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Veronica Herrington Kinlea Hensel English IV 12/01/13

Cervical cancer Cervical cancer is the third most common deadly cancer in women worldwide. In 2010, 11,818 women were diagnosed with cervical cancer and out of that 3, 939 women died from the cancer. African American women are much more likely to die from cervical cancer than women from any other ethnicity group. There are many risk factors that can cause cervical cancer but the most common risk factors includes not getting the HPV vaccine, a weakened immune system and being poor. Some factors of cervical cancer include having many sexual partners, smoking, and having sexual intercourse at an early age.

Cervical cancer will usually occur in women who are 50 years or older. At most times cervical cancer is not easy to recognize because there arent any symptoms of the cancer. This can only happen during the early stage of cervical cancer but it is easier to recognize during the later stages. Symptoms of cervical cancer are abnormal vaginal bleeding after intercourse, vaginal discharge that may be weak or do not stop, and periods that become heavier and last longer than normal (Medline Plus). Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer include back pain, leg pain, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fatigue. Almost all cervical cancer outbursts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) which is spread from person to

person through unprotected sexual intercourse. 90 percent of all women who have cervical cancer are also infected with the HPV virus. Not all types of the human papilloma virus can cause cervical cancer. The HPV virus usually causes genital warts (Web MD). HPV can stay in your body for years and you will never know that you have been infected with the virus.

Cervical cancer can often be successfully treated when its found early. It can be found at a very early stage using a Pap test. A Pap test, which is also called a Pap smear, is a test that can find cancer within the cervix or the uterus. The Pap test can determine if a woman has an infection, abnormal cervical cells, or cervical cancer (womens health). If cervical cancer is found early using a Pap test, this can make the cancer at a much higher risk of being able to be cured. Getting regular Pap tests is the best prevention against cervical cancer and is also important if you are 21 years or older. Even if a woman is going through menopause, she must still get Pap tests regularly (womens health). How regularly a woman should get a Pap test all depends on her age and health industry. For instance, if a woman is 21 years or older she should get a Pap test every 2 years and when if she is 30 years old or older a woman should have 3 normal Pap tests every 3 years in a row (womens health). And if a woman is 65 years or older, she should ask her doctor whether or not she should stop getting Pap smears.

The earlier that a woman begins to have sex and the more men that she has sex with can cause her to pick up an HPV virus and will eventually lead to her getting cervical cancer (Cancer Research UK). Since men have a much higher sex drive than women, they can pick up an HPV infection from one woman and then pass it onto another without even knowing that they have been infected. Some studies have shown that teaching women about healthy sexual behavior such as using condoms during sex,, avoiding sexual contact at a young age, how to talk to their partner about safe sex and reducing the number of

sexual partners, can help them behave in ways that may help them lower their risk of getting cervical cancer (Cancer Research UK).

Even a woman, who has quit smoking for at least two years, is still at the same risk of getting cervical cancer as a woman who has never smoked in her life (Vann). This is because smoking can prevent the bodys immune system from effectively fighting the HPV virus. The carcinogens that are in cigarettes can bring damage to a womans cervical cells and can eventually cause her to get cervical cancer. People who are non-smokers and who are exposed to secondhand smoke are also at a risk of getting cervical cancer as well. Smoking is considered a high risk factor because smoking can cause abnormal changes in the cells and these cells can become cancerous (ygoy). Cervical cancer is a deadly cancer that occurs within a womans cervix. Cervical cancer occurs most often in women who are 50 years or older. Each year 11,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and about 5,000 women die from it. The cancer is very preventable and it can be treated and cured if women will get a Pap test regularly and also if women will get a screening too. Other ways to prevent cervical cancer is to quit smoking and stay away from secondhand smoke, reduce your number of sexual partners, get a regular screening and Pap smear, get an HPV vaccine, and when having sexual intercourse use a condom (Fayed).

"Cervical Cancer: MedlinePlus." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. "Cervical Cancer Risks and Causes." : Cancer Research UK : CancerHelp UK. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. "Cervical Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Treatments." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 03 Dec. 2013. Fayed, Lisa. "6 Ways to Prevent Cervical Cancer." About.com Cancer. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. Pap Test Fact Sheet." Womenshealth.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. Smoking." Smoking Site Wide Activity RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013. Vann, Madeline. "Stop Smoking and Reduce Your Cervical Cancer Risk."EverydayHealth.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2013.