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Sistemas de Control

Sistemas de Control

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Tochnicol lnlormo|ion

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Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
A A E A E A E A 1
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Gonoro|or Add PlD PT1 PT1PT2
Timo
PT1
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Por| 1: Fondomon|ols
Por| 2: Soll·oporo|od Rogolo|ors
Por| 3: Con|rol Volvos
Por| 4: Commonico|ion
Por| 5: Boilding Ao|omo|ion
Por| ó: Procoss Ao|omo|ion
5heu|d yeu hcve cny |urIher quesIìens er suggesIìens, p|ecse
de neI hesìIcIe Ie cenIccI us:
SAMSÒM AG Phono |+4º óº] 4 00 º4 óZ
VZ4 / Scholong Tololox |+4º óº] 4 00 ºZ 1ó
WoismUllors|robo 3 E·Moil: scholong@somson.do
D·ó0314 Fronklor| ln|orno|: h||p://www.somson.do
Tochnicol lnlormo|ion
Con|rollor ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
Con|rollor ond Con|rollod Sys|oms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
ln|rodoc|ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Con|rollod Sys|oms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z
P con|rollod sys|om . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
l con|rollod sys|om. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . º
Con|rollod sys|omwi|h dood |imo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Con|rollod sys|omwi|h onorgy s|oring componon|s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Choroc|orizing Con|rollod Sys|oms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Sys|omrosponso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Monlinoor rosponso. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1º
Òporo|ing poin| |ÒP]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Con|rollobili|y ol sys|oms wi|h soll·rogolo|ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Con|rollors ond Con|rol Elomon|s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Clossilico|ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Con|inooos ond discon|inooos con|rollors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Aoxiliory onorgy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Do|ormining |ho dynomic bohovior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Con|inooos Con|rollors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Z
Propor|ionol con|rollor |P con|rollor] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Z
Propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Z
Sys|omdovio|ion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2º
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Ad|os|ing |ho oporo|ing poin| . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
ln|ogrol con|rollor |l con|rollor] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Dorivo|ivo con|rollor |D con|rollor] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Pl con|rollors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
PlD con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Discon|inooos Con|rollors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Two·posi|ion con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Two·posi|ion loodbock con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Z
Throo·posi|ion con|rollor ond |hroo·posi|ion s|opping con|rollor . . . . 48
Soloc|ing o Con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Soloc|ion cri|orio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Ad|os|ing |ho con|rol poromo|ors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Appondix A1: Addi|ionol Li|oro|oro. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
4
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
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ln|rodoc|ion
ln ovorydoy spooch, |ho |orm ´con|rol´ ond i|s mony vorio|ions is lroqoon|ly
osod. Wo con con|rol o si|oo|ion, soch os o policomon con|rolling |ho |rollic,
or o liromon bringing |ho liro ondor con|rol. Òr on orgomon| moy go| oo| ol
con|rol, or somo|hing migh| hoppon |o os bocooso ol circoms|oncos boyond
oor con|rol. Tho |orm ´con|rol´ obvioosly implios |ho ros|oro|ion ol o dosiroblo
s|o|o which hos boon dis|orbod by ox|ornol or in|ornol inllooncos.
Con|rol procossos oxis| in |ho mos| divorso oroos. ln no|oro, lor ins|onco, con·
|rol procossos sorvo |o pro|oc| plon|s ond onimols ogoins| vorying onviron·
mon|ol condi|ions. ln oconomics, sopply ond domond con|rol |ho prico ond
dolivory |imo ol o prodoc|. ln ony ol |hoso cosos, dis|orboncos moy occor |ho|
woold chongo |ho originolly os|oblishod s|o|o. l| is |ho lonc|ion ol |ho con|rol
sys|om |o rocognizo |ho dis|orbod s|o|o ond corroc| i| by |ho opproprio|o mo·
ons.
ln o similor woy os in no|oro ond oconomics, mony vorioblos mos| bo con·
|rollod in |ochnology so |ho| oqoipmon| ond sys|oms sorvo |hoir in|ondod por·
poso. Wi|h hoo|ing sys|oms, lor oxomplo, |ho room |omporo|oro mos| bo kop|
cons|on| whilo ox|ornol inllooncos hovo o dis|orbing olloc|, soch os lloc|oo·
|ing oo|sido |omporo|oros or |ho hobi|s ol |ho rosidon|s os |o von|ilo|ion, o|c.
ln |ochnology, |ho |orm ´con|rol´ is no| only oppliod |o |ho con|rol procoss, bo|
olso |o |ho con|rollod sys|om. Pooplo, |oo, con por|icipo|o in o closod loop
con|rol procoss. According |o DlM 1º22ó, closod loop con|rol is dolinod os
lollows:
Closod loop con|rol is o procoss whoroby ono vorioblo, nomoly |ho vorioblo
|o bo con|rollod |con|rollod vorioblo] is con|inooosly moni·|orod, comporod
wi|h ono|hor vorioblo, nomoly |ho roloronco vorioblo ond inllooncod in soch
o monnor os |o bring oboo| odop|o|ion |o |ho roloronco vorioblo. Tho so·
qoonco ol oc|ion rosol|ing in |his woy |okos ploco in o closod loop in which
|ho con|rollod vorioblo con|inooosly inllooncos i|soll.
5
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cenIre| ìn
|cngucge use
cenIre| ìn
Iechne|egy
Mo|o: ´Con|inooos´ horo olso moons o sollicion|ly lroqoon| ropo|i|ion ol idon·
|icol individool procossos ol which |ho cyclic progrom soqoonco in digi|ol
sompling con|rols is on oxomplo.
Boing o li||lo in |ho obs|roc|, |his dolini|ion is illos|ro|od bolow wi|h proc|icol
oxomplos lrom con|rol onginooring opplico|ions. Òn |ho ono hond, con|rol·
lod sys|oms ond con|rollors will |horoloro bo discossod os indopondon| |rons·
lor olomon|s ond, on |ho o|hor hond, |hoir bohovior in o closod con|rol loop
will bo shown ond comporod.
ó
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
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cenIìnueus er
scmp|ìng cenIre|
Con|rollod Sys|oms
ln con|rol onginooring, o con|rollod sys|om is primorily choroc|orizod by i|s
dynomic bohovior which olso do|orminos |ho scopo ond qooli|y roqoirod |o
solvo o con|rol |osk. Froqoon|ly, |ho so·collod s|op rosponso ol |ho con|rollod
sys|om is osod |o rolloc| |his dynomic bohovior.
Tho s|op rosponso rovools how |ho con|rollod vorioblo rooc|s |o o chongo in
|ho monipolo|od vorioblo. This is do|orminod by moosoring |ho con|rollod vo·
rioblo ol|or o s|op chongo in |ho monipolo|od vorioblo. Doponding on |ho ro·
sol|ing dynomic bohovior, |ho con|rollod sys|oms con bo clossiliod os lollows:
4P con|rollod sys|oms |propor|ionol con|rol oc|ion]
4l con|rollod sys|oms |in|ogrol con|rol oc|ion]
4Con|rollod sys|oms wi|h dood |imo
4Con|rollod sys|oms wi|h onorgy s|oring componon|s
|lirs|·, socond· or highor·ordor]
This clossilico|ion os woll os |ho con|rollobili|y ol sys|oms will bo discossod in
|ho lollowing chop|ors in moro do|oil. l| mos| bo dilloron|io|od bo|woon con·
|rollod sys|oms in which o now oqoilibriom is os|oblishod ol|or o dis|orbonco
or chongo in |ho monipolo|od vorioblo ond sys|oms wi|h o con|inooosly
chonging con|rollod vorioblo:
4Sys|oms wi|h soll·rogolo|ion only chongo on|il o now s|oblo oo|po| voloo is
roochod.
4Sys|oms wi|hoo| soll·rogolo|ion do no| rooch o now s|o|o ol oqoilibriom.
Sys|oms wi|hoo| soll·rogolo|ion roqoiro closod loop con|rol, bocooso |ho mo·
nipolo|od vorioblo mos| bocomo zoro os soon os |ho con|rollod vorioblo roo·
chos |ho roqoirod oqoilibriom. Ònly by moons ol closod loop loodbock
con|rol con |his bo roochod o| |ho righ| poin| ol |imo ond |o |ho propor ox|on|.
Proc|icol oxporionco shows |ho| sys|oms wi|h soll·rogolo|ion oro ol|on moch
oosior |o con|rol |hon sys|oms wi|hoo| soll·rogolo|ion, bocooso |ho lo||or hovo
o |ondoncy |o oscillo|o, i.o. |hoy |ond |o bo moro ons|oblo. Thoroloro, o pro·
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sIep respense
ìndìccIes Ihe
dyncmìc behcvìer
c|cssì|ìccIìen e|
cenIre||ed sysIems
wìIh er wìIheuI
se||·regu|cIìen
porly odop|od con|rollor is moro impor|on| in |ho coso ol sys|oms wi|hoo|
soll·rogolo|ion.
P cenIre||ed sysIem
ln con|rollod sys|oms wi|h propor|ionol oc|ion, |ho con|rollod vorioblo x
chongos propor|ionol |o |ho monipolo|od vorioblo y. Tho con|rollod vorioblo
lollows |ho monipolo|od vorioblo wi|hoo| ony log.
Sinco ony onorgy |ronslor roqoiros o lini|o omoon| ol |imo, P con|rol oc|ion
wi|hoo| ony log doos no| occor in proc|ico. Whon |ho |imo log bo|woon moni·
polo|od ond con|rollod vorioblo is so smoll, howovor, |ho| i| doos no| hovo
ony olloc| on |ho sys|om, |his bohovior is collod propor|ionol con|rol oc|ion ol
o sys|om or o P con|rollod sys|om.
4Exomplo: Flow con|rol
ll |ho volvo |rovol chongos in |ho prossoro con|rol sys|om illos|ro|od in Fig. 1,
o now llow ro|o q is roochod |olmos|] ins|on|onooosly. Doponding on |ho vol·
vo llow coollicion|, |ho con|rollod vorioblo chongos propor|ionol |o |ho moni·
polo|od vorioblo, |ho sys|om hos propor|ionol con|rol oc|ion.
Fig. 2 shows |ho block diogromsymbol lor propor|ionol oc|ion ond |ho dyno·
mic bohovior ol o P con|rollod sys|om ol|or o s|op chongo in |ho inpo| vorio·
8
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
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Ii¸. 1: Iroportional controlled systen, rejerence uariable: jlou rate
P cenIre| ccIìen wìIh·
euI cny |cg ìs pessìb|e
ìn Iheery en|y
new equì|ìbrìum
wìIheuI |cg
blo. Tho choroc|oris|ic corvos cloorly show |ho| o propor|ionol con|rollod
sys|om is o sys|om wi|h soll·rogolo|ion, sinco o now oqoilibriom is roochod
immodio|oly ol|or |ho s|op chongo.
| cenIre||ed sysIem
ln|ogrol con|rollod sys|oms oro sys|oms wi|hoo| soll·rogolo|ion: il |ho monipo·
lo|od vorioblo doos no| oqool zoro, |ho in|ogrol con|rollod sys|om rosponds
wi|h o con|inooos chongo - con|inooos incrooso or docrooso - ol |ho con|rol·
lod vorioblo. A now oqoilibriom is no| roochod.
4Exomplo: Liqoid lovol in o |onk |Fig. 3]
ln o |onk wi|h on oo|lo| ond oqoolly high sopply ond dischorgo llow ro|os, o
cons|on| liqoid lovol is roochod. ll |ho sopply or dischorgo llow ro|o chongos,
|ho liqoid lovol will riso or loll. Tho lovol chongos |ho qoickor, |ho lorgor |ho
dilloronco bo|woon sopply ond dischorgo llow.
This oxomplo shows |ho| |ho oso ol in|ogrol con|rol oc|ion is mos|ly limi|od in
proc|ico. Tho con|rollod vorioblo incroosos or docroosos only on|il i| roochos
o sys|om·rolo|od limi| voloo: |ho |onk will ovorllow or bo dischorgod, moxi·
mom or minimom sys|om prossoro is roochod, o|c.
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Ii¸. 2: Dynanic bebauior oj a I controlled systen
(y: control ualue trauel, x: jlou rate in a pipeline)
block diogromm
sysIems wìIheuI
se||·regu|cIìen
mcrgìnc| cendìIìens
|ìmìI Ihe | cenIre| ccIìen
Fig. 4 shows |ho dynomic bohovior ol on l con|rollod sys|om ol|or o s|op
chongo in |ho inpo| vorioblo os woll os |ho dorivod block diogrom symbol lor
in|ogrol con|rol oc|ion. Tho in|ogrol·oc|ion |imo T
n
sorvos os o moosoro lor
|ho in|ogrol con|rol oc|ion ond roproson|s |ho riso |imo ol |ho con|rollod
vorioblo. For |ho ossocio|od mo|homo|icol con|ox|, rolor |o |ho chop|or
´Con|rollors ond Con|rol Elomon|s ´.
10
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
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Ii¸. 3: Inte¸ral controlled systen, controlled uariable: liquid leuel in a tank

y
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Ii¸. +: Dynanic bebauior oj an I controlled systen
(y: ualue trauel, x: liquid leuel in a tank)
block diogromm
sherI ìnIegrc|·ccIìen
Iìme ccuses hìgh
rìse Iìme
CenIre||ed sysIem wìIh decd Iìme
ln sys|oms wi|h dood |imo |horo is no dynomic rosponso on|il o cor|oin
omoon| ol |imo hos olopsod. Tho |imo cons|on| T
L
sorvos os o moosoro lor |ho
dood |imo or log.
4Exomplo: Ad|os|mon| ol convoying qoon|i|y lor convoyor bol| |Fig. 5]
ll |ho bolk mo|oriol qoon|i|y lod |o |ho convoyor bol| is incroosod vio slido
go|o, o chongo in |ho mo|oriol qoon|i|y orriving o| |ho dischorgo ond ol |ho
bol| |sonsor loco|ion] is only no|icod ol|or o cor|oin |imo.
Prossoro con|rol in long gos pipos oxhibi|s similor bohovior. Sinco |ho modi·
om is comprossiblo, i| |okos somo |imo on|il o chongo in prossoro is no|icoob·
lo o| |ho ond ol |ho pipolino.
Òl|on, sovorol linol con|rol olomon|s oro |ho cooso ol dood |imos in o con|rol
loop. Thoso oro croo|od, o.g. |hroogh |ho swi|ching |imos ol con|oc|ors or |ho
in|ornol clooronco in goors.
Dood |imos oro somo ol |ho mos| dillicol| loc|ors |o con|rol in procoss con|rol
si|oo|ions, sinco chongos in |ho monipolo|od vorioblo hovo o doloying olloc|
on |ho con|rollod vorioblo. Doo |o |his doloy, con|rollod sys|oms wi|h dood |i·
mos ol|on |ond |o oscillo|o. Òscillo|ions olwoys occor il con|rollod vorioblo
ond monipolo|od vorioblo poriodicolly chongo |oword ooch o|hor, doloyod
by |ho dood |imo.
ln mony cosos, dood |imos con bo ovoidod or minimizod by skilllol plonning
|orrongomon| ol |ho sonsor ond |ho con|rol volvo, il possiblo, by soloc|ing
shor| pipolinos, low hoo| copoci|ios ol |ho insolo|ion modio, o|c. ].
11
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Ii¸. 5: Controlled systen uitb dead tine
de|cyed respense
Ihreugh |cg
sysIems wìIh decd
Iìmes Iend Ie escì||cIe
CenIre||ed sysIem wìIh energy sIerìng cempenenIs
Doloys bo|woon chongos in |ho monipolo|od ond con|rollod vorioblo oro no|
only croo|od doo |o dood |imos. Any con|rollod sys|om osoolly consis|s ol so·
vorol componon|s |ho| oro choroc|orizod by |ho copoci|y |o s|oro onorgy |o.g.
hoo|ing sys|om wi|h hoo| s|oring pipos, |ocko|s, insolo|ion, o|c.]. Doo |o |hoso
componon|s ond |hoir onorgo|ic s|o|o which chongos only grodoolly, onorgy
consomp|ion or dischorgo occors |imo doloyod. This olso opplios |o oll condi·
|ion chongos ol |ho con|rollod sys|om, bocooso |hoso oro origino|od in |ho
|ronslor or convorsion ol onorgy.
4Exomplo: Room |omporo|oro con|rol
A hoo|ing sys|om is o con|rollod sys|om wi|h sovorol onorgy s|oring compo·
non|s: boilor, wo|or, rodio|or, room oir, wolls, o|c.
Whon |ho onorgy sopply |o |ho boilor is chongod or |ho rodio|or sho|·oll vol·
vo is oporo|od in |ho hoo|od room, |ho room |omporo|oro chongos only gro·
doolly on|il |ho dosirod linol voloo is roochod.
l| is choroc|oris|ic ol con|rollod sys|oms wi|h onorgy s|oring componon|s |ho|
|ho linol s|oody·s|o|o voloo is roochod only ol|or o lini|o |imo ond |ho| |ho
spood ol rosponso ol procoss vorioblo x chongos doring |ho |ronsi|ionol pori·
12
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
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Ii¸. 6: Dynanic bebauior oj a controlled systen uitb dead tine
(y: slide ¸ate position, x: conueyin¸ quantity)
block diogrom
de|cys ccused by
sIerìng cempenenIs
od |Fig. Z]. ln principlo, |ho spood ol rosponso slows down os i| opproochos
i|s linol voloo, on|il i| osymp|o|icolly roochos i|s linol voloo. Whilo |ho oo|po|
vorioblo moy soddonly chongo in sys|oms wi|h dood |imos, sys|oms wi|h
onorgy s|oring componon|s con only chongo s|oodily.
Tho dynomic bohovior ol |ho sys|om doponds on |hoso logs |ho| prodoco |ho
docisivo olloc|, |hos, on |ho sizo ol |ho oxis|ing s|oring componon|s. Esson|iol·
ly, lorgo componon|s do|ormino |his loc|or so |ho| smollor componon|s lro·
qoon|ly hovo no olloc|.
4Exomplo: Room |omporo|oro con|rol
Tho dynomic bohovior ol o room |omporo|oro con|rol sys|om is signilicon|ly
inllooncod by |ho bornor copoci|y ond |ho sizo ol boilor, room ond rodio|or.
Tho dynomic bohovior doponds on |ho hoo|ing copoci|y ol |ho hoo|ing pipos
only |o o vory smoll ox|on|.
Con|rollod sys|oms wi|h onorgy s|oring componon|s oro clossiliod occording
|o |ho nombor ol logs |ho| prodoco on olloc|. For ins|onco, o lirs|·ordor sys·
|om hos ono dynomic onorgy s|oring componon|, o socond·ordor sys|om hos
|wo onorgy s|oring componon|s, o|c. A sys|om wi|hoo| ony logs is olso rolor·
rod |o os o ´zoro·ordor sys|om´ |soo olso P con|rollod sys|om]. A bohovior ro·
sombling |ho| ol o zoro·ordor sys|om moy occor in o liqoid·lillod prossoro
sys|om wi|hoo| oqoolizing |onks.
13
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
1
0,63
T
1
x
t
Ii¸. 7: Lxponential curues describe controlled systens uitb ener¸y storin¸
conponents
expenenIìc| curves
chcrccIerìze dyncmìc
behcvìer
c|cssì|ìccIìen e|
sysIems wìIh |cgs
ono onorgy s|oring
componon|
moro |hon ono onorgy
s|oring componon|
: |imo cons|on|
º Firs|·ordor sys|om
A lirs|·ordor sys|om wi|h only ono dynomic onorgy s|oring componon| is illo·
s|ro|od in Fig. 8: |ho |omporo|oro ol o liqoid in o |onk oqoippod wi|h inlo|,
oo|lo| ond ogi|o|or is od|os|od vio mixing volvo. Doo |o |ho lorgo |onk volomo,
|ho |omporo|oro chongos only grodoolly ol|or |ho volvo hos boon od|os|od
|s|op chongo].
Tho dynomic bohovior ol o lirs|·ordor sys|om is shown in Fig. º. A moosoro
lor |ho spood ol rosponso is |ho |imo cons|on| T
1
. l| roproson|s |ho lo|oro |imo
14
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
Ii¸. 8: Iirst-order controlled systen, controlled uariable: tenperature
WW
KW
T [°Cj
H

y
max
y x
t
0
t

x
max
t
0
T
1
t
Ii¸. 9: Dynanic bebauior oj a jirst-order controlled systen ÷ IT
1
elenent
(y: ualue position, x: tenperature oj liquid in tank)
block diogrom
IempercIure cenIre|
vìc mìxìng vc|ve
nocossory lor |ho con|rollod vorioblo x |rosponso corvo] |o rooch ó3° ol i|s
linol voloo ol|or o s|op inpo| hos boon in|rodocod. Tho coorso ol |ho lonc|ion
is dorivod os lollows:
Soch doloyod propor|ionol bohovior wi|h o lirs|·ordor log is olso rolorrod |o
os PT
1
bohovior. Tho highor |ho |imo cons|on| T
1
, |ho slowor |ho chongo in |ho
con|rollod vorioblo ond |ho lorgor |ho onorgy s|oring componon| coosing |his
log.
ll |ho dynomic bohovior ol o sys|om is only known os o rosponso corvo, T
1
con bo grophicolly do|orminod wi|h |ho holp ol |ho |ongon| shown in Fig. º.
º Socond·ordor ond highor·ordor sys|oms
ll |horo oro |wo or moro onorgy s|oring componon|s bo|woon |ho
monipolo|od vorioblo ond |ho con|rollod vorioblo, |ho con|rollod sys|om is
rolorrod |o os socond· or highor·ordor sys|om |olso collod PT
2
, PT
3
sys|om,
o|c.]. Whon |wo lirs|·ordor sys|oms oro connoc|od in sorios, |ho rosol| is ono
socond·ordor sys|om, os shown in Fig. 10.
15
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
( ) N J A
J
6
= −

1
1
Ii¸. 10: Second-order controlled systen, controlled uariable: tenperature
H
T [°Cj
WW
KW
Iìme censIcnI de|ìnes
Ihe dyncmìc behcvìer
n
Ih
erder sysIems
exhìbìI P¡
n
behcvìer
Tho dynomic bohovior ol soch o sys|om is rolloc|od by |ho choroc|oris|ic cor·
vos shown in Fig. 11. Tho s|op rosponso ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo shows on
inlloc|ion poin| which is choroc|oris|ic ol highor·ordor sys|oms |Figs. 11 ond
12]: ini|iolly, |ho ro|o ol chongo incroosos op |o |ho inlloc|ion poin| ond |hon
con|inooosly docroosos |comporo |o bohovior ol lirs|·ordor sys|oms: Fig. 8].
Mo|homo|icolly, |ho choroc|oris|ic ol o highor·ordor sys|om is doscribod by
|ho |imo cons|on|s T
1
, T
2
, o|c. ol |ho individool sys|oms. Tho choroc|oris|ic
corvo lor |ho s|op rosponso is |hon dorivod os lollows:

FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E

y
max
y x
t
0
t

x
max
t
0
t
Ii¸. 11: Dynanic bebauior oj second- or bi¸ber-order controlled systens
(y: ualue position, x: nediun tenperature in tbe second tank)
y
x
t
t
T
g
T
u
Ii¸. 12: Step response oj a bi¸ber-order controlled systen uitb tbe cbarac-
teristic ualues T
u
and T
¸
block diogrom
sIep respense wìIh
ìn||ecIìen peìnI...
. cnd Iìme censIcnIs
e| Ihe ìndìvìduc| P¡
1
e|emenIs
|ongon|
inlloc|ion
poin|
For o simpliliod choroc|orizo|ion ol |his bohovior, |ho procoss log T
o
ond |ho
procoss rooc|ion ro|o T
g
oro dolinod wi|h |ho holp ol |ho inlloc|ion poin|
|ongon|s |Fig. 12]. Sinco procoss log hos |ho somo olloc| os dood |imo, o
sys|om is moro dillicol| |o con|rol whon T
o
opproochos |ho voloo ol |ho
procoss rooc|ion ro|o T
g
. Tho highor |ho sys|om ordor, |ho loss lovoroblo doos
|his rolo|ionship dovolop |Fig. 13].
Tho con|rollobili|y improvos, howovor, whon |ho |imo cons|on|s T
1
, T
2
, o|c.
oro os smoll os possiblo comporod |o |ho |imo roqoirod by |ho con|rol loop lor
corroc|ivo oc|ion. Highly dilloron| |imo cons|on|s |loc|or 10 or highor] olso
simplily |ho con|rollor od|os|mon| sinco i| con |hon bo locosod on |ho highos|,
|ho |imo do|ormining voloo. l| is |horoloro on |ho por| ol |ho proc|i|ionor |o
corololly considor |hoso ospoc|s olroody doring |ho dosign phoso ol o
procoss con|rol sys|om.
17
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
( ) N J A A
J
6
J
6
= − −
− −
| ] | ] 1 1 1 2

N
J
Ii¸. 13: Dynanic bebauior oj bi¸ber-order controlled systens
lirs|·ordor
lil|h·ordor
loor|h·ordor
|hird·ordor
socond·ordor
Iìme censIcnIs
chcrccIerìze Ihe
cenIre| respense
¡
u
cnd ¡
g
sìmp|ì|y
Ihe evc|ucIìen
Choroc|orizing
Con|rollod Sys|oms
5ysIem respense
A complox con|rollod sys|om con bo doscribod |hroogh |ho combinod oc|ion
ol sovorol sobsys|oms, ooch ol which con bo ossignod wi|h P, l, dood |imo or
log rooc|ion. Tho sys|om rosponso is |horoloro o rosol| ol |ho combinod oc|ion
ol |hoso individool olomon|s |Fig. 14: Ac|oo|or wi|h in|ornol clooronco in i|s
goors]. ln mos| cosos, propor|ionol or in|ogrol oc|ion occors only ol|or o cor·
|oin log ond/or dood |imo hos olopsod.
Tho sys|om·spocilic logs ond/or dood |imos con olso bo so smoll |ho| |hoy do
no| hovo |o bo considorod in |ho con|rol procoss. ln |omporo|oro con|rollors,
lor ins|onco, |ho shor| |imo ol oponing |ho con|rol volvo con osoolly bo no·
gloc|od con|rory |o |ho moch longor hoo|ing |imo.
PreperIìenc|·ccIìen cee||ìcìenI
An impor|on| procoss vorioblo in choroc|orizing con|rollod sys|oms wi|h
soll·rogolo|ion is |ho loc|or K
PS
. This loc|or indico|os |ho ro|io ol chongo in |ho
con|rollod vorioblo x |o |ho corrosponding chongo in |ho monipolo|od
18
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
y x
y x
Ii¸. 1+: Dynanic bebauior oj an actuator uitb internal clearance in its ¸ears
(la¸¸in¸ inte¸ral response uitb dead tine)
convor|or posi|ion ||rovol] in|ornol cloor·
onco in goors
sysIems censìsI e|
severc| subsysIems
en|y Iìme deIermìnìng
e|emenIs cre ìmperIcnI
vorioblo y ondor boloncod, s|oody·s|o|o condi|ions:
To colcolo|o K
PS
, |ho sys|ommos| rooch o nowoqoilibriomol|or o s|op chongo
in |ho monipolo|od vorioblo ∆y. Sinco |his roqoiromon| is only mo| by sys|oms
wi|h soll·rogolo|ion, K
PS
is no| dolinod lor sys|oms wi|hoo| soll·rogolo|ion.
Tho loc|or K
PS
is lroqoon|ly rolorrod |o os sys|om goin. This |orm is no| qoi|o
corroc|. ll K
PS
is smollor |hon ono, i| doos no| hovo |ho olloc| ol on
omplilico|ion loc|or. Thoroloro, |ho propor |orm mos| bo ´propor|ionol·oc|ion
coollicion|´. To onsoro |ho| |ho obovo rolo|ionship opplios irrospoc|ivo ol |ho
no|oro ol |ho vorioblos, inpo| ond oo|po| signols oro normolizod by dividing
|hom by |hoir moximom voloos |100 ° voloo].
Nen|ìnecr respense
ln mony proc|icol opplico|ions, K
PS
is no| cons|on| ovor |ho complo|o rongo ol
|ho con|rollod vorioblo, bo| chongos doponding on |ho corrosponding
oporo|ing poin|. Soch o rosponso is |ormod nonlinoor which is ol|on
oncoon|orod in |omporo|oro con|rol sys|oms.

PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0

N
O
N N
O O
25
= =




2 1
2 1
w
20...100°C
x
Ii¸. 15: Stean-beated tank
dyncmìc behcvìer
depends en Ihe
epercIìng peìnI
K
P5
: preperIìenc|·
ccIìen cee||ìcìenI e| Ihe
sysIem
4Exomplo: Hoo|ing o s|oom·hoo|od |onk |Fig. 15]
A s|oom·hoo|od wo|or bo|h is o con|rollod sys|om wi|h soll·rogolo|ion. Tho
wo|or bo|h ond |ho |onk mo|oriol in which |ho pipolino is omboddod oro |wo
lorgo hoo| s|oring componon|s which con bo considorod o socond·ordor
con|rollod sys|om. Sinco o body boing hoo|od will convoy moro ond moro
hoo| in|o |ho onvironmon| os |ho hoo|ing |omporo|oro incroosos, |ho
coollicion| K
PS
chongos wi|h |ho wo|or bo|h |omporo|oro |Fig. 1ó]. To
incrooso |ho |omporo|oro o| high |omporo|oros, comporo|ivoly moro onorgy
mos| bo soppliod |hon o| low|omporo|oros. Thoroloro, |ho lollowing opplios:
OpercIìng peìnI (OP|
ll |ho rooc|ion ol nonlinoor sys|oms is onolyzod wi|h |ho holp ol s|op
rosponsos, o dilloron| dynomic bohovior ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo con bo
obsorvod o| ooch oporo|ing poin|. Wi|h |ho obovo illos|ro|ion ol wo|or bo|h
hoo|ing, on|iroly dilloron| voloos oro ob|oinod lor K
PS
, T
o
ond T
g
|ho| dopond
on |ho oporo|ing |omporo|oro. This bohovior is o disodvon|ogo lor |ho
con|rollod sys|om, bocooso i| loods |o on oporo|ing poin|·dopondon| con|rol
rosponso ol |ho sys|om.
20
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
+ +
25 25
| ] | ] 0 100 ° > °
T[°Cj
∆T2
∆T1
∆P1 ∆P2 P[kWj
Ii¸. 16: Operatin¸ point-dependent bebauior oj tbe stean-beated tank
ÒP
2
ÒP
1
∆ ∆ 2 2
1 2
=
∆Τ > ∆Τ
1 2

2 2
F5 F5
| ] | ]
1 2
>
hecI dìssìpcIìen
chcnges wìIh Ihe
IempercIure dì||erence
nen|ìnecrìIy mckes
cenIre| mere dì||ìcu|I
4Exomplo: Monlinoori|y ol |ho s|oom·hoo|od |onk |Fig. 15 ond 1ó]
Tho choroc|oris|ic in Fig. 1ó shows |ho| |ho con|rollod sys|om in |ho lowor
|omporo|oro rongo hos o highor propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion| |hon in |ho
oppor rongo. ll |ho |omporo|oro con|rollor ol |ho bo|h is od|os|od so |ho| o lo·
voroblo con|rol oc|ion is ob|oinod o| low |omporo|oros, |horo will bo longor
doloys o| high |omporo|oros ond vico vorso: il |ho con|rol oc|ion is lovoroblo
o| high |omporo|oros, oscillo|ions migh| occor o| low |omporo|oros.
Tho od|os|mon| ol |ho con|rollor is oosior il o nonlinoor sys|om is oporo|od o|
o lixod oporo|ing or working poin|. Sinco K
PS
chongos only vory li||lo in |ho
immodio|o sorroonding oroo ol |ho oporo|ing poin| |soo ÒP
1
ond ÒP
2
in Fig.
1ó], |ho con|rol oc|ion is consoqoon|ly inllooncod vory li||lo os woll.
ll o nonlinoor sys|om is mos|ly or principolly oporo|od o| ono lixod oporo|ing
poin|, |ho con|rollor is |onod ospociolly |o |his oporo|ing poin|. Tho sys|om
poromo|ors |o.g. T
o
/T
g
] mos| |horoloro bo do|orminod lor |his oporo|ing poin|
only ond, il opplicoblo, |o i|s immodio|o sorroonding oroo.
ll o lixod oporo|ing poin| conno| bo dolinod, soch os wi|h lollow·op con|rol
sys|oms, |ho od|os|mon| ol |ho con|rollor poromo|ors romoins o compromiso.
ln |ho| coso, |ho con|rollor is osoolly |onod |o modiom sys|om goin.
CenIre||cbì|ìIy e| sysIems wìIh se||·regu|cIìen
For sys|oms wi|hoo| in|ogrol·oc|ion componon|, |ho con|rollobili|y con bo
ossossod by moons ol |ho procoss rooc|ion log T
o
ond procoss rooc|ion ro|o
T
g
|soo olso pogo 1Z]. To do |his, o simpliliod ossomp|ion is modo, soying
|ho| |ho sys|om rosponso is doscribod sollicion|ly occoro|o by ono dood |imo
ond ono log.
T
o
ond T
g
con bos| bo do|orminod grophicolly by osing o sorios ol
moosoromon|s. ln opon loop con|rol, |ho sys|om rosponso is do|orminod ol|or
smoll s|op chongos in |ho monipolo|od vorioblo. ln nonlinoor sys|oms, |his
moosoromon| mos| bo modo o| dilloron| oporo|ing poin|s. Tho rolo|ionship
bo|woon T
g
ond T
o
, which is do|orminod lrom |ho moosoring corvos, indico|os
which con|rol rosponso mos| bo oxpoc|od.
21
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
epIìmum cenIre| ccIìen
ìs ebIcìned cI en|y ene
epercIìng peìnI
Iunìng Ihe cenIre||er Ie
c |ìxed epercIìng
peìnI...
. er cn enIìre
epercIìng rcnge
cssessìng Ihe cenIre|·
|cbì|ìIy wìIh ¡
g

u
4Exomplo: T
o
ond T
g
lor con|rollod sys|oms in procoss onginooring
22
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
CenIre||ed
vcrìcb|e
¡ype e| cenIre||ed
sysIem
¡
u
¡
g
Tomporo|oro Ao|oclovos Ex|rodor 30 |o 40 s
1 |o ó min
10 |o 20 min
5 |o ó0 min
Prossoro Òil·lirod boilor 0 min 2.5 min
Flow ro|o Pipolino wi|h gos
Pipolino wi|h liqoid
0 |o 5 s
0 s
0.2 s
0 s
mcgnìIude e|
¡
u
cnd ¡
g
kcIìe ¡
g

u
5ysIem ìs ...
0 3 < ≤
6
6
C
K
dillicol| |o con|rol,
3 10 < <
6
6
C
K
only |os| con|rolloblo,
10 ≤
6
6
C
K
oosy |o con|rol.
Con|rollors ond Con|rol Elomon|s
A con|rollor´s |ob is |o inlloonco |ho con|rollod sys|om vio con|rol signol so
|ho| |ho voloo ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo oqools |ho voloo ol |ho roloronco vo·
loo. Con|rollors consis| ol o roloronco ond o con|rol olomon| |Fig. 1Z]. Tho ro·
loronco olomon| colcolo|os |ho orror |o] lrom |ho dilloronco bo|woon
roloronco |w] ond loodbock vorioblo |r], whilo |ho con|rol olomon| gonoro|os
|ho monipolo|od vorioblo |y] lrom |ho orror:
C|cssì|ìccIìen
Con|rol olomon|s con bo dosignod in mony dilloron| woys. For ins|onco, |ho
monipolo|od vorioblo y con bo gonoro|od
4mochonicolly or oloc|ricolly,
4onolog or digi|olly,
4wi|h or wi|hoo| ooxiliory onorgy
lrom |ho orror o. Al|hoogh |hoso dilloroncos signilicon|ly inlloonco |ho con·
|rollor soloc|ion, |hoy hovo |olmos|] no impoc| on |ho con|rol rosponso. Firs|
ond loromos|, |ho con|rol rosponso doponds on |ho rosponso ol |ho monipo·
lo|od vorioblo. Thoroloro, con|rollors oro clossiliod occording |o |hoir con|rol
signol rosponso. Doponding on |ho |ypo ol con|rollor, |ho con|rol signol con
oi|hor bo con|inooos or discon|inooos.
23
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
o
x
w +
-
y
Ii¸. 17: Controller conponents
con|rollor
con|rol
olomon|
roloronco
olomon|
x=r
|uncIìenc| prìncìp|e
cenIre| sìgnc| respense
⇔ cenIre| respense
CenIìnueus cnd dìscenIìnueus cenIre||ers
ln con|inooos con|rollors, |ho monipolo|od vorioblo con ossomo ony voloo
wi|hin |ho con|rollor oo|po| rongo. Tho choroc|oris|ic ol con|inooos con|rollors
osoolly oxhibi|s propor|ionol |P], in|ogrol |l] or dilloron|iol |D] oc|ion, or is o
som ol |hoso individool olomon|s |Fig. 18].
ln discon|inooos con|rollors, |ho monipolo|od vorioblo y chongos bo|woon di·
scro|o voloos. Doponding on how mony dilloron| s|o|os |ho monipolo|od vo·
rioblo con ossomo, o dis|inc|ion is modo bo|woon |wo·posi|ion, |hroo·
posi|ion ond mol|iposi|ion con|rollors. Comporod |o con|inooos con|rollors,
discon|inooos con|rollors oporo|o on vory simplo, swi|ching linol con|rolling
olomon|s. ll |ho sys|om con|oins onorgy s|oring componon|s, |ho con|rollod
vorioblo rosponds con|inooosly, dospi|o |ho s|op chongos in |ho monipolo|od
vorioblo. ll |ho corrosponding |imo cons|on|s oro lorgo onoogh, good con|rol
rosol|s o| smoll orrors con ovon bo roochod wi|h discon|inooos con|rollors
ond simplo con|rol olomon|s.
Auxì|ìcry energy
Any con|rollor ond linol con|rolling olomon| roqoiros onorgy |o oporo|o. Con·
|rollors ox|ornolly soppliod wi|h pnoomo|ic, oloc|ric or hydroolic onorgy oro
clossiliod os con|rollors wi|h ooxiliory onorgy. ll no onorgy |ronslor modiom
is ovoiloblo o| |ho poin| ol ins|ollo|ion, soll·oporo|od rogolo|ors shoold bo
24
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
Ii¸. 18: Classijication oj controllers
con|rollors
discon|inooos
con|rollors
con|inoos
con|rollors
P con|rollor
l con|rollor
PD con|rollor
Pl con|rollor
PlD con|rollor
|wo·posi|ion
mol|iposi|ion
|hroo·posi|ion
cenIìnueus...
...er dìscreIe rcnge e|
Ihe mcnìpu|cIed
vcrìcb|e
exIernc||y supp|ìed
energy er energy derì·
ved |rem Ihe sysIem
osod. Thoy dorivo |ho onorgy |hoy roqoiro |o chongo |ho monipolo|od vorio·
blo lrom |ho con|rollod sys|om. Thoso cos|·olloc|ivo ond roggod con|rollors
oro ol|on osod lor prossoro, dilloron|iol prossoro, llow ond |omporo|oro con·
|rol. Thoy con bo osod in opplico|ions whoro |ho poin| ol moosoromon| ond
|ho poin| ol chongo oro no| soporo|od by groo| dis|oncos ond whoro sys|om
dovio|ions coosod by onorgy wi|hdrowol oro occop|oblo.
0eIermìnìng Ihe dyncmìc behcvìer
As wi|h |ho con|rollod sys|oms, |ho lollowing chop|ors will illos|ro|o |ho dyno·
mic bohovior ol individool con|rollors bosod on s|op rosponsos |Fig. 1º]. Tho
rosol|ing con|rol rosponso con bo shown ovon moro cloorly in o closod con·
|rol loop.
25
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
o
Pl
o y
y
Ii¸. 19: Step response oj a controller
o w
w o y x
x y
Pl PT2
Ii¸. 20: Si¸nal responses in a closed control loop
ln o closod con|rol loop, o s|op chongo in |ho roloronco vorioblo lirs| rosol|s in
o s|op incrooso in |ho orror signol o |Fig. 20]. Doo |o |ho con|rol oc|ion ond
|ho loodbock, |ho orror signol will docrooso in |imo. Finolly, |ho con|rollod vo·
rioblo will rooch o now s|oody s|o|o, providod |ho| |ho con|rol rosponso is s|o·
blo |Fig. 20: Con|rollod vorioblo x].
ln ordor |o bo oblo |o comporo ond onolyzo |ho rosponso ol dilloron| con|rol·
lors, ooch con|rollor will bo discossod in rogord |o i|s in|oroc|ion wi|h |ho
somo ´roloronco sys|om´. This is o |hird·ordor sys|om wi|h |ho lollowing poro·
mo|ors:
Propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion|: K
P
= 1
Sys|om poromo|ors: T
1
= 30 s, T
2
= 15 s, T
3
= 10 s .
Tho log ond |ho propor|ionol·oc|ion ol |his sys|om con bo soon in Fig. 21. l|
shows |ho s|op rosponso, i.o. |ho rosponso ol |ho oo|po| vorioblo |con|rollod
vorioblo x] |o o s|op chongo in |ho inpo| vorioblo |monipolo|od vorioblo y].

FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
Ii¸. 21: Step response tbe tbird-order rejerence systen
cempcrìsen e| cenIre|
respenses bcsed en
c ´re|erence sysIem´
ccIìen ||ew ìn c c|esed
cenIre| |eep
Con|inooos Con|rollors
PreperIìenc| cenIre||er (P cenIre||er|
Tho monipolo|od vorioblo y ol o P con|rollor is propor|ionol |o |ho moosorod
orror o. From |his con bo dodoc|od |ho| o P con|rollor
4rooc|s |o ony dovio|ion wi|hoo| log ond
4only gonoro|os o monipolo|od vorioblo in coso ol sys|om dovio|ion.
Tho propor|ionol prossoro con|rollor illos|ro|od in Fig. 22 comporos |ho lorco
F
S
ol |ho so| poin| spring wi|h |ho lorco F
M
croo|od in |ho olos|ic mo|ol bollows
by |ho prossoro p
2
. Whon |ho lorcos oro oll bolonco, |ho lovor pivo|s oboo|
poin| D. This chongos |ho posi|ion ol |ho volvo plog - ond, honco, |ho
prossoro p
2
|o bo con|rollod - on|il o now oqoilibriom ol lorcos is ros|orod.
º Propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion|
Tho dynomic bohovior ol |ho P con|rollor ol|or o s|op chongo in |ho orror
vorioblo is shown in Fig. 23. Tho ompli|odo ol |ho monipolo|od vorioblo y is
do|orminod by |ho orror o ond |ho propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion| K
P
:
27
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
mcnìpu|cIed vcrìcb|e
chcnges preperIìenc|
Ie errer
p
1
p
2
e
w
K
p
y
x
Ii¸. 22: Desi¸n oj a I controller (selj-operated re¸ulator)
mo|ol bollow
D
so| poin| spring
Tho |orm doscribos o linoor oqoo|ion whoso grodion| is do|orminod by K
P
.
Fig. 24 cloorly shows |ho| o high K
P
roproson|s o s|rongly rising grodion|, so
|ho| ovon smoll sys|om dovio|ions con cooso s|rong con|rol oc|ions.
Mo|o: ln ploco ol |ho propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion| K
P
, |ho old |orm
´propor|ionol bond´ is lroqoon|ly osod in li|oro|oro which is roproson|od by
|ho poromo|or X
P
[°j. Tho poromo|or is convor|od os lollows:
28
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E

e
max
e y
t
1
t
2
t

y
max
t
1
t
2
t
Ii¸. 23: Dynanic bebauior oj a I controller
(e: systen deuitation, y: nanipulated uariable)
O A
2
= ⋅ wi|h:
2
os propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion|
:

2
2
=
100[°j
or
:
2
2
=
100[°j
block diogrom
hìgh K
P
ccuses
sIreng cenIre| ccIìen
preperIìenc|·ccIìen
?ABBE?EAJ er
preperIìenc| bcnd
º Sys|om dovio|ion
Con|rollors componso|o lor |ho olloc| ol dis|orbonco vorioblos by gonoro|ing
o corrosponding monipolo|od vorioblo oc|ing in |ho opposi|o diroc|ion. Sinco
P con|rollors only gonoro|o o monipolo|od vorioblo in coso ol sys|om dovio|i·
on |soo dolini|ion by oqoo|ion], o pormonon| chongo, |ormod ´s|oody·s|o|o
orror´, conno| bo complo|oly boloncod |Fig. 25].
Mo|o: S|rongor con|rol oc|ion doo |o o high K
P
rosol|s in smollor sys|om
dovio|ions. Howovor, il K
P
voloos oro |oo high, |hoy incrooso |ho |ondoncy ol
|ho con|rol loop |o oscillo|o.

PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
y y
y
0
K
p
e e
Ii¸. 2+: Ljject oj K
I
and operatin¸ point adjustnent
z
t
x
x
0
t
e
Ii¸. 25: Steady-state error in control loops uitb I controllers
x
0
: adjusted operatin¸ point oj tbe controller
chcrccIerìsIìc |ecIure
e| P cenIre||ers: sIecdy·
sIcIe errer
y
0
y
0
º Ad|os|ing |ho oporo|ing poin|
ln |ho ´idool´ con|rol si|oo|ion, i.o. wi|h zoro orror, propor|ionol·only
con|rollors do no| gonoro|o con|rol ompli|odos |soo obovo]. This ompli|odo is
roqoirod, howovor, il |ho con|rollod vorioblo is |o bo kop| o| ony lovol ol
oqoilibriom in o sys|om wi|h soll·rogolo|ion. ln ordor |o ochiovo |his onyhow,
P con|rollors roqoiro on op|ion lor od|os|ing |ho oporo|ing poin|. This op|ion
is providod by odding o vorioblo ollso| y
0
|o |ho monipolo|od vorioblo ol |ho
P con|rollor:
This woy, ony con|rol ompli|odo y
0
con bo gonoro|od, ovon wi|h zoro orror.
ln mo|homo|icol |orms, |his moosoro corrosponds |o o porollol displocomon|
ol |ho oporo|ing choroc|oris|ic ovor |ho on|iro oporo|ing rongo |soo Fig. 24].
Mo|o: Soloc|ing on oporo|ing poin| - y
0
nonzoro - only mokos sonso lor
sys|oms wi|h soll·rogolo|ion. A sys|om wi|hoo| soll·rogolo|ion will only rooch
s|oody s|o|o whon |ho monipolo|od vorioblo oqools zoro |oxomplo:
mo|or·drivon oc|oo|or].
4Exomplo: Òporo|ing poin| ond sys|om dovio|ion in prossoro rodocing vol·
vos
ln o prossoro con|rol sys|om |Fig. 2ó], p
2
lios wi|hin |ho rongo ol 0 |o 20 bor,
|ho oporo|ing poin| |p
ÒP
, q
Òp
] is p
Òp
= 8 bor.
ll |ho propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion| is so| |o K
P
= 10, |ho volvo possos
|hroogh |ho on|iro |rovol rongo wi|h o 10 porcon| orror. ll |ho spring is no|
proloodod |y
0
= 0], |ho prossoro rodocing volvo is lolly opon o| 0 bor |H
100
]
ond lolly closod o| 2 bor |H
0
]. Tho oporo|ing poin| |p
ÒP
, q
ÒP
] is no| roochod,
signilicon| sys|om dovio|ion will occor.
Wi|h |ho holp ol |ho oporo|ing poin| od|os|mon| |ho spring con bo proloodod
in soch o monnor |ho| |ho volvo roloosos |ho cross·soc|ionol oroo which is
oxoc|ly oqoivolon| |o |ho oporo|ing poin| o| p
2
= 8 bor => zoro sys|om
dovio|ion.
30
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
O A O
2
= ⋅ +
0
y
0
: monipolo|od vorioblo o| oporo|ing poin|
se|ecIìen e| Ihe
cenIre| cmp|ìIude
cI sIecdy sIcIe
epercIìng peìnI
cdjusImenI by
pre|ecdìng Ihe sprìng
For ins|onco, |his woold ollow |ho lollowing ossignmon| |Fig. 2ó]:
Thoro is o moximom sys|om dovio|ion ol ≤ 0.5 bor ovor |ho on|iro volvo |rovol
rongo. ll |his is no| |oloroblo, K
P
mos| bo incroosod: o K
P
ol 50 rodocos |ho
sys|om dovio|ion |o ≤ 0.2 bor |20 bor/50 = 0.4 bor]. Howovor, K
P
conno| bo
incroosod inlini|oly. ll |ho rosponso in |ho con|rollor is |oo s|rong, |ho
con|rollod vorioblo will ovorshoo|, so |ho| |ho |rovol od|os|mon| mos| bo
sobsoqoon|ly rovorsod lor coon|oroc|ion: |ho sys|om bocomos ins|oblo.
31
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
20
10
8
6
2
q
AP
p
1
p
2
K
P
= 50
K
p
= 10
q
0
q
max
H
AP
H
0
H
100
Ii¸. 26: Iunctional principle and cbaracteristics oj a pressure reducin¸ ualue
º,0 bor:
volvo closod
H
0
8,0 bor:
volvo in mid·posi|ion |q
ÒP
]
H
ÒP
Z,0 bor:
volvo lolly opon
H
100
hìgh K
P
reduces sysIem
devìcIìen cnd ìncrec·
ses Ihe Iendency Ie
escì||cIe
º Exomplo: Propor|ionol lovol con|rol
Tho wo|or in o |onk |Fig. 2Z] is |o bo kop| o| o cons|on| lovol, ovon il |ho oo|po|
llow ro|o ol |ho wo|or is voriod vio |ho droin volvo |VA].
Tho illos|ro|od con|rolling sys|om is o| s|oody s|o|o whon |ho soppliod os woll
os |ho droinod wo|or llow ro|os oro oqoolly lorgo |ho liqoid lovol romoins
cons|on|.
ll |ho droin volvo |VA] is oponod o li||lo lor|hor, |ho wo|or lovol will s|or| |o loll.
Tho lloo| |SW] in |ho |onk will doscond |ogo|hor wi|h |ho wo|or lovol. This will
cooso |ho rigid lovor connoc|od |o |ho lloo| |o opon |ho inlo| volvo |VE]. Tho in·
croosing llow linolly provon|s |ho wo|or lovol lrom dropping s|ill lowor so |ho|
|ho sys|om roochos o now oqoilibriom lovol.
By displocing |ho pivo| ol |ho lovor opword or downword, o dilloron| s|o|io·
nory wo|or lovol con bo od|os|od. ll |ho individool componon|s oro sizod pro·
porly, |his |ypo ol con|rol procoss will provon| |ho |onk lrom dischorging or
ovorllowing.
Tho obovo oxomplo shows |ho |ypicol choroc|oris|ics ol propor|ionol con|rol
oc|ion:
32
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
SW
L
W
Kp
VE
VA
Ii¸. 27: Leuel control uitb a I controller (selj-operated re¸ulator)
|eve| cenIre|:
prìncìp|e e| epercIìen
4ln coso ol dis|orboncos, s|oody·s|o|o orror is olwoys sos|oinod: whon |ho
oo|lo| llow ro|o pormonon|ly chongos, i| is orgon|ly roqoirod lor |ho liqoid
lovol |o dovio|o lrom |ho originolly od|os|od so| poin| |o pormonon|ly chon·
go |ho posi|ion ol |ho inlo| volvo |VE] os woll.
4Tho sys|om dovio|ion docroosos o| high goin |high propor|ionol oc|ion co·
ollicion|], bo| olso incroosos |ho risk ol oscillo|ion lor |ho con|rollod vorio·
blo. ll |ho pivo| ol |ho lovor is displocod |owords |ho lloo|, |ho con|rollor
sonsi|ivi|y incroosos. Doo |o |his ompliliod con|rolling olloc|, |ho sopply
llow chongos moro s|rongly whon |ho lovol vorios, |oo s|rong on omplilico·
|ion migh| lood |o sos|oinod vorio|ions in |ho wo|or lovol |oscillo|ion].
Mo|o: Tho illos|ro|od lovol con|rol sys|om osos o soll·oporo|od rogolo|or. Tho
con|rol onorgy dorivod lrom|ho sys|omis choroc|oris|ic ol |his con|rollor |ypo:
|ho woigh| ol |ho lloo| ond |ho posi|ioning lorcos oro componso|od lor by |ho
booyoncy ol |ho lloo| coosod by i|s wo|or displocomon|.
º Con|rol rosponso |bosod on |ho oxomplo ol |ho PT
3
sys|om]
Con|rol ol o PT
3
sys|om |K
P
= 1, T
1
= 30 s, T
2
= 15 s, T
3
= 10 s] wi|h o P
con|rollor rosol|s in |ho con|rol rosponso shown in Fig. 28. As provioosly
mon|ionod, |ho sys|om´s |ondoncy lor oscillo|ion incroosos wi|h incroosing K
P
,
whilo |ho s|oody·s|o|o orror is simol|onooosly rodocod.
33
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
Ii¸. 28: Control response oj tbe I controller based on a IT
3
systen
|ìmìI vc|ues ìn
cdjusIìng K
P
se||·epercIed
regu|cIers |er sìmp|e
cenIre| Icsks
sIecdy·sIcIe errer
P con|rollors oxhibi| |ho lollowing odvon|ogos:
4Fos| rosponso |o chongos in |ho con|rol procoss doo |o immodio|o corroc|i·
vo oc|ion whon on orror occors.
4Vory s|oblo con|rol procoss, providod |ho| K
P
is proporly soloc|od.
P con|rollors oxhibi| |ho lollowing disodvon|ogos:
4S|oody·s|o|o orror whon dis|orboncos occor, sinco only sys|om dovio|ion
coosos o chongo in |ho monipolo|od vorioblo.
P con|rollor opplico|ions:
P con|rollors oro soi|od |o noncri|icol con|rol opplico|ions which con |oloro|o
s|oody·s|o|o orror in |ho ovon| ol dis|orboncos: o.g. prossoro, llow ro|o, lovol
ond |omporo|oro con|rol. P con|rol oc|ion providos ropid rosponso, ol|hoogh
i|s dynomic propor|ios con s|ill bo improvod |hroogh oddi|ionol con|rol com·
ponon|s, os doscribod on pogo 38 ll.
34
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
P cenIre||ers: |csI cnd
sIcb|e wìIh sIecdy·
sIcIe errer
|nIegrc| cenIre||er (| cenIre||er|
ln|ogrol con|rol oc|ion is osod |o lolly corroc| sys|om dovio|ions o| ony
oporo|ing poin|. As long os |ho orror is nonzoro, |ho in|ogrol oc|ion will
cooso |ho voloo ol |ho monipolo|od vorioblo |o chongo. Ònly whon roloronco
vorioblo ond con|rollod vorioblo oro oqoolly lorgo - o| |ho lo|os|, |hoogh,
whon |ho monipolo|od vorioblo roochos i|s sys|om spocilic limi| voloo |U
mox
,
p
mox
, o|c.] - is |ho con|rol procoss boloncod. Mo|homo|ics oxprossos in|ogrol
oc|ion os lollows: |ho voloo ol |ho monipolo|od vorioblo is chongod
propor|ionol |o |ho in|ogrol ol |ho orror o.
How ropidly |ho monipolo|od vorioblo incroosos/docroosos doponds on |ho
orror ond |ho in|ogrol |imo T
n
|rociprocol ol in|ogrol·oc|ion coollicion| K
i
]. ll
|ho con|rollor hos o shor| in|ogrol |imo, |ho con|rol signol incroosos moro
ropidly os lor con|rollors wi|h long in|ogrol |imo |smoll in|ogrol·oc|ion
coollicion|].
Mo|o: Tho highor |ho in|ogrol oc|ion coollicion| K
i
, |ho groo|or |ho in|ogrol
oc|ion ol on l con|rollor, or i| is |ho lowor, |ho highor |ho in|ogrol |imo voloo T
n.
35
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
O A @J
E
=

wi|h:
6
E

=
1
ne errer ìn
sIecdy sIcIe
p
1
p
2
x
y
Ii¸. 29: I pressure controller
mo|ol
bollow
so| poin| spring
hìgh ¡
n
⇒ s|ew
cenIre| ccIìen
Tho pnoomo|ic l con|rollor illos|ro|od in Fig. 2º oporo|os wi|h o pis|on
oc|oo|or. Whon |ho sopply nozzlo in lron| ol |ho |o| dividor is in mid·posi|ion,
|ho pis|on romoins whoro i| is. ln |his posi|ion, orror oqools zoro bocooso |ho
lorcos ol |ho so| poin| spring F
S
ond |ho prossoro loodod mo|ol bollows F
M
concol ooch o|hor oo| complo|oly.
A ´vir|ool´ con|rol cyclo holps os rocognizo |ho lonc|ionol principlo:
Whon, doo |o on oddi|ionol consomor, |ho prossoro p
2
drops, |ho nozzlo
|orns |owords |ho oppor pis|on chombor. Tho pis|on slidos downword,
oponing |ho volvo on|il |ho oqoilibriom ol lorcos is ros|orod. Tho nozzlo is
|hon ogoin in mid·posi|ion, i.o. orror oqools zoro ond |ho volvo plog romoins
in |ho now, widor opon posi|ion.
Whon comporing |ho dynomic bohovior ol o P ond on l con|rollor |Figs. 21
ond 30], i| shows |ho| |ho monipolo|od vorioblo y incroosos only slowly in l
con|rollors, whilo i| immodio|oly roochos i|s linol con|rol voloo wi|h P con|rol·
lors. Thoroloro, |ho rosponso ol in|ogrol·only con|rollors |o dis|orboncos ond
s|op chongos in |ho roloronco vorioblo is only vory sloggish. ll |ho in|ogrol
|imo is od|os|od |o bo so shor| |ho| i| coosos o ropid incrooso in |ho monipolo·
|od vorioblo, oscillo|ion will oosily occor, moking |ho con|rol loop ins|oblo in
|ho ond.

FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E

e
max
e y
t
1
t
2
t

y
max
t
1
t
2
t
Ii¸. 30: Dynanic bebauior oj an I controller
(e: systen deuiation, y: nanipulated uariable)
block diogrom
|uncIìenc| prìncìp|e
e| ìnIegrc| pressure
cenIre||ers
| cenIre| ccIìen ìs
cempcrcIìve|y s|ew
º Con|rol rosponso |bosod on |ho oxomplo ol |ho PT
3
sys|om]
Fig. 31 shows how |ho PT
3
sys|om |K
P
= 1, T
1
= 30 s, T
2
= 15 s, T
3
= 10 s] is
con|rollod wi|h on l con|rollor. Con|rory |o Fig. 28 which shows
propor|ionol·oc|ion con|rol, |ho |imo scolo wos dooblod in |his illos|ro|ion. l|
cloorly shows |ho| |ho l con|rollor´s rosponso is considorobly slowor, whilo |ho
con|rol dynomics docroosos wi|h incroosing T
n
. A posi|ivo loo|oro is |ho
nonoxis|on| orror o| s|oody s|o|o.
Mo|o: Ad|os|ing on oporo|ing poin| woold no| moko ony sonso lor l con|rol·
lors, sinco |ho in|ogrol oc|ion componon| woold corroc| ony so|·poin| dovio|i·
on. Tho chongo in |ho monipolo|od vorioblo on|il orror hos boon olimino|od is
oqoivolon| |o on ´oo|omo|od´ oporo|ing poin| od|os|mon|: |ho monipolo|od
vorioblo ol |ho l con|rollor o| s|oody s|o|o |o=0] romoins o| o voloo which
woold hovo |o bo on|orod lor P con|rollors vio |ho oporo|ing poin| od|os|or.
l con|rollors oxhibi| |ho lollowing odvon|ogos:
4Mo orror o| s|oody s|o|o
l con|rollors oxhibi| |ho lollowing disodvon|ogos:
4Sloggish rosponso o| high T
n
4A| smoll T
n
, |ho con|rol loop |onds |o oscillo|o/moy bocomo ins|oblo
37
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
Ii¸. 31: Control response oj tbe I controller uitb IT
3
systen
(double tine scale)
ne sIecdy·sIcIe errer...
. by se||·cdcpIìen Ie
Ihe epercIìng peìnI
0erìvcIìve cenIre||er (0 cenIre||er|
D con|rollors gonoro|o |ho monipolo|od vorioblo lrom |ho ro|o ol chongo ol
|ho orror ond no| - os P con|rollors - lrom |hoir ompli|odo. Thoroloro, |hoy ro·
oc| moch los|or |hon P con|rollors: ovon il |ho orror is smoll, dorivo|ivo con·
|rollors gonoro|o - by on|icipo|ion, so |o spook - lorgo con|rol ompli|odos os
soon os o chongo in ompli|odo occors. A s|oody·s|o|o orror signol, howovor,
is no| rocognizod by D con|rollors, bocooso rogordloss ol how big |ho orror,
i|s ro|o ol chongo is zoro. Thoroloro, dorivo|ivo·only con|rollors oro roroly
osod in proc|ico. Thoy oro osoolly loond in combino|ion wi|h o|hor con|rol
olomon|s, mos|ly in combino|ion wi|h propor|ionol con|rol.
ln PD con|rollors |Fig. 32] wi|h propor|ionol·plos·dorivo|ivo con|rol oc|ion,
|ho monipolo|od vorioblo rosol|s lrom |ho oddi|ion ol |ho individool P ond D
con|rol olomon|s:
Tho loc|or T
V
is |ho ro|o |imo, K
D
is |ho dorivo|ivo·oc|ion coollicion|. Bo|h
vorioblos oro o moosoro lor |ho inlloonco ol |ho D componon|: high voloos
moon s|rong con|rol oc|ion.
As wi|h |ho P con|rollor, |ho sommond y
0
s|onds lor |ho oporo|ing poin|
od|os|mon|, i.o. |ho prosoloc|od voloo ol |ho monipolo|od vorioblo which is
issood by |ho con|rollor in s|oody s|o|o whon o = 0.
38
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
O A
@A
@J
O
2 ,
= ⋅ + +
0
wi|h: 6
, F L
= ⋅
PD
P
D
e y e y
=
Ii¸. 32: Llenents oj a ID controller
rcpìd respense
Ie cny chcnge
cembìned P cnd
0 cenIre||ers
Tho coorso ol |ho monipolo|od vorioblo which con bo soon in |ho s|op rospon·
so shows |ho inlloonco ol |ho D componon| |soo Figs. 23 ond 32]: ony chongo
in |ho orror signol rosol|s in o shor|·|orm incrooso ol |ho monipolo|od vorio·
blo. Doo |o porosi|icol logs, |his polso hos only o lini|o ro|o ol chongo. An in·
dolini|oly shor| polso, os roqoirod by |ho obovo oqoo|ion, will no| occor in
proc|ico.
Mo|o: Tho inlloonco ol |ho D componon| incroosos propor|ionol |o |ho ro|o
|imo T
V
or |ho dorivo|ivo·oc|ion coollicion| K
D
.
º Con|rol rosponso |bosod on |ho oxomplo ol |ho PT
3
sys|om]
Tho con|rol rosponso in Fig. 34 shows |ho| s|oody·s|o|o orror occors in PD
con|rollors |os| os i| occors in P con|rollors. Doo |o |ho immodio|o con|rol
oc|ion whonovor |horo is o chongo in |ho orror signol, |ho con|rol dynomics is
highor |hon wi|h P con|rollors. Dospi|o |ho vory ropid chongos in |ho
con|rollod vorioblo |so| poin| roochod ol|or 23 s], |ho |ondoncy ol |ho con|rol
loop |o oscillo|o docroosos. Doo |o |his s|obilizing olloc| ol |ho D componon|,
o highor K
P
voloo con bo choson |hon lor propor|ionol·only con|rollors which
rodocos s|oody·s|o|o orror.

PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0

e
max
e y
t
1
t
2
t

y
max
t
1 t
2
t
Ii¸. 33: Dynanic bebauior oj a ID controller
(e: systen deuiation, y: nanipulated uariable)
block diogrom
smc|| |cgs ´ìn||uence´
Ihe cenIre| pu|se
hìgh ¡
V
⇒ grecI
cenIre| ccIìen
0 cempenenI ìmpreves
cenIre| dyncmìcs
PD con|rollors oro omployod in oll opplico|ions whoro P con|rollors oro no|
sollicion|. This osoolly opplios |o con|rollod sys|oms wi|h groo|or logs, in
which s|rongor oscillo|ion ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo - coosod by o high K
P
voloo - mos| bo provon|od.
P| cenIre||ers
Pl con|rollors oro ol|on omployod in proc|ico. ln |his combino|ion, ono P ond
ono l con|rollor oro connoc|od in porollol |Fig. 35]. ll proporly dosignod, |hoy
combino |ho odvon|ogos ol bo|h con|rollor |ypos |s|obili|y ond ropidi|y, no
s|oody·s|o|o orror], so |ho| |hoir disodvon|ogos oro componso|od lor o| |ho
somo |imo.
40
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
Ii¸. 3+: Control response oj tbe ID controller uitb IT
3
systen
PI
P
I
e y e y
=
Ii¸. 35: Llenents oj a II controller
suìIed Ie mcny
cenIre| Icsks
Tho monipolo|od vorioblo ol Pl con|rollors is colcolo|od os lollows:
Tho dynomic bohovior is morkod by |ho propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion| K
P
ond |ho roso| |imo T
n
. Doo |o |ho propor|ionol componon|, |ho monipolo|od
vorioblo immodio|oly rooc|s |o ony orror signol o, whilo |ho in|ogrol
componon| s|or|s goining inlloonco only ol|or somo |imo. T
n
roproson|s |ho
|imo |ho| olopsos on|il |ho l componon| gonoro|os |ho somo con|rol ompli|odo
|ho| is gonoro|od by |ho P componon| |K
P
] lrom |ho s|or| |Fig. 3ó]. As wi|h l
con|rollors, |ho roso| |imo T
n
mos| bo rodocod il |ho in|ogrol·oc|ion componon|
is |o bo ompliliod.
º Con|rol rosponso |bosod on |ho oxomplo ol |ho PT
3
sys|om]
As oxpoc|od, Pl con|rol ol |ho PT
3
sys|om |Fig. 3Z] oxhibi|s |ho posi|ivo
propor|ios ol P os woll os ol l con|rollors. Al|or ropid corroc|ivo oc|ion, |ho
con|rollod vorioblo doos no| show s|oody·s|o|o orror. Doponding on how
41
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0

e
max
e y
t
1
t
2
t

y
max
t
1
t
2
t
Tn
Ii¸. 36: Dynanic bebauior oj a II controller
(e: systen deuiation, y: nanipulated uariable)
O A A @J
F E
= ⋅ +

wi|h:

6
E
F

=
block diogrom
dìvìsìen e| Icsks beI·
ween P cnd | cenIre|·
|ers: |csI cnd cccurcIe
high |ho K
P
ond T
n
voloos oro, oscillo|ion ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo con bo
rodocod, howovor, o| |ho oxponso ol con|rol dynomics.
Pl con|rollor opplico|ions:
Con|rol loops ollowing no s|oody·s|o|o orror.
Exomplos: prossoro, |omporo|oro, ro|io con|rol, o|c.
P|0 cenIre||er
ll o D componon| is oddod |o Pl con|rollors, |ho rosol| is on ox|romoly vorso|ilo
PlD con|rollor |Fig. 38]. As wi|h PD con|rollors, |ho oddod D componon| - il
proporly |onod - coosos |ho con|rollod vorioblo |o rooch i|s so| poin| moro
qoickly, |hos rooching s|oody s|o|o moro ropidly.
42
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
Ii¸. 37: Control response oj tbe II controller uitb IT
3
systen
=
PID
P
I
D
e y e y
Ii¸. 38: Llenents oj a IID controller
P| cenIre||er wìIh
ìmpreved cenIre|
dyncmìcs
vcrìcb|e cenIre||er
desìgn
ln oddi|ion |o |ho monipolo|od vorioblo gonoro|od by |ho Pl componon| |Fig.
3ó], |ho D componon| incroosos |ho con|rol oc|ion wi|h ony chongo in orror
|Fig. 3º]. Thos, |ho monipolo|od vorioblo y rosol|s lrom |ho oddi|ion ol |ho
dilloron|ly woigh|od P, l ond D componon|s ond |hoir ossocio|od coollicion|s:
º Con|rol rosponso |bosod on |ho oxomplo ol |ho PT
3
sys|om]
Tho con|rol rosponso ol PlD con|rollors is lovoroblo in sys|oms wi|h lorgo
onorgy s|oring componon|s |highor·ordor con|rollod sys|oms] |ho| roqoiro
con|rol oc|ion os los| os possiblo ond wi|hoo| s|oody·s|o|o orror.
Comporod |o |ho provioosly discossod con|rollors, |ho PlD con|rollor |horoloro
oxhibi|s |ho mos| sophis|ico|od con|rol rosponso |Fig. 40] in |ho roloronco
sys|om oxomplo. Tho con|rollod vorioblo roochos i|s so| poin| ropidly,
s|obilizos wi|hin shor|, ond oscillo|os only sligh|ly oboo| |ho so| poin|. Tho
|hroo con|rol poromo|ors K
P
, T
n
ond T
V
provido on immonso vorso|ili|y in
43
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0

e
max
e y
t
1
t
2
t

y
max
t
1
t
2
t
Ii¸. 39: Dynanic bebauior oj a IID controller
(e: systen deuiation, y: nanipulated uariable)
O A A @J
@A
@J
F E ,
= ⋅ + +

wi|h

6
6
E
2

, 2 8
= = ⋅ ,
block diogrom
Ihree cenIre| medes
prevìde hìgh ||exìbì|ìIy..
cccurcIe cnd hìgh|y
dyncmìc cenIre|
od|os|ing |ho con|rol rosponso wi|h rospoc| |o ompli|odo ond con|rol
dynomics. l| is |horoloro ospociolly impor|on| |ho| |ho con|rollor bo dosignod
ond |onod wi|h coro os woll os bo odop|od |o |ho sys|om os good os possiblo
|soo chop|or: Soloc|ing o Con|rollor].
PlD con|rollor opplico|ions:
Con|rol loops wi|h socond· or highor·ordor sys|oms |ho| roqoiro ropid s|obili·
zo|ion ond do no| ollow s|oody·s|o|o orror.
44
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
Ii¸. +0: Control response oj tbe IID controller uitb IT
3
systen
. cnd requìre ccre|u|
Iunìng cdjusImenIs
Discon|inooos Con|rollors
Discon|inooos con|rollors oro olso lroqoon|ly collod swi|ching con|rollors. Tho
monipolo|od vorioblo in discon|inooos con|rollors ossomos only o low discro·
|o voloos, so |ho| onorgy or moss sopply |o |ho sys|om con bo chongod only in
discro|o s|ops.
¡we·pesìIìen cenIre||er
Tho simplos| vorsion ol o discon|inooos con|rollor is |ho |wo·posi|ion
con|rollor which, os |ho nomo indico|os, hos only |wo dilloron| oo|po| s|o|os,
lor ins|onco 0 ond y
mox
occording |o Fig. 41.
A |ypicol opplico|ion is |omporo|oro con|rol by moons ol o bimo|ollic s|rip
|o.g. irons]. Tho bimo|ol sorvos os bo|h moosoring ond swi|ching olomon|. l|
consis|s ol |wo mo|ol s|rips |ho| oro woldod |ogo|hor, wi|h ooch s|rip oxpon·
ding dilloron|ly whon hoo|od |Fig. 42].
ll con|oc| is modo - bimo|ol ond so| poin| od|os|or oro |ooching - o corron|
sopplios |ho ho| plo|o wi|h oloc|rici|y. ll |ho bimo|ollic s|rip is ins|ollod noor |ho
ho| plo|o, i| hoo|s op os woll. Whon hoo|od op, |ho bo||om mo|oriol oxponds
moro |hon |ho |op mo|oriol. This coosos |ho s|rip |o bond opword os |ho hoo|
incroosos, ond i| linolly in|orrop|s |ho onorgy sopply |o |ho hoo|ing coil. ll |ho
|omporo|oro ol |ho bimo|ol docroosos, |ho oloc|ricol con|oc| is modo ogoin,
s|or|ing o now hoo|ing phoso.
45
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
y
ymox ymox
x
y
w
x
w x x
x
Ii¸. +1: Suitcbin¸ cbarakteristic oj tbe tuo-position controller
(uitbout and uitb dijjerential ¸ap x

)
w
x
bo|
x
|op
cyc|ìc enJe|| swìIchìng
en|y de|ìnìIe number
e| swìIchìng sIcIes
excmp|e: IempercIure
cenIre| vìc bìmeIc|
x
dg
To incrooso |ho sorvico lilo ol |ho con|oc|s, os shown in Fig. 42, o dilloron|iol
gop x
dg
con bo croo|od by osing on iron plo|o ond o pormonon| mogno|. Tho
condi|ions lor on/oll swi|ching oro no| idon|icol onymoro |x
bo|
ond x
|op
occording |o Fig. 41], so |ho| |ho swi|ching lroqooncy is rodocod ond spork
gonoro|ion is lorgoly provon|od.

FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
T
s
x
x
x
max
x
y
t
t
Ii¸. +2: Control cycle oj a tuo-position controller uitb dijjerential ¸ap and
jirst-order controlled systen
|op
bo|
x
dg
dì||erenIìc| gcp
reduces swìIchìng
|requency
M
S
Fo
~
_ Ò
.
l
Ii¸. +3: Tenperature control uia binetallic suitcb
|hormol convoc|ion
mogno|
Tho |ypicol bohovior ol monipolo|od ond con|rollod vorioblo os o lonc|ion ol
|imo in o |wo·posi|ion con|rollor con bo soon in Fig. 43. Tho do||od choroc|o·
ris|ic shows |ho| o| highor so| poin|s |ho |omporo|oro incrooso |okos longor
|hon |ho cooling procoss. ln |his oxomplo wo ossomo |ho| |ho onorgy inllow
|horo: hoo|ing copoci|y] is sollicion| |o rooch dooblo |ho voloo ol |ho soloc|od
so| poin|. Tho copoci|y rosorvo ol 100° choson horo hos |ho olloc| |ho|
on/oll swi|ching poriods oro idon|icol.
Tho |omporo|oro corvo shown in Fig. 43 idon|ilios o lirs|·ordor con|rollod
sys|om. ln highor·ordor con|rollod sys|oms, |ho con|rollod vorioblo woold
lollow |ho monipolo|od vorioblo only sloggishly doo |o |ho log. This coosos
|ho con|rollod vorioblo |o loovo |ho |oloronco bond lormod by |ho swi|ching
poin|s x
|op
ond x
bo|
|Fig. 44]. This olloc| mos| bo |okon in|o considoro|ion
whon |oning |ho con|rollor by opplying |ho moosoros doscribod bolow.
¡we·pesìIìen |eedbcck cenIre||er
Shoold |ho displocomon| ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo os shown in Fig. 44 no| bo
|oloroblo, |ho dilloron|iol gop con bo rodocod. This coosos |ho swi|ching lro·
47
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
x
x
∆x
x
y
t
t
Ii¸. ++: Control cycle oj a tuo-position controller uitb dijjerential ¸ap and
bi¸ber-order controlled systen
x
|op
x
bo|
cddìIìenc| sysIem
devìcIìen due Ie |cg
qooncy |o incrooso, |hos oxposing |ho con|oc|s |o moro woor. Thoroloro, o
|wo·posi|ion loodbock con|rollor is ol|on bo||or soi|od |o con|rolling sloggish
highor·ordor sys|oms.
ln o |wo·posi|ion loodbock |omporo|oro con|rollor, on oddi|ionol in|ornol
hoo|ing coil hoo|s op |ho bimo|ollic s|rip whon |ho con|rollor is swi|chod on,
|hos coosing o promo|oro in|orrop|ion ol onorgy sopply. ll proporly od|os|od,
|his moosoro rosol|s in o loss irrogolor ompli|odo ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo o|
on occop|oblo swi|ching lroqooncy.
¡hree·pesìIìen cenIre||er cnd Ihree·pesìIìen sIeppìng cenIre||er
Throo·posi|ion con|rollors con ossomo |hroo dilloron| swi|ching s|o|os. ln o
|omporo|oro con|rol sys|om, |hoso s|o|os oro no| only ´oll´ ond ´hoo|ing´ os in
o |wo·posi|ion con|rollor, bo| olso ´cooling´. Thoroloro, o |hroo·posi|ion con·
|rollor lollills |ho lonc|ion ol |wo cooplod |wo·posi|ion con|rollors |ho| swi|ch
o| dilloron| s|o|os, |his con olso bo soon in |ho choroc|oris|ic ol o |hroo· posi|i·
on con|rollor wi|h dilloron|iol gop |Fig. 45].
ln |ho liold ol con|rol volvo |ochnology, |hroo·posi|ion con|rollors oro lro·
qoon|ly osod in combino|ion wi|h oloc|ric oc|oo|ors. Tho |hroo s|o|os ol ´coon·
|orclockwiso´ |o.g. oponing], ´clockwiso´ |o.g. closing] ond ´oll´ con bo osod
|o od|os| ony volvo posi|ion vio roloy ond oc|oo|or mo|or |Fig. 4ó]. Using o
discon|inooos con|rollor wi|h in|ogro|od oc|oo|or |o.g. oc|oo|or mo|or] ond
48
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
x
y
max
–y
max
x x
w
A B C
Ii¸. +5: Cbaracteristic oj a tbree-position controller uitb dijjerential ¸ap x

and dead band x
d
Ihree·pesìIìen cenIre|·
|ed ccIucIer meIers
qucsì·cenIìnueus
cenIre|
x
dg
x
dg
x
d
|eedbcck cenIre|
ìmpreves Ihe
cenIre| quc|ìIy
opplying soi|oblo con|rol signols, |ho rosol| is o qoosi·con|inooos P, Pl or PlD
con|rol rosponso. Soch |hroo·posi|ion s|opping con|rollors oro lroqoon|ly
osod in opplico|ions whoro pnoomo|ic or hydroolic ooxiliory onorgy is no|
ovoiloblo, bo| oloc|ric ooxiliory onorgy.
Whon proporly odop|od |o |ho sys|om, |ho con|rol rosponso ol o |hroo·
posi|ion s|opping con|rollor con boroly bo dilloron|io|od lrom |ho| ol o
con|inooos con|rollor. l|s con|rol rosponso moy ovon bo moro lovoroblo, lor
ins|onco, whon |ho noiso ol o con|rollod vorioblo coosod by dis|orboncos is
wi|hin |ho dood bond x
d
.

PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
e y y
R
y
R
y
t
t
Ii¸. +6: Control si¸nal oj a quasi-continuous controller
(tbree-position controller uitb actuator notor)
Soloc|ing o Con|rollor
5e|ecIìen crìIerìc
To solvo o con|rol |osk i| is roqoirod |ho|
4|ho con|rollod sys|om bo onolyzod ond
4o soi|oblo con|rollor bo soloc|od ond dosignod.
Tho mos| impor|on| propor|ios ol |ho widoly osod P, PD, l, Pl ond PlD con|rol
olomon|s oro lis|od in |ho lollowing |oblo:
Which con|rollor |o soloc| doponds on |ho lollowing loc|ors:
4ls |ho sys|om bosod on in|ogrol or propor|ionol con|rol oc|ion |wi|h or wi|·
hoo| soll·rogolo|ion]°
4How groo| is |ho procoss log ||imo cons|on|s ond/or dood |imos]°
4How los| mos| orrors bo corroc|od°
4ls s|oody·s|o|o orror occop|oblo°
According |o |ho provioos chop|ors |soo olso obovo |oblo], con|rollors ond
sys|oms con bo ossignod |o ooch o|hor os lollows:
P con|rollors oro omployod in oosy·|o·con|rol sys|oms whoro s|oody·s|o|o or·
ror is occop|oblo. A s|oblo ond dynomic con|rol rosponso is roochod o| mini·
mom ollor|.
50
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
Con|rol
olomon|
Òllso| Òporo|ing poin|
od|os|mon|
Spood ol
rosponso
P yos rocommondod high
PD yos rocommondod vory high
l no M/A low
Pl no M/A high
PlD no M/A vory high
whcI Ie censìder when
se|ecIìng c cenIre||er
P cenIre||ers
l| mokos sonso |o omploy PD con|rollors in sys|oms wi|h groo| log whoro ollso|
is |oloroblo. Tho D componon| incroosos |ho spood ol rosponso so |ho| con|rol
dynomics improvo comporod |o P con|rollors.
l con|rollors oro soi|oblo lor oso in opplico|ions wi|h low roqoiromon|s os |o
|ho con|rol dynomics ond whoro |ho sys|om doos no| oxhibi| groo| log. l| is on
odvon|ogo |ho| orrors oro complo|oly olimino|od.
Pl con|rollors combino |ho odvon|ogos ol bo|h P ond l con|rollors. This |ypo ol
con|rollor prodocos o dynomic con|rol rosponso wi|hoo| oxhibi|ing s|oo·
dy·s|o|o orror. Mos| con|rol |osks con bo solvod wi|h |his |ypo ol con|rollor.
Howovor, il i| is roqoirod |ho| |ho spood ol rosponso bo os high os possiblo ro·
gordloss ol |ho groo| log, o PlD con|rollor will bo |ho propor choico.
PlD con|rollors oro soi|oblo lor sys|oms wi|h groo| log |ho| mos| bo olimino|od
os qoick os possiblo. Comporod |o |ho Pl con|rollor, |ho oddod D componon|
rosol|s in bo||or con|rol dynomics. Comporod |o |ho PD con|rollor, |ho oddod l
componon| provon|s orror in s|oody s|o|o.
Tho soloc|ion ol on opproprio|o con|rollor signilicon|ly doponds on |ho corro·
sponding sys|om poromo|ors. Thoroloro, |ho obovo mon|ionod opplico|ions
shoold only bo considorod o gonorol goidolino, |ho soi|obili|y ol o cor|oin
|ypo ol con|rollor mos| bo |horooghly invos|igo|od |o occommodo|o |ho pro·
coss i| con|rols.
AdjusIìng Ihe cenIre| pcrcmeIers
For o so|isloc|ory con|rol rosol|, |ho soloc|ion ol o soi|oblo con|rollor is on
impor|on| ospoc|. l| is ovon moro impor|on| |ho| |ho con|rol poromo|ors K
P
, T
n
ond T
V
bo opproprio|oly od|os|od |o |ho sys|om rosponso. Mos|ly, |ho
od|os|mon| ol |ho con|rollor poromo|ors romoins o compromiso bo|woon o
vory s|oblo, bo| olso vory slow con|rol loop ond o vory dynomic, bo| irrogolor
con|rol rosponso which moy oosily rosol| in oscillo|ion, moking |ho con|rol
loop ins|oblo in |ho ond.
For nonlinoor sys|oms |ho| shoold olwoys work in |ho somo oporo|ing poin|,
o.g. lixod so| poin| con|rol, |ho con|rollor poromo|ors mos| bo odop|od |o |ho
sys|om rosponso o| |his por|icolor oporo|ing poin|. ll o lixod oporo|ing poin|
conno| bo dolinod, soch os wi|h lollow·op con|rol sys|oms, |ho con|rollor mos|
51
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
P0 cenIre||ers
| cenIre||ers
P| cenIre||ers
P|0 cenIre||ers
ebjecIìves ìn Iunìng
cenIre||ers
cdcpIcIìen Ie epercIìng
peìnI er rcnge
bo od|os|od |o onsoro o sollicion|ly ropid ond s|oblo con|rol rosol| wi|hin |ho
on|iro oporo|ing rongo.
ln proc|ico, con|rollors oro osoolly |onod on |ho bosis ol voloos goinod by ox·
porionco. Shoold |hoso no| bo ovoiloblo, howovor, |ho sys|om rosponso mos|
bo onolyzod in do|oil, lollowod by |ho opplico|ion ol sovorol |hooro|icol or
proc|icol |oning opproochos in ordor |o do|ormino |ho propor con|rol poro·
mo|ors.
Òno opprooch is o mo|hod lirs| proposod by Zioglor ond Michols, |ho
so·collod ol|imo|o mo|hod. l| providos simplo |oning |ho| con bo oppliod in
mony cosos. This mo|hod, howovor, con only bo oppliod |o con|rollod sys·
|oms |ho| ollow sos|oinod oscillo|ion ol |ho con|rollod vorioblo. For |his mo·
|hod, procood os lollows:
4A| |ho con|rollor, so| K
P
ond T
V
|o |ho lowos| voloo ond T
n
|o |ho highos|
voloo |smollos| possiblo inlloonco ol |ho con|rollor].
4Ad|os| |ho con|rollod sys|om monoolly |o |ho dosirod oporo|ing poin| |s|or|
op con|rol loop].
4So| |ho monipolo|od vorioblo ol |ho con|rollor |o |ho monoolly od|os|od vo·
loo ond swi|ch |o oo|omo|ic oporo|ing modo.
4Con|inoo |o incrooso K
P
|docrooso X
P
] on|il |ho con|rollod vorioblo
oncoon|ors hormonic oscillo|ion. ll possiblo, smoll s|op chongos in |ho so|
poin| shoold bo modo doring |ho K
P
od|os|mon| |o cooso |ho con|rol loop |o
oscillo|o.
4Toko down |ho od|os|od K
P
voloo os cri|icol propor|ionol·oc|ion coollicion|
K
P,cri|
.
52
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
K
P
¡
n
¡
v
P 0 50 ,
, .

F ?HEJ
· ·
Pl 0 45 ,
, .

F ?HEJ
0 85 ,
.
⋅6
?HEJ
·
PlD 0 5º ,
, .

2 ?HEJ
0 50 ,
.
⋅6
?HEJ
0 12 ,
.
⋅6
?HEJ
Ii¸. +7: Adjustnent ualues oj control paraneters acc. to Zie¸ler/Nicbols: at
K
I crit
tbe controlled uariable oscillates periodically uitb T
crit
u|IìmcIe Iunìng meIhed
by Zìeg|er cnd Nìche|s
4Do|ormino |ho |imo spon lor ono loll oscillo|ion ompli|odo os T
cri|
, il
nocossory by |oking |ho |imo ol sovorol oscillo|ions ond colcolo|ing |hoir
ovorogo.
4Mol|iply |ho voloos ol K
P,cri|
ond T
cri|
by |ho voloos occording |o |ho |oblo in
Fig. 4Z ond on|or |ho do|orminod voloos lor K
P
, T
n
ond T
V
o| |ho con|rollor.
4ll roqoirod, rood|os| K
P
ond T
n
on|il |ho con|rol loop shows so|isloc|ory
dynomic bohovior.
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
53
Appondix A1:
Addi|ionol Li|oro|oro
[1j Torminology ond Symbols in Con|rol Enginooring
Tochnicol lnlormo|ion L101EM, SAMSÒM AG
[2j Andorson, Mormon A.: lns|romon|o|ion lor Procoss Moosoromon|
ond Con|rol. Rodnor, PA: Chil|on Book Compony
[3j Morrill, Pool W.: Fondomon|ols ol Procoss Con|rol Thoory. Rosoorch
Trionglo Pork, M.C.: lns|romon| Socio|y ol Amorico, 1º81
[4j DlM 1º22ó Por| 1 |o ó ºLoi||ochnik: Rogolongs|ochnik ond
S|ooorongs|ochnik" |Con|rol Tochnology]. Borlin: Boo|h Vorlog
[5j ºln|orno|ionol Eloc|ro|ochnicol Vocobolory", Chop|or 351:
Ao|omo|ic con|rol. lEC Poblico|ion 50.
54
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
A
P
P
E
N
0
|
X
Figoros
Fig. 1: Propor|ionol con|rollod sys|om, roloronco vorioblo: llowro|o . . 8
Fig. 2: Dynomic bohovior ol o P con|rollod sys|om . . . . . . . . . . . º
Fig. 3: ln|ogrol con|rollod sys|om, con|rollod vorioblo: liqoid lovol . . . 10
Fig. 4: Dynomic bohovior ol on l con|rollod sys|om . . . . . . . . . . 10
Fig. 5: Con|rollod sys|omwi|h dood |imo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Fig. ó: Dynomic bohovior ol o con|rollod sys|omwi|h dood |imo . . . 12
Fig. Z: Exponon|iol corvos doscribo con|rollod sys|oms . . . . . . . . 13
Fig. 8: Firs|·ordor con|rollod sys|om . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Fig. º: Dynomic bohovior ol o lirs|·ordor con|rollod sys|om . . . . . . 14
Fig. 10: Socond·ordor con|rollod sys|om . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Fig. 11: Dynomic bohovior ol socond· or highor·ordor con|rollod sys|oms 1ó
Fig. 12: S|op rosponso ol o highor·ordor con|rollod sys|om. . . . . . . 1ó
Fig. 13: Dynomic bohovior ol highor·ordor con|rollod sys|oms . . . . . 1Z
Fig. 14: Dynomic bohovior ol on oc|oo|or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Fig. 15: S|oom·hoo|od |onk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1º
Fig. 1ó: Òporo|ing poin|·dopondon| bohovior ol |ho s|oom·hoo|od |onk. 20
Fig. 1Z: Con|rollor componon|s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Fig. 18: Clossilico|ion ol con|rollors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Fig. 1º: S|op rosponso ol o con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fig. 20: Signol rosponsos in o closod con|rol loop . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Fig. 21: S|op rosponso |ho |hird·ordor roloronco sys|om . . . . . . . . 2ó
Fig. 22: Dosign ol o P con|rollor |soll·oporo|od rogolo|or] . . . . . . . 2Z
55
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
F
|
G
U
k
E
5
Fig. 23: Dynomic bohovior ol o P con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Fig. 24: Elloc| ol K
P
ond oporo|ing poin| od|os|mon| . . . . . . . . . . 2º
Fig. 25: S|oody·s|o|o orror in con|rol loops wi|h P con|rollors . . . . . . 2º
Fig. 2ó: Fonc|ionol principlo ol o prossoro rodocing volvo . . . . . . . 31
Fig. 2Z: Lovol con|rol wi|h o P con|rollor |soll·oporo|od rogolo|or] . . . . 32
Fig. 28: Con|rol rosponso ol |ho P con|rollor bosod on o PT
3
sys|om . . . 33
Fig. 2º: l prossoro con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Fig. 30: Dynomic bohovior ol on l con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3ó
Fig. 31: Con|rol rosponso ol |ho l con|rollor wi|h PT
3
sys|om . . . . . . 3Z
Fig. 32: Elomon|s ol o PD con|rollor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Fig. 33: Dynomic bohovior ol o PD con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3º
Fig. 34: Con|rol rosponso ol |ho PD con|rollor wi|h PT
3
sys|om . . . . . 40
Fig. 35: Elomon|s ol o Pl con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Fig. 3ó: Dynomic bohovior ol o Pl con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Fig. 3Z: Con|rol rosponso ol |ho Pl con|rollor wi|h PT
3
sys|om . . . . . . 42
Fig. 38: Elomon|s ol o PlD con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Fig. 3º: Dynomic bohovior ol o PlD con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Fig. 40: Con|rol rosponso ol |ho PlD con|rollor wi|h PT
3
sys|om . . . . . 44
Fig. 41: Swi|ching chorok|oris|ic ol |ho |wo·posi|ion con|rollor . . . . . 45
Fig. 42: Con|rol cyclo ol o |wo·posi|ion con|rollor |lirs|·ordor] . . . . . 4ó
Fig. 43: Tomporo|oro con|rol vio bimo|ollic swi|ch . . . . . . . . . . . 4ó
Fig. 44: Con|rol cyclo ol o |wo·posi|ion con|rollor |highor·ordor] . . . . 4Z
Fig. 45: Choroc|oris|ic ol o |hroo·posi|ion con|rollor . . . . . . . . . . 48
Fig. 4ó: Con|rol signol ol o qoosi·con|inooos con|rollor . . . . . . . . 4º
Fig. 4Z: Ad|os|mon| voloos ol con|rol poromo|ors occ. |o Zioglor/Michols 52

FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
F
|
G
U
k
E
5
57
PcrI 1 ⋅ L102EM
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

º
º
/
1
0
N
O
¡
E
5
58
FundcmenIc|s ⋅ Con|rollors ond Con|rollod Sys|oms
S
A
M
S
Ò
M
A
G

V
Z
4
/
D
K
E
N
O
¡
E
5
5AM5ON rìghI en quc|ìIy ceurse
ISO9001
Our quc|ìIy cssurcnce sysIem,
cppreved by 8VQì, gucrcnIees c hìgh
quc|ìIy e| preducIs cnd servìces.
S//SC| /C ⋅ /|SS U|D ||C||¹|CH||| ⋅ \osuo||o|s||u|o o ⋅ Dc0o^ ||ur||o|| uu /ur
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