$ in a )art #aterial to t"e 1uestion in dis)ute$ #ust account or t"e alteration.ecuted$ or -"o a ter its e. ! T"e court s"all consider no evidence -"ic" "as not %een or#all& o ered.e ore an& )rivate electronic docu#ent o ered as aut"entic is received in evidence$ its aut"enticit& #ust %e )roved %& an& o t"e ollo-in' #eans: a+ %& evidence t"at it "ad %een di'itall& si'ned %& t"e )erson )ur)orted to "ave si'ned t"e sa#e3 • Te.e a co#)arison o t"e dis)uted "and-ritin' U-it" -ritin's ad#itted or treated as 'enuine %& t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# t"e evidence is o ered$ or )roved to %e 'enuine to t"e satis action o t"e (ud'e. PIKENEQ V.or aut"entication o electronic docu#ents -ere a))lied to t"e docu#ent3 or c+ %& ot"er evidence s"o-in' its inte'rit& and relia%ilit& to t"e satis action o t"e (ud'e.U PAN PA8I2I8 INI<STRIAL SALES V. O er o evidence.& itsel $ an a idavit is not a #ode o ac1uirin' o-ners"i). ! As re'ards t"e testi#on& o a -itness$ t"e o er #ust %e #ade at t"e ti#e t"e -itness is called to testi &. ?@. Sec. I. 8ases: AS<N8ION V.in' to introduce an electronic docu#ent in an& le'al )roceedin' "as t"e %urden o )rovin' its aut"enticit&.)lain. 2011-2012 • Not all notariFed docu#ents are e. B"en to #a. T"e S8 "as consistentl& re1uired so#e )roo o aut"enticit& or relia%ilit& as condition or t"e ad#ission o docu#ents.?@>@A+ • Sec. Proo o electronicall& notariFed docu#ent. It is su%(ect to t"e re1uire#ent o )roo under R1?2. Rule on Electronic Evidence Rule 5. T"e sa#e #ustMve %een incor)orated in t"e records o t"e case T"e or#al o er o testi#onial evidence at t"e ti#e t"e -itness is called to testi & is necessar& to ena%le t"e court to intelli'entl& rule on an& o%(ection to t"e 1uestions as.t #essa'es S and ot"er electronic or#s o co##unication t"e evidence o -"ic" is not recorded or retained.22 e. *Peo)le v. ?.OTAPE V.its relevance$ #aterialit&$ and co#)etence$ and t"e adverse )art& #ust )ro#)tl& raise an& o%(ection t"ereto. Sec. PNB8 <nder R1?2. :e #a& s"o.)licitl& aut"oriFes t"e court$ %& itsel $ to #a.ecuted it$ t"e )erson %e ore -"o# its e. O22ER ANI O.H IV.ecution -as ac. 2. I "e ails to do t"at$ t"e docu#ent s"all not %e ad#issi%le in evidence. PAI<NAN ZRestated t"e )rovision[ 8IRELOS V.

"i%its #a& %e -it"dra-n %e ore or#al o er t"ereo or #a& not at all %e o ered as evidence 2or#al o er o docu#entar& evidence Onl& -"en t"e )ro)onent rests "is case and or#all& o ers t"e evidence t"at an o%(ection t"ereto #a& %e #ade.en o t"e record. I t"e evidence e. Cusa&+ B"ere t"ere is no indication o %ad ait" on t"e )art o t"e attorne& o erin' t"e evidence$ t"e court #a&$ as a rule$ sa el& acce)t t"e testi#on& u)on t"e state#ent o t"e attorne& t"at t"e )roo o ered -ill %e connected later.a#ination o a -itness t"at t"e 1uestion %ein' )ro)ounded are o t"e sa#e class as t"ose to -"ic" o%(ection "as %een #ade$ -"et"er suc" o%(ection -as sustained or overruled$ it s"all not %e necessar& to re)eat t"e o%(ection$ it %ein' su icient or t"e adverse )art& to record "is continuin' o%(ection to suc" class o 1uestions. @A. T"e )art& #a& (ust enter a 'eneral and continuin' o%(ection to t"e sa#e class o evidence and t"e rulin' o t"e court s"all %e a))lica%le to all suc" evidence o t"e sa#e class.ed$ identi ied$ descri%ed in t"e record$ and testi ied to %& -itnesses -"o "ad %een su%(ects o cross>e.evidence | 1st sem. Sec."i%its durin' t"e "earin' %ut -4c -ere not or#all& o ered in evidence cannot %e considered as evidence nor can t"e& %e 'iven an& evidentiar& value. Stri.ed as e. Sec. Evidence su%#itted or one )ur)ose #a& not %e considered or an& ot"er )ur)ose. B"en re)etition o o%(ection unnecessar&.ed as e. Kate+ /?N )rovides t"at t"e re)etition o o%(ections to t"e sa#e class o evidence is not re1uired."i%its. Iiano+ A docu#ent or -ritin' -"ic" is ad#itted #erel& as )art o t"e testi#on& o a -itness *and not as an inde)endent evidence+ does not constitute )roo o t"e acts related t"erein. Insurance+ T"e )ur)ose or -4c t"e evidence is o ered #ust %e s)eci ied %ecause suc" evidence #a& %e ad#issi%le or several )ur)oses under t"e doctrine o #ulti)le ad#issi%ilit&$ or #a& %e ad#issi%le or one )ur)ose and not or anot"er$ ot"er-ise t"e adverse )art& canMt inter)ose t"e )ro)er o%(ection.cluded is oral$ t"e o eror #a& state or t"e record t"e na#e and ot"er )ersonal circu#stances o t"e -itness and t"e su%stance o t"e )ro)osed testi#on&.e a reasona%le ti#e to stud& t"e 1uestions raised %& t"e 64 Iocu#ents -"ic" #a& "ave %een #ar. ?. *Tinsa& v. Dui(ano+ Identi ication o docu#entar& evidence Kade in t"e course o t"e trial and #ar. 2011-2012 2.a#ination in res)ect to said o%(ects ysr o%(ection$ %ut a rulin' s"ould al-a&s %e #ade durin' t"e trial.cluded evidence. Iocu#ents (udiciall& ad#itted or ta. *S"eraton>Palace :otel v."i%its %ut t"e sa#e "ave %een dul& identi ied %& testi#on& dul& recorded and t"e e.a#ine t"e sa#e and deter#ine t"e )ro)riet& o t"eir re(ection. O%(ection to a 1uestion )ro)ounded in t"e course o t"e oral e. 8A+3 ot"er-ise$ t"at -ould in rin'e u)on t"e adverse )art&Ms constitutional ri'"t to due )rocess o la-. *Peo)le v. ?N. ! S"ould a -itness ans-er t"e 1uestion %e ore t"e adverse )art& "ad t"e o))ortunit& to voice ull& its o%(ection to t"e sa#e$ and suc" o%(ection is ound to %e #eritorious$ t"e court s"all sustain t"e o%(ection and order t"e ans-er 'iven to %e stric. B88+ :o-ever$ it "as %een "eld in a cri#inal case or . *Peo)le v. On )ro)er #otion$ t"e court #a& also order t"e stri."i%its )resented %& t"e )arties$ alt"ou'" not ad#itted$ to %e attac"ed to t"e records so t"at$ in case o a))eal$ t"e a))ellate court #a& %e a%le to e. ! I docu#ents or t"in's o ered in evidence are e.ed as e. *Prats 9 8o. *Vda. ?8. ?J. Tender o e.cluded %& t"e court$ t"e o eror #a& "ave t"e sa#e attac"ed to or #ade )art o t"e record. In an& case$ t"e 'rounds or t"e o%(ections #ust %e s)eci ied. ! T"e rulin' o t"e court #ust %e 'iven i##ediatel& a ter t"e o%(ection is #ade$ unless t"e court desires to ta. 5. ! O%(ection to evidence o ered orall& #ust %e #ade i##ediatel& a ter t"e o er is #ade. An o er o evidence in -ritin' s"all %e o%(ected to -it"in t"ree *?+ da&s a ter notice o t"e o er unless a di erent )eriod is allo-ed %& t"e court.a#ination o a -itness s"all %e #ade as soon as t"e 'rounds t"ere or s"all %eco#e reasona%l& a))arent. Ie 2lores v. *Oliveros v. It "as %een "eld t"at t"e court itsel #a& #otu )ro)rio treat t"e o%(ection as a . 8A+$ as docu#ents or#in' no )art o )roo s %e ore t"e a))ellate court cannot %e considered in dis)osin' o t"e case *Ie 8astro v.e a reasona%le ti#e to in or# itsel on t"e 1uestion )resented3 %ut t"e rulin' s"all al-a&s %e #ade durin' t"e trial and at suc" ti#e as -ill 'ive t"e )art& a'ainst -"o# it is #ade an o))ortunit& to #eet t"e situation )resented %& t"e rulin'.in' out o ans-ers -"ic" are inco#)etent$ irrelevant$ or ot"er-ise i#)ro)er. Oliveros+ :o-ever$ it "as %een "eld t"at -"ere docu#entar& evidence -as re(ected %& t"e T8 and t"e o eror did not #ove t"at t"e sa#e %e attac"ed to t"e record$ t"e sa#e cannot %e considered %& t"e a))ellate court *. ! B"en it %eco#es reasona%l& a))arent in t"e course o t"e e. O%(ection.aneF v. T"e reason or sustainin' or overrulin' an o%(ection need not %e stated. Evidence identi ied at trial and #ar. *n+ Parties -"o o er o%(ections to 1uestions on -"atever 'round are entitled to a rulin' at t"e ti#e t"e o%(ection is #ade$ unless t"e& )resent a 1uestion -it" re'ard to -"ic" t"e court desires to in or# itsel %e ore #a.in' its rulin'. P"oeni. @. :o-ever$ i t"e o%(ection is %ased on t-o or #ore 'rounds$ a rulin' sustainin' t"e o%(ection on one or so#e o t"e# #ust s)eci & t"e 'round or 'rounds relied u)on."i%its are ad#issi%le a'ainst t"e accused. A%alos+ T"e trial courts s"ould )er#it all e. v. Rulin'. In t"at event$ itMs )er ectl& )ro)er or t"e court to ta. *n+ Sec. ?L. *?8a+ Sec."i%its "ave %een incor)orated in t"e records o t"e case$ said e.en (udicial notice o Iocu#ents$ a idavits$ and de)ositions used in renderin' a su##ar& (ud'#ent Iocu#ents or a idavits used in decidin' 1uasi>(udicial or ad#inistrative cases Lost o%(ects )reviousl& #ar.in' out ans-er. Sec. T"e courts s"ould consider t"e evidence onl& or t"e )ur)ose or -"ic" it -as o ered *Peo)le v.idna))in' -4 #urder t"at even i t"ere -as no or#al o er o t"e e.

! In civil cases$ t"e )art& "avin' %urden o )roo #ust esta%lis" "is case %& a )re)onderance o evidence. I t"e T8 erroneousl& ruled out t"e evidence and discovered suc" error %e ore t"e (ud'#ent "ad %eco#e inal or %e ore and a))eal t"ere ro# "ad %een )er ected$ it #a& reo)en t"e case. PAREL V.$ Ltd. . Peo)le+ RIANO: An o%(ection #ust )oint out t"e s)eci ic 'round o t"e o%(ection$ and i it does not do so$ no error is co##itted in overrulin' it.en ro# t"e T8 on t"e #erits o t"e case. *Peo)le v. Eller#an 9 . 8onse1uentl&$ t"e evidence o ered #a& %e ad#itted. T"e rule is t"at a s)eci ic o%(ection is al-a&s )re erred over a 'eneral one. 8ases: :EIRS O2 LO<RIES SAEQ SA. T"ere is no co#)ellin' need to s)eci & t"e 'round$ Gi t"e 'round or e.on certiorari.ind. .<GAO V. PR<IEN8IO A or#al o er is necessar& %ecause it is t"e dut& o a (ud'e to rest "is indin's o acts and "is (ud'#ent onl& and strictl& u)on t"e evidence o ered %& t"e )arties to t"e suit. IIQON In Peo)le v. 8ivil cases *R1??. • A #otion to reo)en )resu))oses t"at eit"er or %ot" )arties "ave or#all& o ered and closed t"eir evidence.uc. V. 2011-2012 continuin' one.ande+3 ot"er-ise a netrial is -arranted %& reason o suc" erroneous rulin' -4c 'oes into t"e #erits o t"e case and -ouldMve a ected t"e decision *<S v.cluded evidence is #ade$ t"e evidence #ust "ave %een or#all& o ered %e ore t"e court. it is inad#issi%le eit"er %ecause it is irrelevant or inco#)etent or %ot" An o%(ection #ust state t"e s)eci ic 'round relied u)on and %e ti#el& *#ade at t"e earliest o))ortunit&+. *1a+ /1 9 2 'ive t"e rules on t"e re1uisite 1uantu# o evidence in civil 9 cri#inal cases. Acusar+ 65 • • 2or#al o%(ection: one directed a'ainst t"e alle'ed de ect in t"e or#ulation o t"e 1uestion *E. Reller 9 8o."i%it does not #ean t"at it "as t"ere%& alread& %een o ered as )art o t"e evidence o a )art&. VALEN8IA V. :o-ever$ it does not i#)ose an a%solute %an on 'eneral o%(ections. T"e court #a& also consider t"e nu#%er o -itnesses$ t"ou'" t"e )re)onderance is not necessaril& -it" t"e 'reater nu#%er.ed 6R1?2.e.a#)les o de ectivel& or#ulated 1uestions: a#%i'uous$ ar'u#entative$ etc. 8OKORPOSA Neit"er t"e rules o )rocedure nor (uris)rudence -ould sanction t"e ad#ission o evidence t"at "as not %een or#all& o ered durin' t"e trial. 8A. . Na)at>a$ -e rela.ed as an e. And %& t"is is #eant t"at it s"all %e natural$ reasona%le and )ro%a%le as to #a.trial or reversal o t"e decision i t"ere are ot"er inde)endent evidence to sustain t"e decision$ or i t"e re(ected evidence$ i it "ad %een ad#itted$ -ouldnMt "ave c"an'ed t"e decision *Peo)le v.no-led'e and e. :o-ever$ in all cases -"ere said rule "ad %een a))lied$ t"e assailed testi#onial or o%(ect evidence "ad %een dul& )resented durin' t"e course o t"e trial.)erience o #an. Evidence$ to %e -ort"& o credit$ #ust not onl& )roceed ro# a credi%le source %ut #ust$ in addition$ %e credi%le in itsel .clusion s"ould "ave %een o%vious to t"e (ud'e or to counsel.?@7 and allo-ed evidence not or#all& o ered to %e ad#itted and considered %& t"e trial court )rovided t"e ollo-in' re1uire#ents are )resent$ viF: irst$ t"e sa#e #ust "ave %een dul& identi ied %& testi#on& dul& recorded and$ second$ t"e sa#e #ust "ave %een incor)orated in t"e records o t"e case.deter#ined. T"ese are to %e assi'ned as errors and revie-ed in t"e a))eal ta. RAKOS V. :e "as to )recisel& state t"e e.@A7 t"at %e ore tender o e. PEOPLE B"ere a )art& ails to o%(ect to evidence -"en o ered$ "e is dee#ed to "ave -aived "is o%(ection t"ereto. In deter#inin' -"ere t"e )re)onderance or su)erior -ei'"t o evidence on t"e issues involved lies$ t"e court #a& consider all t"e acts and circu#stances o t"e case$ t"e -itnessesS #anner o testi &in'$ t"eir intelli'ence$ t"eir #eans and o))ortunit& o .es.1+ Section 1.H *A#Pur+ O%(ections #a& %e or#al or su%stantive. ysr C< V. BEIG:T ANI S<22I8IEN8C O2 EVIIEN8E A. And %e ore or#al o er o evidence is #ade$ t"e evidence #ust "ave %een identi ied and )resented %e ore t"e court.ACAN • Ad#ission o additional evidence is addressed to t"e sound discretion o t"e T8.evidence | 1st sem. *Ed. It is a settled rule t"at t"e #ere act t"at a )articular docu#ent is identi ied and #ar.ANPAN V.ut t"is evidentiar& rule is a))lica%le onl& to ordinar& trials$ not to cases covered %& t"e rule on su##ar& )rocedure 0 cases in -"ic" no ull>%lo-n trial is "eld. . :e cannot si#)l& #ani est t"at "e is inter)osin' an o%(ection. Cusa&+ T"e T8 rulin's on )rocedural 1uestions and on ad#issi%ilit& o evidence durin' t"e course o a trial are interlocutor& in nature and #a& not %e t"e su%(ect o se)arate a))eals or revie. SANIIGAN.nail+ An erroneous ad#ission or re(ection o evidence %& t"e T8 is not a 'round or a ne. TAN V. A. PEOPLE S8 "as ruled t"at o%(ection to t"e ad#issi%ilit& o evidence$ i not #ade at t"e ti#e suc" evidence is o ered$ s"all %e dee#ed -aived. 8A It is a))arent 6 ro# R1?2. Villanueva+.e it eas& to %elieve.+ Su%stantive o%(ection: o%(ections #ade and directed a'ainst t"e ver& nature o t"e evidence$ i. *Tinsa& v.)licit as to t"e le'al 'round "e invo.a1uiran+ To %e %elieved$ evidence s"ould %e in accord -it" t"e co##on . Pre)onderance o evidence$ "o. *Peo)le v. An o%(ector #ust %e e.clusionar& rule t"at -ould (usti & "is o))osition to t"e )ro ered evidence. *Gatdula v. v.no-in' t"e acts to -"ic" t"ere are testi &in'$ t"e nature o t"e acts to -"ic" t"e& testi &$ t"e )ro%a%ilit& or i#)ro%a%ilit& o t"eir testi#on&$ t"eir interest or -ant o interest$ and also t"eir )ersonal credi%ilit& so ar as t"e sa#e #a& le'iti#atel& a))ear u)on t"e trial.

)ression o lac. *<S v. Realon+ EE8EPTION TO T:E EE8EPTION: -"ere t"e issue revolved around t"e identi ication o t"e accused or t"e credi%ilit& o -itness and one (ud'e "eard t"e testi#on& o t"e )rosecution -itnesses %ut a di erent (ud'e )enned t"e decision 0 t"e latter$ not "avin' "eard t"e testi#onial )resentation$ -ouldnMt %e in a %etter )osition t"an t"e a))ellate courts to #a. 8ourts allo.)ression on "is ace.no-s a%out a cri#e does not render "is testi#on& alse$ or t"e dela& #a& %e e. *Peo)le v. T"e acts adduced t"erein are evidence onl& or t"e )ur)ose o testin' t"e credi%ilit& o -itnesses.ens "is resistance to outside in luence. . Ka'allanes+ T8 s"ouldnMt discredit a -itness %& t"e su))osed e. *Peo)le v. *<S v. *<S v.es 2 s-orn state#ents 'ravel& contradictin' eac" ot"er$ t"e court cannot acce)t eit"er state#ent as )roo . Vicente+ A )art&Ms ailure to )resent #erel& corro%orative or cu#ulative evidence doesnMt 'ive rise to an& adverse or un avora%le )resu#)tion. *<S v. o sincerit& in "is ace. *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. Karasi'an+ Inconsistencies or contradictions on #ere details in t"e testi#on& o a -itness donMt #ateriall& i#)air t"e credi%ilit& o suc" -itness. Batin+ T"e testi#onies o interested -itnesses are not necessaril& %iased$ incredi%le or sel >servin'$ alt"ou'" t"eir interest #a& to so#e e. *Vda de Ra#os v. 8A+ T"e #atter o assi'nin' values to declarations at t"e -itness stand is %est and #ost co#)letel& )er or#ed %& a trial (ud'e -"o$ unli. El . T8 s"ouldMve #ade it a))ear in t"e record and allo-ed t"e -itness t"e o))ortunit& to e. B"en t"e -itnesses on %ot" sides are e1uall& interested or ot"er-ise %iased$ es)eciall& i t"ereMs no nu#erical )re)onderance on eit"er side$ %ias ceases to %e a consideration in deter#inin' -"ere t"e -ei'"t o evidence rests. .e suc" deter#ination *Peo)le v. ItMs also 1uite co##on t"at advanced a'e #a. *Peo)le v. 8redit s"ould %e 'iven to t"e one -"ose de#eanor and #anner o testi &in' convinces t"e court o "is credi%ilit&. 2acial e. PuareF+ T"e record o a )reli#inar& investi'ation constitutes no )art o t"e inal )roceedin's in a cause$ unless itMs )resented in evidence. Enri1ueF+ As a 'eneral rule$ t"e nu#%er o -itnesses s"ould not in and %& itsel deter#ine t"e -ei'"t o evidence$ %ut in case o con lictin' testi#onies o -itnesses$ t"e nu#erical actor #a& %e 'iven certain -ei'"t. Olais+ T"e o ended )art&Ms testi#on& is not essential to convict an accused i t"ere are alread& ot"er evidence to )rove t"e latterMs 'uilt. *Peo)le v.aao+ EE8EPTION: -"en t"e T8 "as )lainl& overloo.a )erson to testi & as a -itness u)on a 'iven #atter %ecause "e is co#)etent %ut #a& t"erea ter decide -"et"er to %elieve or not to %elieve "is testi#on&. *Peo)le v. Duilino+ ysr to "i# and$ at ti#es$ it -ea. Rivera+ 8o#)etenc& o a -itness is one t"in'$ and it is anot"er to %e a credi%le -itness. Kodelo+ Inconsistencies in t"eir testi#on& on insi'ni icant details donMt a ect t"eir credi%ilit& as to t"e #aterial )oints3 rat"er$ t"e& indicate veracit& *Peo)le v. Grant+ B"en a -itness #a& %e said to %e %iased B"en "is relation to t"e cause or to t"e )arties is suc" t"at "e "as an incentive to e. *Peo)le v.evidence | 1st sem. ViWas+ and onl& tend to %olster t"e )ro%ative value o suc" testi#on&.)lanation 'iven -"& "e -asnMt )roduced -ea. *Peo)le v. T"e -itness %& "is o-n act o 'ivin' alse testi#on& i#)eac"es "is o-n testi#on& and t"e court s"ould e.e a))ellate #a'istrates$ can -ei'" suc" testi#on& in li'"t o t"e de endantMs %e"avior$ de#eanor$ conduct$ and attitude at t"e trial. 2011-2012 GEN R<LE re T8 indin's on credi%ilit& o -itnesses: T8 indin's -onMt %e distur%ed on a))eal$ as it -as in a %etter )osition to decide t"e 1uestion$ "avin' "eard and o%served t"e de#eanor o eac" -itness. LardiFa%al+ T"e testi#on& o a co>cons)irator or acco#)lice$ -"ile ad#issi%le$ #ust %e scrutiniFed -it" 'reat caution %ecause it co#es ro# a )olluted source and is su%(ect to 'rave sus)icion. Puliada+ T"e )rosecution is not o%li'ed to )resent eac" and ever& )erson -"o -itnessed t"e occurrence %ut onl& a su icient nu#%er to )rove t"e co##ission o t"e o ense.)lained %& t"e natural reticence o #ost )eo)le and t"eir a%"orrence to 'et involved in a cri#inal case.clude it ro# all consideration. 8A+ Iela& o a -itness in revealin' to t"e aut"orities -"at "e .ed certain acts o su%stance and value -4c$ i considered$ #i'"t a ect t"e result o t"e case. *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. Kacuti+ B"en a -itness #a.ens t"e testi#on& o t"e -itness -"o na#ed t"at corro%oratin' -itness in "is testi#on&.a''erate or 'ive alse color to "is state#ents$ or to su))ress or )ervert t"e trut"$ or to state -"atMs alse. Pala+ T"is is di erent ro# t"e situation -"erein t"e testi#onies o 2 -itnesses contradict eac" ot"er$ in -4c case t"e court s"all ado)t suc" testi#on& -4c it %elieves to %e true. A%onales+ A ir#ative testi#on& is stron'er t"an ne'ative testi#on&. Ne'ative testi#on& o a -itness cannot )revail over t"e )ositive state#ents o )ersons -"o -ere e&e-itnesses o t"e act -4c is t"e su%(ect o investi'ation. <ntalasco Pr+ Kore t"an t"is$ t"ere is al-a&s t"e in"erent ear o re)risal$ -"ic" is 1uite understanda%le 8redi%ilit& o a -itness: "is inte'rit&$ dis)osition$ and intention to tell t"e trut" in t"e testi#on& "e "as 'iven as distin'uis"ed ro# t"e credi%ilit& o "is testi#on&. *Peo)le v.es a )erson #entall& dull and co#)letel& "aF& a%out t"in's -"ic" "ave "a))ened 66 . T"e non>)roduction o a corro%orative -itness -it"out an& e.eaterio del Santissi#o+ T"e de#eanor$ t"e e#)"asis$ 'estures$ and in lection o t"e voice o a -itness$ -"ile testi &in'$ are )otent aids in t"e )ro)er evaluation o "is credi%ilit&. A1uino+ T"e conviction o an accused #a& %e %ased on t"e testi#on& o one -itness alone )rovided suc" testi#on& is clear and convincin'.)lain -"& "e -as s"o-in' suc" an e.tent a ect t"eir credi%ilit&.ias: t"at -4c e. Lasada+ T"e act t"at a )erson "as reac"ed t"e Gt-ili'"t o "is li eH is not al-a&s a 'uarantee t"at "e -ould tell t"e trut".cites t"e dis)osition to see and re)ort #atters as t"e& are -is"ed or rat"er t"an as t"e& are. *8aluna v.)ressions are not necessaril& indicative o oneMs eelin's. *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. *Arro&o v.

A#on+ T"e in ir#it& o a idavits as a s)ecies o evidence is a #atter o (udicial e. An''ot+$ or t"e sel >contradictions and inconsistencies are on ver& #aterial and su%stantial #atters.ul a''ression on t"e )art o "is o))onent is an essential ele#ent *<S v.unsol+ T"e #ere relations"i) o t"e -itness to t"e victi# does not i#)air "is )ositive and clear testi#on& nor render t"e sa#e less -ort"& o credit *Peo)le v. T"e& #ust %e )roved as conclusivel& as t"e acts constitutin' t"e o ense. *Peo)le v."austive list o dan'er si'nals t"at t"e out>o >court identi ication o sus)ects #a& %e erroneous even t"ou'" t"e #et"od used is )ro)er 1. T"e -itness ori'inall& stated t"at "e couldnMt identi & an&one 67 . I t"e evidence or t"e de ense is o dou%t ul veracit&$ conviction o t"e accused is i#)erative.ed sel >de ense -"erein unla. As a rule$ t"e #otive o t"e accused in a cri#inal case is i##aterial and$ not %ein' an ele#ent o a cri#e$ it does not "ave to %e )roved. Peo)le v. Generall&$ an a idavit is not )re)ared %& t"e a iant "i#sel %ut %& anot"er -"o uses "is o-n lan'ua'e in -ritin' t"e a iantMs state#ents. *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. B"ere t"e accused contends t"at "e acted in de ense o a stran'er$ since itMs essential$ or suc" de ense to )ros)er$ t"at t"e accused -asnMt induced %& reven'e$ resent#ent or ot"er evil #otive N. . *Peo)le v. T"e true #otive o t"e conduct o t"e accused e. *<S v. B"ere t"e assailantMs identit& is in 1uestion *<S v. *Peo)le v. 2011-2012 es)eciall& i t"e accused is a #an o )o-er and in luence in t"e co##unit&. *Peo)le v. Laurel+ @.)lains and su))lies t"e ele#ent o #alice and$ corres)ondin'l&$ )roves "is cri#inal intent. To deter#ine ro# -"ic" side t"e unla. *Ie GuF#an v.er i uncorro%orated3 -orse still i it couldMve %een corro%orated %& ot"er )ersons #entioned %& t"e accused %ut suc" corro%orative testi#on& "as not %een )resented. Red Line Trans)ortation+ T"ese rules donMt a))l& -"ere t"e o#ission in t"e a idavit re ers to a ver& i#)ortant detail suc" t"at t"e a iant -ould not "ave ailed to #ention it *Peo)le v. Pa%e'uero+ A idavits are 'enerall& su%ordinated in i#)ortance to o)en court declarations %ecause t"e& are o tenti#es e.)erience. Gerones+ Suc" de ense %eco#es -ea. Nicolas+ In so#e cases$ #otive is necessar& not onl& or t"e )rocedural re1uire#ent on t"e 1uantu# o )roo %ut as virtuall& an ele#ent o t"e o ense$ suc" as to )rove #alice o t"e accused in li%el or slander *<S v. Ale'ado+ T"e converse$ "o-ever$ is not true. Kari1uina+ To )rove cons)irac&$ )rosecution need not esta%lis" t"at all t"e )arties t"ereto a'reed on ever& detail in t"e e. *Peo)le v. . *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. . An a idavit is onl& )ri#a acie evidence o -ea. Tien'o+ Instances -"en evidence o #otive is relevant or essential 1.ul a''ression co##enced$ as -"ere t"e accused invo. 8atao+ T"e re usal o a )erson to su%#it to investi'ation to e. Tu#ali)+ T"e circu#stances 1uali &in' or a''ravatin' t"e act #ust %e )roved in an evident and incontesta%le #anner.ustos+. *Peo)le v. Pineda: non>e.evidence | 1st sem.cite#ent and -"en "is #ental aculties are not in suc" a state as to a ord "i# a air o))ortunit& o narratin' in ull t"e incident -"ic" "as (ust trans)ired.erio+ 2or ali%i to %e 'iven credence$ it #ust not onl& a))ear t"at t"e accused inter)osin' t"e sa#e -as at so#e ot"er )lace$ %ut also t"at it -as )"&sicall& i#)ossi%le or "i# to %e at t"e cri#e scene at t"e ti#e o its co##ission. recei)ts are not incontroverti%le evidence o o-ners"i) %ut i acco#)anied %& o)en$ adverse$ and continued )ossession in t"e conce)t o o-ner o t"e )ro)ert&$ t"e& constitute evidence o 'reat -ei'"t in su))ort o a clai# o o-ners"i) over said )ro)ert& %& t"e )ossessor t"ereo or "is )rivies. O#issions and #isunderstandin's %& t"e -riter are re1uent )articularl& under circu#stances o "urr& or i#)atience. )ro%ative orce and s"ould %e received -it" caution. To deter#ine -"et"er a s"ootin' -as intentional or accidental$ t"e act t"at t"e accused "ad )ersonal #otives to s"oot t"e victi# %ein' a -ei'"t& consideration *Peo)le v. KcKann+ 2. KartineF GodineF+ L. . . Gerones+ B"ere one accused -it"dra-s "is a))eal a ter realiFin' t"e utilit& o "is de ense$ and t"e ot"er esca)es ro# con ine#ent t"ere%& causin' t"e dis#issal o "is a))eal$ said acts are un#ista. 8A+ Ta.ecuted -"en t"e a iant is at a "i'" )itc" o e. To deter#ine t"e voluntariness o t"e cri#inal act *Peo)le v. *Rodri'ueF v.rioso+ B"ile$ as a rule$ t"e de ense o ali%i deserves scant consideration$ it #a& %e dul& entertained i )redicated on su%stantial and relia%le evidence su icient to ysr en'ender reasona%le dou%t as to t"e 'uilt o t"e accused. *Peo)le v. Taneo+$ or t"e sanit& o t"e accused *Peo)le v. B"ere t"e evidence is circu#stantial or inconclusive and t"ereMs dou%t -"et"er a cri#e "as %een co##itted or -"et"er t"e accused "as co##itted it *Peo)le v. *Peo)le v. Tion'son+ T"e 1uantu# o evidence necessar& to )rove sel >de ense or de ense o a relative is Gclear and convincin'H evidence.a%le si'ns o 'uilt. *Peo)le v. A1uiedo+ Ta. 8A+ 2li'"t is evidence o 'uilt and o a 'uilt& conscience.er'anio+$ <NLESS t"ereMs a s"o-in' o i#)ro)er #otive on t"e )art o said -itnesses. 8atao+ :o-ever$ t"e sa#e de'ree o )roo re1uired or esta%lis"in' t"e cri#e is re1uired to su))ort a indin' o cons)irac&. *Peo)le v.)lain t"e innocent role "e )ro esses is inconsistent -it" t"e nor#al reaction o an innocent #an. *Ta%uena v. declarations or t"e )a&#ent o real estate ta. . To deter#ine t"e s)eci ic nature o t"e cri#e co##itted 5.ecution o t"e cri#e or t"at t"e& -ere actuall& to'et"er at all sta'es3 it is enou'" t"at$ ro# t"e individual acts o eac" accused$ it #a& reasona%l& %e deduced t"at t"e& "ad a co##on )lan to co##it t"e elon&.ascos+ ?.es on t"e land are not conclusive evidence o o-ners"i) o t"e declarant or )a&or.

Note t"at t"is doctrine is considered as #erel& evidentiar& or in t"e nature o a )rocedural rule. Proved -"en t"e evidence on record s"o-s t"at t"e cri#e )rosecuted "ad %een co##itted A #ere voluntar& e.2>@+ Sec.t"at t"e sa#e evidence is insu icient to esta%lis" a )re)onderance o evidence.tra(udicial con ession #ade %& an accused$ s"all not %e su icient 'round or conviction$ unless corro%orated %& evidence o cor)us delicti.s)eci ies t"e s)ecies and 1uantu# o evidence. Iurin' "is ori'inal o%servation o t"e o ender$ t"e -itness -as una-are t"at a cri#e -as involved 1A.1 Sec.istence o a cri#inal a'enc& as t"e cause o t"e act or t"e result.tra(udicial con ession uncorro%orated %& inde)endent )roo o t"e cor)us delicti is insu icient to sustain a (ud'#ent o conviction. In ot"er -ords$ a court #a& not den& t"e de#urrer as to t"e cri#inal as)ect and at t"e sa#e ti#e 'rant t"e de#urrer as to t"e civil as)ect$ or i t"e evidence so ar )resented is not insu icient to )rove t"e cri#e %e&ond reasona%le dou%t$ t"en t"e sa#e evidence is li. Several )ersons co##itted t"e cri#e 12.istence o a certain act or result or#in' t"e %asis o t"e cri#inal c"ar'e$ and %+ t"e e. A serious discre)anc& e. T"e -itness ailed to #a.ce)t -"en t"e la.e out a )lainti Ms )ri#a acie case$ and )resent a 1uestion o act or t"e de endant to #eet -4 an e. .)lanation %& "i#. 8ircu#stantial evidence$ -"en su icient. B"ere t"e evidence )resented %& one side is insu icient to ascertain t"e clai#$ t"ere is no )re)onderance o evidence. T"e -itness and t"e )erson identi ied are o di erent racial 'rou)s J.en -it" t"e surroundin' circu#stances$ #a& )er#it an in erence or raise a )resu#)tion o ne'li'ence$ or #a. *5+ 8ircu#stantial evidence is su icient or conviction even in ca)ital o enses$ e. IK8><R.cludin' )ossi%ilit& o error$ )roduces a%solute certainl&.evidence | 1st sem.e ore t"e co##ission o t"e cri#e$ t"e -itness "ad li#ited o))ortunit& to see t"e accused 8.ne.)erience$ t"e ver& nature o certain t&)es o occurrences #a& (usti & an in erence o ne'li'ence on t"e )art o t"e )erson -"o controls t"e instru#entalit& causin' t"e in(ur&$ in t"e a%sence o so#e e. Its a))lication doesnMt dis)ense -it" t"e re1uire#ent o )roo o ne'li'ence.tra(udicial con ession$ not su icient 'round or conviction.e t"e doctrine$ creatin' an in erence or )resu#)tion o ne'li'ence and t"ere%& )lace on t"e de endant t"e %urden o 'oin' or-ard -it" t"e )roo to t"e contrar&.ist. ItMs si#)l& in t"e )rocess o suc" )roo $ )er#ittin' t"e )lainti to )resent enou'" o t"e attendin' circu#stances to invo. I de#urrer is 'ranted and t"e accused is ac1uitted %& t"e court$ t"e accused "as t"e ri'"t to adduce evidence on t"e civil as)ect o t"e case unless t"e court also declares t"at t"e act or o#ission ro# -"ic" t"e civil lia%ilit& #a& arise did not e.AGAT GRILL V. Ot"er -itnesses o t"e cri#e ail to identi & t"e accused L. 8or)us delicti: t"e %od& or su%stance o t"e cri#e T"e actual co##ission %& so#eone o t"e )articular cri#e c"ar'ed. ! An e. 2011-2012 2. E. T"e -itness . *?+ Re er to notes under R1?A. Proo %e&ond reasona%le dou%t. In cri#inal cases in -"ic" t"e 1uantu# o evidence re1uired is 'reater t"an in civil cases$ t"e testi#on& o onl& one -itness 0 i credi%le$ strai'"t or-ard$ and -ort"& o %elie 0 is su icient to convict. 8ri#inal cases *R1??.)lanation. de la 8ruF+ Sec. T"ere #ust %e inde)endent )roo o t"e cor)us delicti. .t"e accused %e ore t"e cri#e %ut #ade no accusation a'ainst "i# -"en 1uestioned %& t"e )olice ?. 2or i t"e court 'rants t"e de#urrer$ )roceedin's on t"e civil as)ect o t"e case 'enerall& )roceeds. On t"e ot"er "and$ i t"e evidence so ar )resented is insu icient as )roo %e&ond reasona%le dou%t$ it does not ollo. Proo %e&ond reasona%le dou%t does not #ean suc" a de'ree o )roo $ e. Suc" denial %ears no distinction as to t"e t-o as)ects o t"e case %ecause t"ere is a dis)arit& o evidentiar& value %et-een t"e 1uanta o evidence in suc" as)ects o t"e case.e ore trial$ t"e -itness sees t"e accused %ut ails to identi & "i# N. A considera%le ti#e ela)sed %et-een t"e -itnessM vieand "is identi ication o t"e accused 11.e ore identi &in' t"e accused at trial$ t"e -itness erroneousl& identi ied so#e ot"er )erson 5.e a )ositive trial identi ication Res i)sa lo1uitur: t"e t"in' s)ea.ist. 68 . ! 8ircu#stantial evidence is su icient or conviction i : a+ T"ere is #ore t"an one circu#stance3 %+ T"e acts ro# -"ic" t"e in erences are derived are )roven3 and c+ T"e co#%ination o all t"e circu#stances is suc" as to )roduce a conviction %e&ond reasona%le dou%t. 8A+ 8ases: :A.ists %et-een t"e -itnessM ori'inal descri)tion and "is actual descri)tion o t"e accused @. @. *2a+ See notes under R1??. *<S v. T"e doctrine is si#)l& a reco'nition o t"e )ostulate t"at as a #atter o co##on .s or itsel T"e act o t"e occurrence o an in(ur&$ ta.. A%sent suc" deter#ination$ trial as to t"e civil as)ect o t"e case #ust )er orce continue. . ! In a cri#inal case$ t"e accused is entitled to an ac1uittal$ unless "is 'uilt is s"o-n %e&ond reasona%le dou%t. ItMs a co##on act #ade u) o 2 t"in's: a+ t"e e. T"e onl& reco'niFed instance -"en an ac1uittal on de#urrer carries -it" it t"e dis#issal o t"e civil as)ect is -"en t"ere is a indin' t"at t"e act or o#ission ro# -"ic" t"e civil lia%ilit& #a& arise did not e. 2. ?.??. *Ra#os v. Koral certainl& onl& is re1uired$ or t"at de'ree o )roo -"ic" )roduces conviction in an un)re(udiced #ind. E<NG BAN 8:OI In case o a de#urrer to evidence iled -it" leave o court$ t"e accused #a& adduce countervailin' evidence i t"e court denies t"e de#urrer.AN PROPERTC IEVELOPER GPre)onderance o evidenceH #eans t"at t"e evidence adduced %& one side is$ as a -"ole$ su)erior to or "as 'reater -ei'"t t"an t"at o t"e ot"er.e-ise not ysr insu icient to esta%lis" civil lia%ilit& %& #ere )re)onderance o evidence. :<N :C<NG PARR V. T"e evidence #a& %e circu#stantial %ut$ (ust t"e sa#e$ t"ere s"ould %e so#e evidence su%stantiatin' t"e con ession. .no-led'e and e.

IEL K<NIO On t"e non>)resentation o t"e in or#ant$ t"e rule is t"at "is )resentation in an ille'al dru's case is not essential or t"e conviction nor is it indis)ensa%le or a success ul )rosecution %ecause "is testi#on& -ould #erel& %e corro%orative and cu#ulative.en c"ain -"ic" leads to one air and reasona%le conclusion -"ic" )oints to t"e accused$ to t"e e. Tanco+$ or evidence co##onl& acce)ted %& reasona%l& )rudent #en in t"e conduct o t"eir a airs. RAKOS 2indin's o act o ad#inistrative a'encies and 1uasi>(udicial %odies$ -"ic" "ave ac1uired e.or t"e rules. 8redi%ilit& o -itnesses RIANO: 8redi%ilit& o t"e -itness re ers to t"e %elieva%ilit& o t"e -itness and "as not"in' to do -it" t"e la. It "as %een said$ and -e %elieve correctl&$ t"at t"e circu#stances )roved s"ould constitute an un%ro. PAI<A 8onviction %ased on circu#stantial evidence can %e u)"eld$ )rovided t"e circu#stances )roven constitute an un%ro. IOKING8IL .clude eac" and ever& "&)ot"esis consistent -4 innocence. *EO 2J2+ 8ases: RECES V.e ore an& o its #e#%ers could %e aulted$ co#)etent evidence s"ould %e )resented$ since t"e c"ar'e is )enal in c"aracter. RAKOS VIA. PEOPLE V. Su%stantial evidence. T"e 'eneral rules in re'ard to ad#issi%ilit& o evidence in cri#inal trials a))l&. PEOPLE • 8ircu#stantial evidence: t"at -4c 'oes to )rove a act or series o acts ot"er t"an t"e acts in issue$ -"ic"$ i )roved$ #a& tend %& in erence to esta%lis" a act in issue. 2ro# all t"e circu#stances$ t"ere s"ould %e a co#%ination o evidence -"ic" in t"e ordinar& and natural course o t"in's leaves no roo# or reasona%le dou%t as to "is 'uilt. PEOPLE V. • Duestions concernin' t"e credi%ilit& o a -itness are %est addressed to t"e sound discretion o t"e trial court as it is in t"e %est )osition to o%serve "is de#eanor and %odil& #ove#ents.ce)t t"at o 'uilt.)ertise %ecause t"eir (urisdiction is con ined to s)eci ic #atters$ are 'enerall& accorded not onl& res)ect$ %ut inalit& -"en a ir#ed %& t"e 8ourt o A))eals. In or#ants are 'enerall& not )resented in court %ecause o t"e need to "ide t"eir identit& and )reserve t"eir invalua%le service to t"e )olice. It re ers to t"e -ei'"t and trust-ort"iness or relia%ilit& o t"e testi#on&.clusion o all ot"ers$ as t"e 'uilt& )erson. 2011-2012 Not onl& t"e )rior and coetaneous actuations o t"e accused in relation to t"e cri#e %ut also "is acts or conduct su%se1uent t"ereto can %e considered as circu#stantial evidence o 'uilt. I. IE .ind o relevant evidence as a reasona%le #ind #i'"t acce)t as ade1uate to su))ort a conclusion *. KANGINO • It is settled t"at in ad#inistrative )roceedin's$ t"e %urden o )roo t"at t"e res)ondent co##itted t"e acts co#)lained o rests on t"e co#)lainant. 8.cludin' t"e )ossi%ilit& o error$ )roduces a%solute certaint&. :ere$ t"e a'ents directl& testi ied re'ardin' t"e entra)#ent$ and t"e testi#on& o t"e in or#ant -ould #erel& "ave %een corro%orative 69 ysr PEOPLE V. RIANO: A conviction %ased on circu#stantial evidence #ust e. .en c"ain -"ic" leads to one air and reasona%le conclusion t"at )oints to t"e accused$ to t"e e. Onl& #oral certaint& is re1uired or t"at de'ree o )roo t"at )roduces conviction in an un)re(udiced #ind. Suc" indin's deserve ull res)ect and$ -it"out (usti ia%le reason$ ou'"t not to %e altered$ #odi ied or reversed. I t"e totalit& o t"e circu#stances eli#inates %e&ond reasona%le dou%t t"e )ossi%ilit& o innocence$ conviction is )ro)er.5+ Sec. *n+ Su%stantial evidence doesnMt necessaril& #ean )re)onderant )roo as re1uired in ordinar& civil cases$ %ut suc" .>na>%ato Kinin' 8o. 8ases: <NGSOI V. 8ases: PEOPLE V. B"ile t"e #otive o t"e accused is 'enerall& i##aterial not %ein' an ele#ent o t"e cri#e$ suc" #otive %eco#es i#)ortant -"en t"e evidence o t"e cri#e is )urel& circu#stantial. v. T"e (udiciar& to -"ic" t"e res)ondent %elon's de#ands no less.no-led'e. ! In cases iled %e ore ad#inistrative or 1uasi>(udicial %odies$ a act #a& %e dee#ed esta%lis"ed i it is su))orted %& su%stantial evidence$ or t"at a#ount o relevant evidence -"ic" a reasona%le #ind #i'"t acce)t as ade1uate to (usti & a conclusion. Suc" is t"e rule -"ere t"e c"ar'e on -"ic" re#oval is sou'"t is #isconduct in o ice$ -ill ul ne'lect$ corru)tion$ or inco#)etence.ia.RIGINO V. Kodesto: GNo 'eneral rule can %e laid do-n as to t"e 1uantit& o circu#stantial evidence -"ic" in an& case -ill su ice. Ad#inistrative cases *R1??. • Standard t"at courts s"ould o%serve in a))reciatin' circu#stantial evidence$ as discussed in Peo)le v. PEOPLE 8onviction in a cri#inal case does not re1uire a de'ree o )roo t"at$ e.clusion o all ot"ers$ as t"e 'uilt& )erson. • Even in ad#inistrative cases$ t"e Rules o 8ourt re1uires t"at i a (ud'e s"ould %e disci)lined or 'rave #isconduct or an& 'raver o ense$ t"e evidence a'ainst "i# s"ould %e co#)etent and derived ro# direct .evidence | 1st sem. All t"e circu#stances )roved #ust %e consistent -it" eac" ot"er$ consistent -it" t"e "&)ot"esis t"at t"e accused is 'uilt&$ and at t"e sa#e ti#e inconsistent -it" t"e "&)ot"esis t"at "e is innocent$ and -it" ever& ot"er rational "&)ot"esis e. T"us$ t"e 'round or t"e re#oval o a (udicial o icer s"ould %e esta%lis"ed %e&ond reasona%le dou%t.H KART<RILLAS V. 5. VILLAN<EVA To sustain a conviction under a sin'le )rosecution -itness$ suc" testi#on& needs onl& to esta%lis" su icientl&: 1+ t"e identit& o t"e %u&er$ seller$ o%(ect and consideration3 and 2+ t"e deliver& o t"e t"in' sold and t"e )a&#ent t"ereo .

KONTEIRO T"e trial court s"ould "ave a))lied R1??. It -as )ro)erl& iled in su))ort o a #otion. 2.a#ination so t"at t"e court can decide -"o# to %elieve. Vda de Pa#onal+ 8ase: PEOPLE V. .N on evidence on #otion.N+ Sec.RAVO$ PR. PEOPLE V.)editious and not #erel& s)eed&.ed -"ic"$ i considered$ #i'"t a ect t"e result o t"e case. Po-er o t"e court to sto) urt"er evidence. In Sa)ida v Ie Villanueva$ t"e S8 "ad ruled t"at G-"ile t"e court #a& rule u)on #otions solel& on t"e %asis o a idavits and counter>a idavits$ i t"e a idavits contradict eac" ot"er on #atters o act$ t"e court can "ave no %asis to #a. T"at t"e a%sence o "is counsel could not "ave %een deli%erate is evidenced %& t"e act t"at it -as onl& "e -"o -as a%sent.H • Records s"o. *L+ T"e court "as t"e )o-er to sto) t"e introduction o testi#on& -"ic" -ill #erel& %e cu#ulative. Ie Villanueva+ 8ases: .lin' -"& "is counsel did not a))ear or trial.L+ Sec. L. ysr PEOPLE V. ! T"e court #a& sto) t"e introduction o urt"er testi#on& u)on an& )articular )oint -"en t"e evidence u)on it is alread& so ull t"at #ore -itnesses to t"e sa#e )oint cannot %e reasona%l& e. V. *Guinea v.e its indin's o act and t"e )rudent course is to su%(ect t"e a iants to cross>e. :e "ad no in. T"e (udicial conscience certainl& cannot rest eas& on a conviction %ased solel& on )rosecution evidence (ust %ecause t"e )resentation o t"e de ense evidence "ad %een %arred %& tec"nicalit&. *N+ B"ile t"e court #a& "ear and rule u)on #otions solel& on t"e %asis o a idavits or counter>a idavits$ i t"e a idavits contradict eac" ot"er on #atters o act$ t"e court can "ave no %asis to #a. Evidence on #otion.ut t"is )o-er s"ould %e e.)ected to %e additionall& )ersuasive. E.ercised -it" caution.t"at res)ondent -as )resent durin' t"e trial and )resu#a%l& -as read& to continue -it" t"e )resentation o "is evidence and t"e testi#on& o "is -itnesses. Ter#ination o )resentation o evidence *R1??. ! B"en a #otion is %ased on acts not a))earin' o record t"e court #a& "ear t"e #atter on a idavits or de)ositions )resented %& t"e res)ective )arties$ %ut t"e court #a& direct t"at t"e #atter %e "eard -"oll& or )artl& on oral testi#on& or de)ositions. AL8ANTARA Be "ave ollo-ed t"e rule in accord -it" "u#an nature and e. S<.IIA B"ile (ustice #ust %e ad#inistered -it" dis)atc"$ t"e essential in'redient is t"at t"e )roceedin's #ust %e orderl& e.ORPA Evidence o )etitionerSs #inorit& -as alread& a )art o t"e record o t"e case 6co)& o %irt" cert attac"ed in "is #e#orandu# in su))ort o t"e #otion or %ail7. .a#ination so t"at t"e court can decide -"o# to %elieve. 70 .in' to conscience and nu#%in' to senses. *Sa)ida v. Res)ondent Pud'e t"ere ore acted -it" 'rave a%use o discretion in disre'ardin' it. Evidence on #otion *R1??.evidence | 1st sem. 2011-2012 T"e evaluation %& t"e trial court o t"e credi%ilit& o -itnesses is entitled to t"e "i'"est res)ect and -ill not %e distur%ed on a))eal unless certain acts o su%stance and value -ere overloo. N. It -ould %e a needless or#alit& to o er it in evidence.e its indin's o acts and t"e )rudent course is to su%(ect t"e a iants to cross>e.)erience t"at "onest inconsistencies on #inor and trivial #atters serve to stren't"en$ rat"er t"an destro&$ t"e credi%ilit& o a -itness$ es)eciall& o -itnesses to cri#es s"oc.

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