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TECCIE-3001_2

TECCIE-3001_2

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Sections

  • Voice Gateway Protocols
  • Voice Telephony Signaling Protocols
  • Analog vs. Digital Telephony Signaling
  • Digital Voice Telephony Signaling Types
  • Digital Voice Signaling: ISDN-PRI
  • Digital Voice Signaling: T1-CAS E&M
  • T1-CAS E&M Configuration to Support ANI
  • Useful Cisco IOS Debug Commands: T1-PRI/CAS
  • VoIP Signaling Protocols
  • H.323
  • H.323 Call Illustration
  • Basic H.323 Cisco IOS Configuration
  • Additional H.323 Cisco IOS Configuration Options
  • Cisco CallManager H.323 Gateway Configuration
  • Useful Cisco IOS Verification Commands: H.323
  • Useful Cisco IOS Debug Commands: H.323
  • Proctor Case Studies V: H.323 Gateway #1
  • Proctor Case Studies VI: H.323 Gateway #2
  • MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol)
  • MGCP Endpoints
  • MGCP Messages (UDP Port 2427)
  • MGCP FXS Call Flow Explained
  • MGCP: PRI Backhaul
  • Cisco IOS MGCP PRI Backhaul Configuration
  • Additional Cisco IOS MGCP Configuration Options
  • MGCP: Cisco CallManager Configuration
  • MGCP: Cisco CallManager Configuration (Cont.)
  • Useful Cisco IOS MGCP Debug Commands
  • Proctor Case Studies VII: MGCP Gateway #1
  • Proctor Case Studies VII: MGCP Gateway #1 (Cont.)
  • Proctor Case Studies VIII: MGCP Gateway #2
  • Proctor Case Studies VIII:
  • Registration, Authentication, Status (RAS)
  • RAS Communication Messages
  • RAS Gatekeeper Registration Illustrated
  • RAS Call Admission Illustrated
  • Gatekeeper Inter-zone Communication
  • RAS Call Flow: Putting It Together
  • Directory Gatekeeper Call Flow Illustrated
  • Cisco IOS Gatekeeper: Common Terms
  • GK Address Resolution on ARQ
  • GK Address Resolution on LRQ
  • Cisco IOS GK Configuration Example
  • Cisco CallManager Configurations for Gatekeeper
  • Cisco CallManager Configurations for Gatekeeper (Cont.)
  • Cisco IOS GK Verification Commands (I)
  • Cisco IOS GK Verification Commands (II)
  • Cisco IOS GK Debug Commands
  • SIP Basics
  • SIP Message Overview
  • SIP Requests from RFC 3261
  • SIP Responses
  • SIP Endpoint-to-Endpoint Signaling Without a Server
  • CallManager SIP Trunk
  • CCM SIP Trunk DTMF Support
  • CCM SIP Trunk RFC 2833 DTMF Relay
  • CCM SIP Call Flow
  • CCM SIP Trunk Configuration
  • CCM SIP Trunk Configuration (Cont.)
  • Summary: Voice Gateway and Signaling

TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

1

Session 6 Voice Gateways and Protocols

TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

2

Voice Gateway Protocols
CallManager

PSTN
VoIP Signaling H.323 MGCP H.323 RAS SIP
TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential

Telephony Signaling Analog: FXS/FXO/E&M Digital: T1/E1 PRI T1/E1 CAS
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Voice Telephony Signaling Protocols CallManager PSTN Telephony Signaling Analog: FXS/FXO/E&M Digital: T1/E1 PRI T1 CAS / E1 R2 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 4 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Analog vs. Cisco Confidential 5 . Digital Telephony Signaling Analog FXS/FXO/E&M Digital PBX PBX FXO/ E&M FXS FXS PSTN Phone Fax Modem T1 CAS E1 R2 T1/E1 PRI BRI PSTN FXS TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cisco Confidential 6 . Inc. T1-PRI has 23 bearer channels for voice and E1-PRI has 31 B channels  Channel Associated Signaling (CAS) Signaling information being carried in-channel. interleaved with voice traffic Common types are T1-CAS E&M emulation TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.Digital Voice Telephony Signaling Types  Common Channel Signaling (CCS) Signaling information being carried out-of-channel. All rights reserved. separate from the voice traffic Most well-known CCS signaling type is ISDN-PRI Both with a dedicated D channel for signaling.

D-channel carries the call information such as DNIS (called number) and ANI (calling number) Create pots dial-peer which defines voice call routing rules 7 . Cisco Confidential Globally defines ISDN switch type Defines T1-PRI under the T1 controller D-channel (int s0/0:23) and voiceport will be automatically created once pri-group is defined on the T1 controller. All rights reserved. Inc.Digital Voice Signaling: ISDN-PRI ISDN Q931 ISDN Q921 T1 Framing PSTN ! isdn switch-type primary-ni ! controller T1 0/0 framing esf linecode b8zs pri-group timeslots 1-24 ! int s0/0:23 isdn incoming-voice voice isdn switch-type primary-ni ! voice-port 0/0:23 ! dial-peer voice 1 pots destination-pattern 3… direction-inward-dial port 0/0:23 ! TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

All rights reserved. e&m-wink-start E & M Wink Start A.CAS PSTN E&M Feature Group D: Double wink with the second wink to acknowledge reception of DNIS.Digital Voice Signaling: T1-CAS E&M T1.A Feature Group B ext-sig External Signaling fgd-eana FGD-EANA BOC side fgd-os FGD-OS BOC side FGD Equal Access North fxo-ground-start FXO Ground Start America. Cisco Confidential 8 . Inc. FGD supports collection of ANI Gateway(config-controller)#ds0-group 1 time 1-24 type ? e&m-delay-dial E & M Delay Dial Single wink is sent to the e&m-fgd E & M Type II FGD remote end to signal e&m-immediate-start E & M Immediate Start readiness to receive DNIS.K. A variant of FGD fxo-loop-start FXO Loop Start which supports sending fxs-ground-start FXS Ground Start of ANI fxs-loop-start FXS Loop Start none Null Signalling for External Call Control TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

T1-CAS E&M Configuration to Support ANI T1. and send ANI direct-inward-dial port 0/0:1 ! Direct-inward-dial used to dial-peer voice 2 pots prevent the gateway from incoming called-number . generating a second dial-tone destination-pattern 9T on inbound calls direct-inward-dial port 0/0:2 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.CAS PSTN controller T1 0/0 framing esf linecode b8zs Use first 12 channels ds0-group 1 timeslots 1-12 type e&m-fgd and e&m-fgd to receive ds0-group 2 timeslots 13-24 type fgd-eana inbound calls and ! receive ANI information voice-port 0/0:1 ! voice-port 0/0:2 ! Use last 12 channels and fgddial-peer voice 1 pots eana to send outbound calls incoming called-number . Inc. Cisco Confidential 9 . All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 10 . Inc.Useful Cisco IOS Debug Commands: T1-PRI/CAS PRI-Gateway#debug isdn ? all ISDN debug messages api ISDN Application Program Interface(s) cc ISDN Call Control error ISDN error messages events ISDN events mgmnt ISDN management q921 ISDN Q921 frames q931 ISDN Q931 packets standard Standard ISDN debugging messages tgrm ISDN TGRM events CAS-Gateway#debug vpm ? all Enable All VPM debugging dsp Enable dsp message trace (Warning: driver level trace) error Enable dsp error trace overlay Enable DSPware overlay debugging port Debug only on port specified signal Debug signaling services spi Enable session debugging trace tgrm Enable tgrm debugging trunk-sc trunk conditioning voaal2 Debug Voice over AAL2 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

323 MGCP H.323 RAS SIP TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 11 .VoIP Signaling Protocols CallManager PSTN VoIP Signaling H. All rights reserved. Inc.

225 and H. Inc.245 signaling communications over TCP between gateways and CallManager  Media over UDP directly between gateways and IP phones.H.225 and H.245 over TCP Cisco CallManager  H. Cisco Confidential 12 . All rights reserved.323 is a “peer-to-peer” protocol  All PSTN signaling terminates on gateway  H. CCM responsible for call setup/tear-down and capability negotiation only © 2007 Cisco Systems.323 TDM IP TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 PSTN PRI Layer 3 Layer 2 Framing H.

245 OLC ACK User dials 555-1234 H.931 Alert PSTN T1-PRI Ring Ringback H. H.225 Alert H.931 Connect Offhook Direct Media Connect b/w IP Phone and Gateway RTP/UDP/IP Media Over TDM 2001 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.225 Setup H.931 Call Proceeding H. Inc. Cisco Confidential 555-1234 13 . Set Q.225 Connect Q. H.225 Call Proceeding H323 Gateway Q.245 Terminal Capa.245 Open Logical Chan.H.245 Master/Slave Deter.931 Setup PSTN Q.323 Call Illustration CallManager H.

1. session target ipv4:20. CallManager‟s IP addr.1. Inc. pots peers strips explicitly matched digit(s) in destination-pattern 14 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. define H. All rights reserved.e.323 call properties here Destination-pattern for digit matching Session target pointing to IP address of remote H. default is disabled Pots dial-peer pointing to the PRI with destination-pattern.. Use g711u codec.1 codec g711ulaw dtmf-relay h245-alphanumeric ! dial-peer voice 9 pots destination-pattern 9T direct-inward-dial port 1/0:23 D-channel and its configurations VoIP dial-peer. Cisco Confidential . default is g729 Enables DTMF relay using H245-alpha.323 peer: i.323 Cisco IOS Configuration Defines T1-PRI as PSTN signaling controller T1 1/0 framing esf linecode b8zs pri-group timeslots 1-24 ! interface Serial1/0:23 isdn switch-type primary-ni isdn incoming-voice voice ! dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 2.Basic H..

1.1. session target ipv4:20.323 signal and RTP traffic H.1.1 voice-class h323 1 voice-class codec 1 ! dial-peer voice 2 voip destination-pattern 2.2 voice-class h323 1 voice-class codec 1 preference 1 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.. Cisco Confidential Forces this gateway to use the loopback interface for all H. try this dialpeer as it has lower preference 15 .1.Additional H.245 codec negotiation flexibility: negotiate to g729 if possible.1) does not response H.225 setup redundancy: try a second VOIP dial-peer if the remote H. Inc.1.255.323 peer does not response in 5 seconds H..1 ! voice class h323 1 h225 timeout setup 5 ! voice class codec 1 codec preference 1 g729r8 codec preference 2 g711ulaw ! dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 2.1.225 setup in 5 seconds.1 255.1..255.0 h323-gateway voip interface h323-gateway voip bind srcaddr 10.323 Cisco IOS Configuration Options interface loopback 0 ip address 10. session target ipv4:20.. therefore invisible in dial-peer configuration If the IP host in dial-peer 1 (20.1.1.1. otherwise g711ulaw is okay too Try this dial-peer first if 2… is match because it has the highest preference: 0. All rights reserved. default preference value.

Cisco Confidential 16 .323 Gateway Configuration 1 2a TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.Cisco CallManager H.

All rights reserved.323 Gateway Configuration (Cont.) Continued from CCM H. Inc.323 Gateway Configuration Page 2b TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 17 .Cisco CallManager H.

Inc. All rights reserved.Cisco CallManager H.323 Gateway 3 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 18 .) Define a Route Pattern Pointing to the H.323 Gateway Configuration (Cont.

1.1 RemoteUDPPort=19886 RemoteSignallingIPAddress=20.1 RemoteSignallingPort=3139 RemoteMediaIPAddress=20. Inc.1.1.1. All rights reserved.1.323 H323-gateway#sh call active voice brief Telephony call-legs: 1 SIP call-legs: 0 H323 call-legs: 1 MGCP call-legs: 0 Total call-legs: 2 131E : 1452845022hs.1.1. Cisco Confidential i/0:-56/-38 dBm H323-gateway#sh call active voice <SNIP><SNIP><SNIP><SNIP><SNIP> ReceiveDelay=64 ms LostPackets=0 EarlyPackets=1 LatePackets=0 VAD = enabled CoderTypeRate=g711ulaw CodecBytes=160 CallerName=Ben Ng 19 .20 tx_DtmfRelay=inband-voice TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.1 +141 pid:408 Originate 14083132001 active dur 00:00:12 tx:603/96480 rx:672/107520 Tele 1/0:23 (8617): tx:13440/1344/0ms g711ulaw noise:0 acom:19 H323-gateway#sh call active voice <SNIP><SNIP><SNIP><SNIP><SNIP> VOIP: RemoteIPAddress=20.1.20:19886 rtt:0ms pl:8310/0ms lost:0/1/0 delay:64/64/65ms g711ulaw 131E : 1452845025hs.1 +144 pid:1234 Answer 51234 active dur 00:00:12 tx:671/107360 rx:603/96480 IP 20.Useful Cisco IOS Verification Commands: H.

Useful Cisco IOS Debug Commands: H. Cisco Confidential 20 .323 H323-gateway#debug CAPACITY Enable NXE Enable RAS Enable all Enable h225 Enable h245 Enable preauth Enable cch323 ? Call Capacity debugging trace NXE transport debugging trace RAS State Machine debugging trace all CCH323 debugging traces H225 State Machine debugging trace H245 State Machine debugging trace CCH323 preauth debugging trace H323-gateway#debug h245 ? asn1 H.245 ASN1 Library events H. Inc.245 Events H323-gateway#debug voip ccapi ? error CCAPI error legs inout CCAPI Funtion in (enter) and out (exit) H323-gateway#csim start <destination-pattern-you-wish-to-test> TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.

I can ping between CCM and R1 all day. I can‟t receive calls from the PSTN.323 Gateway for the CallManager.1.1. BTW. and I see the VoIP call leg disconnects with a cause code of 0x1B.323 Gateway #1 Lab Sample Question Configure R1 as a H. Make sure IP phones can send/receive calls to/from PSTN. Inc.” TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. which is „Destination Out of Order‟. however.1 R1 PRI PSTN Candidate‟s Problem Statement “I can place outbound calls through R1 to the PSTN. I ran „debug voip ccapi inout‟ on R1.Proctor Case Studies V: H. 2001 CallManager 20. Cisco Confidential 21 .

1.0 h323-gateway voip interface h323-gateway voip bind srcaddr 10. Inc.1. session target ipv4:20. All rights reserved.255.1 codec g711ulaw dtmf-relay h245-alphanumeric ! dial-peer voice 9 pots destination-pattern 9T direct-inward-dial port 1/0:23 Debug: TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 Jun 20 08:01:26.255.. rawmsg=0x0) © 2007 Cisco Systems.929: //812/xxxxxxxxxxxx/CCAPI/cc_api_call_disconnected: (vdbPtr=0x63B5CD70.255. Cisco Confidential 22 .1.1 ! Interface fastethernet 2/0 ip address 20.) Candidate’s R1 Config and “debug voip ccapi inout” interface loopback 0 ip address 10.1.1.1.255.254 255.1 255.Proctor Case Studies V: H.1. callID=0x32C.323 Gateway #1 (Cont.0 ! dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 2. cause=0x1B.1..

) Candidate’s CCM H.323 Gateway Configuration TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.323 Gateway #1 (Cont. Cisco Confidential 23 .Proctor Case Studies V: H. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Proctor Case Studies V: H.255.0 h323-gateway voip interface h323-gateway voip bind srcaddr 10.981: Jun 20 08:00:37.1.323 Gateway #1 (Cont.985: state H225_REQ_SETUP TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 cch323_run_h225_sm: Setup ccb 0x63ABFD80 callID 0x32B ======= PI in cch323_h225_generic_send_setup = 0 Send infoXCap 128 src address = 10.1 ! Interface fastethernet 2/0 ip address 20.255. Inc..1.225 call setup from an interface which is unknown to CCM interface loopback 0 ip address 10..225 SM: received event H225_EVENT_CONN_LOST while at © 2007 Cisco Systems.981: Jun 20 08:00:37.1 of h225SetupRequest H.981: Jun 20 08:00:37.) Failure reason: H. session target ipv4:20.1 255.1.1.1 codec g711ulaw dtmf-relay h245-alphanumeric R1#debug cch323 h225 Jun 20 08:00:37.1.0 ! dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 2.254 255.1 of h225SetupRequest dest address = 20.981: Jun 20 08:00:37.1.255.323 gateway sourced H. Cisco Confidential 24 .1.1.255.1.977: Jun 20 08:00:37.1.1.1.

Proctor Case Studies VI: H. 2001 CallManager 20. BTW.” TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.1. Make sure IP phones can send/receive calls to/from PSTN. I can‟t receive calls from the PSTN.1 R1 PRI PSTN Candidate‟s Problem Statement “I can place outbound calls through R1 to the PSTN. Cisco Confidential 25 . All rights reserved. I can ping between CCM and R1 all day.1. „debug voip ccapi inout‟ says that the VoIP call leg disconnected with a cause code of 0x1.323 Gateway #2 Lab Sample Question Configure R1 as a H. Inc. which is „Unallocated/Unassigned number‟.323 Gateway for the CallManager. however.

callID=0x332.Proctor Case Studies VI: H. Inc.1.254 255.255.1 codec g711ulaw dtmf-relay h245-alphanumeric ! dial-peer voice 9 pots destination-pattern 9T direct-inward-dial port 1/0:23 Debug: TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 Jun 20 08:20:21.1.1. Cisco Confidential 26 . rawmsg=0x0) © 2007 Cisco Systems.) Candidate’s R1 Config and “debug voip ccapi inout” interface loopback 0 ip address 10..255.1. session target ipv4:20.1.0 ! dial-peer voice 1 voip destination-pattern 2.323 Gateway #2 (Cont. All rights reserved.0 ! Interface fastethernet 2/0 ip address 20.1.1 255.255.255. cause=0x1.223: //812/xxxxxxxxxxxx/CCAPI/cc_api_call_disconnected: (vdbPtr=0x63B5CDBB..

CallManager rejected the call with a cause code of 0x1.Proctor Case Studies VI: H. All rights reserved. Inc. which is Unallocated /Uassigned number TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 27 .) Candidate’s CCM H.323 Gateway Configuration Gateway‟s Calling Search Space could not reach IP phone‟s Partition.323 Gateway #2 (Cont. therefore.

the Cisco CallManager  Master/Slave relationship between MGC/CA and MG  MGCP messages are sent over IP/UDP between MGC and MG—signaling plane  Voice traffic is carried over IP/RTP—data plane TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. in our case. Cisco Confidential 28 .MGCP (Media Gateway Control Protocol)  Media Gateway (MG) contains “simple” endpoints. which can be either analog voice-ports (FXS/FXO/E&M) or digital (T1-PRI/T1-CAS) voice trunks  Call intelligence of these endpoints are provided by Media Gateway Controller (MGC) or Call Agent (CA). All rights reserved. Inc.

cisco.MGCP Endpoints  Endpoints are voice ports on a MGCP gateway  Analog Endpoint Identifier AALN/S1/SU0/0@MGCP-GWY. Inc.com TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.com  Digital Endpoint Identifier S1/ds1-0/1@MGCP-GWY.com: the endpoint is voice port 1/0/0 on a gateway with hostname of MGCP-GWY and domain name of cisco. All rights reserved.com: the endpoint is b-channel #1 on T1 controller 1/0 on a gateway with hostname of MGCP-GWY and domain name of cisco. Cisco Confidential 29 .cisco.

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 30 .MGCP Messages (UDP Port 2427)  End Point Configuration  Create Connection  Modify Connection      Delete Connection Notification Request Notify Audit Endpoint Audit Connection EPCF CRCX MDCX (CA  EP) (CA  EP) (CA  EP) DLCX(CA <-> EP) RQNT (CA  EP) NTFY (CA  EP) AUEP (CA  EP) AUCX (CA  EP) RSIP (CA  EP)  Restart In Progress TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc. Off-hook} “NTFY O: L/hd” (5) {Digit(s).MGCP FXS Call Flow Explained CallManager (2) “RQNT R: L/hu..} “NTFY O: 5” (8) MDCX {modify connection. sends remote peer RTP info} TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. ..D/[0-9*#] S:dl” {dial-tone. All rights reserved. D/[0-9*#] S:” {Turn off dial-tone} (6) CRCX {create connection} Turns on ring tone . (7) Ack with local RTP addr/port “NTFY O: 4” MGCP Gateway (1) {Stn. send digit map} (3) {Digit:} (4) “RQNT R: L/hu. Cisco Confidential 31 .

port 2427  PRI Backhaul messages over TCP. Cisco Confidential 32 .MGCP: PRI Backhaul TDM IP TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 PSTN PRI Layer 3 Layer 2 Framing Q.921 status and Q.1 with Cisco CallManager only  MGCP messages over UDP. Inc.931 Backhaul over TCP MGCP over UDP Cisco CallManager Call Signaling  Framing and Layer 2 signaling terminates at the gateway  Q. All rights reserved.931 signal backhauled to the Cisco CallManager  MGCP 0. port 2428 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

Inc.2 ! ! ccm-manager redundant-host 20.1 with CCM Defines on the T1 controller that the PRI ports will be serviced by MGCP Under D-channel. binds L3 (Q.Cisco IOS MGCP PRI Backhaul Configuration hostname GW1 ! mgcp mgcp call-agent 20.1. All rights reserved.1.1.1 ccm-manager mgcp ! controller T1 1/0 linecode b8zs framing esf pri-group timeslots 1-24 service mgcp ! interface Serial1/0:23 no ip address no logging event link-status isdn incoming-voice voice isdn bind-l3 ccm-manager ! dial-peer voice 101 pots application mgcpapp port 1/0:23 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential Must match “Domain Name” on MGCP Gateway page on CCM Enables MGCP process globally Defines Primary Call-agent: the IP address of primary CCM Defines secondary call-agent MGCP version 0.1.931) to call manager Defines MGCP as the call application under pots dial-peer 33 .

Additional Cisco IOS MGCP Configuration Options
GW1(config)#ccm-manager ? application application specific config MGCP download configuration download-tones Enable Tone Download from TFTP server fallback-mgcp Enable Fallback from MGCP to H.323 mode if no CallManager is available fax Enable fax protocol for MGCP mgcp Enable CallManager Application MGCP mode music-on-hold Enable multicast Music-on-hold redundant-host Redundant host list switchback Configure switchback options for rehoming to higher-order CallManager

GW1(config)#mgcp bind ? control bind only MGCP control packets media bind only media packets

TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

34

MGCP: Cisco CallManager Configuration
1

2
Must match with hostname and IP domain-name (if applicable) on the IOS gateway

TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential

35

MGCP: Cisco CallManager Configuration (Cont.)
3

TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2

© 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Useful Cisco IOS MGCP Verification Commands GW1#sh ccm-manager backhaul config-download download-tones fallback-mgcp hosts music-on-hold redundancy <CR> ? Backhaul Info Automated Config download Info XML Downloadable Tones MGCP CM fallback Hosts Info Music on hold Info Redundancy Info GW1#sh mgcp ? connection endpoint nas profile statistics Display Display Display Display Display MGCP connection endpoints eligibile for MGCP management MGCP data channel information MGCP profile MGCP statistics TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 37 .

Cisco Confidential 38 .921 L3 Protocol(s) = CCM-MANAGER Layer 1 Status: ACTIVE Layer 2 Status: TEI = 0. interface ISDN Switchtype = primary-ni L2 Protocol = Q. L2 Session ID = 30 Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 0 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. State = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED Layer 3 Status: 0 Active Layer 3 Call(s) Active dsl 0 CCBs = 0 The Free Channel Mask: 0x8000003F Number of L2 Discards = 2.Useful Cisco IOS MGCP Verification Commands GW1#sh isdn stat Global ISDN Switchtype = primary-ni ISDN Serial1/0:23 interface dsl 0. SAPI = 0. Ces = 1.

All rights reserved.Useful Cisco IOS MGCP Debug Commands GW1#debug mgcp ? all Enable all MGCP debug trace errors MGCP errors events MGCP events media MGCP media nas MGCP nas (data) events packets MGCP packets parser MGCP parser and builder src MGCP System Resource Check CAC voipcac MGCP VOIP CAC GW1#debug ccm-manager ? backhaul CallManager config-download CallManager errors CallManager events CallManager music-on-hold CallManager backhaul debug Automated config debug errors events music-on-hold TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Confidential 39 .

Cisco Confidential 40 . I even tested all inbound and outbound calls. make sure all endpoints on the MGCP gateway re-registers to the backup CCM. Also ensure IP phones can send/receive calls to/from PSTN.1. All rights reserved. Primary CCM 20.1.2 2001 R1 PRI PSTN Candidate‟s Problem Statement “I verified that my MGCP gateway worked.1.1 Backup CCM 20.1. Inc. why did I not receive points?” TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.Proctor Case Studies VII: MGCP Gateway #1 Lab Sample Question Configure R1 as a MGCP Gateway for CallManager. If the primary CCM goes down.

Cisco Confidential 41 .Proctor Case Studies VII: MGCP Gateway #1 (Cont.2 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.1.) Could you identify the mistake from the snippet of this “show ccm-manager” command? R1#sh ccm-manager MGCP Domain Name: R1 Priority Status Host ============================================================ Primary Registered 20. Inc.1.1.1.1. All rights reserved.1 2428 30 seconds 15 seconds Candidate Missed the Following Command R1(config)#ccm-manager redundant-host 20.1.1 First Backup None Second Backup None Current active CallManager: Backhaul/Redundant link port: Failover Interval: Keepalive Interval: 20.

1.2 2001 R1 PRI PSTN Candidate‟s Problem Statement “My MGCP gateway is showing registered in „sh ccm-manager‟ and all my endpoints are also showing registered in „sh mgcp endpoint‟. Cisco Confidential 42 . Also ensure IP phones can send/receive calls to/from PSTN. If the Primary CCM goes down. make sure all endpoints on the MGCP gateway re-registers to the Backup CCM. Primary CCM 20.1.1 Backup CCM 20. All rights reserved. Inc.1.1. But I can‟t place or receive calls.Proctor Case Studies VIII: MGCP Gateway #2 Lab Sample Question Configure R1 as a MGCP Gateway for CallManager. is there something wrong with the PSTN?” TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

interface ISDN Switchtype = primary-ni L2 Protocol = Q. State = MULTIPLE_FRAME_ESTABLISHED Layer 3 Status: 0 Active Layer 3 Call(s) Active dsl 0 CCBs = 0 The Free Channel Mask: 0x8000003F Number of L2 Discards = 2.921 L3 Protocol(s) = primary-ni Layer 1 Status: ACTIVE Layer 2 Status: TEI = 0. L2 Session ID = 30 Total Allocated ISDN CCBs = 0 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Ces = 1. Inc.Proctor Case Studies VIII: MGCP Gateway #2 (Cont. Cisco Confidential 43 . Candidate did not have the “isdn bind-l3 ccm-manager” command under the D-channel interface R1#sh isdn stat Global ISDN Switchtype = primary-ni ISDN Serial1/0:23 interface dsl 0. All rights reserved.) Could you identify the mistake from the snippet of this “show ccm-manager” command? L3 Protocol(s) should say “ccm-manager”. SAPI = 0.

Inc.164 address resolution Call Admission Control TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. based on negotiated time-out.Registration.323 endpoint and gatekeeper  Gateway initializes with full registration to gatekeeper  Gateways sends lightweight registration. Authentication. similar to keep-alive  Unreliable transport—uses UDP  Gateway could depend on gatekeeper to e. Cisco Confidential 44 . All rights reserved. Status (RAS)  Established between H.

Cisco Confidential 45 . endpoint authentication  ARQ/ACF/ARJ (admission)  LRQ/LCF/LRJ (location) Inter-gatekeeper communication  BRQ/BCF/BRJ (bandwidth modifications)  DRQ/DCF/DRJ (disconnect) Call termination TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.RAS Communication Messages  GRQ/GCF/GRJ (discovery) Unicast or multicast. find a gatekeeper  RRQ/RCF/RRJ (registration) Endpoint alias/IP address binding. Inc. All rights reserved.

323 Gateway Learns of Gatekeeper via Static Configuration Gatekeeper RRQ Hello: I am Registering My Name or E. Cisco Confidential 46 . Inc.RAS Gatekeeper Registration Illustrated H. All rights reserved.164 Address (Gateway A) RRQ RCF RCF Hello: I am Registering My Name or E.164 Address (Gateway B) Gateway A IP QoS WAN UDP Transport Port 1719 RRQ—Registration Request RRJ—Registration Reject RCF—Registration Confirm Gateway B RAS—Registration Admission and Status TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

RAS Call Admission Illustrated Gatekeeper A (Zone A) ARQ (Admission Request) I Have a Call for 408-555-1234 ARQ ACF IP QoS WAN H. All rights reserved.X TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.323 Call Set-Up Gateway A Gateway B ACF (Admission Confirm) Yes You Can.X. Inc. Cisco Confidential 47 .X. Use G/W B IP Address X.

225 Connect ACF ARQ RTP Gateway A Gateway B Phone A TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential Phone B 48 . Inc.225 Call Setup H.Gatekeeper Inter-zone Communication Zone A Gatekeeper A LRQ LCF Zone B Gatekeeper B ARQ ACF IP WAN H. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.245 OLC Media (RTP) TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.RAS Call Flow: Putting It Together Gateway A GK A GK RRQ/RCF Set-Up ARQ ACF LRQ LCF GK B GK Gateway B RRQ/RCF Set-Up Call Proceeding ARQ ACF Alerting/Connect H. Inc.245 Cap Exchange H.245 Master/Slave H. Cisco Confidential 49 .

225 Fast Start H.225 Fast Connect RTP Gateway A Gateway B ACF Phone B Phone A TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.Directory Gatekeeper Call Flow Illustrated Directory-Gatekeeper GK IP Network GK LCF GK ACF ARQ ARQ H. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 50 .

tech-prefix to gateway association could also be manually configured on GK  Default Technology: Configured on gatekeepers for default routing of any unresolved E.323 clients. configure on gatekeepers and gateways/endpoints  Zone Prefix: A unique number string configured on and used by gatekeepers to associate a dialed number to a zone  Tech Prefix: A unique number string typically configured on gateways and presented to gatekeepers during registration.164 addresses to gateways that registered with a specific tech prefix TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. tech prefixes are then used by gatekeepers to group endpoints of the same type together.323 Gateways). Cisco Confidential 51 .Cisco IOS Gatekeeper: Common Terms  Zone: A collection of nodes for routing calls (can be H. or H. Cisco CallManager clusters. All rights reserved. Inc.

GK Address Resolution on ARQ 1) Tech Prefix match N 2) Zone Prefix match? Y N N Y Hop-off Tech Prefix? N Strip Tech Prefix Is “arq reject-unknown-prefix” set? Y Send ARJ Y Send LRQ target-zone = matched zone target-zone = local zone 3) Is target-zone local? Y N Send LRQ 4)Was a Tech Prefix found in Step 1? N 5) Is target address registered? N 6) Is a default Tech Prefix set? TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Y Find local GW with Tech Prefix N Y Send ACF Send ARJ Y Send ACF Select local GW with Tech Prefix Send ARJ N 52 Y Send ACF Y N Cisco Confidential . All rights reserved. Inc.

GK Address Resolution on LRQ 1) Tech Prefix match N 2) Zone Prefix match? Y target-zone = matched zone N Y N Hop-off Tech Prefix? Strip tech prefix Is “lrq reject-unknown-prefix” set? Y Send LRJ Y target-zone = hopoff zone N N N Is “lrq forward-queries” set? Y Send LRJ Send LRQ 3) Is target-zone local? Y Find local GW with Tech Prefix Y N Y Send LCF 4) Was a Tech Prefix found in Step 1? N Is target address registered? N Y Is a default Tech Prefix set? TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc. Send LRJ Y Send LCF Y Send LCF Select local GW with Tech Prefix N N Cisco Confidential Send LRJ 53 .

54 .com zone remote RTP cisco.130 1719 zone prefix SJ 1408* zone prefix SF 1415* zone prefix RTP 1919* zone prefix DAL 1972* gw-type-prefix 1#* default-technology bandwidth interzone default 512 bandwidth remote 64 no shutdown TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.com 172.com zone local SF cisco. Inc.com Define local zone names Defines remote zone names and IP address Define local and remote zone prefixes Any gateways registered with a technology prefix of 1# are gateways of last resort if a called number is not resolved by gatekeeper‟s existing call routing rules Allow up to four g711 (128x4=512) in local Zone and four g729 (16x4=64) to Remote Zones Cisco Confidential zone local DAL cisco.16. All rights reserved.Cisco IOS GK Configuration Example Enter into gatekeeper configuration mode gatekeeper zone local SJ cisco.14.

Cisco Confidential 55 . All rights reserved.Cisco CallManager Configurations for Gatekeeper 1 2 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

Inc.) 3 4 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.Cisco CallManager Configurations for Gatekeeper (Cont. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 56 .

Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 57 .Cisco IOS GK Verification Commands (I) GK#show gatekeeper ? calls Display circuits Display clusters Display endpoints Display gw-type-prefix Display performance Display servers Display status Display zone Display current gatekeeper call status current gatekeeper circuits gatekeeper cluster info all endpoints registered with this gatekeeper Gateway Technology Prefix Table gatekeeper performance data gatekeeper servers info current gatekeeper status zone information GK#show gatekeeper zone prefix ZONE PREFIX TABLE ================= GK-NAME E164-PREFIX ----------------SJ 1408* SF 1415* RTP 1919* DAL 1972* TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

--------20.30..Cisco IOS GK Verification Commands (II) GK#show gatekeeper endpoint GATEKEEPER ENDPOINT REGISTRATION ================================ CallSignalAddr Port RASSignalAddr Port Zone Name --------------.----.1 61042 20. _2.= Avail. All rights reserved.= Current. for purpose of having a unique H323-ID for each server in the cluster.= 0 20.254 51112 SJ H323-ID: H323-Gateway-1 Voice Capacity Max.= 0 20.1. Cisco Confidential 58 .2 54461 SJ H323-ID: GK-ICT_2 Voice Capacity Max.1.1. CCM attaches _1.= Current. _3.= Avail.1. Inc.--------------.= 0 Total number of active registrations = 3 Type ---VOIP-GW VOIP-GW VOIP-GW Flags ----- CCM servers in a cluster register to gatekeeper using the Device name configured on the CCM Trunk page.1. etc.1.1.----.30.254 1720 20.2 56628 20. to the end of the configured Trunk Device Name TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.1.= Current.1.1.1 58267 SJ H323-ID: GK-ICT_1 Voice Capacity Max.= Avail.

use “debug gate main 5”: Note: This is a hidden command GK#debug gate main 5 *Mar 8 18:30:08. answerCall=0 *Mar 8 18:30:08.581: rassrv_get_addrinfo: (19725552000) Matched zone prefix 1972 and remainder 5552000 *Mar 8 18:30:08. use “debug h225 asn1”: *Mar 7 21:03:57.Cisco IOS GK Debug Commands To see gatekeeper number matching logic.581: gk_dns_query: No Name servers *Mar 8 18:30:08. *Mar 8 18:30:08.581: rassrv_get_addrinfo: (19725552000) Tech-prefix match failed.355: ARQ (seq# 11652) rcvd TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.577: gk_rassrv_arq: arqp=0x81B89578. crv=0x8014. answerCall=1 To see RAS messages and information contained within. Cisco Confidential 59 . Inc.601: gk_rassrv_arq: arqp=0x81AA488C.339: RAS INCOMING PDU ::= value RasMessage ::= admissionRequest : destinationInfo dialedDigits : "19725552000" ip 'AC10F279'H port 4042 bandWidth 1280 callReferenceValue 14 gatekeeperIdentifier {"SJ"} } *Mar 7 21:03:57. crv=0x14. All rights reserved.

Cisco Confidential 60 . (ASCII text-based. All rights reserved. aids debugging)  Uses UDP as well as TCP. (unrecognized headers are ignored) TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.SIP Basics  SIP is Session Initiation Protocol  SIP is a peer-to-peer protocol defined in RFC 3261  SIP is human readable. flexibly connecting users independent of the underlying infrastructure  SIP is extensible.

Inc. gateways  Typically an endpoint or a SIP User Agent (UA) can function as both a UAC and UAS  Servers (optional and logical SIP component) Proxy server Redirect server Registrar server/location server TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. SoftPhones. All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential 61 .SIP Components  User Agents (UA) User Agent Client (UAC)—originates SIP requests User Agent Server (UAS)—terminate SIP requests Endpoints—IP phones.

All rights reserved. Cisco Confidential . try this address” Registrar Redirect Location Database REGISTER “Here I am” SIP Proxy INVITE “I want to talk to another UA Proxied INVITE “I‟ll handle it for you” SIP User Agents SIP User Agents SIP-GW 62 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.SIP Components SIP Servers/ Services “Where is this name/phone#?” 3xx Redirection “They moved.

or an response from a server to a client  Some examples of request messages are: Invite. 4xx.SIP Message Overview  A SIP message is either an request from a client to a server. All rights reserved. 2xx. CANCEL. and REGISTER  The response messages consist of status-line with various status codes (1xx. OPTIONS. Cisco Confidential 63 . 5xx. ACK. Inc. 3xx. 6xx) TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. BYE.

SIP Requests from RFC 3261  INVITE—A user or service is being invited to participate in a multimedia session  ACK—Confirms that a client has received a final response to an INVITE request  BYE—Terminates an existing session. All rights reserved. Inc. can be sent by any user agent (in a multiparty session)  CANCEL—Cancels pending requests. does not terminate sessions that have been accepted  OPTIONS—Queries the capabilities of servers  REGISTER—Registers the user agent with the registrar server of a domain TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 64 .

Inc. continuing to process request Success: Action was successfully received. Cisco Confidential 65 . All rights reserved. understood and accepted Redirection: Another SIP Element needs to be contacted n i order to complete the request Examples 100 Trying 180 Ringing 181 Call is b eing forwarded 183 Session progressing 200 OK 202 Acceptable 300 Multiple choices 301 Moved permanently 302 Moved temporarily 401 Unauthorized 406 Not acceptable 407 Proxy authentication required 486 Busy here 487 Request terminated 488 Not acceptable here 502 Bad gateway 503 Service unavailable 600 Busy everywhere 603 Decline 2xx 3xx 4xx Client Error: Request contains bad syntax or cannot be fulfilled at this server 5xx 6xx Server Error: Server failed to fulfill an apparently valid request Global Failure: Request is invalid at any server TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.SIP Responses Description 1xx Informational: Request received.

SIP Endpoint-to-Endpoint Signaling Without a Server UA 1 (Alice) Assumes User Agents Know Each Other‟s IP Address UA 2 (Bob) Signal Plane 180 Ringing 200 OK (contains “answer”) ACK Signaling (UDP. or TLS over TCP) RTP Media Plane RTCP Media (UDP) RTP RTCP 3 Mandatory Packets for Establishment Handshake “INVITE” “200 OK” “ACT” TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. SCTP. Cisco Confidential 66 . TCP.

SCCP. and MGCP voice devices  Must use a software MTP or transcoder functioning as an MTP  Does not support video  DTMF is relayed using RFC2833  SIP trunk does not register with proxy/registrar server TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. CTI/QBE. Inc.323. Cisco Confidential 67 .CallManager SIP Trunk  Provides voice connectivity to SIP from H.

DTMF relay between in-band and out-of-band digits are accomplished  This payload type is negotiated between Cisco CallManager and SIP endpoints via the SIP messages and is passed to MTP during media establishment TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. Cisco Confidential 68 . and making SIP calls use MTP. All rights reserved.CCM SIP Trunk DTMF Support  RFC 2833 defines a dynamic in-band payload type for DTMF tones  By adding this requirement to an MTP.

All rights reserved. Inc. (not in Band Audio: DTMF Signaling Packets in the Media Stream Packets) © 2007 Cisco Systems. Cisco Confidential 69 .CCM SIP Trunk RFC 2833 DTMF Relay SIP “skinny” SCCP MTP Resource Is Pre-allocated S/W MTP SIP Media Stream 1 2 TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 SW MTP Is Instructed out of Band to Send RTP Packets with Payloads that Indicated DTMF Digits.

Cisco Confidential 70 .CCM SIP Call Flow SCCP Phone CCM MTP S/W MTP SIP Proxy/ Endpoint SCCP: number Dialed SCCP:OpenReceiveChannel SCCP:OpenReceiveChannelAck INVITE w/SDP 180 Ring 100 Trying 200 OK w/SDP SCCP Ringback ACK CCM Establishes Media RTP Stream #1 RTP Stream #2 SCCP onhook CCM Tears Down Media BYE 200 OK TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved.

Inc. Cisco Confidential 71 . All rights reserved.CCM SIP Trunk Configuration SIP Trunk TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

) Logical Name Required for RFC 2833 IP Address. All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Confidential 72 .CCM SIP Trunk Configuration (Cont. FQDN Or DNS SRV Default SRV Port Default port number(1024-65535) TCP or UDP Preferred Codec for SIP TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems.

RAS. SIP  VoIP signaling redundancy and fail-over options  Verification and debugging of telephony and VoIP call legs TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. T1-CAS. All rights reserved.Summary: Voice Gateway and Signaling Be Familiar with the Following About Voice Gateways  Telephony signaling configuration: FXS/FXO.323. Cisco Confidential 73 . E1-R2  VoIP signaling configuration: H. MGCP. Inc. T1/E1PRI.

Cisco Confidential 74 . All rights reserved.TECCIE-3001 13799_05_2007_c2 © 2007 Cisco Systems. Inc.

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