The Fairchild

Dictionary of Fashion
t h i rd e d i t i on cd - rom charlotte mankey calasibetta phyllis tortora
Illustrated by bina abling

fairchild books new york

hardcover book:
Executive Editor: Olga T. Kontzias Development Editor: Sylvia L. Weber Art Director: Adam B. Bohannon Production Manager: Priscilla Taguer Production: Chernow Editorial Services, Inc. Copy Editor: Suzanne Lander Interior Design: Adam B. Bohannon Cover Design: Adam B. Bohannon Cover Illustration: Bina Abling

Executive Editor: Olga T. Kontzias Production Director: Ginger Hillman Editorial Development Director: Jennifer Crane Associate Art Director: Erin Fitzsimmons

Copyright © 2010 Fairchild Books, a Division of Condé Nast Publications, Inc.

All right reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may

Copyright © 2003 Fairchild Publications, Inc.

be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher.

All rights reserved. No part of this book covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means—graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, or information storage and retrieval systems—without written permission of the publisher. Manufactured in the United States of America. GST R 133004424 ISBN: 978-1-56367-973-5

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2002103884

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ISBN: 1-56367- 235-9

GST R 133004424

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CD-ROM Instructions iv Preface to the Third Edition iv

A 3
academic costume 3 activewear 5 aprons 14 armor 16

H 218
hair accessories 218 hairstyles 219 handbags 228 headwear 236 hosiery 269

Q 384 R 385 S 393
scarves 396 shirts 403 shorts 410 shoulders and sleeves 412 skirts 420 sleepwear and loungewear 426 sweaters 439 swimwear 442

B 21
belts 29 blouses and tops 34 braids 43

I 276 J 281
jewelry 283 jumpers 295

C 50
capes, cloaks, and shawls 52 clerical dress 71 closures 75 clothing construction details 79 coats and jackets 85 cuffs 119

K 297 T 446 L 301
laces 301 leathers 309 lengths 314 ties 450

U 461
umbrellas and parasols 461 undergarments 462

D 122 M 320 E 134
embroideries and sewing stitches 136 eyewear 149 masks 323

V 476
vests 477

N 334
necklines and collars 335

F 152
fans 154 feathers 156 footwear 163 furs 188

W 481
waistlines 481 watches 483 wigs and hairpieces 487

O 349 P 353
pants 354 plaids and tartans 368 pockets 371 prints, stripes, and checks 377

X, Y, Z 493
Appendix: Designers 497 References 521

G 198
gems, gem cuts, and settings 200 gloves and glove construction 210

The page will appear. and distribution of apparel. and business terms relating to the fashion industry. p r e fac e to t h e t h i r d e d i t i o n Origins of the Fairchild Dictionary of Fashion This third edition of The Fairchild Dictionary of Fashion stands on the foundation of two previous editions that were originated and developed by Charlotte Mankey Calasibetta. To search for another word or phrase. The Third Edition Categories The third edition preserves what is best of the earlier editions. Then click on the word ‘Search’ that appears above the Table of Contents. The ‘Search PDF’ window will appear. but a number of changes make the book even more comprehensive and useful. type in the desired page number. Professor Calasibetta’s description of how she created the first edition will provide insight into the formidable task that she undertook: This dictionary evolved from a college course in fashion. In 1998 a revised second edition was published that included an appendix containing not only fashion terms new since the previous edition. and hit ‘Enter’. merchandising. and so on. ‘Include Comments’. A reader who is interested in a definition of a “peg-top instructions To search for a specific word or phrase. lists were assembled of collars. ‘Include Bookmarks’. click on the desired letter in the left-hand menu under Table of Contents or on the Contents page itself and you will go directly to that page. sleeves. To go to a specific page number. The second edition added approximately 1. and each was considered in the light of the existing fashion trends—which were “in. select one of the search options: ‘Whole words only’. ‘Case-Sensitive’. entries describing types of retail organizations. first click on any alphabet letter located in the left-hand menu under Table of Contents.” The basic categories for this dictionary grew from these lists. One of the strengths of the dictionary has been the organization of entries into categories. designers. To scroll through the pages from A to Z. Since 1975.700 entries and 11 more categories. scholars. Type the word or phrase in the box underneath ‘What word or phrase would you like to search for?’. necklines.” for . but also terms used in the manufacture. The page where the selected result is found will appear with the searched for word or phrase highlighted. click in the page number box. Scroll through the search results and click on the result you want to read. Click on the ‘Search’ button. those in the fashion business. In an attempt to teach students a vocabulary of fashion terms that would not become outdated. and anyone with an interest in fashion past and present. If appropriate. The searched word or phrase will be listed with the total number of instances it appears in the document. The addition of historical terms and some of the vocabulary of clothing manufacturers rounded out the entries. authors. The pages will scroll up and down in the middle window. click on the left or right arrows next to the page number box or use the scroll bar on the right side of the window. To go the first page of a particular letter of the alphabet. Each instance will be listed in the ‘Results’ box.” and which were “out. click on ‘New Search’. the work has served as an invaluable reference for students. skirts.

Several unique aspects of historic terms should be noted. and words from earlier decades and even previous centuries may still be in use. the category BLOUSES AND TOPS does not include those items designated as “bodices” or other upper-body coverings that were worn before the term “blouse” became widely used in the second half of the 19th c. and sloping to knee-length in the back. as in the following example: Andalusian casaque ∞ (an-da-loó-zee-an cask) Woman’s evening tunic. an infinity symbol (∞). In past editions. Worn over another skirt c. where a cross-reference will direct them to the appropriate location. can be spelled cadogan. clearly fits into a category. with the front of the skirt cut away. . 1809. SANDALS. that were worn before the categorical heading term was used. If a historical term. and so the two categories have been merged into one called COATS AND JACKETS. will find that entry in the Skirts category and can compare that definition with those for other types of skirts.. Folk costume terms are included only if they are used in mainstream fashion. As a means of eliminating this repetition. looks. prior editions had separate categories for SHOES. differed in form and shape from 19th and 20th c. To be comprehensive and cover nonWestern apparel would require a book far larger than this one. Trunk hose. catogan. although they both served as lower body coverings. The categories of COATS and of JACKETS had a considerable amount of duplication. BOOTS. Fashion Terms from Non-Western Cultures and Folk Costume The focus of this dictionary is fashion in the Western world. a popular hair and wig style of the 18th c. the author and editors of this edition have merged some. Kinds of Words Defined in the Dictionary Contemporary Fashion Terms As in the earlier editions. dresses. Readers will now find “hennin” in the category of HEADWEAR. The table of contents provides a complete list of the categories utilized in this edition. they can consult the alphabetical listing. non-Western apparel terms are defined only if they have become part of Western fashion or have some current importance. In this edition. and SLIPPERS. some categories tended to overlap other categories and/or entries in the alphabetical listing. a 16th c. discarded others. One of these is spelling. the entries contained in these aforementioned categories have been placed in the alphabetical listing. the category heading PANTS is a relatively recent term that came into use only in the 19th c. For example. a major focus is fashion terms currently in use and those that tend to be revived periodically. the derivation of the term is noted. For many of the entries. For example. After careful analysis of the categories. Likewise. the more general category of footwear now contains all of the aforementioned types of foot coverings. Exceptions to this practice include garments that may be similar to modern garments in their function. Historic terms that are no longer in current usage are designated by a special archival symbol. Fashion designers often derive inspiration from the past. fastened down center with series of ribbons. pants. it is placed there. Should readers not know the category into which an item fits. or catagan. however. and added a few new categories. “hennin” (a type of hat). allowing for visual comparisons. for example. garment for men. but different in construction. Another change is in the transfer of historical terms from the alphabetical listing to the appropriate category.v Preface to the Third Edition example. Illustrations of a variety of skirt types also appear with the category. For example. Before the publication of standardized dictionaries in English in the 18th and 19th c. Historic Fashion Terms Another important aspect of earlier editions has been the inclusion of historic fashion terms. spelling could be quite erratic. Such terms are listed separately in the alphabetical listing. For these reasons. and suits are examples of categories that contained a number of duplications of alphabetical entries.

both contemporary and historic. however. The terms included are those with specific application to some segment of the fashion industry. non-Western apparel terms and folk costume terms are included only if they have become part of Western fashion. that appendix has been reduced. In the present edition. As previously noted. daggers. Since the publication of the 2nd edition of Fairchild’s Dictionary of Fashion. Those textile terms that have been retained are identified by a dagger (†). Dictionary users will find many fashion elements from the 19th century that are named after royalty or famous persons of the past. These and additional entries have been incorporated into the alphabetical listing. Fashion Designers Previous editions of the Dictionary of Fashion have included an appendix of fashion designers and discussion of their work. Illustrations The Fairchild Dictionary of Fashion includes 800 drawings. so as to provide more space for new fashion entries. guns) are not included. all new. A very thorough examination of the life and work of important fashion designers past and present is to be found in the Fairchild publication. Where possible. costume historians and other writers of the 19th c. Limitations on Entries Included in the Dictionary In any book. The following are some of the kinds of terms not included in this work. 3rd edition. Names of fashion designers listed in the appendix are included in the alphabetical listing and are designated by an asterisk (*). General business terms are not included. . and marketing terms were introduced in the revised 2nd edition in an appendix. Christian * See APPENDIX/DESIGNERS. The constant addition and deregistration of trademarks makes it very difficult to include such entries and be both up-to-date and accurate. Weapons (e. Merchandising and Retailing Terms Fashion design. When an entry is illustrated at some other place in the book. and now provides only a brief biographical note about each designer. a new edition of the Fairchild Dictionary of Textiles has been issued. are so significant to fashion that they must be included. and users who require a more complete definition of textile terms are advised to consult that work. originated many names for styles of earlier centuries. Foreign terms do not appear unless they are used in English in fashion or scholarship about fashion. swords. and to new textile materials that have had a recent impact on fashion. a notation is made of where that illustration can be found. Definitions of colors have been eliminated because the author and editors felt that it is virtually impossible to define a color.Preface to the Third Edition vi Medieval terms. production. it must be shown. angora † Soft fuzzy yarn made from the underhair of the angora rabbit that is used for knitwear and for trimmings. Registered trademark names have been eliminated.g. illustrating fashion terms. even when carried ceremonially. As fashion changes accelerated and periodicals provided more coverage of fashions. some of which derive from English and others from French. Some trademarks. space imposes some limits on content. there was a tendency to assign names to styles. Textile Terms The number of textile terms has decreased significantly in this edition. That work provides comprehensive listings of textile terms. to standard textiles that continue to be widely used. insofar as that is possible. Those with Latin roots tend to be more stable. Who’s Who in Fashion. Foreign words used in English in a fashion context are included. definitions of such terms will incorporate a brief explanation of who the historical personage was or note that a particular term was coined at a time long after the costume was worn. Entries have been limited to some basic textile terms. Also.. tend to have many spelling variations. Dior.

consisting of a minimal halter bra with bikini panties. When an entry in the alphabetical listing is to be found in a category under the same name as the entry. By the 1980s these suits became still smaller and a number of variations had developed. but . a top that looks like an underwire bra and a bikini bottom. It is printed in nonbold typeface and is placed inside parentheses. The AC A D E M I C CO ST U M E Outfits consisting of caps. worn low on hips. called mortarboards (see ACADEMIC COSTUME: MORTARBOARD). it is listed as follows: cadogan net See HEADWEAR: SNOOD. baseball cap See HEADWEAR. Synonyms are printed in italics. tankini (tan2 -kee-nee). Category headings are printed in capital letters. Cross-references are in small caps.” So-called because it was worn by older Russian immigrants to the United States. they are placed at the end of the entry and preceded by Der. each definition for the entry is preceded by a number in boldface. 2. and made of two triangular-shaped pieces attached to an elastic band or string ties. not accepted on U. bikini 1.” Eventually the name was changed to bikini after Bikini Atoll. who called it the atom because of its small size. Also called a kerchief. corset bikini. Entries are printed in boldface. When derivations for entries are given. . Two-piece swimsuit introduced in 1946 by designer Jacques Heim. So all terms are rendered in the closest phonetic equivalent in the way that an English-speaker would pronounce the syllables. When an entry has more than one definition. teardrop bikini. with a camisole top and a bikini bottom. alternate spellings are placed behind a slash in the main entry. “grandmother. Cross-references to items in categories are printed in small caps. If the term is a synonym or is defined within another entry. a small coral island in the Pacific where atomic tests were made from 1946 to 1956. They are set off from the alphabetical text by borders. Any cross-reference that does not include a category designation will be found in the alphabetical listing. Many are foreign language words that are nearly impossible to interpret phonetically. . Man’s very brief swim trunks. rendered phonetically. but are given when pronunciations may not be obvious to the user. Bikinis were worn on Riviera beaches. Russian. a version was advertised as “smaller than the atom. followed by a colon. made up of bikini pants worn with a bra composed of two tiny triangles with straps at neck and around the body. bandeau (ban-doe2 ) Pronunciation of the entry. a woman’s bathing suit with a tank top and a bikini bottom. Where more than one spelling is current. Such terms also serve as primary entries and are printed in boldface type. with the category given first. Also called academic regalia. Pronunciations are not provided for all terms. the category alone is cross-referenced and the term can be found in that category. Der. This cross-reference is to an entry in the alphabetical listing. Soon after. gowns.S. approximations of the actual pronunciation.vii Preface to the Third Edition Format and Organization of Definitions The following entries will serve to illustrate the organization and format features of the third edition of The Fairchild Dictionary of Fashion. public beaches until the early 1960s. follows the main entry. abilements/abillements See BILLIMENTS. babushka (bah-boosh2 -ka) Triangular-shaped scarf or square folded diagonally. closely related terms are defined within the definition of the primary entry. In some entries. at best. These were: string bikini. and the individual entry listed after the colon. camikini. worn draped over the head and tied under the chin in the manner of Russian peasant woman. . These phonetic renderings are.

Preface to the Third Edition viii accent mark shown in any pronunciation is given after the syllable that should be emphasized. NY. Ties. but without use of the World Wide Web. And I appreciate all of their help. And. The Embroiderers’ Guild of America. coordinated a smooth transition from manuscript to printed text. The results of her excellent and illuminating contributions are to be found in the pages of this book. The Hosiery Association.. and Settings and Jewelry. NY. Drexel University. this project would have required far more time and energy. Managing Editor. A number of individuals contributed both general reviews of the dictionary and specialized reviews of individual categories. Headwear. handled the flow of work with what seemed like effortless attention to the many essential details. Art Director. Furs. Adam Bohannon. Numerous libraries also provided assistance. Jerry Anderson. Gem Cuts. Sally Kay. Embroidery. Fur Information Council of America. Gems. the Queens College Benjamin Rosenthal Library. was ready and able to locate a basis for elusive illustrations. My gratitude goes first to my husband. and Bella Veksler. Edith Anderson Feisner. Adam Graham. and Robert Woods. Belts. In the production phase. as always. was a pleasure. Hosiery. Berkeley College. Public Library. Merle Thomason. Internet sources of information and confirmation are too numerous to cite. Mary Morris. was always ready with answers to questions about organization and Steve Bedney. Salon News Contributing Editor. Working with these professionals was always rewarding. Public Library and the Westchester. NY. and was a most valuable source of advice and encouragement throughout the writing and editing. Vision Council of America. Working with Bina Abling. Acquisitions Editor. These were the Briarcliff Manor. Fairfax County Public Schools. Acknowledgments Many individuals assisted in the preparation of this new edition of The Fairchild Dictionary of Fashion. American Gem Society. the illustrator of this edition. Library System and its numerous branches. archivist for Fairchild Publications. and the Port Washington. originated an effective and appealing design for the interior of the book and Priscilla Taguer was the Production Manager. I offer my special thanks to the staff of Fairchild Books. and Scarves. the library of the Fashion Institute of Technology. became a guide in questions of style. Inc. The Neckwear Association of America. the New York Public Library and Picture Collection. . I would like to thank them for the expertise they brought to the project. for lending his linguistic skills to his development of the pronunciations included in the work. Eyewear. G Street Fabrics. Reviewers of individual categories include Kate Achelpohl. Handbags. Chernow Editorial Services. Keith Kaplan. President. Vincent Tortora. The general reviewers ae Lynda Campbell. worked through the steps necessary to get the new edition started and provided input to and evaluation of reorganization ideas. Olga Kontzias. Hairstyles and Hair Accessories. Executive Editor. Mary McGarry. Jeryl Spear. Barbara Chernow.

t h e fa i rc h i l d d i c t i o na ry o f fa s h i o n .


ca ble st i tch See em broideries and sewing sti tch e s . 4. There is no industry agreement on cup sizes larger than D. See coats and jackets: gaberdine. Pajama size: Men’s regular height (5!8"–5!11" ) size corresponding to 41"–44" chest measurement.C C C 1. full robe with a slit neckline that is of ten decorated w ith embroidery and has long or three . see big. and outer layer of sheer or latticed fabric hanging loo s ely. cadenette (cad-net´) French term for a “lock of hair. CAD/CAM See computer. Bra cup size. caddie/caddy See headwear: bush hat. 2. cabbage ruff See ruff. cable hatband Band of gold yarn twisted to resemble a rope or cable. 2. B. cabriole headdress See hair accessories. cabas See headwear. cage 1. Shirt size: For men’s extra-tall size with 17–171⁄2 collar measurement. 3. A. AA. cabochon See gems. caftan neckl i n e See neck l i n e s caftan and collars. widths run from AAAA to EEEEE with AAAAs being the narrowest and EEEEEs the widest. cabriolet bonnet See headwear. the A sizes being the smallest and D the largest. cable sweater See sweaters. cabin-boy breeches See pants. cable yarn See cord yarn. C. worn in the late 16th c. regular. caban 1. Based on a North Af rican or Middle Eastern garm en t . cack See footwear. Cadoro® bra See undergarments. extra-tall. Overblouse or dress made out of latticelike or transparent fabric. the caftan was adopted by American women in the 1960s and after and worn as at-home or evening dress. For other sizes. cache-laid See masks. Cadogan See hairstyles: george and wigs and hairpieces: clubwig. Shoe size: Letter indicating a width.” See hairstyles: coi f f u re en cadenette s. gem cuts. CAD See computer-aided design. Standard sizes run AAA. Different manufacturers use different designations. cache-peigne See headwear. caftan Long. See undergarments: hoops. cabretta See leathers. cache-folies See wigs and hairpieces. See coats and jackets.qu a rterlength sleeves that widen to the end. cage dress Woman’s garment made in two layers with inner layer opaque and cut close to body. cabana set See activewear. D. and tall. cage-americaine See undergarments.a i ded de s i gn/ computer-aided manufacturing. 2. Su ch dre s s e s . introdu ced in late . cadogan net See headwear: snood. and settings. Caesar haircut See hairstyles.

Carving a two-tone shell in the same manner as above to produce a shell cameo. and shawls. even appearance. 2. California embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. camisette See undergarments. See necklines and collars: camisole neckline. camisia Medieval British term for chemise. Cambridge coat See coats and jackets. CAM See computer-aided manufacturing. 3. camise See undergarments: chemise. calligraphic scarf See scarves. calypso chemise (ca-lip-so) Woman’s dress of the 1790s made in two parts: a dress of colored muslin worn under a loose robe. 2. ca le n d e r † Passing fabric between two heated ro llers in order to produ ce a smoo t h . camauro See clerical dress. calypso shirt See shirts. and exercising with dumbbells. Cambridge paletot See coats and jackets. a version of this dress was called gymnasium costume. and settings. cloaks. calamanco See footwear: calamanco shoes. camel hair † 1. calico † Plain weave. calençons (kal´sen) Worn by women in early 17th c. See bl o u s e s and tops: camisole top. calisthenic costume Knee-length dress worn with Turkish trousers similar to bloomer costume. Later. See underga rm ents. Camargo See coats and jackets. which produ ces soft luxurious ya rn that is resistant to heat and co l d . cainsil (kane-sil) See chainse. gem cuts. calceus See footwear. Cameron tartan See plaids and tartans. cage petticoat See undergarments. The opposite of intaglio. May also be made of linen and used for handkerchiefs. 4. Camargo hat See headwear.. From Cambrai. cagoule See capes. and shawls. camisole 1. camail 1. were similar to dresses designed by Spanish couturier Cristobal Balenciaga in Paris in the 1940s. cloaks. a type of long drawers or hose worn with doublet and petticoat that later developed into the breeches and trousers of women’s contemporary riding habit. ca l o t te 1. cloaks. 3. calèche See headwear: calash. cami-tap set See undergarments: tap panties. camelaurion See headwear. See undergarments: chemise. cameleons See footwear. cames See undergarments: chemise. cl o s ely woven co t ton fabric made with mercerized yarns given a calendered finish. Worn in late 1850s by women and girls for such sports as archery. Cloth made of these fibers. See armor. iceskating. Popular again in the 1990s. calash See headwear calasiris See kalasiris. . gem cuts. cake hat See headwear. calculator watch See watches. camikini See swimwear: bikini. Sleeved jacket or jersey formerly worn by men. France. calf-length See lengths. and ch eck s: calico print. 2. calico button See closures. cameo 1. caging See medium-weight cotton or cotton-blend fabric usually printed with very small designs such flowers or geometric forms. light. Most common subject is a woman’s head and shoulders. calfskin See furs and leathers. calgoule See capes. and shawls. Using colored pottery material similar to that used by Josiah Wedgwood and molded to produce a Wedgewood® cameo (see under jewelry).cami-tap set 51 1960s by Paris couturier Yves Saint Laurent. See headwe a r. 2. Also see pri n ts. See capes. A small low relief carving usually made from a banded two-layered g emstone such as onyx or sardonyx that gives a raised design. 2. calendar watch See watches. See gems. Der. stri pes. Fibers from the crossbred Bactrian camel of As i a . calcarapedes See footwear. See cl eri c a l d re s s . calamanco shoes See footwear. cage empire See undergarments. usually in white with another color left as the background. cambric † Fine. Callot Soeurs * See Appendix/Designers. calk See footwear. and settings: cameo and intaglio. cairngorm See gems.

and s etti n gs . ca n e Staff or walking sti ck to assist walking or to carry as a fashionable accessory. canons. camp shirt See shirts. camp 1. C c a pe s .52 camouflage pants camouflage pants See pants. See shirts and shorts. also called a clouded cane. to polished woods with el a bora tely decora ted head s . canezou pelerine See canezou #2. e. Also spelled cantile. carried in 18th c. By mid-19th c. 2. rattan canes. Military braid of gold or silver thread that looks like lace. this sleeveless overblouse style continued in use until the 1860s. cannon sleeve See sleeves and shoulders. ribbons. gem cuts . and made from the mottled stem of the malacca palm. Similar to dresses worn by Music Hall dancers in film and stage show Can-Can and those shown in paintings by Henri Toulouse-Lautrec. cap See headwear. artif icial. candlewick embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. carried in 17th and 18th c. capa See capes. The skirt has an overskirt in apronlike effect tapering to center back with a large bow. adj. cannons Frills of lace or bunches of ribbons that fell down over tops of wide boots worn by men during 1660s and 1670s. an elabora te fichu or scarf of muslin. and shawls. ca n teen bag See h a n d bags and related acce s s ories. a n d sh a w l s cape Sleeveless outerwear of various lengths usually opening in center front. and made from an East Indian palm. canadienne See coats and jackets. a walking stick used by men in 19th c. ca n d y st r i p es See prints. Fine spiral-twisted gold or silver thread. campagus See footwear. Also worn with low shoes and petti coat breech e s . See cannons. ex tending down cen ter front and back but not covering the arms. campaign coat See coats and jackets. s pecific types inclu ded: m a l acca cane (mah-lah´kah). cut in a full . c lo a k s . cannetille (can-tee) 1. and lace covering bodice of dress. acce s s ory garm ents that were sometimes worn as a means of extending the life of an older garment. S h own at petticoat breeches. 1. 2. In 1830s a cape. Der. and is worn over under skirt cancan dress made with rows of ruffles. cloaks. cannon 1. shillelagh (sha-lay´-lee). Deliberate adoption of styles or behavior that are gen era lly con s i dered to be vu l ga r. made from a palm stem with a bulbous top. used for embroidery. canions Tu bular ga rm ents worn on the thighs as exten s i ons of m en’s trunk hose f rom 1570 to 1620. c ut short and poi n ted. or humorous. constable. Designed by Victorine for Karl Lagerfeld of Chanel for fall 1986. A woman’s waist-length spencer jacket of 1820s without sleeves. a small cane with a gold-plated top carried by men in 1830s and 1840s. Also call ed canezou pel erine. 3. canezou (can-zoo´) Refers to any of several types of 19th-c. Also called port canons. canotier See headwear. cancan dress Contemporary version of the traditional costume of Parisian cancan dancers of the 1890s. Canes vary from rough rustic wood for c ountry use. Frequ en t ly of different fabric or co l or than the trunk hose. penang lawyer.g. 2. camouflage suit See activewear. canvas e m b ro i d e ry See em broideries and sewing stitches: Berlin work. Ca rri ed from 16th c. camp shorts See shorts. campaign hat See headwear. stri pe s . 2. to present by men and occasionally by women. cantile See cannetille #1.. ca na ry d ia m o n d See gems. ca na ry bre e ch es See activewear: riding breeches. Shown at el i za bethan styl e s . Also used as an adjective to describe such styles. The bodice has a busti er effect and laces up the back. campaign wig See wigs and hairpieces. and ch ecks. See armor.

Persian and Hindu. and worn by co u n try people for utilitarian purposes. cloaks. sometimes hooded. Der. Also called Irish mantle. of camel’s hair spun into yarn. Very popular throughout the 19th c. Also called bolero mantle. and shawls: burnoose. woven in alternating stripes of pattern and plain color. Worn by women in 1814.capes. or on the straight—usually with slits for arms. elbow. a l m u ce Sm a ll fur. shawl Decorative or utilitarian wrap. and shawls: Spanish shawl. bolero cape Elbow-length cape. the longest ending near the waistline. Shown at capes. Bernhardt mantle Woman’s short outdoor cape with loose front and dolman or sling sleeves that was popular in 1886.type shawl made in Scotland. cashmere. This term appears often during last half of 19th c. Mantle or cape made of coa rs e material worn by peasants in Ireland in 9th and 10th c. Believed to have originated in Bukhara. worn by women at end of 19th c. square. May be ob long. worn by men and women from late 13th to early 15th c. Very popular in 1830s. larger than a scarf. box cape Straight cut. cloaks. worn in bad weather by Romans of all classes under the last emperors. cloaks. A classic type of outerwear worn in one f orm or another throughout history. worn by men and women in late 18th c. cloaks. aumusse. cloak Loose outer garment not clearly distinguishable from outer ga rm ents that might also be classed as capes. all-purpose poncho See capes. “shal. Made of fur or wool and fashionable in late 1930s. Bokhara shawl (bo-kar´-a) Shawls made in Bo k h a ra . or loose coats with vestigial sleeves. birrus Hooded cape of rough cloth. Andalouse cape (an´-da-looz´) Cape worn outdoors by wom en in 1846. Du ring the Middle Ages. m ade of silk and trimmed with fringe. buros. Also spelled byrrus. bell Circular cape used as traveling cloak. . cut like a bolero in front and tapered to waistline in back.l i n edMedieval cape with attached hood that tied under the chin. Named after Sarah Bernhardt. b ra t t 1. Term u s ed in latter part of 14th c. bautte/bautta (bah-oot´ta) Bl ack cloth wra p of 18th c. Did not becom e fashionable in Europe until second half of 18th c. and worn intermittently since. or a square folded diagonally. Also worn in Persia and India. almusse. artois (ahr-twah´) Long loose cloak with lapels and several capes. for wrap or bl a nket for an infant.or hip-length cape with broad padded shoulders and square silhouette. styled with high collar. barège shawl (ba-rezh´) A printed shawl made in France in the 1850s from fabric with worsted crosswise yarns and silk lengthwise yarns. beach poncho Oblong terrycloth poncho that can be laid flat for use as a towel at the beach. a famous French actress of the period. broché ( bro-shay´) Paisley . Popular in 1950s and early 1960s. See cashmere shawl #2. cloaks. sometimes with side and back vents. bubble cape E l bow-length fur cape often made with skins worked in the round. padded and lined with ermine. Uzbekistan. beluque Woman’s cape or mantle worn in the 15th c. Balmoral mantle Cloak of velvet. 2. a cape was more generally call ed a mantle. Al s o s pelled amuce. it was worn in Kashmir as early as late 16th c. aunice. bivouac mantle (biv-oo-wak´) Full-length loose cape of scarlet cloth. Dyed with vegetable dyes and woven into 8-inch strips of patterned fabric joined invisibly to form shawls. mantles. in a segment of a circle. worn draped over the shoulders and sometimes the head. and shawls: rain poncho.” Shown at capes.. with hood that could be drawn down over face to form a half mask. or wool styled like an Inverness cape (see under capes. Important from then on in various eras in various lengths as a separate item or attached to coats. and shawls: bubble cape 53 c i rcle. and shawls) and popular for outdoor wear in the 1860s.

” capelet Any small cape. cloaks. it was called cape a l’espagnole (les-pan-yol´) and worn by women. Used as a working cape by matadors at Spanish and Mexican bullfights. or green and afterward embroidered in gold. used to attract bull’s attention.l ength shortsleeved cloak. Often they were woven in pairs so that they were reversible. Worn in ancient Greece by travel ers . capa. Also called carmeillette (kar-may´-yet). where large numbers of these shawls were manufactured. 2. and shawls: burnoose/burnouse bu r n o ose/burnouse Ci rc ular three . attach ed or det achable. carmeillette See capes.g. or suit. cloaks. In 18th c. Th e h ood of ten had a tassel attached at the point. capote (kah-pote´) 1. cashmere shawl 1. Full circular cape with wi de cape co llar and red lining. (b) Others woven in a color scheme of white. f a s ten ed in front or on one shoulder with a pin. The chara cteristic bo teh de s i gnbecame known paisley shawl as a paisley design. youths. and shawls: glengarry cape. three-quarter-length scarl et cl oak with hood that re s embl ed the m ozetta worn by cardinals in Rom a n Catholic church. silver. and shawls: epitoga #2. circular. Also spelled capot. of 1880s. cardinal 1. e. cha ussee hood See capes. chlaine (klain) Woolen cape worn in Greece during Homeric period by shepherds and warriors. cawdor cape See capes. In the Kashmir Valley of northwestern India weaving was under the direction of the Maharaja from c. 2. In the Romantic era in France (c. 1586 and for over 200 years shawls were woven for the court and never lef t India. cl oaks. full-length hooded cape worn by Spanish men from Middle Ages to early 17th c. “hooded cloak. Two main types were made: (a) Those with woven designs that were made in sections and sewn together in square and oblong shapes. cha m b o rdma n t le/chambard mantle Th reequ a rter. dress. Full cape worn by bullfighter s in Spain. Machine-made sheep’s wool imitations of cashmere shawls produced in France and Scotland and popular during the 19th c. with shirring at shoulders and down the center back. Der.54 capes. red. The garment was derived from capes worn by indigenous people of North Af rica. Generic term for hooded coat or c loak worn from Middle Ages on. Latin. 2. soft shawl handmade from hair of the Tibetan cashmere goat. The characteristic de s i gn is a cone or leaf p a t tern called a bo teh . and silk threads. and shawl s : ti ppet. 1830s and 1840s). chlamys (klay´-mis or klahm´-is) Oblong mantle approx i m a tely 5! or 6! # 3!. capuchon (kap´-oo shon) Woman’s waistl ength outdoor evening mantle with wi red h ood and long ti ght sleeves worn in 1837. a cape collar. Also see capes. cassock ma n t le Woman’s knee . ca go ule (ka-goo l´) Cloth or fur semic i rcular cape with attach ed hood worn by peasants from 11th to 13th c.qu a rter length cape of wool that had a pointed hood or fabric cut and sewn to simu l a te a hood . s o l d i ers.l ength hooded woman’s cl oak of 1850s that resembled a shawl with fullness in back. the style is occasionally revived. made of satin or velvet. Su ch shawls were extremely popular during French consulate (1799–1804) and Empire peri od (1804–1814).. Wide. casaweck See coats and jackets. Chlamys continued to be worn in C . cl oa k s . See clerical dress: mozetta. and in Greek mythology by the god Hermes. burnoose E s pec i a lly popular in the 1840s to the 1860s. hu n ters . 2. Woman’s waist-length red cloak without hood or collar worn in 1840s. Kn own also as paisley shawls (pay´-slee) after the town of Paisley in Scotland. cloaks. and shawls: capuchon. Extremely fine. These were called twin or double shawls. on a coat. capa 1.

After adoption by clergy.S. cottage cloak Woman’s hooded cloak of 19th c. Originally an ancient Roman cloak worn over the toga sometimes having bell-shaped sleeves. First worn in mid 1820s. Full length. worn o nly in the rain. Both capes were edged with fancy box-pleated ribbon. In England. A large cloak. 2.p e le r i n e L a r ge cape or shaw l . it was always sleeveless and richly decorated. or other fine fabric in extra wide widths. and rosettes. After the title of a melodrama by Dion Boucicault. and shawl s)—sometimes with sleeves—made of bias-cut satin. Dorothy cl oa k Wool cape manufactured and sold domino #2 to the public after 1890 by the Shakers. and frequ en t ly lined with ra bbit or gray squirrel combined with bright fabric. The medieval hood reduced to symbolic form as a part of academic and ceremonial robes. Style worn as a coronation robe by English soverei gns. and shawls: French cloak. 2. crispin 1. semicircular. and shawls: fichu-pelerine 55 m ore semicircular shape in By z a n tium and in later centu ries for sports and travel i n g. 3. satin braid. 2.l i ke covering for woman’s shoulders worn from mid-1820s to 1860s. worn with a small mask for trad i ti onal carniva l and masquerade co stu m e . Eugénia.l en gth co l ored taffeta wom en’s mantle trimmed with wide lace ruffle worn in 1850. f i ch u . of seven-eighths length. with full sleeves and quilted lining. similar to above but cut more like a robe and worn as ac ademic dress. similar to those seen in pictures of the fairy-tale character Little Red Riding Hood. Originally. In Paris it had two capes. Popular in late 1960s and early 1970s in oblong. Der. Introduced from Paris in both plain and tartan designs. faldetta Wa i s t . Fashionable in late 19th c. no sleeves. The Voluminous woman’s cape of early 1860s. Usually black with second cape reaching to waist in back and shorter in front.. and was ornamented with bows. frills. Popular in 18th and 19th c. with a short shoulder cape. and children. 3. Man’s evening cloak. cloaks. fringe. or cashmere and often padded. 3. it opened down the front and closed with silk ribbon ties. Woman’s short mantle of early 1840s with close-fitting back and small pelerine cape (see under capes. or triangular shapes. Colleen Bawn cl oak Wom a n’s cloak of 1860s to 1890s made of wh i te gren ad i n e with large cape pulled up in center back and caught with rosettes or bowknots. cope 1. attached hood and was made in a variety of colors. epitoga 1. satin. later adopted for men. Originally a hooded cloak designed as a rain cape sometimes made with sleeves and fastened in center front.capes. 2. Named after the designer Shaker Eldress Dorothy Durgin. velvet. Der. a large hood worn by monks. It had a very full. tied under chin. co m pass cloak See c a pe s . worn in late 1830s. See clerical dress. Cloak without a collar worn by actresses waiting in the theater wings in early 19th c. a religious community. Also called chausse or chaussee hood. circular Long cape or mantle of silk. women. and without arm slits. and shawls: cloak. Usually white and frequ en t ly made with a do u ble cape and tu rned-down co llar and ti ed in front with the fichu-pelerine 1834 . a cloak with attached hood for men and women. domino 1. chlamys clerical cape See clerical dress. usu a lly bl ack. cloaks. Later. Cloak of the 13th c. cloaks. cloak See under category heading for capes. Esmeralda cloak Waterproof wrap of the late 1860s worn in U. crocheted shawl Fringed shawl made by hand crocheting usually in a lacy pattern. cl oaks.

Jocelyn ma n t le Knee-length. froufrou mantle Woman’s shoulder cape of late 1890s made in three tiers trimmed with ruching. some being in large squares of color. He av y enough to be swung like a club. b.d.c. gl o cke (glok´-ka) Med i eval ponch o . Der. fishnet poncho Square medium-sized poncho made of fishnet or see-through fabric with a high large turtleneck collar. Glengarry cape Three-quarter-length cape worn by women in the 1890s made with a tailored collar and single-breasted closing.s l ee ved . French policeman’s cape Circular-cut kneelength cape worn by French policemen. in late 1960s.n e s s ) Ma n’s full c a pe . and shawl s : bratt. sleeveless woman’s mantle of 1852 made with three capes trimmed with fringe. Also called froufrou cape. French cloak Long circular or semi-circular cape. and 1960s. cl oaks. 1950s. and shawls: fishnet poncho ends reaching below the waist and sometimes as far as the knee. standing collar and rosettes and long ribbon streamers in front. Still worn tod ay.l en gth cape f a stened in center front or on right shoulder by a fibula (pin). and shawls: italian cloak. natural. Authentic cape was sold as sportswear in boutiques and Army surplus stores in U. made of quilted satin or velvet. especially in mountainous Alpine regions of Europe. cloaks. I nve r n ess ca p e ( i n . Very popular in late 1940s. l i m o usine Fu ll . Colorful plaids a re of all varieties. Irish mantle See capes. la ce r na Semi-circular knee . for waist-length fur cape with elongated ends in front. Maintenon cloak (mant-nown´) Woman’s wi de . 5th c. Formerly called pelerine or tippet. and made of wool or worsted. made of h e avy black wool and ru bber. In the 16th c. ge n darme ca p e See c a pe s . was attached at neckline under the collar. The edge of the collar and the hem is trimmed with ball fringe. and purple decorated with gold. Made of wool in white. some being more complicated similar to the Stewart tartans (see plaids and tartans).type outer garment made of loden cloth. Der. From the name of the comedy Froufrou. amethyst. Also called gendarme cape. and shawls: French cloak. “bell. it was called a halfcompass cloak. genoa cloak See capes.S. One type of French cloak was the compass cloak. Was close-fitting at neck and fe ll loose from shoulders—often made in plaid patterned fabric. frileuse Women’s cape or pe lerine wrap. usually long. Had a high. double-skirted . lapponica Poncho of plaid wool with fringed edges imported from Finland. Also call ed Spanish cloak or Genoa cloak.56 capes. bl ack velvet coat of 1860s som etimes embroidered and usually trimmed with C . Italian cloak Short hooded cloak worn by men in the 16th and 17th c. written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy in 1869. fur stole Term used in 20th c. with a fitted back and loose sleeves. Used indoors or at the theater in 1847.l ength circular wom a n’s evening cape of late 1880s with shirring around neck so fullness falls in folds over the arms. Also called cawdor cape. cl oa k s . sometimes with a square flat collar or shoulder cape worn in 16th and 17th c. and some in smaller checks similar to glen plaid (see plaids and tartans: Glen Urquhart plaid). German. a full circular cape worn by men. A hood. forming sleeves.. and shawls: French policeman’s cape. cloaks. Worn by ancient Romans from 2nd c. to a. with a hole in center of large circle of fabric. any of these cloaks was also called a manteau. especially in mink.ver.” half-compass cloak See capes. cloaks. sometimes plaid lined. When made in semi-circular shape. sometimes trimmed with tails of animals. Isabella (The) Hip-length collarless cape of mid-1850s made with slashes for arms and extra capelets at dropped shoulders to cover arms.

” mantle 1. A short cape menti on ed by Ch a u cer in 1386. By 19th c. Sometimes the back sec tion was draped over a bustle and tied with ribbon bow. Der. usually of black lace—white lace worn for festive occasions. and shawls: Spanish shawl. or tied at the neck. 2. muleta cape Descriptive term for a Spanishtype midi cape made of felt. hip-length woman’s cape of late 1890s made with ruffles ex tended down cen ter front. velvet. M olda vian mantle Fu ll . mozetta See clerical dress. Diminutive of Spanish manta. or silk worn around shoulders. Also spelled mantella. sometimes around yoke. Featured in late 1960s for women. velvet.capes. usually a ceremonial open mantle 13th c.t a re´) Braid-trimmed black velvet mantle of mid19th c. Shawl hung long in back and had long ends in front. crossed over chest. Worn draped over head . or as a part of a circle. long in back. at the center.l ength wom a n’s mantle of mid-1850s with long capes over the shoulders forming “elephant sleeves. Shawl or veil worn by Spanish women. with short deep cuffs lined with quilted satin. Nav y. Latin. 3. “covering. 3. mantellum. capelike cl oak ori ginally cut squ a re. and falling over shoulders. ma n te le t 1.s ee´. Der. From cape wo rn by French musketeers or royal bodyguards of Louis XVIII in 17th c. cloaks. 2. Lightwei ght shawl of silk. cloaks. and a standing collar or a double-tiered ruff at the neck. Mother Hubbard cloak Woman’s or girl’s t h ree-quarter-length cl oak of 1880s made of brocade. 4. and shawls: French cloak.S. Mantles could be either open mantles. mantilla (man-ti l´-ah) 1. or cashmere with qu i l ted lining. and slit up sides. midi cape Any calf-length cape. leaving arms free. m o usq u e ta i re mantle (moose-key . and ends tied in back fro m 1814 to 1835. f u ll sleeves—often in dolman (see under shoulders and sleeves) style with shirring over shoulders. At one time worn by nurses when they wore traditional uniforms. Normandie cape Lightweight. Worn from 12th through 16th c. or closed mantles with o penings fo r the head to slip through. part of dress uniform of of f i cers in U. lace. 19th-c. opera cape Man’s full. down front. 2. circular calf-length black worsted cape.” mantlet Matilda/mantlet Matilde Type of shawl-like woman’s garment trimmed with fringe or taffeta in front. mantlet. Long. In 14th c. Wrap for infants in 17th and 18th c. loose. satin. wra pped around neck. sometimes lined in red . s om etimes over a high com b p l aced in hair. Also spelled wors ted with small standing co ll a r. cape. maxi cape Any ankle-length cape. Named for the Marquise de Maintenon. mistress and second wife of Louis XIV of France. fashions. sometimes scarlet. by men and women. Worn by women in 1847. term for a cape without sleeves. cloaks. “shawl. Scarf of fur. or lace worn by wo men from 1840s to 1880s. Der. woman’s rounded shoulder cape with long end tucked under belt in front. around the hem . high co llar ti ed at neckline. Sm a ll cl oak worn by women in 18th c. worn in 1850s. and around hem. with front ending in a point. oblong. Maud Woman’s fringed wrap of plaid fabric worn in mid-1850s. This shawl has influen ced 20th-c. 4. one length of fabric fastened by a pin or clasp on one shoulder. and shawls: opera cape 57 a wide pleated flounce covered with guipure lace (see under laces). Der. officer’s cape Three-quarter-length cape in n av y . nurse’s cape Three-quarter-length cape of navy-blue wool trimmed with brass buttons and lined in red.” m o n t p e nsi e r ma n t le (mon-pon . Sometimes lined and called a double mantle. manton de manilla See capes.ay ) Woman’s capelike garment of 1840s. manteau (man-tow´) See capes. and trimmed with wool tassels around the neck.

pa l u da m e n tu m ( p a . poncho 1.qu a rter. made with back vent and fringed border. palla Rectangular shaw l . Also see himation. the emperor. it was used as a rain cape. paisley shaw l See capes. . made of lace or fabric worn over a dress or pelisse (see under coats and jackets) that was especially popular from c.d a men´tum) 1. and shawls: Spanish shawl. cloaks. Sometimes worn with long scarf ends crossed and tied around waist. sometimes permanently attached. 2. laminated with polyvinyl chloride. opera wrap Term used in early 1900s for women’s full-length opera cape usually made of el a borate fabric trimmed with fur or fe a t hers.or double-breasted style with armhole slits. Worn by ancient Romans for traveling or inclement weather. and the em press but paludamentum #2 ch a n ged to ankle-length by 5th c. Also called victorine. palatine royal A fur cape of 1851 with a quilted hood and short ends in front. This ga rment had a large. Originally made of a rubberized fabric poncho #1 and worn by policemen on a C . Frequently fringed around the edges. wh en not worn could be used as a tarpaulin or a bl a n ket. Squ a re of nyl on fabric. One size fits everyone.n ew-la) Hooded cape or pon ch o . Worn for formal occasions with tail coat (see coats and jackets) and top hat (see headwear). made of h e av y woolen fabric or leather. 2. Pu rple mantle of rich fabric fastened with clasp at shoulders. worn in 1871. pa le to t. that slips over the hea d and snaps closed at the sides to make a partial sleeve. or other fabric worn from 1740 to end of 18th c. Also favored by magicians and circus ringmasters. 2. paletot-cloak (pal-ah-tow´ or pal-to w´) Man’s hip-length cape of the 1850s made in single.s h a ped garment. Woman’s shor t shoulder cape of fur. sometimes wi t h palla and stola one end draped over head. Same item worn by upp er class Byzantine men. A wide collarlike cape. 1820 to 1850. When worn. Usually styled with an attached hood. Fashion item shaped like a square or a small oblong blanket with hole in center for the head. Der. square decoration called a tablion at the open edge over the breast. pa llium Rectangular shawl worn by Roman man. In the 19th c. Worn by Roman wom en draped around body. Also called pol o n a i sepa rdessus (pol-on-nays´ par-de´-soo). and shawls: ti ppet.l ength cl oak with hanging sleeves and a c a pe co llar worn in late 1860s.. Worn by Roman emperors and military officers. piano shawl See capes. polonaise (pol-on-nays´) In 1750s a cape or small hooded cloak drawn back like a polonaise dress (see polonaise #1). pa la t i n e See c a pe s . cloaks. 3. it was fashionable attire with the high silk hat for the opera.58 capes. Utilitarian garment consisting of waterproofed fabric with a slash in the center for the head. 5 4" # 80". and shawls: opera wrap satin. cl oaks. pelerine (pel-er-reen´) 1. peplum rotonde Woman’s waist-length circular cloak. Pierrot cape (pee-ehr-oh´) Woman’s threequarter-length cloak of 1892 with additional shoulder cape and satin ruff at neckline similar to that worn with Pierrot costume. and shawl s : cashmere shawl n t le (pal-ahtow´ or pal-tow´) Woman’s three . cl oa k s .l i ke garment resembling ancient Greek himation. pa e n ula (pay´. Polish mantle Knee-length woman’s cloak of mid-1830s with attach ed cape made of satin edged with fur. Popular in late 1960s and after.

this type o f shawl was draped on the to p of Spanish shawl 1926 grand pianos. sagum (sa´-goom) Red woolen rectangle of cloth worn pinned on the right shoulder as a cape by Roman soldiers and by all Roman citizens in time of war.. Folds to pocke t size for easy carrying. similar to a blanket used at a football game. Also spelled socq. and shawls: Italian cloak. A cape of any fabric treated for water repellency. rebozo (re-bow´-zho) An oblong shawl made of native fabric worn o riginally by South American Indians and introduced as a fashion item in late 1960s. rain cape 1. Worn on one side to insulate from the cold. the shawl was folded diagonally with the point in center at the back and the ends thrown loo s ely over the shoulders. with handspun warp and machine-spun merino filling. rain poncho See capes. sontag (sonn´-tag) Woman’s small cape of 1850s and 1860s worn for warmth. cloaks. the other side protects from the heat of the sun. rocklo. soccus Ceremonial and coronation cape fastened on the right shoulder worn during Middle Ages by kings and dignitaries. because in the early 20th c. 3. The phrase “to put on the sagum” was synonymous with saying “to go to war. it was known as a manton de manilla. Woman’s loose threequarter-length cloak worn in the 1860s with buttons from neck to hem. 2. Henriette Sontag.capes. Also called a rain poncho or allpu rpose poncho. shale French shawls. roccelo. and carri ed for use wh en it rains. made in Rheims. skoncho A do-it-yourself style poncho made from a brushed wool plaid blanket or striped with a fringe on two ends. shawl See under category heading for capes. . Usually made with fringed ends. A 16" slash is cut diagonally in the center. Developed for NASA space program in late 1960s. the other brightly colored. A fashionable acce s s ory of the early 20th c. and shawls: shawl. cloaks. Der. ripple cape In the 1890s a wo man’s short ruffled cape extended beyond the shoulder by shirring three layers of fabric or lace onto a yoke trimmed with ribbon. ro q u e la u re ( ro ke´. Usually made with cape collar and back vent for riding hors e back. sortie de bal (sor´-tee de bal) Woman’s evening cloak with attached hood worn from 1850s to 1870s. Spanish clo ak See capes. A lightweight plastic cape that may be folded. cloaks. placed in a small envelope. le duc de Roqu el a u re (1656–1738).” serape (say-rah´-pay) Bright-colored o blong rectangle worn by Mexicans over the shoulder. Made of silk or cashmere and lined with a quilted fabric.ay . rotonde Woman’s short or three-quarter length circular cape of 1850s and 1860s made of lace or of same material as dress.trimmed and lined with brightco lored silk. When used as a wrap. often knitted or crocheted with ends crossed in front and worn under a cloak. a small standing collar. May also be worn as a skirt. Der. Spanish shawl Large embroidered silk shawl usually m ade in China then shipped to Spain where the long silk f ri n ge was ad ded . Handmade in hori zontally striped patterns. Also spelled roculo. it resembles a small blanket. cloaks.l ore) Ma n’s kneelength to full-length heavy cloak of 18th c. Named for German opera singer. and shawls: Poncho #3. full sleeves—narrower at the w rist— with capes over the sleeves. and shawls: Spanish shawl 59 rainy day. m i n i s te r of wardrobe under Louis XIV. it was revived in the late 1960s and early 1970s and becomes fashionable per iodically. Also called piano shawl. Der. space blanket Insulated blanket with one side aluminized. From Antoine Gastone Jean-Baptiste. of ten fur. When su ch a shawl was shipped by way of Manilla in the Philippines.

large sleeves. See capes. a woman’s full-length coat with loose sleeves and lace cape or deep velvet collar. cloaks. cape sleeve See shoulders and sleeves. cloaks. Der. and settings. tippet 1. by men and women. capelet See blouses and tops and capes. cloaks. See coats and jackets. and shawls. or velvet with fringe at hem used as an outer garment from 1850s to mid-1870s.60 capes. narrow bra i d . capeline See armor and headwear. capot-ribot See headwear. 2. and wide hanging sleeves. Named for François Joseph Talma (1763–1826). Later became an ankle-length semi-fitted coat with princess lines buttoned down the front. worn in 1860s. cloaks. 2. In 1890s. victorine See capes. such a small fur or lace shoulder cape of the 1840s with long flat ends in front reaching below the waist was called a palatine. Styl ed with co llar fitted on neck then turned over. 3. and shawls: palatine Royal. See capes. Made with pointed yoke front and back. capless wig See wigs and hairpieces. lace. cloaks. cap of esta te See headwe a r: cap of maintenance. cape. on. tablet mantilla Watered or plain silk wrap of mid-1850s made with a yo ke that falls low on the shoulders. and gathered to neckline in front. white. 3. and fringe. See capes. gem cuts. and velvet Medici collar. templar cloak See coats and jackets: caban. 3. frequently hooded. and epaulet on each shoulder. Made with separate pieces gathered over the shoulders to fo rm capes over the arms. cloaks. capot See coats and jackets: capote. Shoulder cape of fur or cloth worn by women from 16th c. Tri m m ed with cuttu rret (tab-shaped) ed gi n g. made with long furtri m m ed cape. cloaks. Woman’s knee-to-hip–length cape of em broidered satin. capote 1. See headwear. capeskin See leathers. and shawls: Spencer cloak Spencer cloak Woman’s cloak of early 19th c. 2. later knee-length. Woman’s long cape or cloak. and finally full-length. cap of maintenance See headwear. cape à l’espagnole See capes. and shawls: fur stole. and shawls. Woman’s cloak. Talma 1. Named for the arti s t An toine Watteau (1684–1721). Knee-length man’s cape with a turned-over collar and silk lining. cloaks. Also see capes. tebenna (te-bain´-ah) Etruscan semicircular cloak in purple. cape coat See coats and jackets. usually using embroidered fabric. visite (vee-zeet) General term for woman’s loose cape-like outdoor garment worn in last half of 19th c. and lined or trimmed with fur. waterproof cloak Outergarment with small tassell ed hood worn by wom en from 1867 to 1870s. See scarves. Cape May diamond See gems. and shawls: Esmeralda cloak. The Roman toga is thoug ht to have developed from this cloak. worn f rom 1808 to 1818. or black (for funerals) worn by a king and important citizens— short at first. witchoura mantle 1. and shawls: capa. venetian cloak Woman’s black satin cloak of late 1820s with collar. and shawls: fur stole. gem cuts. stole 1. Capezio® See footwear: ballet slippers. made of embroidered net with elbowlength sleeves. In the 1840s. 2. tabard Short heavy cape of coarse cloth worn outdoors in 19th c. made of waterproof fabric. worn for evening in 1850s. An 1830s’ name for a woman’s winter mantle with standing collar. tudor ca p e Wom a n’s short circular cape of 1890s. 2. cape ruby See gems. a French tragic actor of Consulate and Empire period. Made with single box pleat in back. C . Der. cape hat See headwear. and settings. cap of dignity See h e adwear: cap of maintenance. cape collar See necklines and collars. Watteau cape (wat-toe´) Knee-length cape of the 1890s worn by wom en. Also called Talma mantle.

Capuchin See headwear. and sweaters: cardigan. after which the web is drawn out and given a greater or lesser degree of twist to form a yarn. cloaks. Der. necklines and collars: cardigan. shirts: cardigan. The fib ers are separ ated. l ow . he wore a sleeveless knitted woolen vest under his uniform. ca rded yarn † Yarn made from short fibers . caprioll See headwear: cabriole headdress. Carnaby dress Simple beltless dress made in fabrics of unusual color combinations with a large white collar. See coats and jackets: cardigan. behind the grand shopping thoro u ghf a re of Regent Street. Hattie 61 cappuccio See headwear: chaperon. capuchon 1. cargo Adjective used to describe apparel that has cargo pockets. Capuchin collar See necklines and collars. and settings. caprice See coats and jackets. Pierre * See Appendix/Designers. pants: c a rgo pa n ts . cloaks. the lieutenant general in the British Army during the Crimean War who led the famous charge of the Light Brigade.Carnegie. Shown at sweaters: cardigan. cloaks. caracul 1. Also see necklines and collars: carnaby collar. it also influenced skirt lengths for women. Carnegie. gem cuts. The label must provide care and mainten a n ce directi on s . and settings. gloves. ca ra co co rsa ge See coats and jackets : c a raco #2. where “mod” fashions originated in 1960s. that have been subjected to the process of carding. carbuncle See gems. See capes. it featured such items as miniskirts. Excepti ons inclu de hats. Hattie * See Appendix/Designers. Capulet See headwear. straightened out somewhat. caravan See headwear. articles selling for less than $3. polka dot shirts with large flat white co ll a rs.s lung. cardinal pelerine See necklines and collars. Capri-length panty girdle See undergarments: girdles. Named for Carnaby Street. and shawls: capuchon. and styling of children’s wear. carbatina See footwear. cardigan An adjective used to describe collarless garments with round or V-necklines that button down the front. Present-day cardigans do not resemble the original garment. car coat See coats and jackets. capucine See headwear: Capuchin. Needing an extra layer of warmth for the cold Crimean winter. or items not requiring cleaning. 2. k n own in the textile industry as staple fibers. bellbo t tom ed tro u s ers. See furs: karakul. carat See gems. cap sleeve See shoulders and sleeves. cardinal See capes. carmagnole See coats and jackets. Roberto * See Appendix/Designers. Cardin. Der. The name is derived from that of James Thomas Brudenell. 7th Earl of Cardigan (1797–1868). Also see c a rgo ju m p suit. where the mod look first appeared in many small boutiques catering to avant-garde young customers. After Carnaby Street. A major factor in the trend for young men to move away from traditional styling. Capri pants See pants. and shawls. and footwear. Carding is the first step in making staple fibers into y arns. and formed into a weblike mass. . Introduced in the United States in 1964. careless See coats and jackets. See karakul cloth in alphabetical listing. and shawls. See headwear: Capuchin. and shorts: cargo shorts. carding See carded yarn. carmeillette See capes. Carnaby cap See headwear: newsboy cap. England. news boy caps. Capucci. See pockets: cargo. care label Permanently attached label for apparel required by a Federal Trade Commission ruling of 1972. caraco See coats and jackets. Carnaby look Look adopted first in London in connection with the mod look. a London back street. caps See headwear. and wide vi nyl neckties one day—string ties the next. caravan bag See handbags: safari bag. capes for men. 2. items that would be defaced by attaching a label. in London. ca pu ch e See headwe a r: capuche and Ca p u chin. Carded yarns have more fibers on the surface and are not so smooth as combed yarns. carcaille See necklines and collars. gem cuts.

carnival lace See laces: bridal lace. consisting of jacket. established the firm in 1898 and by the beginning of the 20th c. with series of horizontal pleats or rows of shirring (see clothing construction details) across the front. extended around shoulders into small cape. 4. 2. carriage parasol See umbrellas and parasols. 1890–1910) to refer to affluent customers who arrived at the stores in their own carriages. 3. Ruffles bias-cut from fabric. casentino See coats and jackets. For examples see headwear: cartwheel hat. and dyes well. 2. cartoon T-shirt See shirts. Louis. cased sleeve See shoulders and sleeves. cased body 1. Carrickmacross lace See laces. and hat. The specific style conformed to current fashions and was frequently trimmed with fur. Jet pendants of beads with a zigzag edge used at waistline or bodice in 1860s. carrying frocks See long clothes. has a low to medium luster. carpet bag See handbags and related accessories. carpet slipper See footwear. casaquin See coats and jackets: caraco. Describes clothing modeled after or influenced by clothing worn by carpenters. Cartier’s Famous New York City retail store that sells jewelry. Caroline hat See headwear. The term was in use from about 1820 to the end of the 19th c. pants. carriage boot See footwear. C . cartridge belt See belts. Among their clients were the king of Portugal. the Brazilian royal family. they had become the most prestigious jewelers in the world. carriage dress A woman’s dress or costume suitable for riding in a carriage. See necklines and co lla rs. ca r ryall cl u tch See h a n d bags and related accessories. See collection. similar in cut to man’s tail coat (see coats and jackets: swallow tail coat). in circular manner. Woman’s bodice of early 19th c. and strong. casaweck See coats and jackets. that fall in folds. See pa n ts : carpenter pants and aprons: carpenter apron.f i t ting bod i ce for daytime dress. and necklines and collars: cartwheel ruff. gem cuts. Describes apparel that has the s h a pe of a large . carpenter Adj. carpenter’s apron See aprons. and settings. casaquin bodice Ti gh t . Worn outdoors in baby carriage since the late 1920s. Caroline sleeve See shoulders and sleeves. ca r r ia ge trade Term coi n ed by merchants (c. round wh eel like those used on carts. carpincho See leathers. The fiber is fine. cartwheel Adj. cashambles See chaussembles. ca r ryall See h a n d bags and related acce ssories: tote. shoulders and sleeves: cartwheel sleeves. Alfred Cartier and his son. cascade 1. Caroline corsage Woman’s evening bodice of 1830s made with lace ruffles forming a V in fron t. Still som etimes used in referen ce to upscale customers .62 carnelian carnelian See gems. Grand Dukes and Princes of Russia. carrick See coats and jackets. cashgora † Fiber obtained from goats bred in New Zealand that are a cross between female cashmere goats and angora males. Man’s sleeveless jerkin worn over doublet in second part of 16th c. ca rtoon fashions Apparel impri n ted with image s of comic strip and cartoon characters. Trimming used in the 19th and early 20th c. casaque See coats and jackets: casaque and coats and jackets: cassock #3. made by cutting a narrow piece of fabric on bias and pleating it to form repeated shell designs. cartridge pleats See clothing construction details. carriage suit Three-piece set for infant. and other roya l ty and cel ebrities thro u gh o ut the world.. closing with but tons down front and worn in 1878. carryover Apparel styles in a line from one season that are repeated to the next season. cartoon apron See aprons. soft. Part of the trend toward licensing. cartoon watch See watches. carnival collar See necklines and collars.

Turkmenistan. cas h m e reshawl See capes. Tibet. China.cauliflower wig 63 Cashin. the sel ected day is Fri d ay. Mongolia. cauliflower wig See wigs and hairpieces. Dutch lace caps. was trimmed with many diam onds and 4.ay ´ . Smaller independent stores that carry the same ty pe of merchandise are gener ally unable to compete with a “category killer. coi f f u res were limited in height to a bo ut 36 ". cl oaks. Paste-on caste marks were introduced in U. and shawl s . casula See clerical dre s s : chasuble. sportswear. and his crown usu rped by Ca t h erine. caudebec See headwear. slashed hobble skirts (see under skirts). Bonnie * See Appendix/Designers. gem cuts. . Also see battlement. cashmere work See embroideries and sewing stitches.ted ) Ad j ective describing a garment with “squared scallops” at edges. casual wear has been widely accepted for many activities. ca to gan wig See wi gs and hairpiece s : club wi g. 2. Catherine-wheel farthingale See farthingale. category killer A specialty discounter that “kills” the com petiti on by con cen trating on having the best selection at the best price of a single product. soft. cattlehide See leathers. See headwear. cat suit See activewear. downy wool undergrowth produ ced by the cashmere goa t . casual Friday look catagan See hairstyles: cadogan and wigs and hairpieces: club wig. and Iraq. worn to receive the Turkish ambassador in 1775. casing See clothing construction details. Similar goats can now be raised in the United States. and dancing shoes with ballet laces (see under footwear). Cassini. cassock See coats and jackets and clerical dress. caul 1.tell . Related terms include leisure wear. cashmere † 1. including some work situations. which is ra i s ed in the Kashmir regi on of India and Pa kistan and parts of northern India. Jean Charles de * See Appendix/ Designers. Vernon Castle.200 magn i f i cent pe a rl s . caste lla te d ( k a s . caste mark Red mark usually worn in center of forehead by women of India that originally symbolized and identified caste or class membership but which now serves a decorative functio n. as body jewelry for women in 1968. cassock mantle See capes. Castelbajac. who ascen ded the throne in 1762. A major fashion influ en ce of h er ti m e .S. particularly the edge of sleeves or hem. cl oaks. Cloth woven from this wool fiber. cat’s eye See gems. A fine. Synonyms include pashmina. cashmere sweater See sweaters. For many companies. casque See headwear. Castle. castor See headwear. See wigs and hairpieces. m a rri ed to her dancing partner. Together they made tea-dancing the rage in pre–World War I. Similar to dagging. Iran. casquette See headwear. See casual Friday. Catherine II Married in 1745 to Peter III of Ru ssia. catcher’s mask See masks. By 1914 she had started many fashion fads—short earlobe-length hair brushed back off forehead in loose weaves. Over time. and settings. During h er rei gn. 2. Oleg * See Appendix/Designers.” cater cap See headwear. Used in 14th and 15th c. cat stitch See embroideries and sew ing stitches: catch stitch. Irene Am erican ball room dancer. one of h er dre s s e s . casual wear Clothing designed to be worn for occasions that do not require more formal dress. casu a l wo r k days / casu a l Friday Working days identified by business or indu s try when em p l oyees can wear casual dress to work. was depo s ed. ca tch st i tch See em broi deries and sewing sti tch e s . catalog showroom Setting like a warehouse in which merchandise is sold from a catalog or floor samples. and shawl s .

That fee. lightweight fabric. The exact cut and how it is wo rn varies from c ountry to country. for thin transparent film made of acetate. contained in all vegetable fibers. For examples see headwe a r: cavalier hat. Roped chain is com po s ed of t wo ( or more) pieces of chain twisted and wound together like rope. Indian shawls wra pped around the chaddar burka shoulders or waist by Hindu men. and full hiplength capes. cawdor cape See capes. handbags. chain mail See armor: mail. cellulose Basic substance. can be applied to purchases. Among the styles cavalier style 1630 favored by cavalier men were long. chadar. or bel t .64 caution fee caution fe e Fee paid by American designer or manufacturer to attend showing of a Paris couturier. CGMM See com p uter grading and marker making. In Afghanistan. chain store Centralized retail organization that owns and operates a number of retail outlets in different locations that are similar in the lines of m erchandise they sell and in their methods of operation. chaconne See ties. Adjective used to describe items of apparel that incorporate chains into their design. C . wide cuffed boots. chaddah See chador #1. cawdebink See headwear: caudebec. Chains chain rope chain a re called by various names according to shap e of links—cobra chain is composed of two rows of triangular-shaped links that alternate in a flat effect. 2. chainse (shens) Medieval garment of the 11th and 12th c. Herringbone ch a i n is made of small slanting links giving a flat effect. once a trademark. flat collars decorated with lace. it is worn with a head scarf. cellophane Gen eric name. chadur See chaddar #1. chadur. this garment is called a burka. and shawls: glengarry cape. chador/chaddar/chadri 1. 2. celata See armor: salett. Describes apparel derived fro m or inspired by clothing worn by par tisans of King Ch a rles I of E n gland (1625– 1649). chain st i tch See em broi deries and sewing sti tch e s . chaffers See headwear: English hood. as it was made of washable. or 3. wide. chaddah. cavalier Adj. cavu shirt See shirts. and shoulders and slee ves: cavalier sleeve. CFDA See Council of Fashion Designers of America. headwear: chain hat. Also spelled seint. or it may cover the wearer from head to toe and have netting over the ey es. caxon See wigs and hairpieces. and certain manufactured fibers. Also spell ed ch a d d er. which may be equal to cost of one or two items. An al l-enveloping shapeless cape worn by women in some Muslim countries. ceint (sant) Man’s or woman’s belt or girdle worn in the 14th and 15th c. curled hairstyles. See belts: chain belt. ceryphalos See headwear. In some cases. closures: chain closure. bracel et . a carbohydrate. Used in ribbon-sized strips to cover paper fibers imitating straw or used alone as synthetic straw for hats. Also called uttariya. footwear: loafer. An In do Iranian shawl or mantle about three yards in length. jewelry: chain bracelet and chain necklace. chain 1. that was worn over a chemise (see u n derga rm en ts) and may have been worn as a house dress or perhaps as a summer garment. cervellière See armor. large-brimmed hats decorated with feathers. including acetate and rayon. etc. plastic. chuddar. cloaks. or tortoise shell used for cl o s i n gs or worn as an ornam ental accessory in the form of neck l ace. necklines and collars: cavalier collar. celluloid collar See necklines and collars. probably white linen. chudder. Series of connected loops or links made of metal.

or manufactured fiber blends. samarre . du Prêtà-Porter des Couturiers et des Créateurs de Mode. changeable taffeta See changeable effect. cha marre (shah-mar) An ac ademic robe made like a long full coat with sleeves full at the s h o u l ders — u su a lly fur. later referred to a judge’s gown. questions of law and taxes. chamois cloth † (sham-wah´) Soft cotton fabric that is either knitted or woven. feathers. gem cuts. Chambre Syndicale du Prêt-à-Porter (sham´-br san´-dee-kale duh pret ah por-tay´) Organization of couture and women’s ready-to-wear designers formed in 1975 as another vehicle for prom o ti on working within the Fédérati on Française de Coutu re . Sy n onym s : gl a ce (glahs-ay´) . chamois tanning See leathers. striped. May be a plain co l or. Usu a lly made of co t ton . Also spelled ch a m m er. chambord mantle/chambard mantle See capes. shamew. cha nge pocke t See pockets : ti cket pocket. chalk stripes See prints. du Prêt-à-Porter des Couturiers et des Créateurs de Mode. nu m ber of m odels pre s en ted . and the 1960s vers i on was frequ en t ly made of plaid fabric with a braid trim. Introduced about 1490 in England. du Prêt-à-Porter des Couturiers et des Créateurs de Mode. changeable earrings See jewelry. Usu. .l i n ed and decorated wi t h braid and passementerie. cotton. chymer. infant’s we ar. plain we ave fabric made of wool. shot. Chambre Syndicale de la Mode (sham´-br san´dee-kale de lah mode) French official organization of milliners operating like the Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne. and robes. gloves.change pocket 65 chainstitched embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. and shawls. Should not be shortened or confused with ch a m oi s ( See under leathers). Formation of the organization was brought about by Charles Frederick Worth. Chambre Syndicale de la Couture Parisienne (sham´-br san´-dee-kale de lah koo´. belts. chandelier earrings See jewelry. or a blend of the two. and settings. or ch ecked. changeable effect † An iridescent effect in fabric that is achieved by using lengthwise and crosswise yarns dyed different colors. Chanel. chalcedony See gems. Also see clerical dress: simar. rel a ti ons wi th press. Generally used for wom en’s dresses and sport s we a r. cardigan-style jacket. manufactured fibers. d a tes of open i n gs for co llections. samarra . cha m b ray † (sham´. this organization has worked within the Fédérati on Française de Coutu re. It had a collarless. An affiliated school was organized in 1930 called L’Ecole de la Chambre Syndicale de la Couture. chamois See leathers. and promotional activities. Since 1975. and umbrellas. flowers. Ga b r i e ll e * See Appendix/ Designers. Chanel suit Classic women’s suit style origi n a ted by Gabrielle Chanel in the 1920s and revived in the 1960s. and checks.Chanel suit 1960s ally made in silk or lustrous manufactured fibers in f a brics su ch as taffeta to ach i eve the most d ra m a tic ef fect . as this refers to leather and a leather-tanning process.tu re pah-ree zee-en) An association of Parisian couturiers founded in 1868 as an outgrowth of medieval guilds that regulates its members in regard to piracy of styl e s . stripes. Chanel bag See handbags and related accessories. cha ll is † ( s h a l´-lee) Soft. Made with a fine soft nap in imitation of chamois-dyed sheepskin. rayon staple. Supple and lightweight. cloaks. chammer See san´-dee-kale deh pa-roo´-yer) An association comprised of accessory houses in Paris that produce bags. Chambre Syndicale des Pa r u r i e rs (sham´. it is often printed in small floral patterns. Chambre Syn d i ca le de la Mode Mascul i n e (sham´-br san´-dee-kale de lah mode mas´-kuleen ) O r ga n i z a ti onof coutu re and men’s readyto-wear designers formed in 1975 as another vehicle for pro motion wo rking within the Fédération Française de Couture.bray ) A broad class of plain weave fabrics made with colored yarns in the lengthwise direction and white yarns in the c ro s s wise directi on.

penknife. 3. first published in 1916. charm bracelet See jewelry. Lower part was called bas de chausses (ba deh shos). chati cat See furs: spotted cat. and s etti n gs .” the beginning of her long promotion of American designers. chaps See pants. gem cuts. chaperon See headwear. chausse (shos) 1. Chase. Ornamental device of oxidized silver. and settings. 4. chapel veil See headwear. and French Vogue. or buttonhook. called braies (see undergarments). chasembles. keys. 1920. chaperone See headwear: chaperon. cloaks. Charlotte See headwear.”Also see j ewelry and watches. chasing See jewelry. “bottom of hose. 2. French. worn fro m the 5th through the 13th c. gem cuts . See footwe a r: ch a rlie chaplin toe . chatelaine (shat´-eh-lane) 1. also editor of British Vogue. chausses en bourse (shos on boorce ) Breeches pad ded so chaussembles they were full er at bottom — 15th c. chapel de fer See armor. Der. C . About mid16th Ma n’s cut . chastity belt Beltlike device worn by women in the Middle Ages to ensure marital fidelity. chausembles See chaussembles. chasembles See chaussembles. chatelaine #1 chatelaine watch See watches.” chausses en tonnelet See trunk hose.66 change purse change pur se See handbags and r elated accessories. Edna Woolman Editor-in-chief of American Vogue magazine from 1914 to 1952. or cut steel su s pen ded at woman’s waistline or hooked to belt to hold small items such as scissors. tape measure. Worn in last half of 19th c. Der. cha p eau à la Charlotte See headwe a r: Charl otte . chausons (show-son´) Fren ch equiva l ent of the English under pants. charm necklace See jewelry. cha n n e l s e t t i ng See gem s . One of her outstanding achievements was the introducti on in 1914 of a soc i ety-spon s ored fashion show with live models called “Fashion Fête. Later in the Middle Ages. chaplet See headwear. See capes. making a flattened ball oon shape — worn in 17th c. silver-plated metal. Also spelled chausembles. chatelaine bag See handbags and related accessories. chapel-length train See lengths. chapel cap See headwear: chapel veil. cha uss e m bles ( s h ow´. Stockings and trunks cut in one piece similar to contemporary tights. Considered one of the most able and competent fashion authorities. charro pants See pants. chaussures à crics See footwear. Probably cut on the bias to provide some degree of stretch. charm See jewelry. chapeau bras See headwear. See armor. chapeau claque See headwear: opera hat. Charlotte Corday cap See headwear. they fastened to the upper garment (a doublet) by means of lacers called points. “bag breeches. chapeau cloche See headwear.a n d . French. chasseur jacket See coats and jackets.” Also see lower stocks.s ewn hose with attach ed soles of l e a t h er or whalebone worn in Middle Ages. Charlie Cha plin 1. thimble case. chasuble See clerical dress. chapiney See footwear: chopine. See cordelière. Der. First worn in Norman period (1066–1154). they were somewhat baggy and ill-fitting as compared to later knitted hosiery. French. Chantilly lace See laces. and shawls: epitoga #2. Charlotte Corday fichu See scarves. watch.s om . cashambles. 2. Antique silver or plated scent bottle worn around neck on a long chain in 1980s. “lady of the castle. See coats and jackets 2. chapeau See headwear. chausses were divided into two parts— upper part then called haut de chausses. then hose and finally stockings. later called trunk hose and upper stocks. chatoyancy See gems.

19th-c. See undergarments. Also see necklines and collars: Chelsea collar and footwear: Beatle boot. the look was tight jeans from U. cheeks-and-ears See headwear. Trends changed from time to time and were usually copied in other countries as items ch o s en by this group had wide influ en ce on general fashion trends. the 1920s. chemise #2 1959 the 1960s. stripes. chemis e t te ga rter Vertical su pporter for hose attached to the corset in 1830s and 1840s. red guard s m en’s tunics. & checks. 2. term for man’s false shirt f ront with collar attach ed worn inste ad of a full shirt. See blouses and tops. chenille lace See laces. chest-high boot See footwear: waders. in the l a te 1960s.: coif #6 and orrelet. 6th Earl of A British fashion leader in the 1830s and 1840s after whom the chesterfield overcoat (see under coats and jackets) was named. short sleeves. China. In the late 1940s and 1950s. old uniforms including nu rs e s’ or po l i cem en’s uniforms. cheek wrappers See headwear: dormeuse.f i t ting co llar.” chemise gown See perdita chemise in alphabetical listing. When woven.” Der. stripes. chemisette à jabot (ah zha´-bo) Embroidered or pleated ruffle of 1850s and 1860s worn as a fill-in at front opening of a redingote (see coats and jackets: redingote #5) showing from neck to waist. 1795–1820). Cheruit. belts are gen era lly loc a ted at hipline or under the bust and the dress is unfitted at the anatomical waistline. cherusse See necklines and collars. Chemise-type dresses are characterized by a loose fit. French “shift” or “shirt. 2. chesterfield See coats and jackets. chenille embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. young people who frequented a Lond on area called Chelsea that was popular with artists and writers. Dress style that derives from the style of the undergarment called a chemise. checkerboard checks See prints. See scarves. most notably in housecoats and dresses. These yarns have a fuzzy surface with short fibers projecting on all sid es. distinguished by the checked pattern of their aprons. Also see blue-aproned men and green-aproned men. checked gingham See gingham.chest-high boot 67 cheat 1. chef’s hat See headwear. Chesterfield. See shirts: habit shirt. cl o s e . If they are bel ted . cheetah See furs. Periods in which such styles were w orn by women included the Directoire and Empire periods (c. with ex pensive fabric on front and poorer qu a lity in back. chechia See headwear. Chelsea look Styles worn by the Chelsea Set. and a side slit running from the bottom of the hem and reaching. a snug fit. chemise tucker See scarves: chemisette. chemise (shem-ees´) 1. cheongsam Synonyms: qi pao. chenille † Fabrics made fro m chenille yarns. cheongsam Chinese woman’s dress originating in Shanghai. . diagonal front opening that closes with frogs or butto ns. Mad e leine * See Appen d i x / D e s i gn ers. stripes. chemisette (shem-ee-zet´) 1. and mandarin dress. chef’s apron See aprons. in more daring vers i on s . ch e cke re d -apron ma n English barbers of 16th c. Also call ed “the sack. Chinese dress. chemise slip See undergarments. See vestee . Chenille fabrics may be woven or knitted. in the late 1930s in an attempt to blend trad i ti onal Chinese and Western styles. Ma n’s waistcoat or vest of 17th c. and the 1990s. 4. 3. and checks.S. It has a high. check See prints. Us ed as a basis for Western designs. and navy overcoats were all fe a tu red. checkerboard hose See hosiery. and checks. they a re usually made with the chenille yarns in the crosswise direction. as high as the thigh. 2. checks See prints.

chill mask See masks: hot mask. China mink See furs. or small figured patterns. including items such as coolie coats and hats. chevron 1. chimere/chimer See clerical dress. Badge of these V stripes worn on sleeve by policemen. m a ndarin necklines. manufactured fibers. Adj. blouses. chevrons Trimmings for wom en’s clothes introduced in mid-1820s. Differs from the bust measurement taken at fullest part of bosom. chinchilla See furs. chiffon † 1. and scarves. chicken skin See leathers. therefore. Used for sheer dre s s e s . chinese pajamas. china grass See ramie. chiffe. chiné See prints. hairy fabric made in a plain or twill weave from wool. is generally used for casual clothing. Less expensive fabric is not woven in the same manner and may have a different surface effect. one of the measurem ents by wh i ch suits are sold. firemen.” chignon See hairstyles. China silk † Soft. or wool and cotton distinguished by curly nubs on the surface. 1. When China opened its doors to West in early 1970s. Extra crosswise yarns added to the face of fabric are loosely floated over the surface. there was a revival of interest in Chinese fashions resulting in such styles as the basic worker’s suit—or Mao suit. Cotton shirting woven with fairly heavy yarns in checked. Narrow ribbon. and denim C . chignon cap See headwear. 2. Made in China and Japan. chin cloak See scarves. chignon strap See headwear. Cop i ed from traditional ornaments on Chinese robes. China doll hairstyle See hairstyles. chinchilla cloth † Thick. Ro u gh su rf aced . C h i n ese embro i d e ry See em broi deries and s ewing stitches. cheviot † (shev´-ee-ott) 1. chimney-pot hat See headwear: top hat. Dyed solid co l ors or of ten printed in floral de s i gns. 2. ch i cke n -s kin gloves See gloves and glove constructions. stripes. in style ty pical of Chinese paintings and embroideries. See em broi deri e s and sewing stitches: rococo. heavyweight coating fabric of all wool. or blends. Originally made in silk. and mountains. A similar fabric made by knitting and brushing surface yarns into nubs. woven with a plain edge popular in mid-19th c. Woven as a double cloth with a plain back and a satin face. Chinese dress See cheongsam. for China ri bbon em broidery. stylish. Chinese dog See furs. A trifle or bit of feminine finery. Wom en: measurement around the body taken with tape in front placed across front of body from armhole seam to armhole seam at point above bust and across the back. Chinese lamb See under furs: karacul. Motif consisting of two straight lines meeting to form an inverted V. Chinese collar See necklines and collars. now also made in manufactured fibers. Thin transparent fabric made in a plain weave. the chinese shoe. lustrous silk fabric in a plain weave that may have slight texture due to use of irregular yarns. C h i n ese design Design com po s ed of moti fs su ch as dragons. originally handmade in China as early as 1200 b. It drapes well and is made from tightly twisted or crepe yarns. Men: distance around body at fullest par t of upper torso. clouds. and Chinese dresses with side slit called cheongsam. 2. Der. and checks: warp print. “rag.. Chinese jacket See coats and jackets: coolie coat. striped. Does not hold a crease well and. chest measurement 1. Smart. China ribbon 1. n. the name is also applied to machine-made fabrics of a similar type. When napped and rubbed into curled tufts.S.68 chesticore chest i co re See coats and jackets: ju staucorps.c. 2. sophisticated. Chinese knot Ornamental knot of covered cord u s ed as trimming on app a rel. these yarns form distinctive nubs on the surface. French. The quality of being very mu ch in styl e . manda rin coats. 2. Chinese look Adaptations of Chinese styles in U. lanterns. and the military to indicate rank. chic 1. 2. usually a zigzag band near hem of skirt. about 1/8" wide.— quilted jackets.

firm ly woven with a fine steep twill and dyed a yell owishtan or khaki color. made of lightweight wool or of linen and pleated. fashion.o h n´-ik ki´tawn): Worn from 550 b.t awn ) Garment worn in ancient Greece that consisted of a rectangle of fabric wrapped around the body and fasten ed at the shoulders with one or more pins. dresses. name for a gaudily printed fabric of cotton. coolie-type jackets of red and gold brocade with frog closings and mandarin collars. bird. made of pattern ed wool. and fitted closely to the body. chique-tades See slashings.weight co t ton or bl en ded f a bric with a glazed or shiny finish that may be a plain color or printed with floral. chinner See scarves: chin cloak.chiton 69 coolie coa t s . chip straw Wood or straw cut in fine strips for hats or baskets. chinoiserie (shin-waaz-ze-ree´) Those designs in textiles. Now used for a wide variety of casual clothing.c. made of patterned wool. to 300 b. Chinese shoe See footwear.c. Indian. ah lah) French phrase meaning “from the Chinese. by men and women. Chinese Ra ccoon See furs: Ussurian Raccoon . à la (shin´ waaz. ch i to n ( k i ´ . Chinese slipper See footwear: kampskatcha slipper. Chinese pajamas See sleepwear and loungewear. and rainwear.c.” Often used as an E n glish fashion term to de s c ri be items of apparel that show Chinese influences. St. Used for women’s hats in 18th c. the doric chiton was generally short when worn by men and long w hen worn by women. blouses. to 480 b. chip See gems. More narrowly fitted than the . (2) doric peplos: Worn by women from about ionic chiton worn under a shawl doric chiton 800 to 550 b. A nu m ber of va ri a ti on s of this basic style were worn at differdoric peplos ent points in Greek chitoniskos history. by women and made of wool.c. They were as fo llows: (1) ch i toni skos (ki-tawn-iss´kos): Worn by men from about 800 to 550 b. usually reaching to the ankles. chin stays See headwear. Originally a fabric for slipcovers and draperies. Chinese lounging robe See sleepwear and loungewear. and the decorative arts that derive from Chinese styles.S. skirts. now also used for variety of items su ch as be achwe a r. to 100 b. full sleeves fastened with many small brooches at the shoulder. chinos See pants. L a u rent fe a tu red Chinese ensembles in 1977 that included small versions of red coolie hats. linen. Originally used for summer uniforms for the U. (3) ionic chiton ( eye . Army. and pants tapered to hem worn with boots having flared tops. Contemporary versions are also dyed in many colors. chip bonnet See headwear. particularly for pants. and for wom en’s chip bon n ets ( s ee under headwear) in the 19th c. chinoise.c. pinned at the shoulder with a large pin. chint. or other designs. by men and from 450 b. chino † ( ch ee´-no) Du ra ble co t ton . gem cuts.c. (4) doric chiton: Worn from 400 b.. chintz † Mediu m . shorts. and less often from exomis helenistic chiton 480 b. Der. usually short. to 300 b. and settings.c. it had long. and fitted closely to the body. or silk. c . .c. by the 1950s the fabric had been adopted by teenagers for school and general wear. either short (for men) or long. More fully cut than earlier chitons.c.

“cabbage. gem cuts. chronograph See watches. 1813. 2. chukka (chuh´-ka) Periods in the game of polo. See footwe a r: chukka boots. Until the mid-20th c. Aldo * See Appendix/Designers. linen. Ci rcassian wrapper ( s er. chrysoberyl See gems. and shawls. and skirt elaborately decorated down the front and above the hem with festoons of knotted ribbon. Circassian round robe (ser-kash´-yan) Early 1820s evening dress of gossamer gauze made with low square-cut neckline. See belts. See h a i rstyles: ch i gn on . boys have been dressed either in white suits or in dresses.70 chitoniskos ionic chiton. 4. See clerical dress. choir-boy collar See necklines and collars. choli See blouses and tops. chuddah/chudder See chaddar. See clerical dress. choker Term used for accessories and clothing that fit high on the neck. chlorspinel See gems. elaborately trimmed with tucks. Cipullo. gem cuts.c. and often belted below the bosom. chrysolite See gems. cinch 1. for frills or ruffles on front of man’s shirt. a historical region between the western end of the Caucasus ra n ge and the Kuban River. chitoniskos See chiton.yan) Loo s e wrap. gem cuts. cinch bu ckle/cinch closing See closures: D-ring closing. 3. Der. gem cuts. cloaks. chla myd o n (kla´m ee-don) A type of outer ga rm ent for wom en in ancient Greece that was pleated to a band of fabric and worn under the left arm and over the right shoulder. Der. chubby See coats and jackets. and settings: peridot. both boys and girls wore extremely long white dresses. (6) exomis: Worn by working-class men and slaves in all Greek periods. 2.. chrome tanning See christening dress 1898 leathers. choori-dars See pants. chitterlings (chit-er-lings) Popular term used in the 18th and 19th c. and shawls. chou (shoo) choux (pl. 2. Caucasian tribe of Circassia. lace. and sleeveless. chymer See chamarre. and settings. short sleeves. C .k a s h´. high waistline. Der. Used to describe modern clothes and accessories similar to those worn when playing polo. Chloé * See Appendix/Designers: Karl Lagerfeld and Stella chlamydon McCartney. In recent dec ade s . CIM See com p uter integrated manu factu ri n g. chlaine See capes. cut somewhat like a nightgown. 2. or silk. See academic costume.) 1. and settings. (5) helenistic chiton: Worn by women from 300 to 100 b. chopine See footwear.” christening dress Any dress or suit worn by infants for their baptism. north of the Black sea. chrysopras e See gems. chlamys See capes. cinglation See cyclas. chronometric watch See watches. cincture 1. similar to the doric chiton but narro wer. h e adwe a r: chu k ka hat. but would usually cover the feet. durable wool fabric. See headwear. Dresses for both boys and girls today may be shorter. it was fastened at each shoulder with a single pin. See necklines and collars and jewelry. Frilly pouf of fabric used at neckline. See waistlines: chinched waistline. this chiton was short and fastened over one shoulder and probably made from sturdy. See belts. See belts. choir robe Ankle-length closed robes similar to academic go wns worn by singers in church choirs. shirts: polo shirt. chunky heel See footwear. chunky shoe See footwear. and hand em broidery. cloaks. worn by women for daytime in Empire Period. Fren ch. this chiton was worn long and made of lightweight wool. and settings: spinel. Large rosette used to trim gowns in late 19th and early 20th c. ciclaton See cyclas. cingulum 1.

published in 1747–48. From heroine in novel Clarissa. civet cat See furs. and setti n gs . and shawl s : circula r. and polo coat. If the fibers in the fabric are heat sensitive. Liz * See Appendix/Designers. cleats See footwear. See gems. c l e r ic a l d r ess Items of clothing worn by members of the clergy ei t h er du ring rituals bei n g celebrated or as a means of identifying their clerical status within their religi on .g. and pockets: round pocket. cloaks.clerical dress: alb 71 Caucasian tribe of Circassia. clamdiggers/Clamdiggers® See pants. after which a hot roller is passed over the surface to produce a high polish. circular knit † Fabric knitted in a tubular shape with no selvages. Der. circumfolding hat See headwear: opera hat.. folds caught at the waist by band of ribbon. Such entries will be found in the alphabetical listing. circular ruffle Ruffle cut from circle of fabric rather than straight across the grain. city boots See footwear. Clara Bow hat See headwear. 2. alb Full-length long-sleeved liturgical robe (see robe #2) with drawstring neckline or . like a circl e . or chemise. Made eithe r by hand or machine. clerical cape See capes. class ring See jewelry. claw-hammer coat See coats and jackets. shirtwaist dress. Examples: s portswear. classic fashions retain the basic line of the original style. making graceful folds less bulky than a gathered ruffle. and that may return to hig h fashion at intervals. ci rcular hem See clothing con structi on details. s l eeves: circl e .” circle/circular Ad j ective used to de s c ri be ga rments that are shaped round. clean-stitched seam See clothing construction details. clayshooter’s vest See vests. ciré † (sear-ray´) Finishing process or the fabric produced by the process in which wax or other compounds are applied to the surface of a fabric. Clarissa Harlowe bonnet/hat See headwear. tren ch coat. even i n g we ar. Hose knitted in this manner have no seams. clerical collar See clerical dress. cloaks. Sep a ra ti on bet ween a woman’s breasts. a historical region west of the Caucasus mountains and north of the Black Sea. and settings. claque See headwear. Claiborne. the fibers will fuse and the effect will be permanent. by Samuel Richardson. but are sometimes altered in minor details. e. classic Apparel made in a style that continues to be fashionable over a long period of time. Worn in late 1840s. ciselé velvet † (seez-el-ay´) A fabric with a raised pattern of velvet figures on a satin ground formed by cut and uncut loops—with the cut pile being higher. or the Hi s to ry of a Young Lady. Also see pants: city pants. Der. Clarissa Harlowe cors age Evening-dress bod i ce with off-the-shoulder neck l i n e . m ade more obvious when a low neckline is worn. classic look See brooks brothers® and preppy looks. cleava ge 1. French. or lingerie. circular See capes. skirts: circl e . and short sleeves trimmed with two or three lace ruffles. These en tries do not inclu de religious garb or symbols clerical dress: priest worn by lay members of a religion. citrine See gems. When revived. Also called ecclesiastical dress. and shawls. gem cuts. coats and jackets: cardigan. cloaks. classic pull-back See hairstyles. and shawls. See capes. bla zer. city pants/city shorts Terms coined by the fashion-industry newspaper Women’s Wear Daily in 1968 for women’s pants or shorts suitable for town wear. Clarence See footwear. Also see cascade ruffle. “circassian. classi f i cation (class ) A gen eral type of merch a ndise that is housed within an individual dep a rtm en t . circassienne Late-18th c. vers i on of the po l onaise (a draped skirt) worn by women just before French Revolution. gem cuts.

shaped somewhat like a p oncho (see under capes. called traditional. clerical collar Stiff white standing band collar worn by c lergy with suit or with liturgical robes. with one end pulled thro u gh the loop and the l ong ends hanging free. With tassels on the end. Shown at cope. e. with round neckline and open sides. erminetrimmed cap slightly larger than a skullcap formerly worn by Pope of Roman Catholic church. A second collar of white may be inserted inside the neckline. silk. clerical shirt Black or gray shirt with short or long sleeves styled with a fly-front and standing clerical collar (see under clerical dress) worn by clergymen.: a round cap that later became square on top when hatters learned to use a rigid frame.72 clerical dress: amice cowl hood worn by priests at Mass. S h ort front buttoned jacket worn by clerics. small velvet collar.oo´-lah) L a tin name of chasuble (see under clerical cassock dress). Also called shirt front. Ties secure the garment at the waist. It is worn doubled. and monks in early Ch ri s tian orders — now worn by the Pope. either sleeveless C .” chimere ( s h e´-mar) /chimer Full-length sleeveless robe. colobium (koh-lo´-bee-um) A litu r gical ga rment derived from a Roman secular garment consisting of a long linen tunic. or rope belt—approximately eight fee t in length— worn by cl er gy with the alb ( s ee under cl ecrical dress). Fits around the neck usually with black collar on top of a white collar. Extra full lawn sleeves were attached to armholes. made like a coat with standing collar. Frequently has white cuffs. altar boys. s om etimes under wh i te su rplice or cotta (see u n der cl erical dress ). Sometimes has a Y-shaped band from neck to h em called the orphrey (see under clerical dress). bäffchen See clerical dress: Geneva bands. 16th-c. “cloak.l ength litu r gical robe. 2. casula ( k a s . cincture ( s i n k´-cher) Twi s ted rayon. when knotted at the end. chasuble (chaz´-yu-behl) Sleeveless clerical garment. capuche See headwear. similar to an academic robe worn by Anglican bishops. calotte (ka-loht´) calot/callot Tiny. clerical front An adjustable shirt front worn by clergymen with a black business suit or under a pulpit robe. now made in wash-andwear fabrics. now often of blended cotton and man-made fibers. worn by clergy. clerical cape Th ree-quarter-length cape of wool melton with satin lining. Originally of white linen. Formerly made of lightweight wool.. now worn by pr iests over the cassock. Stiff square clerical cap with three or four upright projections on top radiating from center.” amice (am´ees) A strip of linen placed around the shoulders and tied in position to form a collar worn by priests saying mass. Latin. Al s o call ed soutane (soo-tahn´).p a´-gus) Shoe worn by bi s h ops in Western Chu rch . called contemporary. cass o ck 1. biretta (bi-ret´-tah) birretta/berrette/barrette 1. Also see clerical dress: Geneva bands. Latin.g. “white. Fu ll . camauro (ka-mao´-row) Red velvet. sometimes finished with a pompon. Usually made in black faille or wool with or without a center pleat down the front. and shawls). May be fastened in back as a Ro man collar or have a narrow opening in fro nt. close-fitting skullcap cut in shaped gores often with a tab at center of top worn by Ro man clergy. and braided frog closing worn by clergy. cloaks. Worn as part of vestments at the celebration of Mass in the early Christian church. Der. Der. priests. Also called zucchetto (zook-ket´-toe). casula. cardinals and bishops. sometimes Episcopal. White collar is sometimes half covered by a similar black collar which may be attached to the cassock or to a biblike rabat (see under clerical dress). parti c u l a rly Rom a n Catholic. and ch oi rs . cingulum (sin-goo´-lum) Belt worn with liturgical garments since Middle Ages. ca m pa g us ( k a m . 2. Worn by clergy today.

by Puritan ministers and others. short. worn by Catholic priests on the left arm near the wrist. mantellone (mahn-tell-own´-nay) Purple ankle-length ecclesiastical mantle. attached to a string tied around the neck.o´. Switzerland. cotta (coat´-tah) Clerical surplice made like a full. academic occasions. The figure of St.clerical dress: rochet 73 or with short sleeves. parament ( p a´-ra-ment) Sy n onym for an ornamental Ecclesiastical vestment. worn over the cassock (see under clerical dress) by lesser prelates of Papal court of the Roman Catholic Church.” rabat (rab-e. Der. Prelates wore the band w ith one end falling to the front and the other to the back. similar to an academic robe and often worn with two vertical white linen bands at the neck called Geneva bands. mozetta ( m o . Geneva gow n Black clerical gown worn by Calvinists and later by other Protestant clergy. Geneva hat Wide-brimmed. purple.l o ) A full-length black circular cape worn as an outer gar ment by clerics over other vestments for ceremonial occasions such as receptions. Worn by prelates of Roman Catholic Church over the rochet. Also spelled orfray. gathered into a narrow rounded yoke with long. pileolus/pilleolus (pil-eh´-oh-lus) Skullcap worn by Catholic priests and pope under the miter and ti a ra ( s ee under cl erical dress). Worn mainly by cl ergy. dalmatic See dalmatic in alphabetical listing. “skullcap. which hung down over the shoulders. white overtunic. maniple Narrow ornamental band about 31⁄2! long. Italian mozzare. fanons Two decorativ e lappets attached to back of miter worn by the Pope. It was replaced by the dalmatic. Originated by Swiss Calvinist clergy in Geneva. high-crowned hat worn in late 16th and early 17th c. miter Very tall ornamental headpiece. fe r ra i olo (fair. Worn with suits or with liturgical robes by Catholic and Protestant´-tah) Sl eeveless thighlength circular-cut garment that opens in front and has a small collar. liturgical robe See robe #2. Peter in a fisherman’s boa t is engraved on the ring along with name of the Pope. pallium A narrow band of white wool that was worn by p opes and archbishops. orfrey. worn by cardinals and church dignitaries.” orphrey (or´-free) Y-shaped band of embroidery decorating the chasuble (see under cl erical dre s s) that extends from each shoulder meeting vertical stripe in center front and back. rochet (rash´-et) Similar to a surplice (see under clerical dress) and worn especially by bishops and abbots. Worn by clergy over cassock and by choir members over long robes. or banquets. “to cut short. or rose-colored. ra-bat) Black dickey o r shirt front to which the white clerical collar is attached (see under clerical dress). full bellshaped sleeves. Also called s h o rt ba n d s and bäffchen (bef´-ken). fastened across the chest with an elaborate clasp arrangement worn on ceremonial occasions by the Pope and dignitaries of the Roman Catholic Chu rch and by cope and cincture priests offering the Benediction.ay . . with high separate pointed arches in front and miter back. See clerical dress: miter. These may originally have been used to hold the miter on the head. it is made of silk or wool with two vertical slits for arms.zet´-tah) E l bow . mantelletta (mahn-tell . Latin. ecclesiastical vestments Garments worn by the clergy for religious services.l ength cape wi t h ornamental hood hanging in back. Geneva bands Collar consisting of two short wh i te linen tabs hanging down from the neckline. Der. See clerical dress: rochet. cope Ornately embroidered semi-circular mantle. For cardinals it is red. Der. fisherman’s ring Gold ring used at investiture of the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. worn by Catholic and Episcopal church dignitaries.

Often used for especially valuable objects. similar to fulllength cassock (see under clerical dress). vestments See cl erical dress: cl erical vestments. Also see breeches. clip-on sunglasses See eyewear. close-plate buckle See closures. Popular in 1980s for necklaces. cloaks. cloisonné (kloi-zeh-nay´) An enameling tech n i que in wh i ch small areas of co l ored en a m el sep a ra ted by thin metal bands form the design. clip-back earring See jewelry. but not worn for high church services. Triangular gore inserted into a stocking. each successively smaller. clip-on tie See ties. ventilated collar Stiff white standing collar punctured with holes around the sides and back. cloche See headwear. clerical front See clerical dress. shirt f ro n t See cl erical dre s s : clerical f ron t. cape. simar (si-mar´) Clerical robe. close coat See coats and jackets. cl osed island displays D i s p l ay in wh i chmerch a ndise is visible but enclosed behind glass. closeout Merchandise that remains unsold from a seasonal line. stole Long nar row scarf. Manner in which an item of apparel fastens. on. cloak bag breeches Full oval-shaped man’s breeches fastened above or below the knee with decorative points or bows. clerical shirt See clerical dress. See hosiery: clocked hose. 2. Worn in early 17th c. closing 1. part of clerical vestments worn over the cot ta (see under clerical dress) by clergymen.S. tiara (tee-ar´-a) An ancient headpiece. particularly by prelates of the Catholic church. either waistor knee-length. See showcase display. zucchetto See clerical dress: calotte. Worn from 16th c. Used to support the black clerical collar. pins. closed display/closed back display See window displays. or collar to make it wider with embroidery over the joined seams. consisting of three coronets placed one on top of the other. short ba n ds See cl erical dre s s : Gen eva bands. clip See jewelry. closeout store A discount store to which a retailer sends merchandise from its regular-price store that has been slow to sell or has reached the end of its season. cloak See introduction to capes. Also see hosiery. acolytes. gathered to flat yoke with full open sleeves worn by clergy. Worn at home or on the street. This category made up half the total of manufacturing establishments.74 clerical dress: Roman collar Roman collar See clerical dress: clerical collar.” Also see under jewelry: cloisonné necklace. Originally called Cloak and Ma n ti lla Manu f a cturers. clock 1. Later C . Usually all these remaining items are sold at a discount. Cloak and Suit Industry Name given manufacturers of coats and suits when first U. French. closed dress/closed gown See round dress. “partitioned. Made of white wool for the Pope. clog See footwear. closed seam See footwear. black wool with scarlet trimmings for Cardinals. later call ed Coat and Suit Industry. clip hat See headwear: bicycle clip hat. worn by the Pope of the Roman Catholic church. clip closure See closures. census of the clothing industry was made in 1860. soutane See clerical dress: cassock #1. earrings. bracelets. Also worn by seminarians without the false sleeves (thus indicating inferior dignity). Also see cl erical dress: cotta. and ash-gray wool for Franciscans. surplice Loose white overblouse. and belt buckles. creating a white trim at center front and around the edge. and shawls. close stitch See embroideries and sew ing stitches: buttonhole stitch #3. Early clothing was draped and held together by be lts or pins called fibulae. Also see chamarre. Der. but having short but ton-on false sleeves and a shoulder cape that does not fasten in front. black wo ol with amaranth red or purple trim for Penitential or mourning days for Bishops. and ch oir singers .

See closures: closure. jackets. ci n ch buckle / ci n ch cl osu re See closu re s : ri n g buckle. usually of metal. as trim. Der. used to fasten a belt. The type of device by which a garment or part of a garment is secured. Usually sold by the set. brass button Gilt button made of brass or of other metals or plastic gilded to simulate . Coat buttons were listed as coats. blazer button Distinctive brass or gold-plated brass button with a monogram. usually plastic or metal.. buckle A decorative or functional clasp.. of ten with one or more movable tongues. then buttons—with men’s clothing buttoning left to right and wom en’s buttoning right to left. wood. blind eye le t Shoe-indu s try term for metal eyelet conce a l ed in the inner su rf ace of l e a t h er while the out s i de layer has a punch ed hole thro u gh wh i ch shoe s tring is pulled. A decora tive orn a m ent used for tri mming or a functional fastener. sometimes with metal eyelets in center. Introduced in the 13th c. basket button Fashionable metal button in em bo s s ed basket we ave pattern . Also a clip device fixed to end of a strap used to fasten to other end of belt or to another strap. l a ter Ch a rles X of France. bound buttonhole Buttonhole with edges finished with sepabound rate strips of fabric or leather buttonhole binding. Der. c lo su r e s closure A device used to close or fasten shoes or a garment. brass. armed forces. barrel snaps Tubular-shaped gilded-metal fasteners.closures: clip closure 75 lacing was used. calico button Metal ring covered with calico. chain closure Laced closing using a metal chain instead of a lacer. and knee breeches. abalone button (ah-bah-low-nee´) Type of pearl button made fro m shell of a mollusk call ed an ear shell. and car coats. Usually made with holes punched in center or a shank on the back. Used on vests and blouses. buttons became functional by the 14th c. French. clip closure Metal fastener w ith a springbacked device on one side of garment and a ring. buckles d’Artois Shoe buckles of enormous size worn fro m 1775 to 1788. buttonhole Opening for button to go thro u gh in order to sec u re the ga rm ent. by the 16th c. which includes three large and four small sleeve buttons. a bud. but tons of a ll types were u s ed . a round object. s h oe s . for waistcoat buttons. Consists of a rectangular or curved rim. button 1. See coats and jackets: blazers. Specifically used on blazers. they close by slipping through a buttonhole or loop. Genera lly cl a ssified as either a bound or a worked buttonhole (see under closures). or sea-ear. Used since e a rliest times for belts. closing barred buttonhole See cl o sures: worked buttonhole. The use of buttonholes dates from about the 15th c. belt buckle Any or namental or functional device. Synonym: closing. or slotted fastener on other side. Brass buttons are also used by civilians on various types of apparel. a knob. found of f Pacific coast of the United States. or a crest embossed or engraved on top. breasts Term used on tailors’ bills in the 18th c. or plastic. button hooks See closures: speed lacing. Named a f ter the Com te d’Artoi s . eyelet. asymmetric closing Garment closing that fastens at the side or diagonally rather than at the asymmetric center of the garment. Also see coats and jackets: barouche coat. a coat-ofarms. See gloves and glove constructions. used for cloaks and pelisses from 1800 to 1830. Used mainly on raincoats. used mainly for underclothes from 1840s on. 2. b ou to n . u s ed on men’s coats in 18th and 19th c. 2.S. Brass buttons embossed with a large eagle are used on jackets and coats worn by U. it was a novelty of the late 1960s.

each set with seven pearls.. used to button long gloves. formerly solid gold or plated. Used in lieu of a button in the 17th c. Sometimes used on sweaters and formerly used on dresses and coats in Victorian era and early 19th c. used on underwear from about 1700 to 1830. for overcoats. In the 16th c. A record of the 15th c. gold button Any type of gold colored button. fly-front closing Buttonholes. Kits of various-sized disks to be covered may be purchased by the home sewer.76 closures: close-plate buckle close-plate buckle Shoe buckle of late 1660s to 1680s made of tutania—an alloy of tin. crocheted button Shank-type buttons made by crocheting over a disk. 2. foil bu t ton Silk pasted on paper and glu ed to reverse side of glass but ton. Late 17th c. Later she invented a machine for this purpose and her factory was credited with one-half of the world production of buttons. Closings on footwear that are D-shaped through which shoe laces are threaded. cuff string String pulled through eyelets on cuff to fasten it. and Louis XVI). coats See closures: breasts. A closing used for such garments as raincoats. First used in latter part of 16th c. sewed on shirt cuff to fasten it. Used for closing garments. Similar to closings for galoshes in the early 20th c. profiles of Lafayette. paten ted in 1774. button covered with metal thread or mohair forming an X on top like the cross of the skull and crossbones. usu a lly of m o t h erof-pearl. Also see cl osures: rhinestone button. Mirabeau. covered button Ball or disk-type button covered with fabric either matching or contrasting with garment. In troduced in 19th c. 2. covered zipper Zipper made with fabric tape covering teeth so that teeth do not show when zipper is closed. collar button See closures: stud. cut-steel buckle Popular bu ckle of e a rly 20th c. g l i t ter button Any type of button set with rh i n e s tones or imitation gems. coats.. made of polished steel with jewel-like facets. Dorset thread button Brass wire ring covered with cotton threads radiating from center to form a flat button. gold buttons set with diamonds and other precious stones were frequently used. frog Orn a m ental fasten er using cording or braid through which a soft ball made of cording or a button is frog pulled. Henry VIII had jeweled gold buttons made to match his rings. Also called olivettes. a ball. C . Sm a ll but ton. glove button Tiny buttons. d o u ble-breasted cl osi ng See doublebre asted in alphabetical listing.. they were named Brandenburgs after braid-trimmed uniforms worn by Brandenburg troops of Prussia during the Napoleonic War. Also called sleeve string. Samuel Williston. or zippe r. and used in lieu of cuff links. and jackets. notes 25 golden buttons. especially military uniforms and some Chinese clothes. Developed in latte r half of 19th c. cuff bu t ton 1.: u s ed to de s c ri be two met a l disks connected by links used to replace earlier cuff string (see under closures). antimony. Der.. particularly the chesterfield. galosh closure Closing with a metal hook on one side that clips into a metal fastener with several slots in order to adjust the degree of tightness. at a cost of 200 gold pieces. When introduced in the West from China in last quarter of 18th c. usually round and often pearlized. The but ton indu s try in the Un i ted States was started in 1826 by Mrs. and used on men’s or women’s trousers. D-ring closure 1. inserted under a placket. See closures: ring buckle. or a barrelshaped object.g. wife of a storekeeper in East Hampshire. death’s head button Domed 18th-c. and copper—cast in a mold by a street peddler in about fifteen minutes. French port ra i t buttons But tons worn abo ut 1790 with profiles of famous people in light color mounted against a black silk ba ckground and surrounded w ith a rim of tin (e. Mass. Used on silk or moiré afternoon or evening shoes and on belts. who first covered wooden buttons by hand.

Sometimes called “ocean pe a rl ” u n til devel opm ent of p l a stic in the 1930s. Almost entirely replaced by the zipper on contemporary clothing. ring buckle Two rings on one end of belt through which opposite be lt end threads— first through both. hasp Decorative silver fastening. Sometimes used on wedding dresses. Used for fastening coats in 17th and 18th c. and pants to enable them to be put on more easily. olivette See closures: frog. shirt button Small mother-of-pearl or imitation pearl button with four holes and a ridge around the edge. for pair of buttons placed on either side of center back pleats of man’s suit coat. Also used on children’s and infants’ clothing. shank button Button w ith metal or plastic loop on the back. Leek button Shank-type button with metal edge surrounding a metal shell or mold of pasteboa rd made at Leek. hook and loop cl osu re See cl o su res: vel c ro ® . A swivel from one end of the belt slips through a slot in the other end and turns to fasten. Used for its decorative effect. similar to hook and eye (see under closures). F i rs t m a nufactured in U. latch buckle Round. England. Used extensively for shirtwaists and dresses with back closings in late 19th and early 20th c. shoe buckle Buckles worn on the shoe were very popular in France and Italy about 1660 . pearl button Classic button for almost any use. flat button with a shank on the back. industrial zipper See closures: zipper. laced closing Leather thong or cord lace d through small metal or embroidered eyelets. p o ker chip button Extra-large ro u n d . Also used for shoes from 18th c. that simulates a diamond. Also see closures: mother-of-pearl button. Originally used on men’s shirts. oval-shaped. in 1885 from imported mollusks and later fro m domestic oysters found in Chesapeake Bay. worn at neck o f doublet and held closed by loop on opposite side to reveal the fine shirt underneath.” called a D-ring buckle. lacing studs See closures: speed lacing. on. machine-made buttonhole Buttonhole made on a sewing machine with a zig-zag stitch or by a special attachment. self-covered button See closures: covered button. hook and eye Closing using a small metal hook on one side and either an embroidered loop or a small metal loop on the other side. after which imitation pearl buttons were widely used. hip buttons Term used from late 17th to end of 19th c. square. mother-of-pearl button Button made fro m n ac re .closures: shoe buckle 77 gripper closure Metal fastener in the shape of a large snap used on some typ es of jackets and raincoats. loop and button Closing with a series of corded loops on one side and covered or round buttons on the other side. originally made from shells. When rings are made in the shape of a “D. and patented in 1842. Der. rhinestone button Any but ton set with stones. piped buttonhole But tonhole similar to bound buttonhole in which piping (see under clothing construction details) is used around the opening. or oblong metal plates attached to each end of a belt and closed over one another. particularly at crotch of pajamas. then back through one— and pulls tight. Also see points in alphabetical listing. panties. silk-covered button worn from mid-18th c. Popular method of fastening garments in Middle Ages and in late 1960s. the inside shell of the oys ter.S. Borrowed from fastenings on horse bridles and saddle straps and used mainly on belts and cuffs of sleeves. From size and shape of a poker chip. on. Also called cinch buckle or cinch closing. n e ck button Decorative but ton of mid17th c. olive button Long. made of glass or paste (see under jewelry).

or snap to close coa t s . to ggle cl osu re Rod . 2.. and skirts to hold the garment closed). At first intended to hold shoe in place. speed lacing Closing on boot c onsisting of metal hooks replacing eyelets for upper part of lacing. but limited to women’s shoes. or loop of fabric. tailored buttonhole See closures: worked buttonhole. stra p. and cuffs. sleeve string See closures: cuff string. Also see closures: buckle and Pinchbeck. Also called button hooks or lacing studs. and shoes. sportswear. a sash used on bathrobes. Decorative trim used on sleeves of man’s suit coat con s i s ting of two or three buttons placed on outside of cuff. Series of ties used to fasten a garment. single-breasted cl osing See single-bre asted in alphabetical listing. when large cuffs were worn buttoned back to the sleeve. attached by rope loop on one side of garment and pulled through similar loop on opposite side. tab/tabbed cl osi ng An ex tra flap. later re ach ed larger dimensions. tailored buttonhole Worked buttonholes tailored buttonhole with a bar tack at one end and a fan-shaped arrangement of stitches at the other end. a short post. wrap dresses. larger saucershaped buttons tied on with matching corded fabric were used on women’s coats. Used particularly on ice skates. worked buttonhole Buttonhole made by covering the raw edges of a slit in the fabric with hand or machine stitches. neckband. Revived for both men’s and women’s shoes in late 1960s. and a smaller buttonlike end that is inserted through an eyelet to fasten a shirt front. sleeve button 1. then the raw edges are covered by embroidering them with a bu ttonhole stitch. u su a lly of wood. em broidered ac ross the ends.g. Also fashionable in colonial America until about 1770. surplice cl osing See cl o su res: wrap cl o s i n g. co ll a rs . Rep l aced almost en ti rely in con tempora ry ga rments by zippers and grippers (see under closures). stud Small ornamental closure used since the mid-18th c. and hiking boots. In hand-worked buttonholes. Also called collar button. the buckle was small in size and worn with a butterfly bow (see under footwear). storm flap Large flap that covers a zipper and has buttons and buttonholes to keep the flap in place. then cut open. called a bar tack . ski boots. Revived in 1870s and at end of 19th and early 20th c. Velcro® Trademark for a tape woven w ith minute nylon hooks that mesh with loops on opposite tape. keyhole buttonhole Worked buttonhole with a bar tack at one end and an area of much enlarged fan-shaped stitches at the C . oval oval buttonhole Worked buttonbuttonhole hole with fan-shaped arrangem en t of stitches at both ends. first the slit is made.s h a ped button . In the late 1930s.. A stitch similar to the buttonhole stitch is made by the sew ing machine.78 closures: single-breasted closing and in England du ring reign of Charles II (1660–1685). This particular fashion originated in the 18th c. Consists of a broader section. The shapes of worked buttonholes may vary as fo llows: barred or rectangular buttonhole Worked buttonhole barred buttonhole with st raight bar. Button at wrist to close cuff or sleeve. Used on children’s and adults’ clothing. tied cl osi ng 1. First used by astronauts. snail button Covered butto n ornamented with French knots (see embroideries and sewing stitches) used on men’s coats and waistcoats in 18th c. Popular closing for car coats from mid-1960s. Type of closing used on a wra p -style garment (e. buckle. that is not fastened to the shirt. wooden button Made in all sizes and shapes— may be in ball shape with shank on back or disk-shaped. Gen eric term for this type of cl osure is hook and loop. used with buttonhole. 2. snap closure Metal fastener used to close a garment at places where there is little strain. Also see coats and jackets: toggle coat. s l eeve s . Machine-made worked buttonholes are stitched first. slide fastener See closures: zipper. or cuffs.

Teeth may be covered by fabric tape and almost invi s i ble or made in va rious lengths to use on necklines. attire. and children. vestments. or snap. To provi de with clothing. wrap closing Closing by wrapping one side of garment over the other and holding with a belt. ba cki ng L ayer of fabric placed underneath the outer fabric of a ga rm en t . interlocked by sliding tab. slide fastener.” Synonyms: a ppa rel . plu ral of cläth. cloth embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. Der. women. or tape. garment. bound buttonhole See closures.p l e a ted skirt takes a full circle of fabric. button. ing uses more hand sewing. s l eeping bags. bias binding. bias plea t s Pre s s ed-down pleats made in f a bric cut on the diagonal. An accord i on . The latter has been popular since the late 1960s. functional garment. coat and jac ket fronts. Synonyms: sunburst pleats and fan pleats. co s tume. Mass production generally relies on machine processes while made-to . were adopted for decorative trim on clothing in mid-1960s and were called industrial zippers. Anglo-Saxon. “cloth. This device consists of parallel rows of metal or nylon teeth on adjacent edges of an opening. the lower edge of the hem shows a zigzag pattern. dre ss. F. as y m m e t r i c hem Hem of u n even length—may be long in back and short in front or slanted diagonally from one side to the other. Its func.” By the 1930s zippers were so widely used in garments ranging from handbags to men’s tro u s ers that “ z i pper” became a generic term applied to any toothed. The design was improved by Gideon Sundback who manufactured Hookless Fasteners used for corsets. He called it a clasp locker . To put on garments.asymmetric hem 1920 tion is generally to support the outer fabric. cloth Synonym for textile fabric. barred buttonhole See closures: worked buttonhole. 2. glove s . cl o t h e 1. zipper Although the name “ z i pper” was coi n ed and registered as a trademark by B. in 1925. accordion pleats Smaller at the top but larger at the bottom. First used in the late 1880s. . details The individual components within the structure of a garment that are combined in order to create the final. garb. Large-sized zippers. skirt plackets. sash. raiment. Goodrich used zippers in “Zipper boots. usually stitched down a few inches at top to make them hang better. Judson. clot See footwear. the forerunner of this device was invented in 1891 by Witcomb B. or handbags and pockets. dress with various construction features c loth i n g co n str u c ti o n de ta i l s clothing construction The process of making a garment by hand or machine sew ing or both. binding Narrow fabric str ips used to cover seams or raw edges of clothing. money belts. clothes Collective term for all items of apparel worn on the body by men. May be cut on the bias or on straight grain. Goodrich Co. bound An adjective describing a raw edge of a garment or part of a garment that has been finished either with band of machine stitching. cläthas. originally used for upholstery and industrial uses.order cloth- accordion pleats Folds in fabrics that are named for their resemblance to the folds of the musical instrument called an accor construction details: bound buttonhole 79 other so as to allow a place for the button shank to rest. All types of uneven hemlines were popular in the 1980s. See embroideries and sewing stitches for specific stitches used . and tobacco pouches. cl othing.

formed by turning down and stitching an extension at the edge of a garment. and then applying it to some part of a garment. the edges of which face in opposite directions. ( See cross references under clothing construction details). Deeper hems have fullness worked in with tiny darts or gathers or may have a fac i n g a pp l i ed. stitching it to form a tunnel. or a drawstring is drawn. eyelet See in alphabetical list. See under clothing construction details. Used frequently at shoulders. waist. box pleat Pleat made by making two folds in fabric. casi ng Fa bric sti tched in su ch a way as to form a tunnel through which elastic. armholes of sleeveless dress. Usually consisting of a large box pleat with several small knife pleats on either side. Facings are used in areas such necklines. The process of joining a slightly larger garment piece to a smaller garment piece by evenly distributing the fullness along the seam where the pieces a re joi n ed.seam trasting color for decoration. a cord. ease 1.s h a pe d tuck used to make garment conform to the bod y. crystal pleats Very fine. If narrow. (2) applied casing. double-stitched seam See clothing construction details: top-stitched seam. usually lighter in weight and bias cut. clea n -st i tched sea m Plain seam pressed open on w rong side of ga rm ent with the raw ed ges tu rn ed under and stitched so they will clean-stitched not ravel. or in side seam under the arm. heat-set ridges usually used in sheer nylon or polyester fabrics. This technique was widely used in clothing corded seam construction in the early through the mid19th c. armholes. ci rcular hem Hem put in a full circular or gored skirt. turned up.80 clothing construction details: bound seam bound seam Edges of plain seam bound with bias binding (see cl ot hing construction details: binding). Used particularly on seams of unlined jackets and around neckbound lines. darts diagram double ruffle Strip of fabric stitched in the center and gathered to form a ruffle on either side of stitching. cartridge pleats Small rounded pleats. and jackets in con. Used quite extensively for gathering skirts in the mid-1800s. hem is machinestitch ed or hand-ro ll ed . corded seam Plain seam with cord inside bias binding inserted in seam before the seam is stitched so that covered cord appears as decoration along the seam. da rt Sewing term for V. and openings at C . like very large gathers. and finished like a plain hem. The fullness ease produced when garment pieces are eased. Also see clothing construction details: mushroom pleat. Sometimes bo x pleats may be box pleats stitched down for some distance before the fullness is released. facing Fabric piece attached to the raw edge of some part of a garment in order to finish that edge. formed by folding a separate strip of fabric. v. faced hem Use of another piece of fabric. buttonhole See closures. Der. envelope pleats Large inverted pleat (see u n der cl othing con structi on details) p l aced at the side seam of dress skirt and reveals a pocket underneath wh en one ed ge is pulled aside. seam cluster pleats Pressed or unpressed pleats arranged in groups. Types o f casings include (1) fold-down casing. b road -st i tched sea m See cl othing construction details: top-stitched seam. from their resemblance to cartridge loops on military belts. sewed on at base of hem. 2. n. Usually used when dress or pants are to faced hem be made longer or the garment is very flared.

wider at hem than top. at sides of men’s shirttails. f la t pleats See cl othing con structi on details: knife pleats. popular in 1890s. This seam is trimmed. to make a flared cuff and facilitate opening. Som etimes loo s ens wh en garment is washed or dry cleaned. There may be as many as twenty-four gores in a skirt. fan pleats See cl othing construction details: accordion pleat. sometimes rounded at top and flaring at the base. such as a skirt or blouse. Also called fell seam. providing fullness and shaping to waist without using darts. feather boning See clot hfacings at armhole. flat felled seam Seam created by placing the undersides of garment pieces together and stitching a seam of about 5/8" wide that appears on the right sides. The verb to face describes the act of applying a facing. and front closing stay #1. . Triangular piece used at sides of handbag. heading Small hem through which elastic is pulled. fused seam Seam made in plastic or vinyl by heating edges to be joined. gathers gauging See clothing construction details: shirring. This creates a very durable seam. 2. handkerchief hem hem The lower edge of an item of clothing. godet (go-day´) Triangular piece .clothing construction details: hem 81 the front or back. center front. two rows of stitching appear on outside. six-gore six gored skirt skirt has side-front and sideback seams as well as side seams. Also used in gloves at wrist. ing con stru cti on details: neck. Diamond-shaped piece of fabric inserted under the arm of sleeve or in the crotch seam to permit gre a ter movem en t . or of sleeves. and sides of shoes for wider gusset #1 opening. The edge gives a serpentine effect winding outward and inward. As a result. A seam is then stitched that encases the previously stitched seam. Also see cl othing con stru cti on details: shirring. then the fabric is folded so that the outsides of the fabric french seam pieces are together. Used in skirts and bell-bottom pants. fused hem Hem cre a ted with special tape that when pressed with a hot iron melts and ad h eres to the fabric. godet pleats (go-day´) Pleats that hang in a series of rolls forming a gored skirt. or desired shape. 2. a triangular insert of fabric that creates fullness. fluted hem Tiny hem finished with picot edge (see picot #2) in a sheer nylon fabric which is set in crystal pleats. Also called godet. greater w idth. fell seam See clothing construction details: flat-felled seam. gore 1. Also called welded seam. and center back. See cl othing construction details: gore and godet gusset. gusset 1. Introduced in the 1960s. Skirt section. Both are then pressed flat in the same direction and the folded edge is top-stitched. Hems may also be faced. french seam Seam created by placing the unders i des of ga rm ent pieces together and stitching a seam that appe a rs on the ri ght sides. handkerchief hem Hem that falls in points similar to when a handkerchief is held in the center and allowed to fall. In sewing. set into a s k i rt or sleeve to give added fullness. This seam is mostly used on transparent and lightweight fabrics that ravel. A four-gore skirt has seams at sides. Also called pipe-organ pleats. One edge of the seam is flat-felled then cut off to 1/8" and the other edge seam folded over cut edge. ga t h e r i ng Drawing up fullness along several thre ads in a row of sti tch i n g.

l i ngerie hem Ro ll ed hem with overcast stitches at intervals forming minute puffs between stitches. pants.h em m ed finish for ed ge s of garments that creates the appearance of a curly lettuce leaf. Fastened in placket early times by lacings. for example. mitered mushroom pleats Very fine. It extends about 4" above and below waistline. back. All pleats go in the same direction. lapped seam Simple seam used on interfacing and also in shoe and glove construction. and since 1970s by Velcro®. nun’s tucks Tucks. Handmade hem popular in the 1920s and still used lingerie hem occasionally. since 1930s by zippers. picot hem Hem finished with a row of mach i n e hemsti tching—then cut apart—used on ruffles to reduce bulkiness. Plain seam pressed open on wrong side and each raw edge finished by hand or machine overcast stitches to prevent raveling. kilt pleats Flat pleat covering half of next pleat. usua lly placed 1⁄2" to 1" apart.corner s et pleats similar to crystal pleats ( s ee u n der clothing con structi on details). pin tu cks See cl othing con structi on details: tucks. five. petal hem Hem that falls in rounded sections similar to petals of a flower. Reverse side of inverted s everal inverted pleats will loo k pleats like box pleats. pinked Describes seams or other fabric areas that have been finished by trimming raw edges with a pinking shears. Der. Replaced by long back zippers extending from neckline to hips. blouse. Also knife pleats called flat or side pleats. front. overlapped seam See clothing overcast seam construction details: lap seam. miter To finish a squ a re corner with a diagonal seam. open-welt seam See clothing con stru cti on details: tucked seam. kick pleats Single flat pleat or one knife pleat (see under clothing construction details) at the back or front of a narrow skirt to make walking easier. Popular in the 1920s. Originally fastened with snaps (see under closures). side. le t tu ce edging Na rrow . Excess material is trimmed away. placket Word used since the 16th c. or seven. One layer of material is placed on top of another and topstitched. buttons. piped buttonhole See closures. plain hem Hem folded up and hand-sewn. later side plackets closed by a special type of zipper. all folded in the same direction as in a Scottish kilt. 2. Seam made on inside of garment with both raw edges overcast toget h er either by hand or machine. pipe organ pleats See clothing construction details: godet pleat. See embroideries and sewing stitches: hemstitch #2. Most dresses had this type of opening from 1930s to 1950s. knife pleats Pressed in pleats. which makes saw-toothed edges to pinking prevent raveling. usually of 2" or more in width. in piped seams. piping A folded piece of bias binding. overcast seam 1. A side placket is an opening placed in side seam of a dress or blouse to facilitate putting on a fitted dress. placed around the hem of a dress or used on sleeves in a series of three. Piping may be inserted between two layers of fabric before stitching to create a decorative effect as.made bu t tonhole See cl o su re s . From appe a rance of the inside cap of the mushroom. Piped seams are similar to corded seams but have a flat rather than a rounded edge.82 clothing construction details: inverted pleat i nve rted pleat Pleat formed by bringing two folds to a center line and pressing them. The edge of the hem may be finished to pre- C . heat. ma ch i n e . or skirt to facilitate taking garment on and off. for slit at neck. or wrist in dress. or hooks and eyes.

bodices. tailored buttonhole See closures: worked buttonhole. Sometimes used to bind cut edges of raveled seams. shoulder dart V-shaped dart. In polyester and nylon fabrics. with the ed ges fo l ded under. originally whalebone but now usually thin metal or plastic. sunburst plea t s See clothing con stru ction details: accordion pleat. sleeves. Provide a decorative e ffect and reduce fullness without gathers. or at the front of the waistline. skirts. saw-toothed hem Faced hem made with poi n ted edges. n. v. laying the edges facing each other over a tape or strip of fabric. then sewed with tiny stitches. thereby making the seam on the outside of the garment. it is sometimes stitched down at the top of the garment to make it hang better. these are d a rts that taper to nothing. 2. and swimsuits. and topstitching the folded slot seam edges through the underlying fabric. The seam is pressed construction details: topstitching 83 vent raveling by various means such as turning the hem edge plain hem under and mac hine stitching. Strip of material. collars. seam The place at wh i ch two or more layers of tex tile material or leather are sewn toget h er. To set in folds. A variety of stitches and techniques can be utilized in creating seams. Light boning used particularly at hem of skirt to extend it is called feather bon i n g . side pla cket See clothing construction details: placket. and still used occasionally. pinking (see clothing construction details: pinked). strap seam Plain seam stitched with wrong sides together. shirring Three or more rows of gathers made by small running stitches in parallel lines. Also stitched to seams on wrong side to prevent stretching. or belts. is strap laid over the open seam and top. slot seam Seam created by folding under the edge of each of two garment pieces. stud See closures. topstitching Stitching visible from the outer or “top” side of a garment that consists of one . on the front of the blouse. See indiv idual types of seams listed under clothing construction details and gloves and glove constructions. sca lloped hem Faced hem made with rounded edges simulating a shell design. s eam bi n d i ng Narrow tape woven on the straight used at hem of garment to cover raw edge. blouse. stay 1. Also shirring called ga u ging. This technique is often used to create a contrast in color or fabric between the underlying fabric and the top garment fabric. pleat/plait 1. Piece of f a bric sti tched under pleats or gathers to hold fullness in place. pleats may be put in perm a n ently wi t h a heat-setting process. or sewing tape to the edge by machine after which hand stitches are used to finish the hem. placed behind or within seams or darts and used to stiffen such garments as corsets.seam stitched into place. saddle-stitched seam See footwear. or dress. sun bu rst tu cks Used in a series. rolled hem Handmade hem used on sheer and delicate fabrics. Used to produce fullness at tops of gloves. May be arranged around the neckline of a dress. extending from mid-shoulder seam to bust. plain seam Simple seam stitched on wrong side of garment usually pressed open. Also called fan tucks. 2. First rolled between the fingers. or from shoulder seam to shoulder blade in back. Bias tape. May be made by using a large stitch on the sewing machine and then pulling the bobbin thread to form ga t h ers or by using elastic thread on the bobbin. Fold of fabric usually pressed flat but sometimes left unpressed. When used in a skirt. Used for chiffon rolled hem evening gowns of the 1920s and 1930s. Used on a fabric that will not ravel. side pleats See clothing constr uction details: knife pleats.

. coachman’s coat See coats and jackets. clown suit Popular fancy dress costume for children or adults consisting of a jumpsuit with full pant legs with ruffles at cuffs and ankles. topstitched seam Plain seam pressed open and sti tched on either side of seam on ri ght side of ga rment or pre s s ed to one side and stitched on reverse side. cloverleaf lapel See necklines and collars: lapel. Often tucks are arranged in a series and designated by width (e. cluster curls See hairstyles. Also called openwelt seam. club wig See wigs and hairpieces. cluster ring See jewelry. cluster earring See jewelry. we l t s ea m Plain seam sti tched on underside of the fabric. Also called d ou bl e . tucked seam Seam finished with tu cks sti tch ed about 1⁄4" to 1" from either side of seam and pressed to meet over seam. and trimmed with pompons. one edge is trimmed. Finally the seam is top s ti tched at a point close welt seam enough to the seam to catch wi der edge. coat set See coats and jackets. Der. fullness is released. Each tuck slightly overlaps the previous one in the fashion of Venetian blind slats. Worn with tall tapered dunce’s cap (see headwear). or pin tucks. clutch purse/bag See handbags and related accessories. A classic since the 1930s. 1". coal-scuttle bonnet See headwear. coat-dress Dress fastened down front from neck to hem. coat jumper See jumpers. C . umbrella pleats Similar to accordion pleats ( s ee under cl othing con stru ction details) but larger. in single. clothing industry See apparel industry.or double-breasted style. Shown at watteau back. cl uster pleats See clothing con structi on details. broad-stitched seam. A large unstarched ruff (see necklines and collars) is worn at the neckline. like a coat. This is a very durable seam finish and may also be used for decorative effects if the color of the top stitching contrasts with the fabric. From the name of an 18th-c. Made of t wo co l ors . like the folds of an umbrella. coa ted fa b r i cs † Fa brics sometimes made nonporous and water repell ent thro u gh coa ting with va rious su b s t a n ces su ch as lacqu er. rubber. coatee See coats and jackets. or plasti c re s i n . either belted or unbelted. the latter are only wide enough for a row of stitching). club bow tie See ties. The term was coined in the 19th c.stitched seam ing are placed on either side of the seam. French painter who often depicted women wearing dresses with this style pleat. worked buttonhole See closures. va rnish. 1⁄4". coats See closures: breasts. clutch coat See coats and jackets. coat shirt See shirts.84 clothing construction details: topstitched seam or more rows of machine stitching made through all layers of fabric. welded seam See clothing construction details: fused seam. clout-shoen See footwear: clot.g. coat of mail See armor: hauberk. tuck A means of controlling fullness in a garment in which part of the garment piece is made smaller by folding the fabric and stitching a line parallel to the fold. Cluny lace See laces. clouded cane See cane. At the place where the tuck ends. Watteau pleats Box pleats hanging free from back shoulder yoke to hem of dress or dressing gown. make and trim. venetian-blind pleats A pleat formed by a wide-stitched tuck made in the fabric. then both edges are pressed in same direction with the narrower ed ge under the wi der.s ti tch ed top seam or. po lyet hyl ene. d ivi ded down cen ter front and back. when double rows of stitch. pyroxlin. CMT See cut. 1⁄2".

de s i gn ed to be worn over o t h er clothing ei t h er indoors or outdoors. Present-day usage defines jackets as follows: 1. made with wide velvet collar. seafarers. flapped hip pockets. Popular in late 1960s as part of trend toward ethnic clothes. and not changed to “coat” until the late 19th c. replacing the suit coat for some occasions. Navy officers. were introduced for both men and women. usually shorter than hip-length. It was also called a jerkin. Albert overcoat Man’s loose-fitting midcalf overcoat with fly front. and vertical slit breast pockets. jackquette. worn in 1877. but a single. the diminutive of jacque. sometimes embroidered on the smooth side. For women: In the 17th c.. all . chesterfield-style coat (see under coats and jackets) of 1860 usually made with no back seam. In mid19th c. flap pockets. An item of apparel. for both formal and informal occasions. when the redingote and pel i s s e were introdu ced (see under coats and jackets) . long back vent. Made with broad collar. Der. Alb e rt riding coa t Hi gh . Der. many styles. admiral coat Do u ble-breasted reefer-style coat (see under coats and jackets). frequently with gold buttons. Der. and hip pockets. From “cloak” in use by mid-19th c. accepted by gentlemen. giving a shaggy border around edge. wide cuffs. it is designed to be worn over other clothing either for warmth or as a decorative element of the costume. and into the early 17th c. A-line coat Coat made close and narrow at the shoulders. 2. worn from 1860s to 1900.S. Afghanistan jacket Jacket of lambskin.. In the 20th c. small shoulder cape. almain coat/jacket (al´man) Jacket worn by men over doublet in second half of 15th and early 16th c. made with leather side out. and lapels.coats and jackets: almain coat/ jacket 85 co ats a n d j a ck e ts coat Sleeved outerwear that ranges from hiplength to full-length. and apprentices.but ton ed singlebreasted man’s coat of 1841 with front cut away in slanted style. Adapted from coats worn by U.or double-breasted. whereas the term “jacket” alone as used today (see #1 below) was applied to separate garments such as the Z o uave jacket (see coats and jackets). mantles and capes (see under capes. when women adopted dresses made up of separate bodices and skirts. Although a coat with set-in sleeves was worn in ancient Persia. worn by country people. cl oa k s . Made close fitting w ith . and some are closed with a zipper. the jacket was a type of bodice that was more loo s ely fitted than more formal wear and was also called either a doublet or waistcoat. shaped like letter A. and and had no breast pocket. In 18th c. Albert top fro ck Men’s heavy overcoat styl ed like a f rock coat (see under coats and jackets). narrow lapels. tanned with hair left on. Introduced in 1955 by Paris designer Christian Dior. made in singleor double-breasted style with or without a collar. Albert jacket Man’s single-breasted jacket of 1848. the separate bodice was referred to as a jacket bodice (see in alphabetical listing). laborers. Also called driving sac. Some are made with double-bre a s te d or singl ebreasted closings. thus becoming a mark of social inferiority. that was worn over a doublet in France and England in 15th c. Albert driving cape Not a true cape.. and shawls) were more gen era lly worn as the outermost ga rm ent until the end of the 18th raincoat Ra i n coat that can be worn year-round as it is made with a zip-out lining. Part of a suit that covers the upper part of the body—a suit jacket. It was made with or without waistline seam side pleats. loose. often sleeveless. In the 19th c. others have no closing. flaring gently from under arms to hem. all-weather coa t Waterproofed or water-repellent coat sometimes made with zip-in lining to adapt to various temperatures. usually of acrylic pile. a coat. Old F rench. jacket For men: used in English to describe a garment.

worn from 1490 to 1540. flared skirt and long hanging sleeves. anorak (an´-nah-rack) Hi p .l ength outdoor coat wi th full sleeves.l ength jacket made of water-repellent fabric. base coat Man’s jacket or jerkin with short sleeves. tu rn ed-down collar. and skirts. Der. Woman’s bel ted doublebreasted semi-fitted jacket w ith lapels and small gauntlet cuffed sleeves.s l eeved. Der. square neckline. sometimes lined with fur. worn in 1809. hanging in tubular unpressed pleats to just above the knees. and full skirt. worn from 1870 to 1880. Scotland. Woman’s coat wi t h pagoda sleeves. made double-breasted with ver tical flap pockets and pleat down center back. and slashed at front seams. having two breast pocket s .closing. worn in 1857. worn by women in 1847 ascot jacket Loose-fitting man’s jacket with rounded hems in front and matching fabric belt pulling in the waistline. In troduced in World War II anorak for pilots. similar to coat of riding habit. often without a vest. Frequently made of tweed or water-repell ent fabri c.qu a rter. in 1876. 2. Alpine jacket 1. American coa t Bri tish term for man’s singlebreasted full-length coat. While those used in professional and amateur sports are made in team colors with team name on the front and player’s number on the back. Englishman’s jacket similar to a Norfolk jacket (see under coats and jackets). 1870. Also called university coat. usually black. baseball jacket Waistlength zipp ered or snap-cl o s ed jacket wi t h ribbed cuffs and waist styled after those worn by Major League and Little League baseball baseball or varsity jacket players. angle-fronted coat Variation of man’s morning coat (see under coats and jackets). wide collar. Outdoor jacket worn in 1860s. zippered battle jacket f ly . 2. fastened in front with gold barrelshaped snaps and an elastic-type be lt with buckle. loosef i t ting style coat that buttons up the front to balmacaan the neck and has a small. Also called varsity jacket. a u to m obile coat See coats and jackets : du ster. 2. Ba t te n b e rg ja cke t Woman’s loo s e . Armenian mantle Loose-fitting pelisse (see under coats and jackets) without a cape. ba l ma ca a n (bal-ma-kan) Ra gl a n . enriched with passementerie made of braid. those for general wear are made in a wide variety of colors and fabrics and may or may not have team logos or other decorations. and C . barn coat See coats and jackets: field coat. worn in 1876. Worn buttoned to neck. cut away diagonally on each side to reveal triangles of waistcoat. Eskimo word for a hooded waist-length jacket of sealskin or printed cotton worn for warmth by Greenland Eskimos. or bases.f i t ti n g o utdoor jacket with large but tons and a turned-down collar worn in 1880s. Balmoral jacket 1. Waist-length jacket worn with Lederhosen (see under shorts) as part of a Tyrolean mountain climber’s costume. barouche coat (bar-roosh) Woman’s tightfitting three . made with narrow lapels. basquine. which has a zip-front and draws tring hem and is worn for winter sports. Also spelled basquin. worn c. and long extension below the waistline. Invernessshire. Named after Balmacaan. basquine (bas-keen´) 1. fitted waistband. battle jacket Waistlength Army jacket worn in World War II. fringed trimming. Woman’s jacket of 1867 that buttoned to neck with front and back points bel ow waist. worn in 1829.86 coats and jackets: Alpine jacket short.

popular in the 1920s. Also called Eisenhower j acket after Allied forces Commander-in-Chief General Dwight D. worn by working men in the 19th c. benchwarmer ja cket Hooded knee-length jacket slipped over head and zipped at neck. now made double-breasted as well and with va rying types of pockets. beach coat See activewear: beach robe. worn in early 1890s. high fur collar. bolero Waist-length or abovethe-waist jacket. body coat In 19th-c. or with a belt in the back to confine the fullness.zo h n ) Jacket with a bloused effect at a normal or low waistline.breasted jacket styled like a reefer (see coats and jackets). Fren ch.breasted. blouse coat Coat with V-shaped neckline. box coat 1. 4. bl o uson ja cke t (blu e´. bi-swing Suit or sport jacket with set-in belt in back and deep pleats extending upward to each shoulder to give freedom of movement. Also called benny or lily benjamin. Earliest uses of this term seem to have be en f or bright (blazing) red jackblazer ets worn for sports. big coat Long. n a rrow straight sleeves. men’s tailoring. 2. Popular in the 1930s for men and women. Woman’s straight coat with wide shoulders. giving broadshouldered look and freedom of movement. usually collarless and often sleeveless. who wore this style. Der. Beaufort coat Man’s suit jacket o f 1880s with singl e . frequently connected with gold braid. and no fastenings. Copied form the Spanish bolero bullfighter’s em broidered jacket and worn by women since late 19th c. pages. or shoulder blades.” bobtailed coat Short-tailed man’s coat with n a rrow revers ( s ee necklines and co llars) worn at end of 18th and early 19th c. and seams often doublestitched. frequently made w ith slightly flounced skirt and lavish. bench coat See coats and jackets: benchwarmer jacket. bomber jacket See coats and jackets: flight jacket. Der. benjamin Overcoat. Now used mainly for band uniforms and occasionally adapted for men’s. Has single-breasted closing and conventional n o tched co llar with lapels.” Also called d riving coa t and curri cle coa t ( k u r´. particularly by coach m en and travel ers riding outside coach on the “box. Also called bench coat. four-but ton closing. 3. sometimes-ankle-length voluminous coat with long full sleeves. “bl o u s e . boxy cotton jacket w ith patch pockets and brass buttons or iginally worn by upper classmen at Princeton University in 1930s. and bellboys at hotels. Copied for young people from jackets worn by football players waiting on the bench. b e llb oy / b e llhop ja cke t Waist-length jacket with standing collar. and copied by other students. dolman or kimono sleeves. blade ja cke t Ma n’s business jacket of the 1930s made with extra fullness at upper arm and back. blazer Sport jacket in a solid color or striped.l ength wom a n’s do u bl e . used to distinguish a suit coat from an outdoor coat or overcoat. Also called jumper coat. Generally worn with tro u s ers or skirt of con trasting co l or. Originally single breasted. warm overcoat with sing le or multiple shoulder capes worn throughout 19th c. From name of a Spanish dance and also music for the dance. Originally worn by messenger boys. and with patch pockets. with rounded front. generally white. and children’s wear. Heavy. full. Der. and single-button closing at waistline. Worn bel ted. Styling va ries but is often similar to a wi n d breaker or battle jacket ( s eeunder coats and jackets) . beer jacket . popular in late 1920s and 1930s.k u l ) . bike jacket Waist-length sport jacket. either gathered into knitted waistband or pulled in by draws tri n g. Also see coats and jackets : carri ck . unbel ted. Unfitted . Hi p . Eisenhower.coats and jackets: box coat 87 turn-down collar with revers. two rows of brass buttons on front in V-style. women’s.

A standard style in the American West from colonial days. sometimes had a small cape at the shoulders. buckskin jacket Western . Bronx jacket See coats and jackets: perfecto jacket. Newer versions in 1980s styled without belt.88 coats and jackets: box jacket large sleeved jacket coming to below waistline. knee-length or shorter. Der. Worn in mid-1890s. 6. handmade buttonholes. adopted by civilians and American Colonists. bu llet . or an extra cape.bre a s ted coat with lon g. around hips worn over waistcoat or vest in late 1870s. Also see alphabetical listing. 7. Originally a military garment worn during civil wars in England. safari. waistlength or longer. caban Man’s loose outdoor garment of the 1840s that had wide. Som etimes tri m m ed lavi s h ly with braid. Breton ja cket ( bret . when worn with matching skirt. worn in 1850s. Do u bl e .bre a s te d gi rl ’s coat som etimes made with shawl collar. bucksain Man’s padded overcoat with wide sleeves. Na m ed for braidtrimmed uniforms wo rn by Brandenburg troops of Prussia during the Napoleonic War who fought for a state located in the eastern part of Germany. Som etimes with shoulder wi n gs and sleeves of fabric. for an expensive unisex tren chcoa t . C . which is similar in all respects to the bush jacket. styl ed with standing co llar and side cl o sing. sometimes with epaulets. Camargo (ka-mar´-go) A woman’s jac ket with draped fullness. singlebreasted front. Burberry® Trademark of Burberry’s International. women and children. Details include handstitching on collar. Th reequarter-length unfitted coat of early 1900s. b oy coat Do u bl e . In the late 1870s. it was adapted for citywear in the late 1960s. Frequently shorter in center back. One example is a ligh t wei ght jacket with zipper front and three bulletproof panels—two in front and one in back—that slip into pockets in the lining. and D-rings on belt for holding objects. bush jacket/bush coat Jacket ori gi n a lly worn in Africa on hunting expeditions. Der. sometimes sleeveless. See coats and jackets: Empire jacket #2. Ltd. Also known as templar cloak.and late 1960s when introduced as a fashion item for women by Dior. Also called buff jerkin or leather jerkin. unfastened in front. notched collar and set-in sleeves. and a hood. copied for civilian wear in 1950s and 1960s. Made in ligh t wei gh t polyester and cotton fabric with an optional plaid zip-out lining. belt. and four large bellows pocket s . called a Breton costume. Der. box jacket Any straight unfitted jacket. loose winter coat made in military style with frog closings. 5. made with shawl collar.o h n´) F i t ted hip-len g t h woman’s jacket buttoned on either side to a front panel. Worn in 16th and 17th c. worn in early 20th c. From bush jacket or safari jacket clothes worn on hunting trip into the African bush country. Der. pannier-style. for which similar style jacke t is worn. the French couturier. buff coat Man’s leather jacket made of ox or buffalo hide s . bell-like sleeves. Af ter Ma rie Ann de Cupis Ca m a r go (1710–1770). London. Skirts.s tyle jacket of sueded doeskin or sheep s k i n ( s ee leat h ers) trimmed with long fringe. where it was made of khaki-colored cotton w ith peaked lapels.type raincoat. with tailored collar and lavishly trimmed with wide braid. worn in last qu a rter of 17th c. celebrated dancer. and umbrellas are made to match the lining. From name of African hunting trip.. British warm British army or navy officers’ heavy double-breasted overcoat. Also called bush coat or safari jacket. scarves.resistant fiber such as Kevlar® aramid. Ad a pted for fashionable wear and made in all types of fabrics and worn by men. but called by this name in the mid. bulletproof ja cke t Any jacket that is cons tructed with stron g. Brandenburg/Brandenbourg/Brandenbu rg h Man’s long. First used by British officers in 1914.

See these under coats and jackets. that tapered to rounded point below the waist in back. See clerical dress. Ma n’s loo s e coat with turn-down collar and cuffs worn in 18th c. Frequently trimmed with fur. and wide lapels extending almost to hem. cardigan coa t / ca rd igan ja cket Co ll a rless coat or jacket made with plain round neckline and buttoned down center front and which may have binding around the neckline and down the front. m ade with three seams in back and a center vent. or lace. du f fel coat. stadium coat. Some of the styles in which car coats have been made inclu de ben chwarm er. Combination of cape and coat with the back falling like a cape . Der. caprice (ka-preece) Loose shor t sleeveless woman’s evening jacket of mid-19th c. Worn from mid-1830s to mid-1850s. carrick Man’s or woman’s full-length duster worn from 1877 on. copied from coats worn by Canadian soldiers. carmagnole (car´-man-yole) Jacket or shortskirted coat with wide collar. casawe ck (kasa´. 1854. who needed an extra layer of warmth for his uniform during the Crimean War. qu i l ted outdoor mantle made with closefitting velvet or silk collar and slee ves. Thigh . Coat with sleeves and an attached or sep a ra te cape . velvet. and later adopted by men for civilian wear in late 17th c. Styl ed like a box coat wi t h three capes and similar to an ulster (see under coats and jackets: ulster #1 and #2). . Worn from late 16th thro u gh 17th c. worn by women from mid1850s to mid-1870s. See coats and jackets: cassock #1. 2. mack i naw jacket. C harlie Cha plin coat An k l e . l a ter types had skirts dra ped in polonaise style. L a ter ad a pted for wi nter three . made with no waistline seams and popular for women from late 18th through 19th c. worn in 1830s. Fitted jacket but ton ed down the front. Also called a casaque (kasack´). ca ra co (kar´. Named for 7th Earl of Cardigan. 2. Worn with black pantal oons and red liberty cap ( See headwe a r) by French Revo luti on a ries in 1792 and 1793. casaque ( k a . ra n ch coat. Also see coats and jackets: dolman. casentino (ca-zen-tee-no) Red overcoat with a green lining worn by coachmen in Casenti n o. cape coat 1. lapels. oversized coat with baggy sleeves ending in wide . and rows of metal buttons. Early types had extensions of the bodice (basques) to the hips or sometimes lon ger. Fitted hip-length su i t jacket with peplum made by French designer Yves Saint Laurent in 1969. cassock 1. Also called caraco corsage. campaign coat Originally a long military overcoat worn by the rank and file from a bo ut 1667. double-breasted. and by foot soldiers. Long loose overcoat with a cape co llar. a secti on of Italy. belted coat designed in Paris during the 1940s.wek) Wom a n’s short. Also see coats and jackets: polka and varens. usually made in bri ght co lors of their respective stables.a . said to derive from jac kets depicted in Toulouse-Lautrec paintings. 3. large turned-back cuffs. 2. wh i ch is com fort a ble for driving a car. Hooded coat or cloak wo rn from Middle Ages on. 2. 4. French couturier.coats and jackets: Charlie Chaplin coat 89 Ca m b r i d ge coa t Th ree . Cambridge pa letot (pal-ah-to w´ or pal-tow´) Man’s knee-length overcoat of mid-1850s cut with wide cape collar. 2. toggle coat. fullshouldered. First became popular with the station-wagon set in suburbia in 1950s and 1960s and has become a classic style since then.qu a rter len g t h .ko) 1. car coat Sport or utility coat made hip.button . French term for jacket worn by jockeys. by men and women for hunting. Girl’s coat cut on princess lines worn in 1860s.or doubl e .but ton ed cuffs and hu ge patch pockets. canadienne (ka-nah´-dee-en) Woman’s hiplength.bre a s ted man’s suit coat of 1870. single. riding. the front having sleeves and looking like a coat. in spring collection of 1985. careless Man’s loose-fitting caped overcoat with spread collar and no seams at waistline.s ack´) 1. ca p o te / capot (kah-poa t ) 1. flaring below waist. Introduced b y Claude Montana.l ength.l ength fitted jacket.

claw-hammer coat Colloquial name for the swallow-tailed coat (see under coats and jackets) named for shape of coat-tails with ends cut straight across resembling claws of a hammer. Fa s h i on a ble in mid18th c. a fashion leader in 1830s and 1840s. worn in the bedroom when brushing hair or app lying makeu p. British admiral. usually´) Tight-fitting caraco jacket (see coats and jackets : caraco #2). or coattails. an early silent-film comedian. chubby Woman’s straight-cut waist. Originally introd uced in the mid-1920s as a low-waisted evening wr ap with bagpipe sleeves and large fur collar and also for day wear. coats See closures: breasts. coattail Portion of coat below coachman’s coat. chasseur jacket F i t ted. Der. Worn by Chinese workmen and frequently copied as beach or linger ie hipl ength jacket of lon g . Der. like a cocoon.c ut cl a ssic man’s or wom a n’s overcoat in single. s traigh t . O ri gi n a lly introdu ced by Yves Saint Laurent in spring 1984 as an evening coat in velvet. Chinese jacket See coats and jackets: coolie coat. Popular in late 1920s through 1940 and worn at intervals since. flaps. coa ch ma n ’ s coat Do u bl e bre a s ted coat with large . coatee Short close-fitting coat with short skirt. fitted waistline. hip-length. After Sir Edward Codrington. and elaborately trimmed with braid and Brandenburgs (see closures: frogs). Popular in late 1930s and revived in early 1970s. and standing co llar that may be rolled down. deep cuffed batwing sleeves. Co d r i ngto n Ma n’s loo s e . velvet. Originally an overcoat introduced in chesterfield coat 1840s for men. with bl ack velvet co llar.90 coats and jackets: chasseur jacket Der.or do u bl e . the back waistline.f i t ting single or double-breasted overcoat resembling a chesterf i eld ( s ee under coats and jackets) worn in 1840s. C . close coat Term used in 18th and 19th c. it reached to thigh in back and tapered in cutaway fashion in the front. slashings at hem. Single-breasted style usually has a fly-front closing. Envelops the figure. sold together since 1940s. Frequently has a clutch coat cape collar and brass button s . kuli. wide lapels.h a i red fur. Used as a rain or shine coa t . Revived periodically. clutch coa t Woman’s coat wi t h no fasteners in fr ont wo rn open or held clutched together. kimono sleeves (see shoulders and sleeves) and frog fasteners (see closures). combing jacket Woman’s loose jacket. who led flee t to victory at Navarino in 1827. and flared skirt. tapering to the hem. especially 1775 the long back portions of a swa ll ow-ta i l edcoat or a c utaway ( s eeunder coats and jackets). Named after Charlie Chaplin. cocoon Wrap coat with ver y large shoulders. chesterfield coat Semifitted . Cop i ed from English coachmen’s coats of 19th c.” coureur (koor. with straight sleeves. m i l i t a ry inspired women’s jacket of 1880s made with standing military collar. Named after the 6th Earl of Chesterfield. “unskilled workman. and also in 1860s. in late 19th and early 20th c. m ade co ll a rless.bre a s ted styl e . coolie coat Short boxy coat reaching slightly below waist with standing collar. or matching pants. or cashmere usually worn indoors over a home dress in mid-19th c. for a buttoned coat. coat set Child’s co at made with matching hat. coin de feu (kwan´ de fuh´) Short coat with high neck and wide sleeves made of silk. Der. Chinese.

Der. 1882 lum dolman.. worn in late 1880s. curricle coat (kur´-eh-kul) 1. By the 1870s the same style was more likely to be called a morning coat. and skirt gathered at a low waistline. used c. Woman’s fitted full-length coat with lapels worn in early 19th c. cutaway 19th c. but is sleeved in front. dinner jacket 1. sometimes called gig coat. A crocheted dolman that fasten ed at neck with large bow . cycle jacket See coats and jackets: motorcycle jacket. 1895 ( s ee under coats and jackets) instead of folding the skirts back for horseback riding. See coats and jackets: tuxedo. deck ja cke t S h ort hooded water. Cut away in front from chest to waist. on e -button jacke t with peaked lapels and skirt cut away from the waist in front. It originated as a riding coat. man’s coat style that was known by a nu m ber of different names throughout the century. England. a va ri a ti on wi t h long points hanging at sides. as New Market. was a horse ra cing center. Worn in 1890s and early 1900s. sloping to the back. dolman (dole´-man) Woman’s short mantle or full-length wrap that gives the appeara n ce of a cape from the b ack. was worn by women in the early 1870s. From the riding coat the Newmark or Newmarket coat evolved. See shirts. Man’s wh i te sem i formal jacket worn in summer. C. denim jacket Any jacket made of blue denim fabric. wh i ch closes with zipper and has attach ed ribbed. this coat was double-breasted and exposed the shirt in front. The pepdolman c.repell en t jacket . in a slanting line. Synonym for box coat that was used in the mid19th c. Similar to Directoi re coat (see under coats and jackets). popular in the mid-1960s. tapering to knees in back . From gathered skirt and fitted bodice of the Tyrolean peasant dress called a dirndl. This was a long-tail coat made singleor double-breasted with front skirts cut away and rounded. Worn with lightweight slacks fo r sportswear by men from 1940 to 1950. Worn from 1870s thro u gh the 1880s. Worn onboard sailboats and other craft.O. cutaway sack Man’s loose-fitting suit jacket reaching to hips cut away in rounded lines in front to side seams. This name. often w ith flap pockets and cuffed sleeves. sometimes made with nylon pile lining. this basic style was k n own as a “cut aw ay” and worn for m ore formal occasions. See coats and jackets: box coat #2. cutaway frock Man’s suit coat almost kneelength—similar to a frock coat (see under coats and jackets)—and cut away from waistline to each side seam in rounded curve.coats and jackets: dolman 91 with short peplum or basques worn by women during French Revolution.P. and retu rns to current fashion frequ en t ly in coat co llecti on s . 1838 and after. also has a connection to riding. revived in early 20th c. Directoire coa t (dir-eck´-twa) Woman’s coat having ankle-length skirt in back and coming only to waistline in front. dirndl coat (durn´-dul) Woman’s coat cut with fitted torso. Cu ba vera jacket Wh i te co t ton sport jacket wi t h four patch pock ets similar to beer jacket (see under coats and jackets). It had a back vent topped by two buttons and was worn with a waistcoat and striped tro u s ers in daytime. knitted trim at wrists and neck. worn as top of a daytime dress. As the dress frock coat worn in 1870s and 1880s. Directoire jacket (dir-eck´-twa) Woman’s waist-length jacket of late 1880s. worn from 1825 to 1870s and was made with skirt slanting from waist to thigh in back that was made by cut ting away the front of a frock coat cutaway coat c. 2. Worn in 1890s and early 1900s. 2. By the 1850s. It was usu a lly a bl ack.

but fitted at waist with darts. doublet See in alphabetical listing. arbiter of fashion. duster 1. 2. somewhat resembling man’s cutaway (see under coats and jackets) styl e . Worn for warmth and popular for everyday use and sportswear in the 1970s and after. dress coat See coats and jackets: swallowtailed coat. d’Orsay coat Man’s overcoat of late 1830s— similar to a pilot coat (see under coats and jackets). 4. Has but tons and but tonholes for closing the slashed skirt. three-quarter-length coat for women. the earlier form being a quilted pelisse (see under coats and jackets) and the later style con s i s ting of a coat of c a s h m ere. Der. A similar jacket with zip-off sleeves can also be worn as a vest.le ngth coat See coats and jackets : z i p -off coat. and at center back. Introduced in early 1880s. down jacket 1. Styled more like a dress. Der. k n i t te d cuffs and waistband. below yoke. plain sleeves trimmed with three or four buttons. Also spelled donnilette. douillette (do-yeh´) Woman’s winter coat worn from 1818 to 1830s. dressmaker coat A wom a n’s coat designed with softer lines and more details than the average coat.. to pro tect clothing from dust. Der. man-tailored. mistress of King Louis XV of France. Der. duck-hunter Striped linen jacket worn by English waiters about 1840s. fur collar. Made with a small collar. d’Orsay habit-coat Fitted. 6. merino wool. driving sac See coats and jackets: albert driving cape. d ress f ro ck coat See coats and jackets : cutaway frock coat. Named for Co mpte d’Orsay. the style changed with the current fashions. treated for water repellency and introduced in 1984. and no pleats or hip buttons in the back. i ntroduced during World War II. Tan or brown lightweight full-length coat wo rn when riding in an automobile in early 20th c. interlined with down quilted to the outer fabric and lining. slashed or flapped pockets. a 19th-c. Over this ti m e . 3. In 1950s it was adopted as a sport coat. See sleepwear and loungewear: duster. Worn with automobile veil. Named for Comtesse Du Barry. tucks or pleats. Lightweight clutch coat with full swing at duster 1905 hem and small rolled collar usually made in black bengaline or faille worn in the 1950s. Fitted coat with long skirt slashed up back to waist worn wh en riding hors eb ack. 5. e. C . and worn by men in British navy. Usually a zippered jacket with long sleeves. big-pocketed classic coat with smocked back. or figured satin with a pelerine (a short c a pe) and having very large sleeve s . Lavishly trimmed with ribbon bows and streamers at nec k. See headwear. Belgium. Same as toggle coat although sometimes toggle c oats are made with a hood. bigsleeved. and large full cuffs. May have a waistline and unusual details. sleeves. d u o .92 coats and jackets: d’Orsay coat of ri bbon worn in the 1890s was called a do lmanette. From duffle coat or toggle coat the ori ginal fabric used—a heavy napped wool originally made in Duffel. Big-shouldered. Du Barry mantle Dolman-style (see coats and jackets: dolman) wrap of early 1880s with smocked yoke front and back. Man’s summer overcoat of 1870s.g. made do u blebre a s ted with large revers (see n eck l i n e s and collars). 2. driving coa t See coats and dressmaker coat jackets: box coat #2. duffel coat Car coat or a shorter-length coat fastened with toggles ra t h er than but tons.

2. and apprentices in the 18th .coats and jackets: fearnothing jacket 93 Dutch coat see coats and jackets: muff’s cloak Edwardian coat Man’s knee-length. Made with a full skirt of large unpressed pleats attached to a high waistline. 2. Worn with a high silk hat and a cane in Edwardian period. Der. Der. deep-notched collar. Eton j acket Straight-cut jacket with collar and wide lapels worn unbuttoned or with only top button closed. Eisenhower jacket See coats and jackets: battle jacket. Inspired by coats of Edwardian era in England. usually double-breasted and black. After Edwardian jacket Edward VII. Versions of this style were revived in the 1960s. 2. Very popular in the 1920s in clutch styl e . sportsmen. Jacket name coined by Women’s Wear Daily for a jacket designed by Karl Lagerfeld in 1992 that was banded under the bosom. (See neckllines and collars. In 1930s. it was s i milar in cut to jackets of the Edwardian period. nipped-in waistline. Adapted from jackets worn by underclassmen Eton jacket c. fearnothing jacket Man’s jacket similar to a waistcoat with sleeves worn by sailors. Der. 1901–1910. Ed wa rd ian ja cke t F i t ted jacket made with s ome flare at back and sides and vents at sides or center back. revived periodically. topcoat or overcoat w ith large high-rolled. and deep vent in in back. laborers. Unfitted in front but fitted at waistline in back flaring to form a peplum. Eton jacket bodice Woman’s waist-length jacket similar to boy’s Eton jacket ( s ee under coats and jackets) worn open in front over a waistcoat in 1889. English wra p See coats and jackets: paletot. Full-length coat of 1890s sometimes made with elbow-length cape. Empress of France (1853–71). King of England. fa ke fur coat See coats and jackets: fur fabric coat. 1896 at Eton prep aratory sch ool in England until 1967. 1967 1901–1910. Woman’s double-breasted three-quarter-length jacket of 1890s made somewhat like a pea jacket (see under coats and jackets) with lapels and flapped pocket s. collarless or with a small collar. Sleeves with large turned-back cuffs. Empire jacket ( em´-pire or ohm-peer ) 1. In the late 1890s. Named for Eugénie. English coat 1. large box pleats in front and back. Shorter length sack-type jacket. It may be a coat designed to match or contrast with an evening dress.) Introdu ced in the 1960s. Also see Eton suit.p i re or ohm-peer) Woman’s three-quarter to full-length coat of early 1900s worn fo r traveling or evening wear. and large balloon sleeves. popular for wom en in early 1890s.or single-bre a s ted closing and Na poleon or Regency collar. Styled with do u ble. English walking jacket Woman’s jacke t of mid-1870s made in single-breasted style with lapels. Eugénie paletot (yoo-je´-nee) 1. Squareyoked woman’s jacket of mid-1890s made wi t h Medici collar (see necklines and collars). closing at neck with one button. reaching to waist or a little below. The sides of cuffs and rounded patch pockets were decora ted with but ton s . Also called a box coat. and a perennial style for small boys. popular in black velvet in a full length with leg-ofmutton sleeves and in hip-length with batwing sleeves. Tailored three-quarter-length woman’s coat of 1860s made in unfitted double-breasted style with notched collar and bell sleeves having false cuffs. evening wrap Any coat of fabric or fur designed to be worn primarily for formal occasions. Bodice is cut somewhat like an Eton jacket (see under coats and jackets) with large lapels and a standing Medici collar (see necklines and collars). c. the front was trimmed with braid and frogs and rounded at waistline. E m p i re coa t (em´.

with a full back worn by women in the late 1940s and early 1950s. mainly of nylon. including suede.l en gth slip-on jacket styl ed with attached hood and one large kangaroo pocket (see pockets) across the chest. Suit coat of the 18th c. At first it had a full skirt. and zebra. frock overcoat Boy’s calf-length overcoat. and zip-front. the frock coat was imp ortant from 1816 until the end of the 19th c. Also see coats and jackets: top frock. that was looser and shorter than d ress coa t s . Barn coat is similar in style. French frock See coats and jackets: frock coat #1. 2. frock coat 1.bre a s ted. waist-length jacket. fe n ci ng ja cke t Close-fitting. First worn as part of their uniform by U. sometimes made of leather. described as fashionable in the 18th c. Initially considered suitable for country wear. and a vent in back with frock coat #1 1895 two bu ttons at waistline.flight or bomber jacket wear in 1960s. flyaway jacket Very short jacket.. fold-up raincoat Any raincoat that folds to small size. fis h i ng parka Kn ee . and styled for outdoor wear. ribbed or elastic waistband. Made of heavy woolen fabric called fearnaught. similar in cut to a frock coat (see under coats and jackets) but usu a lly do u blebreasted. usually padded or quilted. usually with a large cape collar (see under necklines and collars).S. then ad a pted for sport s. e. turned down collar and no lapels. with or without shoulder epaulets. worn by women in 1860s and again in 1890s. patch or slot pockets. the j em my had become a man’s shooting coat styled like a manypocketed short frock coat. Made of waterproof fabric and worn for fishing in inclement weather. worn in late 1880s and 1890s.or doubl e . Often made with corduroy or leather collar in contrasting color. made with fitted lines.g. but the 19th c. Introduced as early as 1850 and then called pocket siphonia (sih´-foh´-nee-ah). the frock coat skirt also narrowed . s om etimes colored with stripes to imitate mink. frock greatcoa t Ma n’s coat worn from 1830s on. Si n gle. with standing collar. it buttoned to the waistline. f l ig h t ja cke t Waistlength jacket. Generally has large pockets on either side of the front near the hem. flapped pockets. giraffe. C . sometimes stenciled to look like leo pard. and a flat. Army Air Corps pilots in World War II. Hip-length fitted tailored jacket worn by women in 1890s. Figaro jacket Variation of the Zouave or bolero jacket (see under coats and jackets). was worn from 1770 to 1800 for full dress and usually trimmed with gold embroidered bu ttons. Incorrectly called a fake fur coat. The specific cut varied depending on the current fashionable silhouette. Among the va ri a ti ons of the frock coat was the j em my frock.. fur fa b r i c coat Coat made of f a bric that simulates fur. coat alw ays had a fitted waist attach ed with a w a i s tline seam to a knee-length skirt that fell straight and met at the center front.94 coats and jackets: fencing jacket and early 19th c. but after 1770 was accepted for more formal wear as well. but made in various types of materials. The French frock coat. field coat Hip-length coat usually made of cotton canvas that buttons down the front. for example. See under coats and jackets: siphonia. m odacrylic pile fabri c . specifically a lightweight raincoat frequently of clear vinyl which folds to pocket size. made with high-standing collar and fastened diagonally to right side with a red heart em broi dered on left chest. As the silhouette of men’s coats grew narrower. Less popular du ring the Empire period. but by the 19th c. longer.. after which it was worn by dignitaries and older men. In early 1980s and after made in a variety of styles. Also called bomber jacket. Worn for sport of fencing and sometimes copied for general wear. tiger.

incroyable coat (on-kwai´-abla) Woman’s coat of 1889 made with long coattails and wide lapels. to present.” Also called caban. and frequen t ly given soi l . Lavishly trimmed with braid around neckline.qu a rter-length woman’s jacke t of 1890s with large collar falling over chest in front. Worn parti c u l a rly by fashionable men until 1560. Used for informal horseback riding and for gen e ral casual wear. In 1880s. and wide collar. made with slanting flap pockets and center back vent. Der. Garibaldi jacket (gar-ih-bawl´. Often styled with a pleat in the back to allow for freedom of movement when swinging a golf club. Attached to the side seams in front is a vest usually similar to a sweater with front zipper. “an armed policeman. greatcoat Heavy voluminous overcoat worn by men and women. Copied after styles of incroyables (see directoire # 2). In 1870s. imperial Man’s coat worn in 1840s similar to loose-fitting. jemmy See coats and jackets: frock coat.” Gladstone Man’s short double-bre a s te d overcoat of 1870s made with shoulder cape and borders of Persian lamb. fly-front paletot overcoat (see under coats and jackets). Inspired by uniforms of British troops returning from a campaign in Egypt. golf jacket Short waist-length jacket with zipfront. Irene jacket Short. and by commoners until early 17th c. it was introduced from the East by way of Vienna in the mid-14th c. Usu a lly made with zipfront and rib-knit at neck and wrists. worn for playing golf. Also called officer’s coat. It had a closed front and wide sleeves with the underarm seam open. Inspired by jac kets worn by French policemen. From county of Invernessshire. f i t ted. Der. In 1890s. sometimes had a separate cape over each shoulder. Inspired by clothes worn by I talian patriot Giuseppe Garibaldi. pockets. armholes were very large and a “sling” was used to support or rest arm. Of Ara bi a n origin. Knee-length coat with long removable cape or half-capes over the shoulders. “coat. snapped or buttoned-down front. f requen t ly qu i l ted with padding of polyester f i berf i ll . Term has been used from 19th c. .er. Der. Man’s loose-fitting overcoat with b elow-elbow rem ova ble cape . 2. Adapted from coats of British guardsmen. originally made with fur lining and styled similar to an ulster (see under coats and jackets). and in back. Henrietta ja cket Loose three . Der. gendarme. sometimes with hood. guardsman coat Double-breasted.coats and jackets: jemmy 95 ga b e rd i n e / ga b a r d i n e ( ga b . Also see coats and jackets: ulster. Der.deen ) Believed to have been the first fitted European coa t l i ke ga rm ent with sleeves. and was popular throughout the 15th c. frequently lined with quilted satin. Adapted from the swall ow . hussar ja cket Woman’s short jacket of 1880s fastened with frogs (see under closures) and trimmed with braid and worn over waistcoat. inner-vest jacket Short jacke t.dee ) Woman’s square-cut waist-length jacket of 1860s made of red cashmere trimmed with black braid. Inverness coat (in-ver-ness) 1. hunt coat See coats and jackets: pink coat.tailed coat (see under coats and jackets). French. like those worn by men in late-19th c. half-belted coat made w ith inverted box pleat in back. Sometimes worn with a belt and was s om etimes made of felt. i n trodu ced in 1859. Der. Scotland. slashed pockets. the sleeves were sometimes omitted. on sleeves. Eastern gaba. coll a rless woman’s jacket of late 1860s cut away in front above waistline and sloping to bel ow waistline in cen ter back . and down center front. ge n darme jacket (zhahn´-darm) Conven ti onal jacket buttoned and adorned with brass buttons on sleeves. insulated jacket Lightweight jacket usually made of tightly woven high-count 70 denier nyl on. Worn with lace jabot and waistcoat for afternoon s .resistant and waterrepellent finish. ha ppi coat See s l eepwear and loungewear. gascon coat See coats and jackets: jupe. hacking jacket Single-breasted fitted jac ket similar to man’s suit coat.

justaucorps ( z hu s t . justaucorps c. Der. 2. Also called demiriding coat and habit à la française. Named after Louis XV. jump 1. Worn in 14th and 15th c. Named for Louis XVI of France (1754–1793). Also called jumpcoat and jumpe. jumper coat See coats and jackets: Beaufort coat. just-au-corps. Also see activewear: karate clothing. Also see coats and jackets: car coat. worn from mid-17th to early 18th c. made of wh i te co t ton or manu f actu red fiber. Also spelled justacor. Usually hip length with a standing collar and cut tabs extending from waistline to hem. Der. lumber jacket/lumberjack Waist-length jacket with a bloused effect and rib-knitted bands at waist and cuffs. London Fog® Trademark for London Fog. journade (zhur-naad) Short circular jacket with large full sleeves. who made the first solo flight from New York to Paris ac ross the At l a n tic in 1927. leather jerkin See coats and jackets: buff coat.96 coats and jackets: Joseph Joseph 1. British term for woman’s riding coat worn with protective skirt or safeguard. Worn in 1857. Named for sport for which it is used. Type of jacket worn by Colonel Charles A. kneelength coat worn over waistcoat. 2. judo ja cke t See activewe a r: ka rate cl ot h i n g. Man’s tight-fitting. lounging jacket See coats and jackets: smoking jacket and sack jacket. Also called gascon coat and jupon. British name for woman’s jacket. Thigh-length 17th-c. lily benjamin See coats and jackets: benjamin. Lindbergh jacket Waist-length heavy woolen or leather jacket w ith large pockets. Le i cester ja cket Englishman’s suit or lounge jacket with ra glan slee ves (see under shoulders and sleeves). in England and France. lapels. Wom a n’s outdoor wrap worn from 1800 to 1810 w ith loose sleeves. who ruled France from 1710 to 1774. Reintroduced in early 1980s. 2. Worn to protect street clothes while working in chemical or medical laboratory. Originally worn by woodsmen in the lumbering trade. Worn wh en engaging in sport of karate and also adopted for at-home wear by men and women in late 1960s. and rolled collar. had pleats in center back. C . Louis XV basque Woman’s fitted tailored jacket of 1890s worn open down center front. jupe ( z h oop) 16th. j u s ti co. usually with turned-down collar and revers (see necklines and colla rs). Made of woven plaid wool fabric. juste.and 17th-c. a manufacturer of m en’s and women’s raincoat of classic style. Skirt flared over hips.kor ´) 1. styled like a man’s frock coat.o . Had a standing lace-edged Medici collar (see under necklines and collars) extending to two squared lapels and moderate-sized leg-of-mutton sleeves with cuffs that fell over the wrists. adopted by civilians. jump coat Thigh-length coat for casual wear. similar to long tunic worn by Jewish men. Woman’s riding coat. and was open at center front. Der. revealing waistcoat or vest. Introduced for sportswear in the late 1920s and worn by both adults and children. Made with waistband and cuffs of stretchable rib-knit wool. 1690 karate jacket An indoor jacke t styled like a Japanese kimono but short in length. laboratory coat/smock Single-breasted coat. Der. soldier’s coat. Also called lab coat. or with sleeves long and slit. buttoned down front with long sleeves and vent in back. Woman’s green riding coat worn in the mid-18th c. Borrowed from a military coat and worn from mid-17th to early 18th c. for riding. Also spelled jornade. Louis XVI basque Woman’s fitted jacket of l a te 1890s made with a point in front at w a i s tline. Lindbergh.

Der. became stranded with his patrol on St. 3. Shows some similarites to Nehru jacket (see under coats and jackets). Originally worn as part of naval formal evening dress. and the suits were called ta i l or. When reinforcements mackinaw jacket failed to reach him. similar to short mantle. who first invented the rubberized fabric in 1823. From Naval “mess room. a British officer. ma n d il i o n / ma n d e ville ( m a n . Later worn with short sleeves.White waist-length jacket made with large revers (see necklines and collars) in front and no buttons. ma rquise mantle (mar. 2. Made with short puffed sleeves and a standing collar or ruff (see necklines and collars).” 2. Der. with sleeves hanging free). Also called marquise. for a raincoat. for livery. Made either of “single texture” with printed or woven fabric on out s i de and heavy rubber coa ting on inside or “double texture” with a layer of rubber be tween two fabrics. located at tip of Michigan facing the Straits of Mackinac. who patented fabric in 1823. Charles Macintosh. woman’s outer g arment. warm coats were made from blankets of wide strips and various patterns.f i t ting man’s Inverness coat (see under coats and jackets) of 1880s having large armholes with a separate cape over each shoulder. masher dust wrap Ti gh t . marlotte 16th-c. Worn from 1850s to end of 19th c. Waistlength jacket with standing co llar and l eg . Named after Charles Macintosh. Often worn colley westonward (e. mackinaw jacket/mackinaw coat Hip-length sport jacket of heavy wool woven in patterns similar to those used for blankets. In trodu ced in 1836 and named for the inventor. Mi ch i ga n . Made with fitte d back and flounce below the waist.of- . man-tailored jacket 1.coats and jackets: mess jacket 97 Macfarlane Man’s overcoat made with separate cape over each sleeve and side slits to permit access to pockets of inner garment. At the time these coats represented a radical change from mini coat s tyles.waterproof coat made of patented India rubber cloth of olive drab or dark green with waterproof straps over the seams. Worn by busboys and waiters . worn by soldiers around shoulders as a cape. Mackintos h 1.. First jackets with mannishtype tailoring were introduced for women as suit jackets in the late 19th c.. Con ti nued in va rious styles as a type of jacket suitable for working women.m ade s . Became popular for ex p l orers and wood s m en of the north and continued in popularity to present. two. Long coat with single or double detach a ble cape introdu ced for wom en at end of 19th c. open in fro nt with back falling in folds. Woman’s suit jac ket tailored similar to a man’s suit jacke t and made in fabrics o f pinstripes.keez) Short lacetri m m ed taffeta wom a n’s mantlet of mid1840s with short sleeves. maxi coat Term for any ankle-length coat first used in 1969 and thereafter. Back section is cut in three pieces with center section extending to shoulders in a modified “T. mandarin coat Straight-lined coat with Chinese neckline. See coats and jackets: mini coat. Form erly worn in wh i te as a su mmer semiformal jac ket for men. ma n darin jacke t Jacket with standing-band collar copied from styles of Chinese Ma ndarin costume. sometimes slit. or three buttons or may be double-breasted . Loose-fitti n g. Style may be made with one. mess jacket 1. worn open in front showing stomacher (#2) and petticoat (#2) underneath. Improvised in the winter of 1811 when Captain Charles Roberts. and other men’s wear fabrics.d i ll ´ .y u n ) Loose hip-length jacket with narrow long sleeves worn by men from late 16th to early 17th c. British slang for various types of raincoats. mantelet See coats and jackets: pardessus. Martin’s Island in the Straits of Mackinac. often abbreviated to mac.” center waistline pointed in back.g. mantee Woman’s coat of 18th c. tweeds. 2. Named after Mackinaw Ci ty. Der.

” Copied in polyurethane. Austrian statesman of the mid-19th c. m il i ta ry tun i c 1. 2. made with standing collar. meaning German. muff’s cloak Man’s coat of late 16th and early 17th c. Usually a fitted double-breasted coat with slightly flared skirt. fly front. sleeved waistcoat. slightly fitted. popular singer. Popular in the 1960s and worn by both children and adults. Der. fastened to one side of center front with zipper. snap fasteners.. Frequently part of the “masculine” tailor-made fashions of the 1890s. and cuffs with wide velvet ribbon embroidered with white cord. Very mu ch like the perfecto jacket (see under coats and jackets). and other fur trimming. Moscow wrapper Man’s loose-fitting overcoat of 1874 with pagoda sleeves (see under shoulders and sleeves). 1947–1964. Der. narrow turned-down collar of astrakhan fur. or buttons. Term used first in Fra n ce in 1670 for long tunic worn by soldiers over a full. and fastened with large Brandenburgs (see closures: frogs). who wore a similar style during his military career. Michael J a ckson ja cke t Red leather jacket de s i gn ed by Cl a u de Montana for Mi ch ael Jackson in the video “Beat It. Der. and no flaps on pockets. buttoning down the front in windbre a ker. Der.98 coats and jackets: Metternich sack mutton sleeves (see under shoulders and sleeves) worn by women in 1890s. motorcycle jacket Close-fitting black leather jacket waist-length. full leg-of-mutton sleeves (see under shoulders and sleeves). Shown at Nehru suit. flapped pockets.g. midi coa t (mid´. no lapels. front.g. mini coat Th i gh . C . military frock coat Man’s frock coat (see under coats and jackets) .ee ) Mid-calf-len gth coat introduced in 1967 in radical contrast to thighl ength mini coat (see under coats and jackets). braid trim. Adapted from ty pe of coat worn by Indian maharajahs. verti c a lly at midriff. and cuffed sleeves. Prime Minister of India. Metternich sack (mett´-er-nik) Woman’s collarless.l ength coat introdu ced in mid1960s and made in any number of styles. Named for Napoleon. continuing into the present. gold buttons. morning coat See coats and jackets: cutaway. Nehru jacket/Nehru coat (nay´-roo) Singlebreasted jacket or coat. Later styles had rolled collars and lapels. Named for Prince von Metternich. worn from early 1820s on. military braid down the front. Named for Mi ch ael Jack s on . Made in many styles. silkfaced lapels. From term coined by Women’s Wear Daily. Trimmed at neck. three placed diagonally on each side of chest and on shoulder bl ades in back. epaulets. shoulders. monkey jacket Short jacket made of heavy fabric like a pilot coat (see under coats and jackets).s tyle with stand-up co llar and as many as twenty-seven short zippers placed in unusual places (e. or high-standing collar). Worn by sailors in rough weather from 1850s on.) Napoleon coat Woman’s man-tailored hiplength jacket of mid-1890s with standing military collar (see under necklines and collars). knee-length wrap of mid-1860s made of black velvet with three box pleats ( s ee under cl othing con stru ction details) at center back. (Note: The “Dutch” in this case means “German” and is a mistranslation of the word Deutsch. From wearing of this type of coat by Jawaharlal Nehru. Man’s long tubelike coat with skirts lapped over in front. Same as Dutch coat. with a standing band collar introduced in late 1960s. Der. Trademarked and licensed for sale by Stadium Management Corp. Also called a cycle jacket. and introduced in 1984. Newmark/Newmarket coat See coats and jackets: cutaway. military coat Any coat that bo rrows details from military coats and jac kets (e. N e w ma r ke t ja cke t Wom a n’s close-fitting hip-length jacket with turned-down collar. t wo placed at armholes so that sleeves are detachable).. adopted by British army in 1855.

norfolk shirt Man’s lounging jacket st yled like a shirt made of rough tweed with box pleat down center back and two box pleats on either side of front. Sometimes pleated at side seams. the paletot was a short overcoat made without a waistline seam and with or without a short back vent. a wom a n’s short p a l etot was also called a ya chting ja cket. tight sleeves. and flapped pockets. norfolk jacket Belted hiplength jacket with two box pleats from shoulders to hem. l a r ge pockets. pockets on waist seams. The paletotsac was single. Usu a lly made with velvet collar and cuffs and frequently made of homespun. Der. An o t h er p a l etot worn in 1870s had wide cuffed sleeves and Watteau pleats (see under clothing con stru cti on deta i l s) in the back. For men there were these variations. Man’s long singlebreasted overcoat of 1880s similar to a frock overcoat (see under coats and jackets). 5.or double-breasted. sometimes with a hood and worn in 1840s and 1850s. lapels. paddock coat Man’s long semi-fitted overcoat worn from 1892 on. 3. Made of heavy fabric for winter from mid-1880s to 1890s. Dutch paltrok . of late 1860s.or three .coats and jackets: paletot-sac 99 Newmarket overcoat 1. officer’s coa t See coats and jackets: guard sman coat. paletot (pal-ah-tow´ or pal-tow´) Generally meaning an outdoor coat or ov ercoat. Worn from 1866 to 1880.” paletot-redingote See coats and jackets: paletot. In 1830s. 1. from pals. . “p a l ace” and rok . Made with many pockets and a back shaped by three seams.bre a s ted fly-front closing.but ton singl e breasted tweed jacket worn by men in 1850s through 1860s. whereas the English wrap was a double-breasted paletot sac worn in 1840s and similar to a loose chester field coat (see under coats and jackets). and pleat-covered back vent. 4. It had buttons down the front and revers and was sometimes made with circular shoulder cape s . From mid-1860s to mid-1880s. “garment. Woman’s long single or double-breasted winter coat with velvet collar. on front and back. Oxonian jacket Two. a woman’s caped threequarter-length cloak that hung in stiff pleats f rom the shoulders. made with single. Worn with matching belt. 1. pa leto t-sac See coats and jackets : paletot. frequently trimmed with lace and having tight sleeves. made of rough cheviot fabric with velvet collar. sometimes made with a collar. and the lower part lined with checked fabric— upper part with silk or satin. 2. was also long and fitted and made in Princess style with no seam at the waistline. overcoat Man’s coat. By mid-1840s it had three capes and armholes tri m m ed with flaps. designed for ver y cold weather. See Norfolk suit in alphabetical listing. 2.or do u bl e .. Watson of Sir Art hur Conan Doyle’s Sherl ock Holmes s tories. 2. Had a tailored co llar and bands at wrist. Also called Oxford coatee. Wom en’s p a l etots had these va riati on s . Used for a number of different coat styles for men and wom en from approximately the 1830s to end of century. Matching fabric belt is either threaded through slots under pleats or worn over them. Popular for young boys from 1890s to about 1920 and revived periodically. heavier than a topcoat. it was a long fitted outdoor coat—reaching to below the knees. L a te 1830s to end of 19th c. cuffs. From 1860s to 1880s. oriental wrapper See coats and jackets: Zouave coat. Worn by men Norfolk jacket for sport and travel since 1880s and associated with the character Dr. paletot-redingote (red´-in-gote). Newmarket top frock Man’s overcoat of 1895 similar to a frock coat (see under coats and jackets). Sometimes lined with fur or modacrylic pile and made in any of a variety of styles. cut short and straight.

100 coats and jackets: palmerston wrapper
palmerston wrapper Man’s single-breasted, loo s e - f i t ti ng s ack overcoat (see under coats and jackets) of mid-1850s made with wide collar and lapels. Sleeves were full at wrists with no cuffs and pockets had side flaps. Der. Named after British statesman 3rd Viscount Palmerston, Henry John Temple, who was prime minister of England between 1855 and 1865. pa rd essus (par-de´-soo) 1. Fren ch term for man’s overcoat. 2. Generic term used from 1840s to end of 19th c. for woman’s outdoor ga rm ent of half or three - qu a rter len g t h . Made with sleeves, fitted waistline, and frequently with a cape trimmed with lace or velvet. Also called mantelet and paletot. Der. French, “for on top.” pa r ka Loo s e - f i t ti n g pull-on jacket made with an atta ched hood that is sometimes trimmed wi t h real or synthetic fur. Worn originally by the Eskimos and i n trodu ced du ring the 1930s for winter parka sportswear (e.g., skiing and skating). S ti ll worn in all cold climates. Der. Russian-Aleutian, “pelt.” patrol jacket 1. Men: Jacket of military cut made with five-button single-breasted closing and Prussian collar. Worn in late 1870s with tight knee pants fo r bicycling. 2.Women: Tight-fitting hip-length jacket of late 1880s trimmed with military braid across front. Also had a standing collar at neck and tightfitting sleeves finished with cuffs. pea jacke t / p ea coa t 1. Copy of U.S. sailor’s hip-length, straight, do u bl e - bre a s ted navy-blue wool coat with notch ed lapel s , vertical slash pockets, and vent in back. Inspiration for coats depea jacket #1 signed by Yves Saint Laurent in Paris in 1960s and a classic coat style for men, women, and children. Also called pea coat and formerly called a pilot coat. 2. From 1830s on, man’s double-breasted, unfitted thigh-length jacket with wide lapels and notched collar. Worn either as an overcoat or as a suit jac ket. In 1850s had large buttons, usually six. Also called a pilot coat. Der. So called because it was made of “pilot cloth.” From 1860 known as a reefer. peasant coat Mi d - l ength coat lavi s h ly tri m m ed down front with embroidery, sometimes with fur borders and cuffs , fashion a ble in late 1960s. peliss e ( peh - l ee s e´) Meanings and spellings of this term evolved over time. Its earliest forms involve some use of fur. Later it becomes a warm, winter outdoor garment. 1. In the Middle Ages a pelice or pelicon (pel´-ees-sohn) referred to any of a number of fur-trimmed garments. 2. In the 18th c., for women it was a caped , or hooded, three - qu a rter-length cl oa k with armhole slits and pelisse #3, 1819 entire collar, hem, and front usually edged with fur, sometimes with silk or satin. 3. In the early 19th c. it was generally full-length, often made of handsome silk fabrics with a padded or quilted lining for warmth. Sometimes it had one or more shoulder capes. It was fitted and followed the c u rrent fashionable s i l h o u ette . O ut of f a s hion by 1850. 4. Revived in the late 1800s, for women it was a full-length winter mantle gathered on the shoulders and having loose sleeves, often made of silk, velvet, or satin. 5. For men in the late 19th and early 20th c., the term was applied to a heavy fur-lined coat with fur collar, worn particularly with formal clothes. Also spelled pellice. pembroke paletot (pal-ah-tow´ or pal-tow´) Man’s calf-len g t h , long-waisted overcoat worn in mid. 1850s made with wide lapels, doublebreasted with eight buttons and easy-fitting sleeves w ith turned-back cuffs. Also had flapped side pockets and vertical breast pocket . perfe c to ja cke t Black leather jacket, originating during World War II and worn by Marlon Brando in the 1954 film The Wild One, that


coats and jackets: princess coat 101
became a symbol of rebellious yo uth and went on to become part of mainstream fashion. Synonym: Bronx jacket. Peters ham fro ck coat Frock coat ( s ee under perfecto jacket coats and jackets) o f 1830s with slanted flapped pockets on hips and collar, lapels, and cuffs of velvet. Der. Named for Viscount Charles Petersham. Petersham greatcoat Man’s overcoat, with s h ort shoulder cape , worn in 1830s. Der. Named for Viscount Charles Petersham. pilot coat See coats and jackets: pea jacket. pink coat Crimson-colored hunting jac ket styl ed like a man’s on e - but ton suit coat with pe a ked lapels, b ack vent, and bl ack velvet co llar. Worn by men and wom en for foxhunting. Also called hunt coat. pocke t si p h o n ia See coats and jackets : s i ph on i a . Polish greatcoat Full-length tight-fitting man’s coat with collar, cuffs, and lapels of Russian lambskin. Closed with frog fasteners (see under closures) or loops. Worn w ith evening dress in early 19th c. Polish jacket Woman’s waist-length jacket made with revers ( s ee under n ecklines and collars) and col lar. Sleeves were w ide at wrist, squared off, and slit to elbow on inside seam. Usually made of cashmere lined with quilted satin. Worn outdo ors f or info rmal occasions in mid-1840s. polka 1. Woman’s shor t outdoor jacket of mid-1840s made with full sleeves, cashmere or velvet fabric and lined with silk. A variety of casaweck (see under coats and jackets). 2. Woman’s knitted close-fitting jacket. polo coat Double- or singlebreasted camel, vicuña, or camel-colored wool coat wi t h notched collar and tied with a sash. Introduced in 1920s polo coat for men’s spectator spor ts, for women in 1930s, this became a classic coat style that is made in many colors and fabrics. polonaise (pol-on-nays´) 1. Man’s jacket of early 1770s, also called a polonese frock. 2. In 1830s a military redingote, usually of blue fabric worn by civilians. Also called a redingote. pommel slicker Raincoat worn when riding horseback in early 20th c. Similar to other raincoats but w ith long vent in back. Also called a saddle coat. p ost ill i o n coa t (po s - ti ll ´-yon ) Do u bl e bre a s ted fitted greatcoat (see coats and jackets) with flap pockets, high Regency collar, and broad revers (see under necklines and collars). Der. From clothes worn by postillions, “men on horseback accompanying carriages.” Prince Albert coat 1. Double-breasted long frock coat (see under coats and jackets) worn in late 19th c., with flat co llar, u su a lly of velvet. Worn for formal occasions (e.g ., weddings and funerals) until about 1920. 2. Ad a pt a ti on of this coat for wom en worn in late 1890s—a do u bl e - bre a s te d fitted , k n eel ength coat with tu rn ed - down co llar and revers, flared skirt seamed at waistline, with t wo unpre s s ed pleats with but ton trim at cen ter back. Der. Na m ed for Prince Al bert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, consort of England’s Queen Victoria. Prince of Wales jacket Man’s jacket of late 1860s similar to reefer (see under coats and jackets). Cut in double-breasted style with three pairs of buttons. Named for Edward VII of England before he became king. Prince Ru p e rt Woman’s full-length fitted coat of late 19th c. made of velvet or plush, worn with a blouse and skir t. Der. Named after Prince Rupert (1619–82), son of a Bohemian king, who supported Charles I in the English Civil War and became a councilor to Charles II after the restoration of the monarchy. His biography was published in 1899. princess coat Woman’s fitted coat cut in long panels that flare at hem. Has no seam at the waistline and usually made single-breasted. A classic style. Der. Style claimed to have been

102 coats and jackets: Prussian collar coat
introduced by Worth about 1860 in a morning dress for Empress Eugénie. Prussian collar coat Man’s coat with narrow standing collar of 19th c. with ends nearly meeting in front, or worn turned down. PVC jacket Hip-length simulated leather-look jackets made with conven ti onal styling including a convertible collar, sometimes a yoke, buttoned- or zip-front, long sleeves, and tied or buckled belt. Made of polyvinyl chloride, a leather substitute that is soft and supple, washable, and water resistant. pyramid coat Tent-shaped woman’s coat of late 1940s and early 1950s made with narrow shoulders and wide hem. raccoon coat Long bulky coat of raccoon fur with large ro lled co llar worn origi n a lly by co llege men in the 1920s. Popular again in the mid-1960s and usually purchased from thrift shops. racing ja cket L i gh t wei ght two - p ly nylon jacket with zip-front and drawstring hem. Made in va rious official co l ors with a wide stripe o utlined with two narrow stripes of red, running from shoulder to hem on left side. Jacket is wind-resistant and water-repellent. Originally worn for auto stock racing, now available for men and women. Usually has a patch printed on right chest with automobile brand emblems. raglan cape/raglan coat Fly-front or doublebreasted overcoat first worn in 1857. It had slit pockets and w ide raglan sleeves (see under shoulders and sleev es ) that extended in V-shaped form to neck rather than having a seam at the shoulder. The name was subsequently applied to any long, loose coat with r aglan sleeves. Der. Named for Lord Raglan (see Raglan, Lord). raincoat Clothing originally designed to be worn in rainy weather, now also worn as top coat in fair weather. Made of waterproof material or given a special s urface finish to make it water repellent. Raincoats were introduced in 1830 after the perfection of a rubberized fabric by Charles Macintosh in 1823. Original fabric was waterproof but had an objectionable odor. Trenchcoats (see under coats and jackets) were introdu ced in Worl d War I. Modern technology in the development of water-repellent finishes in recent years has made it possible to use a greater number of fabrics for raincoats. Another innovation is G ore-Tex®. Also see coats and jackets: siphonia. rain or shine coat Fabric coat treated with water-repellent finish so that it can be worn as an all-purpose coat. rajah jacket 1. Men: similar to Nehru jacket (see under coats and jackets). 2. Women: usually a tunic-length jacket, with standing collar that is usually worn with pants. Der. Shortened form of “maharajah.” ranch coat Leather car coat or jacket made in western style with leather side uppermost, sometimes made of or lined with shearling (see leathers). redingote (red´-in-gote) Men: 1. A full overcoat having a large collar worn for riding in France about 1725. 2. In 1830 a greatcoat of blue cloth in military style closed with frogs, had sloping pockets, and a fur collar. Also called a polonaise. Women: 3. Coat adapted from man’s coat in 1790s in lighterweight fabrics and worn as part of a dress rather than an outdoor coat. 4. During the Empire peri od , it was an outer coat. 5. From 1820s on, it was a dress cut like a coat either f a s tening down all the way down the fron t or with the skirt open to show an underskirt. 6. In 1890s became an en s em ble with m a tching coat and dress, with the coat usua lly being cut a little shorter than the dress. 7. Contemporary: A matching or contrasting coat and dress worn together as an ensemble. Der. French, “mannish woman’s frock coat” or English, “riding coat.” reefer 1. Man’s doublebreasted, thigh-length boxy jacket called a pea jacket or pilot coa t f rom 1830s to 1860s and taking on the name reefer #5 “reefer” abo ut 1860.


Also see coats and jackets: hacking jacket and pink coat. shearling jacket Jacket made of a sheepskin tanned with wool attach ed . a bo ut fingertip length. sleeves wi t h o ut cuffs. sack jacket Loose. 2. Revived periodically.breasted car coa t . extending to knees. and back cut in one piece with center slit. Worn for semi-formal showing of horses. Worn over a blouse with full sleeves. . Scarborough ulste r Ca ped and hooded man’s ulster (see under coats and jackets) without sleeves worn in early 1890s. Ca ll ed a lounging jacket in England.. welt pockets (see sack jacket 1840s under pockets). buttons. narrow lapels. sack overcoat Man’s abovethe-knee. and lapels. s h o o t i ng coat Term used from 1860s to 1890s for morning coa t . or lace. or skirts. optional pockets. si ma r (si-mar´) Woman’s loo s e . Inspired by coats of the Regency period. a short do u bl e . made in boxy fitted or semi-fitted styles. Reverses to a knitted jacket with removable sleeves. similar in cut to pink coat. Made with sleeves wide at wrist.c ut co llar. In 1860s closed higher and styled with three or fourbutton closing. sheepskin jacket See coats and jackets: shearling jacket. si p h o n ia (sy-fo-ni-a) Long we a t h er. but in other colors or plaids. See coats and jackets: cutaway. Collar is made with wool side out. 2. with woolly side worn inside. Made with s qu a re . bo l ero . 4. introduced in the late 1840s.f i t ti ng jacket with side flaps. three-button closing. and full bells h a ped sleeve s . Der. señorita Woman’s waist-len g t h . comfortable man’s jacket. reversible jacket 1. Also call ed a Spanish jacket. 3. Since 1960s. this jacket is a forerunner of tuxedo jac kets and contemporary men’s sport jackets. Any jacket that can be worn on either side. that had no waistline. Short down-quilted nylon jacket with zip-out sleeves and zip-front made with knitted cuffs and waistband. inverted pleats at sides. sa fari coat See coats and jackets : bu s h jacket. and s om etimes tri m m ed with velvet at co ll a r. a str aight front.s tyle jacket of mid-1860s made with three-quarteror full-length sleeves and lavishly trimmed with braid. Th e pocket siph onia was short and thin en o u gh to be roll ed up and carri ed in case of rain. sometimes worn ov er pe tticoat to make a dress in 17th and 18th c. no lapels. worn in 1940s and 1950s. Sardinian sac Loose-fitting single-breasted man’s overcoat of mid-19th c.bre a s ted front and fitted back . 2. center vent in back .proof overcoat worn by men in 1850s and 1860s. s h o rtie coa t Woman’s short coat. saddle coat See coats and jackets: pommel slicker. narrow lapels. Worn flung over shoulders and secured by cord with tassel in front. loose-fitting overcoat worn from 1840s to about 1875. See coats and jackets: cutaway. In 1930s and 1940s. Le a t h er side is sueded or buffed and used for the outside of the coat. show coat Longer style riding jacket or suit coat with hacking pockets (pockets with flaps placed at an angle). Also called sheepskin jacket. riding coat 1. Made with unfitted doubl e . Women’s and children’s short jacket of 1890s and early 20th c. a woman’s single-breasted fitted coat with large lapels. frequently worn with matching skirt as a suit. Regency coat Double-breasted coat for man or woman made with wide lapels and highrolled regency collar (see necklines and collars. and a small collar with short lapel s . fringe. revived in 1983 and in use as basic coat style after this.coats and jackets: siphonia 103 See coats and jackets : pea jacket #2. The ed ges of coat were double-stitched or bound. fitted waist. Also spelled samarre.) Sometimes has large cuffs. cuffs. shirt-jac See shirts. Man’s coat has nipped waist and deep vent in back. Tailored fitted jacket worn for horseback riding. and long slash in center back.

so tore off the other. 2. slicker 1. O uterwe a r worn for school and general wear in place of coat during warmer weather or on informal occasions. Made w ith dolman or sling sleeves (see shoulders and sleeves). Characterized by an inside drawstring waistline and knitted inner cuffs.a n dwhite checked silk. skiing. instead of sleeves. made with front-opening zipper extending up over the we a rer’s ch i n . Conventional type zips up front and may be made of nyl on. snorkel jacket Warm hooded parka.104 coats and jackets: skeleton waterproof skeleton waterproof Woman’s full-length front-buttoned raincoat of 1890s made with large armholes. Usually made waist or hip length with zippered pockets. Outerwear designed for specific sports. See coats and jackets: señorita. Also see coats and jacksport jacket #1 ets: bla zer. Originally worn by sailors. or quilted fabric. or plain colors worn with con tra s ting pants for business and general wear since 1920s. and worn by men from 1790 to 1850 and by women from 1790 until about 1820. usually ending at or above the knee-length usually of water-repellent nylon satin or taffeta with quilted or pile lining and fake-fur edging around hood . and is worn at smoking jacket #1 1893 home for informal entert a i n i n g. sp e n ce rette Wom a n’s fitted jacket with low-cut neckline edged with lace worn at end of Empire Period. woo l . e. smoking jacket 1. 2. sport jacket 1. Sometimes has a collar attached to a low neckline and often has rounded edges at hem in front. 3. ski jacket Any ty pe of wind-resistant jacket worn when skiing. (b) He was out riding and tore one of the coattails. Frequ en t ly made of bl ack . A type of yellow rubber raincoat with slash in back to waist and extra insert so that each side can be fasten ed around legs to form protection when riding horseback in rainy weather. covered by a hip-length circular cape. Yves Saint Laurent. about 1814. Lord Spen cer. A version with lapels and long sleeves was reintroduced in mid-1980s for women. and cycling. or similar coat of rubberized fabric in other colors. May be with or without bu ttons. fur. Bright-yellow oilskin coat. Spanish jacket 1. Very popular in early 1970s for men. and children. and (c) He made a wager he co u l d start a new fashion and procee ded to cut o ff the coattails of his jacke t. Made hip. English vers i on of American tuxedo jacket (see under coats and jackets). Also has a mu l tiplicity of zippered and snapped pockets. sometimes accepted for general wear. s i n ce 1850. in mid1960s. 2. women. Man’s jacket of velvet or other luxurious cloth. Frequently has an attached hood.and late 1880s. 1810 burned one of the coattails of his jacket and cut off the other. giving the hood the loo k of a “snorkel” (a submarine’s air-intake or exhaust tube). a short black semiformal dinner jacket made w ith satin lapels. C . Conventi onal tailored jacket made in tweed. sling-duster British term for coat worn by women in mid.g.. 2. or with velvet or satin shawl collar.” Adapted for women by Paris designer. Three different stories of the origin of the style a re told: (a) Lord Spen cer spencer c. golf. sometimes has a sash. spencer Short open j acket. now of ten worn with sou´wester hat (see headwe a r) by fisherm en and children. somewhat similar to a bolero with no fasteners in front. Thought to have been first worn by a Bri tish peer. plaid. thus creating a new popular fashion. including one for pencils on the sleeve and a flap fastened with buttons and loops to keep snow out of the front zipper. called by the French “le smoking. usually fastened with clips in front. Short sleeveless jacket worn in 1862.

Der. and wrapper #2. Taglioni frock coat Man’s single-bre a s te d f rock coat (see under coats and jackets) worn from 1838 to 1842. coat.go te ) O utdoor coat worn by women in late 1860s. sweat jacket Garment similar to a sweatshirt but open do wn the front and closing with buttons or a zipper. and fastened with grippers at sleeves and front. made with short full skirt. French. often card i ga n .ee . a Fren ch tragic actor of Con su l a te and Empire period. Synonymous with a number of different overcoat styles in the 17th to the 19th c. swallow-tailed coat Man’s formal evening coat that does not button in front. revived in 1970s. wrap-rascal. and back ven t . Der. Contemporary French and British term for man’s cloak or overcoat. Worn at football stadiums.qu a rterlength reversible jacket made of waterproof vinyl with drawstring hood. Talma ove rcoa t Raglan-sleeved greatcoa t with large armholes worn by men in 1898.” Also call ed tails. Named for François Jo s eph Talma (1763– 1826). 1895 length in front with two l ong tails in back.qu a rter length som etimes made with shearling co llar (see furs and leather) and toggle closing (see under closures) introduced in early 1960s. and cuffs of satin or velvet. large flat collar. May be styl ed with shearling (see under furs). Pri n cess de Ch imay (1773–1835). Caped coat worn by women in late 18th c. but now made in any color.coats and jackets: teddybear coat 105 stadium coat 1. Originally graycolored. created by French couturier Worth. swagger coat Pyramid-shaped woman’s coat with flared bias bac k. coat had a heart-shaped neckline. women. a French tragic actor of Consulate and Empire period.en´ red´. sleeveless bolero-type woman’s jacket worn in late 1880s. Der. storm coat Heavy coat sometimes quilted and made with water-repellent finish. pile or quilted fabric lining and collar. suburban coat Same as coats and jackets: car coat. st roller jacke t A semiformal man’s su i t jacket similar to a tuxedo jacket with satin lapels and peaked collar. a fashionable woman who is said to have own ed 30 wigs of d i f ferent colors. Also called a sack jacket ( s ee cro s s . tedd yb ear coat Bu l ky coat of natural-co l ored alpaca-pile fabric worn by men. Car coat of t h ree . surtout (ser-too´) 1. greatcoat. Taglioni (tal-yoh-nee´) Man’s fitted greatcoat (see under coats and jackets) reaching to knees. Der. 3. full back. and a sash tied in large bow with long ends in back. Made waist. Na m ed after It a lian ballet master Filippo Taglioni (1777–1871). Made of cotton knit jersey with cotton fleece lining. ta il coat/tails See coats and jackets : swallow-tailed coat. Similar to Zouave jacket (see under coats and jackets). Back resembles the “tail of a swall ow. and curved or slanted pockets. Talma lounge A jacket worn by men in 1898 made with raglan sleeves.swallow-tailed coat c.i n . See listings under coats and jackets for Bra n denburg. broad notch ed collar. worn from 1839 to 1845. Worn as an informal jacket. Der.” 2. By 1980s entire coat was made of quilted nylon. literally “over all. Also had a back vent and slit pockets bound with twi ll fabric.bre a s ted with wi de turned-back lapels. Usually doubl e . Na m ed for Theresa Tallien. By 1980s sometimes made with innerzipper vest sweater (see under sweaters) in fron t . s l a s h edor flapped pocket s . Named after Italian b a llet master Filippo Taglioni (1777–1871). Small bows were tied to ends of sash. swea ter coat Knitted . Der. Der. Named for François Joseph Talma (1763–1826). two large pockets. straight fronts. Der. and is cut with peaked lapels trimmed with satin or grosgrain. Matched to dress or made of black silk. Ta llien re d i ngo te ( t a l .referen ces under coats and jackets). In early 1980s three . sultane ja cket (sul-tane´) Very short. Popular in 1930s. 2.s tyle. Usually with raglan sleeves and large saucer-shaped bu ttons attached by fabric cord. and .

red. Adapted from jackets of bullfighters in Spain and Mexico. it was called a carrick. Sometimes made of waterproof fabric.106 coats and jackets: templar cloak children in 1920s.c a ped u l ster (see under coats and jackets). Usu a lly made in single. templar cloak See coats and jackets: caban. 2. See coats and jackets: overcoat. popular in early 1940s. In the 1940s wom en adopted the trench coa t . con tra s ted with coat having side bodies and five seams. epaulets. Also called a dinner jacket. a child’s toy of early 20th c. large lapels. manufacturing centers for heavy coats. a cape was more usu a l . Revived periodically. of ten m ade with a flared silhouet te .. Until the late 1960s. where it was first worn by Griswold P. three-seamer British tailoring term for man’s jacket with center back seam and two side seams. designed for winter sports. Had large flap po ckets on hips and small ticket pocket above. Man’s or woman’s lightweight coat in any style. toreador jacket (tor-ay´-ah-dor) Waist-length woman’s jacket w ith epaulet shoulder trimming frequ en t ly braid-trimmed and worn unfastened. and a vent in the back. When made with a triple cape. full-length. 2. wi dely flared at hem . and in mid-1960s. to pper coat Wom a n’s hip-length coa t .. ulster 1. top frock Man’s overcoat cut like a fro ck coat (see under coats and jackets) but longer. Af ter the War the style became an a ll . Women’s jacket of almost any style made out of yarn-dyed wool of a textured nature and usually worn with matching skirt or pants. popular in 1930s. the coa t being ankle length in 1870s. slotted pocket s . sometimes with a train. fabric bel t . 1940s. Lorillard. Introduced in 1886.qu a rter-length coat similar to a toggle coat or duffel coat. Woman’s tailored. Man’s heavy overcoat introduced in late 1860s. 2. waterrepell ent co t ton ga b a rd i n e . Tuxedo Park. Over the shoulders in b ack it h ad an ex tra hanging yo ke and an ex tra flap hung from the fron t right shoulder. After Tuxedo Park Country Club. with moderate legof-mutton sleeves (see under shoulders and sleeves).or do uble-breasted style with a belted back or with a complete belt and detachable hood. Named after the teddy bear. worn from 1830 on. Used from 1860 on. New York. C . tow coat Th ree . three-decker Term used from late 1870s on for man’s or woman’s tri p l e . Abo ut 1875. straightcut coat worn in 1890s.p u rpose civilian coat made of a water-repellent fabric in doublebreasted style with a convertible collar. topcoat 1. wh i ch trench coat has become a classic style. and by 1890 a fly-front closing was used. or plaid fabrics. Woman’s coat similar to man’s worn from late 1870s on. Ma n’s conven ti onal sport jacket of tweed wool fabric or a wool blend usually made with traditional single-breasted styling. sometimes with notched collar). Der. Now styl ed in any co l or or pattern (e. Der. designed to wear over suit jacket or dress. trench coa t Coat cr eated by Thomas Burberry during World War I for soldiers that was made of a chemically finished. t weed ja cke t 1. Popular in the 1920s and 1930s for women as suitable for the “country” rather than town wear. which was named for President Theodore Roosevelt. Usually doublebreasted and intended to be worn without a suit coat. Length va ried. te n t coat Wom a n’s pyramid-shaped coat. blue. tailored collar. a ticket pocket (see pockets) was placed in left sleeve above cuff. Named after a northern province of Ireland in which the cities of Belfast and Londonderry. and fly-front closing. tuxedo jacket Man’s semiformal jacket made in one-button style with shawl collar usually faced with satin or faille. toggle coat See coats and jackets: duffel coat. Der. it was conventionally black or navy for winter and wh i te for su m m er. green. By the 1870s.g.

Special attention must be paid to sewing the seams.k n ee do u blebreasted sack-like coat. Named for the artist Antoine Watteau (1684–1721).S. a yoke. wraparound coat Woman’s coat made with out buttons or fasteners in front and held closed with long self-fabric sash. and yacht clu b but tons inste ad of Navy but ton s . wrapper 1. Waterproof raincoat usually made of heavy clear vinyl. may be called a duo-length coat. similar to coats and jackets: pea jacket. windbreaker/Windbreake r® Form erly a tradem a rk and con ti nues in com m on usage for a warm lightweight nylon jacket zipped up front with close-fitting waistband and cuffs. va re us e ( va h . walking coat Knee-length single-breasted coat with a notched collar. squarecut jacket worn from 1860s to 1880s.breasted with large but tons and loose sleeves. varens Woman’s short outdoor jacket of 1847 with loose sleeves. Zhivago. Also worn in the country. Watteau coat (wat-toe´) Lady’s pr incessstyle coat of the 1890s made in fitted unbuttoned style with waistcoat showing in front.rasca l Ma n’s loo s e . Used for riding. a variation of the casaweck and polka (see under coats and jackets). We llesley w ra pp e r Above . wampus. living in Algeria or Tunisia. lavishly trimmed with fur at neck. Arabic.or do u bl e . Zouaova. and hem. heavy. and turned-back cuffs with ch a racteri s tic single or double box pleat in center back. usually styled in navy-blue wool with brass buttons. yachting coat Woman’s hip-length. w ra p . Made of c a s h m ereor velvet with silk lining. worn from about 1738 to 1850. 2. In the 1850s. buttoned at collar and wrists worn in the United State s . Also call ed short pa l etot. Made s i n gle. waistcoat paletot (pal-ah-tow´ or pal-tow´) Woman’s knee-length coat of 1884 in tailored style buttoned only at neckline. Sometimes used to indicate a Chesterfield (see under coats and jackets). Same as the ori ental wra pper. walking. cuffs. worn in 1853 by men and fastened in front with Brandenburgs (see closures: frogs). 2. vinyl raincoat (vine´-ul) 1. Fabric given a vinyl finish and used to make a raincoat. British name for a long. loosefitting overcoat. wamus (wah´-muss) Heavy outdoor jacket or cardigan of coarse cloth. sleeves. Also see coats and jackets: pea coat. or worn to the opera. Usually had a standing collar. or it will tear where the sewing machine perforates it. Der. watch coat Short. type usually referred to coats worn wh en traveling on the out s i de of a coach. and sometimes having a fringe of leather on yoke. zip-off coat Long coat styled to be used in two or three lengths.f i t ting overcoa t m ade of heavy fabric. varsity jacket See coats and jackets: baseball jacket. western ja cket Jacket like those worn by Am erican cowboys. windproof coat worn by sailors on watch . Zhivago coat (zhi-vah´go) Mid-calf-length coat. wide lapels. that wrapped in front. worn on board by yacht club members. worn in 1840s. The 19th-c. yachting jacket Double-breasted four-button man’s jac ket with lapels and collar. made with hip-length waistcoat showing in front.coats and jackets: Zouave coat 107 are located . man’s loose thigh-length overcoat. either single. often made with attached hood.or double-bre a s ted. Inspired by costumes worn in Dr. Zouave coat ( zoo-ahv´) Man’s cl oak of m i d1840s with velvet collar and cuffs and quilted silk lining. achieved by placing zippers at mini and midi lengths. 3. Al s o s pelled wammus. with shawl collar.t h e . sometimes worn with evening dress. and hem. Naval uniforms with bl ack braid inste ad of gold. 1965 film of Boris Pastern a k’s novel abo ut the 1917 Russian Revolution. . a Kabyle tribe. one of the Berbers. Made similar to U. Trademark now applies to a wide va ri ety of apparel item s . Man’s loose overcoat. sometimes with frog closing. See coats and jackets: paletot.reuz´) Ro u gh woo l en overblouse or jacket . Also called wrap coat. Der. m ade of bu ckskin or fabric wi t h breast pockets. When made to have only two lengths.

wh i te . cod placket See codpiece #2. “hairs tyl e .. bolero-type jacket fastened at the neck and with curved sides in front. cocktail Adjective applied to clothing and accessories worn at cocktail parties. 3. a Kabyle tribe. 3. gloves and gl ove con stru cti on : cock tail gl oves. See feathers. (verb) To style or dre s s the hair. co i f fure à la Ninon See hairstyl e s : N i n on coi f f u re . Zouave paletot (zoo-ahv´ p a l . term applied to front fastening of breeches. coiffure à la Maintenon See hairstyles. cockers See footwear.) (kwa´-fuhr) and coiffeuse (f. coat sweater See sweaters. a term first used in Middle Ages. 2. popular in the 1950s. usually made flat around a center button. Showed military influ en ce in the trim inspired by Al gerian Zo u ave troops and an Am erican Nort h ern Troop of the Civil War. Der. a Kabyle tri be . tri co l or cock ade of red.a h . Compare with brayette. Ornamental rosette or bow of ribbon. Arabi c . Triangular flap at front of crotch of men’s trunk hose large enough for a pocket.” See h a i rstyl e s . social gatherings where various short alcoholic drinks are served before dinner. coconut st raw/coco st raw Bra i ded straw.tow´ or p a l . coffer headdress See headwear. cock feather See feathers. Similar jacket worn by little boys in the 1860s. cocktail dress Contemporary term fo r short evening dress with décolleté neckline made in lu x u ry fabri c s . Der. cocurs See footwear: cockers. coat-st y lepa ja mas See s l eepwear and loungewear. worn during 15th and 16th c. e. 2. cobra chain See chain. and j ewelry: cocktail ring. for hairdressing or arrangement of hair. one of the Ber bers. cockscomb See coxcomb. cocked hat See headwear. coiffette See armor. coggers See footwear: cockers. Given various names for manner of turn-up. cockade 1. Sometimes worn as a part of a uniform or bad ge of of f i ce . Feather trimming. French.108 coats and jackets: Zouave jacket Zouave ja cket ( zoo-ahv´) 1. Also called a cordwainer. coiffure (kwa´-fure) French term used in English since 18th c. cocoon See coats and jackets and sleepwear and loungewear. Zouaova. Short for coiffure. See fans. co ck Term used from end of 17th to early 19th c. Also called co c a rd e . usu a lly tan or light brown. coiffure à la indépendance See hairstyles. coiffure à l’Agnès Sorel See hairstyles. one of the Berbers . and blue worn on side of hat as patriotic sym bo l du ring Fren ch Revo luti on .g. l iving zouave jacket #1 in Al geria or Tunisia. cockle hat See headwear. Arabic. coiffe de mailles See armor. C . cockle See hairstyles. Note: coiffeur (m. See cocktail dress. coif (kwaf) 1. Fa s h i on a bl e 1859 to 1870 and revived in the 1890s. Su i t a ble for formal late-aftern oon or cocktail parties. cocarde See cockade #1. 2. coiffure à la Grecque See hairstyles: Greek coiffure. cobbler’s apron See aprons. frequently padded and decorated. 2.) (kwa´-fuhz) are the French words for hairdressers. cobbler Shoemaker. coattail See coats and jackets. coiffure à la mouton See hairstyles. aprons: cock tail apron. for turning up a hat brim. codovec See headwear: castor. living in Alger ia or Tunisia. Codrington See coats and jackets. codpiece 1. Also see headwear: cocked hat. Had threequarter-length sleeves cut rather full. Zouaova . coiffu re à la hérisson See h a i rstyl e s : hérisson. See headwear. Shown at tr unk hose and doublet. Also called a cod placket. made from coconut-palm leaves. Woman’s waistlength.tow´) Waterproofed llama-wool coat worn by men with or wi t h o ut a su i tcoat in 1840s. By early 17th c.

collaret 1.” colobium 1. coiled bracelet See bracelets. colorway The three or four color choices available of a solid or printed fabric for a garment style produced in more than one color. collar pin See jewelry. and given a greater or lesser amount of twist to form them into a yarn. Cut-out de coration used on the overgarment. columnar heel See footwear. coiffu re en bours e See hairstyles and wi gs and hairpieces: bagwig. See undergarments. collegians See footwear: Oxonian boot. embroidery. obtained by melting down silver coins. plastic.combed yarn 109 coiffure à la Sévigné See hairstyles. ready-to-wear. cointise (kwan-teez´) 1. used for jewelry. combat boot See footwear. coin dot See prints. Der. coiffure en raquette See hairstyles. which was worn without putting arms through sleeves and turned sideways so that one sleeve hung in front. collar stay Narrow strip of plastic or metal inserted in point of man’s collar from the underside to ensure a crisp unwrinkled look. coiffure en cadenettes See hairstyles. Colonial tongue See footwear. See footwear: quarter. collarette à la Lyo n See n ecklines and co lla rs: cherusse. Colb e rt embroidery See em broideries and sewing stitches. or tucks. 2. combed yarn † Yarn made from short fibe rs. ivory. containing 90% s i lver and 10% copper. coiffure en bouffons See hairstyles. collection Term used by couture. Popular from early 15th c. wood. comb 1. England. coin purse See handbags and related accessories: change purse. coin necklace See jewelry. jackets. that have been subjected to the process of combing. 2. also the garment itself. Also called line. color bl o cki ng Use of large geom etrical areas of contrasting color in dresses. insertion. cloaks. or other sheer fabrics—often white. cold mask See masks: hot mask. See clerical dress. lace. Colbertine lace See laces. trimmed with lace. O ri gi n a lly used on ly for high . blouses. and shawls.westo nwa rd 16th-c. coiffure à la zazzera See hairstyles. collar necklace See jewelry. Combing is an optional step in the spinning of yarns in which fibers that have been carded are subjected to further straightening and alignment. organdy. collar button See closures: stud. coiffure à l’enfant See hairstyles. 2. slang meaning “ worn awry” or “c roo ked. Combed yarns have fewer fibers on . collar 1.” u su a lly app l i ed to the m a n d i l i on jacket (see coats and jackets) . Shown at Mondrian dress. coin sil ver Strong silver all oy. Combs of precious metals or those decorated with jewels are often placed in wom en’s hair to hold it in place and as decorations. until 1930s and used occasionally since. especially at sides of head or in back when hair is set in a twist. From a Cheshire.pri ced co utu re clothing. An article—often of tortoise shell. Colonial shoe/pump See footwear. formed into a strand of fibers. color-graded glasses See eyewear. and ch eck s : dots. known in the textile industry as staple fibers. coin de feu See coats and jackets. See necklines and collars. or metal—with a row of narrow teeth that is drawn through the hair or beard to arrange or untangle it. 2. textile. and app a rel companies. collar and cuff set Women’s separate collar and cuffs usually made of linen. See intro duction to necklines and collars. saying for “anything that goes wrong.. Earliest combs are from late Stone Age. Colleen Ba wn cloak See capes. stri pes. coiffure à la Titus See hairstyles. See armor. color forecasting Pred i cti ons of co l or preferen ces developed through research carried out by color forecasting com p a n i e s . 2. cokers See cockers. the other in back. colley. The only silver available to early Am erican Colonists. worn from 13th and 14th c. See armor. or manufacturer ’s de s i gn er for clothing and accessories offered to customers for a specific season.

combination last See footwear: last. Th ey may also have the capability to do computer-controlled cutting. comedy mask See masks. commercial match A color match between components of a style that are provi ded by a con tractor and that is sati s f actory to the manu f acturer. and shawls: french cloak. C . and employ robotics in manufacturing.110 combination last the su rf ace. grading. Made of metal or plastic with mirrored lid. TVs. Commes des Garçons * See Kawakubo.000. ( See headwe a r.a i ded processes (su ch as CAD. computer-aided design/computer-aided manufactu r i ng (CAD/CAM) The linking of comp uter sys tems for cre a ting designs with those for pattern creation. cloaks. but because of the initial high capital inve s tm ent it is generally only large manufacturers that utilize this sophisticated technology to the maximum. See carded yarns. combing jacket See coats and jackets. Also see headwear: communion veil. comb morion See armor: morion. extending from shoulder to floor and worn conch 16th c. gauzelike veil of the late 16th c. pri n ts. and marker in order to coordinate the steps in production. computer grading and marker making (CGMM) The com p uter hardw a re and sof t w a re system s that process the pattern grading and markermaking segm ents of a ga rm ent pattern for produ cti on . Communion dress Clothing customarily worn by children when taking their first Communion in the Catholic chu rch. comfort collar See necklines and collars. co n ch (conk or con s h ) Sheer. competition st r i p es See s h i rts and ch ecks. combinations See underwear: combinations. combing See combed yarn. computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) Computer hardware and sof t w a resystems that grade and make m a rkers el ectron i c a lly. use lasers for spe cialized cutting. computer dress Dress made from discarded comp uter chips hoo ked toget h er. and sometimes lipstick. capelike over the shoulders. combination tanning See leathers. a re smoo t h er. compass cloak See capes. commode See headwear: fontange. Usu a lly worn with a flat sailor hat or a commodore hat. This technology can significantly decrease errors and save time because the effects of changes in design can be seen on the computer screen without making actual samples. compact Cosmetic container used to hold powder. CGMM) that can link information and equipment throughout the manufacturing process. commissionaire Mi d dl eman who opera tes in forei gn co u n tries buying merchandise for Am erican retailers. which a re then sent to a pattern com p a ny and fed into a com p uter to produ ce a c u s tom-cut pattern for garment. and stripes. Dresses sold in 1984 by Panages. s om etimes made in one-shoulder style with asym m etric hemlines. comforter See scarves. These systems lower the use of manual labor. Rei under Appendix/Designers. eye shadow. computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) The produ cti on of a finished produ ct by integrating va rious com p uter. Girls’ dress gen era lly consists of a white dress worn with a short white veil. commander’s cap See headwear. commodore dress D ress with nautical braid trim worn by gi rls and young ladies in early 1890s. computer-aided design (CAD) Computer hardware and software systems for designing apparel and implem en ting their manu f acture. Typical dress might have a wi de braid trimmed sailor co llar and ga t h ered skirt with braid trim near the hem . CAM. Chips are collected from computers. Boys generally wear a white suit. and can be finer ya rns than those that have only been carded. and other electronic machines. commodore cap See headwear. made to fit the indivi du a l . Salespers on in store takes customer’s measurements. from $2.) Common sense heel See footwear. rouge.000 to $50. computer pattern Sewing pattern developed in 1960s.

that takes woven goods in an unfinished state and applies finishing processes (e. converter † In the textile industry. a monofilament yarn is formed. Example: necklines and co llars: convertible. and con trol pants. which provi de su pport.g.When only one strand is produced. continental heel See footwear. coney/cony See furs. contractor A person or firm that agrees to construct apparel for a manufacturer or retailer. continental suit Man’s suit with natu ral shoulderline. Sybil * See Appendix/Designers. constable See cane. Com p a rewith shopping good s a nd specialty goods . .bl e ach i n g. Examples of contractual arrangements include franchises and leased departments. coolie Unskilled Asian laborer w ho wears disti n ctive clothing and hat of ten cop i ed by fashion de s i gn ers. or spinerette with tiny holes. with a manufacturer. continental hat See headwear: cocked hat. when many strands are produced. underga rm ents: con trol bri ef. After selling the goods. convertible Ad j ective app l i ed to arti cles of cl o thing that can be changed in appearance or form by some means. foundations. continuous filament yarn † Ma nu f actu red ya rn s made by pushing the spinning fluid through a nozzle. convenience goods Products that req uire relatively little evaluation before their purchase by con su m ers . Style originated in Italy in 1950s. . cookie See footwear: arch cushion. See coats and jackets and headwear. Also see Mazur plan.cooperative buying office 111 At the back of the neck. Pockets in t rousers are slanted from waistline to side seams. it was attached to a winglike construction that stood up like a high collar behind the head. refers to the methods used by a ret a i l er to mon i tor business operati on s and evaluate the effectiveness of merchandising strategies. the retailer pays the person or firm that provided the goods a price agreed-upon at the time of consignment. easy fitting jacket. producing s trands of indefinite length. federal government agency that oversees product safety and. co nve rsation bonnet See h e adwear: po ke bon n et. See hosiery: con trol pantyh o s e. and pockets: continental pockets. pants: con tinental pants. See continental suit. or with a wholesaler that may be advantageous in simplifying management and increasing market impact. concierge See hairstyles: pompadour.S. as part of its responsibilities.fabrics are su i t a ble for the cl o t hing manu f actu rer or the yard goods ret a i l er . dyei n g. congress boot See footwear. coonskin cap See headwear: Davy Crockett cap. a multifilament yarn is formed. controls In retailing. and narrow tapered trousers with no belt. contour bra See undergarments. co n tour cl u tch See handbags and related accessories. co n t rol De s c ribes ga rm ents su ch as wom en’s girdles. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) A U. continental stitch See embroideries and sewing stitches.w a terproofing). conductor’s cap See headwear. contractual retailer Retailer that has made contractual arrangements with other retailers. a middleman. monitors flammability regulations for apparel and home furnishings. contour belt See belts. co nsignment G oods stocked by a ret a i l er but not paid for until they are sold. either a firm or an individual. coolie hat See headwear. After proce s s i n g. cooperative buying office See associated buying office. Connolly. confidants See hairstyles. co-op advertising A type of advertising strategy whereby companies share the cost of an advertisement that features a number of companies. continental Adjective app l i ed to ga rm ents though t to have origi n a ted in one of the co u n tries on the continent of Europe. considerations See underwear: panniers. or pantyhose made with elastomeric yarns (see elastomer). co nverted go o ds † Tex tile fabrics proce s s ed by a converter.

corazza See shirts. Also see elastomeric yarns. 2. S tripped . Called cable yarn in Great Britain. copotain See headwear. ottoman. 2. cording 1. Full-rounded trimming used for frogs and loops made by pulling the cord through a seamed tube of bias fabric to cover cord completely.112 cope cope See cl erical dress and capes. See lace: cordonnet. 2. 2. that hung from belt. or girdle. re s i l ience. Also called robes of state. corkscrew curl See hairstyles. cl oaks. Der. cornet sleeve See shoulders and sleeves. Ermine trimmed robes worn by British nobility attending the coronation with trains of prescribed lengths according to rank. grown in Med i terranean co u n tries. C . O ri gi n a lly sign i f i ed one who worked in cordovan leather (from Cordova . cork 1. 2. and for other items that requ i re low wei gh t . co rdé ha n d ba g See handbags and related accessories. Also see chatelaine. coronation braid See braids. coronation robes 1. The lengthwise stripes may be made in various widths.du h .. cornu See headwear: oralia. French. copyist Person in the apparel trade who makes replicas of designs—translating a high-priced item to a lower price for a manufacturer. coronal See coronet. 3. cork rump See undergarments. cordonnet See lace. and used to hold a cross. corps (cor) 17th-c. scissors. Trimming made by inserting a soft ropelike cord into a strip of bias-cut fabric. and settings. cornet 1. corps à baleine See undergarments: corps piqué #2. core yarn † Yarn made with a heavy center cord around which are wrapped finer yarns of different fibers (e. for cl ogs . moisture resistance. Usually made of cotton or a cotton blend. cordwainer Obsolete term fo r a shoemaker. The name is thought to derive from the French corde du roi.roy) Strong du ra bl e woven fabric with vertical stri pes of cut pile that are form ed by an ex tra sys tem of crosswise yarns. cornalia See veils: oralia. cordyback hat See headwear: caudebac. See skirts. then used for fill ers in shoe s . and boiled to remove sap and tannic acid. See headwear. cordovan See leathers.” corduroy knit † Kn i t ted fabric made with stri pes of c ut pile in imitati on of woven cordu roy fabri c . copper toe See footwear. making shoes and other leather items. See leather: cordovan. cornrows See hairstyles. The result of twisting together two or more ply yarns. coquette pa ras ol See u m brellas and paras o l s : marquise. and (c) a purple velvet cloak trimmed with ermine. cork lace See laces. meaning “cord of the king. coq feathers See feathers. cotton. and insulation against heat. co rd u roy † ( ko h r´. and Bedford cord fabrics. Spain). French term for bodice. cord e l i è re (kor´-deh . coral See gems. coronet See headwear.g. cord † 1. copped shoe See footwear: crakow. Those that are very narrow are called pinwale . footwear: galosh. co rded sea m See cl othing con structi on details. corned shoe See footwear. (b) an eccl e s i a s tical cope (see under clerical dress). for tropical hats. Us ed in bengaline. synthetic rubber core wrapped with rayon. Querous suber. corkies See footwear: wedge heel. See headwear: hennin.” Also spelled cordilier. cord yarn † Heavy yarn made by twisting together two or more ply yarns. gem cuts. often of gold. and shawls. corkscrew wig See wigs and hairpieces. 3. Outer bark of oak.“cord or girdle worn by Franciscan friar. or silk) to improve absorption and feel. Worn with various types of coronets (see headwear) according to rank. or other small items worn by women in the 16th c. d ri ed . Three capes worn by British king or queen for coronation at various times during the ceremony: (a) a red cape lined with wh i te . co r n e rca p See ac ademic costu m e : mortarboa rd. A surface effect in fabrics that creates ridges running in the lengthwise direction.lyare´) Long chain.

Men were par ticularly noted for the ir h orsemanship. corselet 1. cosmonaut look Jumpsuits and helmets reflecting this look influenced by the attention drawn to the first space astronauts. 6. cosse See feathers. See u n derga rm en ts . Native dress worn for festivals and specific occasions. a sti f fen ed bodice call ed stays (see under underga rm en ts). of metal or leather with center front lacings. and wore disti n ctive cl o t h i n g. In the 1860s term used for outdoor day dress or afternoon dress with a long train. 5. and blue striped or flowered dress of muslin or lawn worn with a vivid red sash and helmet-shaped cap. See belts. necklines and collars: cossack collar. and after for an undertunic worn by men and women during the Mi d dle Ages. corset à la ninon See undergarments. Fancy dress for masqu erade parti e s . an area between the Black and Caspian Seas. and settings. Fe a tured by St. 4. 6. white. Wom a n’s gown laced up back and lined in fur. See blouses and top s : cossack blouse. A variant of the surcote. corset frock Dress of late 18th c. Tight-fitting underbodice. cote (koht) Used in the 13th c. Cossack Pertaining to garments or styles derived from those worn by people inhabiting the Caucasus. kirtle is som etimes used cote and sideless surcote 1390 as a synonym.cotehardie/cote-hardy/cote-hardie 113 corps piqué See undergarments. s econd wi fe of Louis XIV of France. or suit with coordinated accessories. a leather bodice stiffened with wood or metal. corse 1. made with bodice of three gores of white satin in front and lacing in back. corsage à la Du Barry See Du Barry corsage. or c ost to manufacture) The total cost to manufacture a garment. 3. 2.ha rd y / co te . See undergarments. See arm or. Dress. See waistlines. worn unde r tunic by men in 12th and 13th c.s a h ge´ ah lah man-teh´-nah) F i t ted bodice of 1830s and 1840s trimmed with bow knots down center front. shirts: cossack shirt. if applicable.ha rd i e (coat´ har´-dee) 1. or outer . Symbolized the tricolor of the French Revoluti on and was worn by patriots. for a woman’s bodice. 3. costing marker The layout of the pattern pieces for the prototype of a new style in order to ascertain the yardage required. Variant of word corset. this garment was worn over a shirt or chemise and under a surcote (ser´-koht). Theatrical dress worn on stage. For wom en. corset bikini See swimwear: bikini. Der. corset cover See u n derga rm en ts: camisole #1.. L a urent in 1963. costume 1. h e adwe a r: cossack forage hat and cossack hat. costume à la constitution Red. See peasant bodice. shipping. 4. Term used in the 18th and 19th c. Also see bosom flowers. Derived from the total of the costs of materials. From 16th to 18th c. Man’s surcoat. labor. or ou ter tu n i c . Started the trend toward pantsuits and jumpsuits for women. 2. co s tume and masked balls.s a h ge on corseh) Tigh tfitting evening bodice of 1830s and 1840s cut in sections with seams similar to those on a corset. findings. worn in 14th and 15th c. Worn on special occasions or for formal events. Baldrick (see under belts) for carrying a bugle used by men in 16th c. Small floral arrangement of flowers worn fastened to woman’s shoulder or waist. 4. For Ma rquise de Ma i n ten on . Spell ed cot te in Fra n ce . with or without sleeves. Russian. gem cuts. and duty.” Also see lunar look. Dress from a certain period in history. an ensemble. 2. In 11th c. 2. similar to a corset. cost (wholesale cost. corsage (cor-sahge´) 1. Der. Ha ll oween . co rs e t 1. 5. co rsa ge à la Ma i n te n o n (cor. and sleepwear and loungewear: cossack pajamas. co te ha rd i e / co te . generally referred to as historic costume. This word is the source of the modern word coat. pants: cossacks. 5. corundum See gems. worn in Middle Ages. 2. costume jewelry See jewelry. “astronaut. 3. sometimes attached to specially designed wristband and worn on wrist. corsage en corset (cor. Also called d ress à la constitution. Corsican tie See ties: Napoleon necktie. coat. packaging. in 14th and 15th c.

cloaks. for men. cottage cloak See capes. Composed largely of cellulose. The same term seems to have had different applications in different countries. India. co u ched embro i d e ry See em broi deries and s ewing stitches. C . Grown in Egy pt. cotte See cote. and sout h ern Un i ted States. Sleeves were fitted. others with white collars either trimmed with frills or V-shaped edging. international cosmetics and perfume company. cotta See clerical dress. they are used in a wide variety of clothing items. peeler.114 cothurnus tunic. Said to have been introduced by Anne. Council of Fashion Designers of America A n on profit organization with a membership of the foremost Am erican de s i gn ers. (b) created the National Endowment for the arts with recognition of fashion as an art form. In France. it was a buttoned outer ga rm ent fitted thro u gh the body to the waist o r below where it cotehardie #1 flared out into a usually knee-length skirt. China. Necklines varied—some low with fichu (see scarves).. some versions of the garment became quite decorative. cottage pants See pants: cottage pants. Hem of skirt was usually decorated with a tubular-shaped trimming stitched at regular intervals to create puffs of fabric. couching stitch See embroideries and sewing stitches. The sleeves ended at the elbow in front while hanging down at the back in a shorter or longer flap. (c) presents costume exhibitions annually. including the co s tume wing of the Smithsonian. or ch emisette ( s eescarve s). (d) hosts the “party of the year” at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. cottage front Daytime bodice with lacers in front for decorative effect. Had long tight sleeves and slits in sides of skirt called fitchets. In 1968 the Co ty Men s wear Fa s h i on Awards were establ i s h ed . in early 19th c. and Sea Island. Worn over a habit shirt ( s eeshirts) . cotton † Soft white vegetable fiber from 1⁄2" to 2" long that comes from the fluffy boll of the cotton plant. A design er receiving a Winnie or Men s we a r Award three times was accepted into the Ha ll of Fame. founded in 1962 with Norman Norell as the first president. made of rich fabric and laced up back or front. comfortable. therefore. (f) supports recognized costume institutes throughout the country. cotton fibers are absorbent. co un ted cross -st i tch embro i d e ry See em broideries and sewing stitches. In England. Inc. (g) was instrum ental in founding the Fa s h i on In s ti tute of Tech n o l ogy in New York Ci ty. it was identified as either a short garment with long sleeves for outdoor wear. wife of Richard II of England. The Winnie was awarded each year to a designer who contributed to American design and had significant ef fect on fashion . and shawls. from 1942 to 1985. Am erican co t tons inclu de acala. cothurnus See footwear. Judges were magazine and newspaper fashion editors. O ri gi n a lly aw a rds were given to de s i gn ers of women’s fashion s . (e) contributes annually since 1963 to the Costume Institute of the Metropolitan Museum. cottage bonnet See headwear. 2. pima. cotorinas See vests. or an outer ga rm ent open in front and but ton ed at the sides. given for outstanding fashion design. upland. cottage dress High-waisted straight dress of early 1820s with long apron in front made of same fabric. Accomplishments include: (a) recognition for American designers both here and abroad. Membership is by invitation only. With time. broadcasters. at first simple and later more elegant and fur-trimmed. couel 1. a gown. Woman’s close-fitting dresslike garment of same period. Synonym for cowl (see necklines and collars) in England. Si n ce 1985 an a n nual “aw a rds even i n g” is given to hon or ind ividuals who have made an outstanding contribution to fashion and fashion journalism. Also abbreviated to cfda. A decorative belt was often worn low on the hip. 2. cotton batting See batting. and washable. and fashion retailers. See headwear. Coty American Fashion Critics Awards Annual awards sponsored by Cot y.

t ay . usually done to the music of a fiddler. courrier dummies See model dolls.coverchief 115 counted thread embro i d e ry See embroi deries and sewing stitches. Restyled and fashionable for sportswear from the late 1960s on. co u rt ha bi t Term for men’s clothing worn on ly at French court in 17th and 18th c. Also see coronation robes and court habit. The costumes worn by square dancers in the ru ral United States that featu re wom en in dresses and skirts (sometimes gi n gham) with many petticoats.g. this trend actu a lly originated with the mod and Carnaby looks. Couture Group. New York See New York Couture Business Council. straw hats. Courrèges boot See footwear. coureur See coats and jackets. courier bag See handbags and related accessories: messenger bag. couturier (ko-tour´-ee-ay) French term for male designer or proprietor of a couture house. and men in western pants. course See knit. court shoe See footwear.rej) Clothes and acce s s ories introdu ced by Paris de s i gn er André Courrèges (see A ppen d i x / Designers) that included above-the-knee skirts worn with white calf-length boots. standing away from the body in A-line shape in fall of 1963.western look 1. and slashed at the sides. couture (koo´-ture) French term for the business in which original apparel designs are created by designers and the items are manufactured in the couture house using exceptionally fine sewing and tailoring and expensive fabrics. however. and Kenny Rogers. Look initi a ted by country-western musicians at the Grand O le Opry® in Nashville. cove ra ll One-piece ju m p suit worn over other clothes by mechanics and other workmen. Der. tradem a rks. and gingham dresses to ultra dressy rhinestone and sequin-studded western ga rb as displayed by Do lly Pa rton .. countenance See coutenance. counter fillet See headwear. . court plasters See patches. counter sample See sew by. co un t ry. Originally worn by gas station attendants in the 1920s. Co u r r è ges fashions/Courrèges look ( coor. Inc. as seen on characters in the musical Oklahoma). Called grand habit for women. plaid or fringed shirts. The next year his whole collection was done in shorter-length skirts. counter book See pattern book. similar to surcoat. Ba rb a ra Ma ndrell. Courrèges glasses See eyewear. Responsible for starting the general trend in the U nited States toward shorter-length skirts and wearing of boots. Cut of dress or skirt had hard geometric lines. or logos. court tie See footwear. Also see haute couture. coutes See armor. that ranges from overalls. couture lace See laces. coverall 1942 coverchief See headwear. Tennessee.p i h ) Very s h ort over ga rm ent worn in 14th and 15th c. countertop display Merchandise shelf or tabletop displays that allow customers to touch and self-select products. Type of dancing originating in rural United States. Courrèges hat See headwear. high collar. From style of music. and neckerchiefs (e. l ored or em broidered wi t h gems. court dress Costume and items of apparel required to be worn for daily functions and ceremonial occ a s i ons in the pre s en ce of ruling monarchs. counter See footwear. couturière (ko-tour´-ee-air) French term for female designer or proprietor of a couture house. Der. coutenance/countenance Small muff carried in late 16th and early 17th c. co un te rfe i t go o ds Un a ut h ori zed ill egal copies of goods with regi s tered tradenames. co u rte pye / co u rte py ( kor ´ . Frequ en t ly parti . See western look for individual items. Courrèges f l ower sock See hosiery: knee-hi sock. Made in a circle with round neckline.

crapaud See wigs and hairpieces: bagwig. Usually made in plain weaves of cotton. crawlers See pants. covert is used for work clothes.O. Council Organization of textile and apparel industry firms (formed 1984) that promotes domestically manufactured textiles and apparel. C. Cowichan sweater See sweaters. covered yarn See core yarn. caps. covered zipper See closures. a heavy crepe fabric dyed black and worn for mourning. cre e p i ng apro n In f a n t’s garment of early 1900s cut long and gathered at hem into a band t h ro u gh which a cord was drawn.p i ece suit usu a lly consisting of a knit shirt with overa ll-type pants.bri m m ed cowboy hat with chin cord are worn and to y guns are carried. Crafted with Pride in the U. leather bolero.P. Charles * See Appendix/Designers. crants See headwear. 2. crakow/crakowe/cracow See footwear. crampons See footwear. coxcomb/cockscomb 1. Combination of cowgirl and punk looks. Consists o f a shirt. Also call ed c rawl ers (see under pants) . cowboy suit Child’s suit worn when playing. uniforms. a ll type of hairstyles including spiky. footwe a r: cowboy boot. A gen eral classification of fabrics made from almost any fiber and characterized by a broad range of crinkled or grained surface effects. Could be pushed up above knees for a romper effect. crab-back bathing suit See swimwear. cowpunk An uncoordinated medley of punk and western lo oks appearing in Los Angeles in 1986. and Indian braids. creepers 1. Imitated in all co t ton. Cra hay. Creed. See hairstyles. The girl’s costume is called a cowgi rl’s suit and som etimes has a short fri n ged skirt. covert cloth † 1. creel ba ck pa ck See h a n d bags and related accessories. three western belts worn at same time. chain jewelry. cravat See ties. Manufactured synthetic fabrics usually have higher wrinkle reco very than natural fiber fabrics. or linen. cowboy/cowgirl Term originally used for a man or woman in the we s tern United States who herds or tends cattle. creedmore See footwear. craunce See headwear: crants. See pa n ts : c rawlers . J ules-Fra n ç o is * See A ppen d i x / Design ers .116 covered button covered button See closures. jacket/shirt See shirts. cowl See necklines and collars. Crosswise yarns are the same or of a dark color. Style includes western fringed jackets o r leather jackets worn over miniskirts. See belts: cowboy belt.A.l ooking shirt s. an imitation of the regular cowboy ’s costume. cotton blends. See dandy. Used for men’s and women’s suits and coats. crease resistance † The ability of a fabric to recover from wrinkling. In fashion. but special finishes can be applied to natural and regenerated fiber fabrics to aid wrinkle recovery. CPSC See Consumer Produ ct Sa fety Commission. covered heel See footwear. and som etimes ch a p s . mohawk. usually going about on horseback. ragged . cover-up See activewear: beach wrap-up. Der. crash † Coarse. may be used as an adjective to describe apparel that is derived from styles associated with cowboys or cowgi rls. See headwear. 2. Cremona cravat See ties. An extremely firm durable twill weave fabric with a characteristic mottled look achieved by twisting lengthwise yarns spun from two str ands—one dark and the other light. and trousers. creepa l o ngset Infant’s or toddler’s two . 3. covered placket See clothing construction details. mini bra i d s . 2. cravat strings See ties. cowhide See leathers: cattlehide.S. crepe † (krape) 1. C . loosely woven fabric made in a variety of weights with irregular yarns giving it an uneven texture. In the 18th and 19th c. Gu n belt and a wide . pants. cravate cocodes See ties. See footwe a r. Often spelled crape. 2. h e adwe a r: cowboy hat. crape See crepe #2. and shirts: cowboy shirt. crawcaw See footwear: crakow. Boy G eorge hats and hairstyles.

v. crewel yarn † Two . Made in a satin we ave with silk. See braids: horsehair braid. cloaks. crooked shoe See footwear. or a fastener on a shoe. crew socks See hosiery. Cromwell shoe See footwear. bulkier. blouses. Cromwell collar See necklines and collars. Natural or machinemade bending or waviness in a fibe r making yarn resilient. wiry.” crepe georgette See georgette. 3. See footwe a r: crescent toe. s h i ny finish on the f ace and a du ll crepe appe a ra n ce on the back. 2. a hook attach ed at woman’s waist for suspending a pomander. crew cut See hairstyles. crochets and loops See closures: hooks and eyes. crepe-soled shoes See footwear. lustro u s . crepida See footwear: krepis. rayon . crispinette See headwear: crispine. crispine See headwear. crinolette See undergarments. crescent Motif copied from shape of moon in its first quarter. crop-doublet See doublet. to describe clothing inspired by or der ived from clothing items worn at the time Oliver Cromwell ruled as Lord Pro tector of England. Fren ch. Heavily sized (see sizing). as an inexpensive method of creating a lace like fabric. cloaks. crinoline † (krin´-uh-lyn) 1. See veils. crew neckline See necklines and collars. To curl the hair with a hot iron. See u n dergarments: crinoline. Also call ed a l u n et te . crochet (kro-shay´) 1. closures: crocheted b utton. and a crepe twist cro s s wise ya rn. cr i n oline and to u r n u re See underga rm en ts : bustle. crin French for horsehair. 2. † Fabric made from a con ti nuous series of loops of ya rn made with a single hoo ked needle. crimmer See furs: lamb. and shawls. See capes. open we ave co t ton fabric. crinoline era (krin´-uh-lyn) Used by costume historians to designate the period from 1850 to 1870 when crinoline petticoats (see underga rm ents: c ri n o l i n e)or hoops (see underga rments: hoops) were used to support full skirts. crepe de chine † (krepp deh sheen ) 1. criardes See undergarments. crepe yarn † (krape) Yarn that is given a high twist du ring spinning. To shape leather by a machine that uses heat and pressure. ligh t weight silk fabric with a crepe tex tu re that is made by using highly twisted yarns in the crosswise direction and more lengthwise than crosswise yarns. 2. The fabric has twi ce as many lengthwise as cro s s wise ya rn s . and suitable for knitting. criniere (cran-yere´) See wigs and hairpieces. crocodile See leathers. The yarn is sti f f . crisp 1. Crepe-textured f a bric made with silk lengthwise ya rns and worsted crepe-twi s ted cro s s wise ya rns. or m a nu f actu red fiber for the lengthwise ya rn s . Term used from 14th to 17th c.crop-doublet 117 crepe-back satin † (kra pe ) Ligh t weight fabric with a smoo t h . crewel wo r k See em broi deries and sewing sti tches. e. O ri gi n a lly developed in the 16th c. 2. Al s o c a ll ed satin-ba ck and som etimes called satinf a ced crepe. See hairstyles. Crete lace See laces. v. See necklines and collars: Cromwell collar and footwear: Cromwell shoes. 1653 to 1658. “crepe of China. crimp/crimping 1. and lingerie.g . † n. and h e adwear: crocheted hat. Adjective used to describe apparel made by crocheting. and contracts during finishing giving pebbled surface to fabrics. Der. Us ed for dresses.. Fine. Cro mwe ll Ad j ective used in the 18th c. It is piece-dyed or printed and used for dresses and blouses. crispin See capes. crevés (krev-ay) See slashing. crève-coeur See headwear. 2. for a h ook or fasten er. less shiny. Modern textile machinery can create fabrics that have the appearance of crochet. crinkle crepe Same as plissé. fine worsted yarn used for embroidery. . l oo s ely twisted.p ly. May be used with ei t h er side as the ex teri or. crew-neck sweater See sweaters. crew-neck shirt See shirts. and shawls: crocheted shawl. 3.

croquis (kro´-key) A French term used in fashion illustration that refers to a rough sketch of a figure used as a base on which to show garment design ideas. a form that is know n as a Latin cross. or as motifs of various kinds have developed and have been given such names as (1) ansate cross See ankh. C . cuaran See footwear. 2. crossing in back. and settings. crushed leather See leathers. cross gartering 1. 2. crossover collar See necklines and collars.St. Different representations of crosses in badges. like cross an X. close to the leg by criss-crossing strips of leather around legs on top of pants. Binding or holding the legcoverings. (5) St. See headwear. crossover bra See undergarments. cross fox See furs. crush hat See headwear: chapeau claque. Orthodox cross (3) Greek cross With the cross piece the same length as the vertical piece and located at its center. and settings. gem cuts . crotch Place in a garment where the legs mee t. crypto crysta ll i n e See gem s . crusader hood See headwear. cross Persian lamb See furs: lamb. (6) tau cross With the cross piece at the top of the post. gem cuts. Cuban heel See footwear. cruches See hairstyles. Greek Maltese (4) Maltese cross With four arms cross cross of equal length that are shaped like arrowheads decreasing in size as they approach the center. of an instrument used by Romans for executing individuals. cross girdling Style of wearing the girdle. and settings. European term for bias. or braies. cross body bag See handbags and rela ted accessories.” cross-boarded See leathers. and setti n gs : fairy stone.118 cropped cropped Term den o ting shorten ed . crutch British term for crotch. cross stone See gem s . crystal See gems. stylized or realistic. (2) Eastern Orthodox cross With two cross pieces more than half way up the cen tral post and a diagonal cro s s Eastern piece a short distance from the bottom. or sash. wh en referring to clothing or hair. crusader’s cross See jewelry. like the Greek letter tau. to describe the style of gartering hose by using a ribbon around leg below the knee. or cutoff. crown 1. crown sable See furs: sable. croquet boot See footwear. Andrew’s drew’s cross With diagonal arm s . broc of Anglo-Saxon. An actual cross would have been made from an upright post of wood with a cross piece near the top. and settings. See gems. crown hats See headwear. cropping See shearing. Crosses have been worn by Christians as a symbol of their religious Latin belief from the early days of Christianity cross and as a badge on the clothing worn by Crusaders during the Middle Ages. or diagonal cut—called fabric cut “on the cross. 2. crossed at the chest and then wrapped around the waist by ancient Greeks. cross -st i tch See em broi deries and s ewing sti tches. crystalline st r u c tu re See gems. gem cuts. cross-country skiing See pants: knickers #1. crusher hat See headwear. gem cuts. crosses See furs. gem cuts. Also see belts: Greek belt. and tying with bow above knee in front or at cross-gartering #1 side of knee when stockings were worn ov er canions. See blouses and tops: cropped top and pants: cropped pants. An. Used from mid-16th to early 17th c. British term is crutch. crosscloth See headwear. jewelry. cross over thong sa n da ls See footwe a r: t h ong #3. A depiction. cross 1. of the Fren ch (see braies). Also called a lay figure. crystal bracelet See jewelry. Cubavera jacket See coats and jackets. crystal pleats See clothing constr uction details. cross gaitering See cross gartering.

Worn by men and wom en in 17th c. used on a boot sleeve (see under shoulders and sleeves). gem cuts . flaring wide at top and gauntlet cuff tapering to wrist. . m a r i n e r ’ s cu f f Ma n’s coat cuff. with falling band. washed. worn in s econd half of 18th c. roll-up cuff cuffs cu f f 1. similar to a pocket flap.cuffs: single cuff 119 cube heel See footwear. cuff button See closures. gauntlet cuff Wide turned-back cuff that slants aw ay from the a rm . cuffed trousers See pants: pre . 5. elb ow cu f f Turn ed . single cuff Band cuff that. Sl eeve of mousquet a i retype worn in late 1880s with flaring top and cuff sometimes trimmed with vandykes (see vandyking). barrel cuff See cuffs: single cuff. reaching n e a rly to el bow. Popular for men’s coats from 1727 to abo ut 1740. cuff link See jewelry. fa lling ruff. cuff bracelet See jewelry. cue peruke See wigs and hairpieces. 4. and reattached to the sleeve.. has no section doubled back on itself. turned up over sleeve and stitched. parament (pa-ra´-ment) Ornamental cuff at wrist. Also spelled parement. and standing band (see under necklines and collars). See j ewelry. cue See hairstyles. 3.—wide on outside of arm and fitting more closely at elbow.trimmed. pendant cuff Cuff that hangs down from the sleeve. A tu rn ed-back piece at the hem of tro u s ers. hounds’ ears Large turned-back cuffs with rounded corners used on men’s coats from 1660s to 1680s. 2. pendant cuff roll-up cuff Ex ten s i on of the sleeve that is folded over several times to form a cuff. flared starched cuff frequently m ade do u ble. mousquetaire cuff (moose-ke´-tare) 1. Der. 2. wi de cuff f l a ri ng above the wrist. A tu rn ed-over or sti tch ed-down band at the top of a boo t . Sometimes fastened with a tab. and three or four buttons that matched those of the coat.c u f fed trousers. in contrast to a French cuff. The band is cut from a s traight piece of f a bric. hand fall/hand cuff Term for lace . knit cuff Cuffs made with a rib knit stitch that gives a tight fit but is elastic enough to slip over hand easily. Cubic Zi rco n ia® See gem s . Examples of garments that are often cuffed are shorts and pants. Such cuffs are made in varying widths and sometimes may have attached ruffles or pieces of elastic pulled through the bands. Also called French cuff d ouble cuff. boot cuff Large turned back cuff. consisting of a small turned-back cuff decorated on outside with a curved flap.l ength sleeves in first half of 18th c. double cuff See cuffs: French cuff. From uniform of French musketeers or royal bodyguards of Louis XIII in 17th c. Finish for a sleeve con s i s ting of a separate sewe d-on piece or a turned-back extension of a sleeve. a tro u s er cuff.b ack cuff attached to wom a n’s el bow . See shoulders and sleeves: button-tab sleeve. cuffed Describes the bottom edge of a garment that has been given a wide hem that has been turned back to form a cuff. and s etti n gs . The turned-over or stitched-on piece at the top of a glove. Deep. detachable cuff Cuff cut out of an additional piece of fabric rather than being an extension of the sleeve and wh i ch may be taken off. fringed cuff Leather band at the wrist that has long hanging fringe at the end. turned-back. used on men’s coats in early 1873. French cuff Large band cuff that do u bles back on itself and is usually fastened with a cuff link. band cuff Simplest type of cuff made from a separate piece of fabric and applied to the bottom of a sleeve. A fashion innovation of the late 1960s.

This fiber is no longer manufactured in the United States because it produces high levels of water pollution. turned-back cuff Turned-back ex ten s i on of the sleeve . culet 1. a divided skirt). curtain drapery American term for hip bags. cuirasse tunic/cuirasse tunic (kwe . and underga rm ents: c u l otte slip. Garment that hangs like a skirt.ra s s´) Tight-fitting tunic skirt worn with the cuirass bodice by women in mid-1870s. and scarves. . sleepwear and loungewe a r: culotte p ajamas. cuprammonium rayon † Cellulosic fiber regenerated from wood pulp or from cotton fibers too short to spin into yarns.f i t ting waist worn by wom en in early 1900s. open-front tunic usually of net worn from 1794 to 1803 over a full-length dress. See hosiery. cutaway coat/jacket See coats and jackets. Cumberland hat See headwear. French. cuff-top girdle See undergarments: girdles. below-the-knee pants worn during reign of Henry III of France. trousers. Der. Ange la * See Appen d i x / D e s i gn ers. custom desig n e r De s i gn er who cre a tes an original garment that is executed by skilled seamstresses who drape the fabric on a dress form conforming to the customer’s special measurements. cultured pearl See gems. bon ed women’s daytime bodice of mid-1870s extending down over hips to mold the body. but is actually pants (i. Frequently made in fabric different from the dress. curtains See headwear: lamballe bonnet. See footwear. 2. and settings.” cu i rass bodice/cuirasse bodice (kwe-ra s s´) Ex tremely tight. See culotte dre s s . curlyhead See hairstyles. curricle dress (kur´-ee-kul) Women’s thighlength. and knickers. cushion pad See undergarments: bustle. and settings. 4. custo m . tights. Term first used for tight. cushion headdress See headwear. gem cuts. cushionet See underwear. but is manufactured abroad and may be found in imported goods. curls See hairstyles. popular in 1967 and after. cupola coat See undergarments: bell hoop. See gems. “breeches. Cumberland corset See underga rm ents: a po llo corset. culottes (ku-lotz´) 1. a gent licen s ed by the Cu stoms Office to assist apparel manufacturers in gaining clearance through customs for the importation of goods produced offshore. cushion sole 1. turned-back cuff C cuff string See closures. Clothes produced by such designers are known as custom-made or made-to-measure. Der French. cutaway frock See coats and jackets. skirts: culottes. cuirasse.. indicates a garment with culotte-type co nstruction.e. 2. cuisse See armor.120 cuffs: turned-back cuff This cuff is stitched to the sleeve and usually closes with one or more buttons. cuirass (kwe-rass´) 1. Also called a pantdress. The correct size is achiev ed either by fitting on a dress form adjusted to the customer’s measurements or by several personal fittings. blouses. short-sleeved. custo m s b ro ke r A U. gem cuts. See armor. 3. cummerbund See belts. Used in women’s dresses.made Adjective de s c ri bing ga rments made by tailor or co utu re house for an indivi dual customer.” When used as an adjective. “breastplate. Plain. 1574–1589. curch See headwear. cushion-style embroidery See embroi deries and sewing stitches: Berlin work. Sl eeve is cut longer and a section is turned up to form a cuff. Synonym for petticoat breeches. gem cuts. curricle coat See coats and jackets. cu i r sa va ge See leather cuirass bodice 1881 look and wet look. culotte dress (ku-lot´) Dress that combines pants and blouse into one garment. See a rm or. 2. cushion cut See gems.S. and settings. usually without a waistline seam. Cu m m i ngs. cl o s e . cutaway sack See coats and jackets.

). Rich elaborate overgarment. 3. make and trim (CMT) Apparel contractor that performs the ope rations necessary to cut. footwear: cutouts. and scallops were used.—ex tending to waist in front and to knee s in back—slashed up sides and then laced. cinglaton. make. Sleeveless outer tunic that apparently began as a garment worn over armor in early 14th c. 2. cycle jacket See coats and jackets: motorcycl e jacket. cut-offs See shorts. cut work/cut-work 1. Czech osl ova kian embroidery See em broi deri e s and sewing stitches. Used in mid-14th through 15th c.f i nger gloves See gloves and glove con structi on . Also spelled ciclaton. gloves and glove constructions: action gloves. cut wig See wigs and hairpieces. A very decorative fabric. or back. 2. especially dressy clothing. Shown at cote. cutouts Ornamental holes of different sizes and shapes cut from apparel. it is used for women’s apparel. cutting-up trade Jargon used by textile industry for clothing manufacturers. at the coron a ti on of Henry III of England in the 13th c. and dresses by apparel manufacturers. gem cuts. Motifs such as leaves. hips. cutter Garment-production term for the person who cuts the fabric with an electric knife. Worn in medieval times on cere monial occasions by both men and wom en (e. made of a large piece of cloth with round opening for head . to refer to dagging.. and trim garments for an apparel manufacturers. it appears to have been the same as the surcote. An innovation of the 1960s. Wrapped ga rm ent similar to a toga that was worn in ancient Rome. and settings. or a dagged border of a garment. cutout dress Any dress with cutout por tions revealing the body. cut velvet A fabric that has a fairly complex woven pattern consisting of velvet figures on a background of a relatively sheer fabric. cut. See embroi deries and sewing sti tch e s . cymophane See gems. skirts. cyberpunk See punk look. When it became part of civilian clothing.g. cut-up trade Manufacturers who make belts that are added to pants. cut-steel buckle See closures. sometimes fur. flames.or silk-lined. See swimwear: cutout swimsuit. cut-steel beads See jewelry.Czechoslovakian embro i d e ry 121 cu t. cycling suit/cycling costume See activewear. cyclas 1. May have enlarged armholes or be cut out at the midriff. .

pockets: hacking pocket. hair sticks Long stiletto-like pieces of hair wood. . habillement. bobby pin Small flexible piece of metal bent in half with prongs held together by the spring of the metal. hairpin A two-pronged device usually of plastic or metal. hackle See feathers.” habit Characteristic apparel of a calling. Used to hold the hair in place. Der. hairband 1. diadem comb (dye!-ah-dem) High..yaye) Late 18th and early 19th c. knot. May be small and worn one on either side of men t ) Synonym for cl o t hing. habi t. curved comb with ornamental top worn for evening by women in the 1830s. Lower front of skirt was cut away and rounded to reveal the underskirt.g. garb. for wh i ch a specific type of clothing is worn. French.sticks h a i r acc e ss o r i e s a nad e m / a nad e m e ( a h n!-ah-dem) Wre a t h or garland of leaves or flowers. 2. especially hair styled in a bun. Made of plastic.g. or dress. worn on hair by women in late 16th and early 17th c. wood or other materials in various shapes (e. rank. or larger and worn in back or at nape of the neck. See headwear: headband #1 and #2.. “bar. haincelin See houppelande. barrette (ba-ret!) Clip worn in the hair. cl erical clothes. French. Also see hair accessories: bobby pin. The classic hairpin is a wire bent double hairpin with crimps halfway down each side to give flexibility. diminutive of barre. updo. or metal worn for dec. duchess Knot or bow of ribbon worn as part of the fontange hairstyle (see under headwear) in the late 17th c. bobby pin See hairstyles: pin curls #2. as opposed to riding to hounds. attire. co u rt dress or riding habit). metal. See coats and jackets: hacking jacket. Sometimes used as an adjective to describe clothing used for riding. or functi on (e. a ribbon for the hair or fillet. Der. Pins of very fine wire tinted to match hair are called invisible hairpins. ha bi t d’escalier ( a h . plastic. “clothing.H H haberdashery A store that sells men’s apparel and accessories. From 15th to 17th c. evening dress made with an overtunic or half robe. or French twist.beet! de s . See headwear: fillet #2. habit shirt See shirts. d i ngo te (red!-ing-gote) Woman’s dress of 1879 made in princess style with front closed from neck to knees. wide. and scarves: hacking scarf.k a h l!. habiliment (heh-bil!. The short sleeves were slit open and trimmed with ribbons tied in ladderlike fashion. Decorated hairpins are worn as jewelry and made of exotic materials or jeweled. hacking Riding for pleasure.” Also spelled barret. bar or bow knot). worn to keep hair in place or to set hair in pin curls.

hairstyles: American Indian hairstyle 219
orative effect. Usually thrust through hair knotted at the back of the head. papillotte comb ( p a h p!-ee-laut) Decora tive tortoise shell comb, 3"– 4" long, u s ed on ei t h er side of head to puff out hair by women in late 1820s. Der. French, papilloter, “to flutter,” and papillon, “butterfly.” peigne Josephine (pahn) Woman’s high comb, ornamented with small gilt balls. Worn at the back of head for evening in 1842. pompon Hair or cap orn a m ent compo s ed of fe a t h ers, ti n s el, but terflies, etc . , worn in center part of hair by women from 1740s to 1760s, originally called pompadour (pohm!pah-dure). rat Sausage-shaped padded roll of nylon mesh (formerly of hair or felt) worn by women under natural hair to create high pompadour effect in early 20th c. and since. Also see hairstyles: pompadour #1. roll/rowle 16th and 17th c. term for pad used to raise the front hair up from forehead. scr unchy Elastic band covered wi t h fabric for confining ponytails. Spanish comb Comb with ornamental top, sometimes 5" high, worn at crown of head to support scrunchy a mantilla (see under headwear) or separately for decorative effect. toque A triangular cushion worn from 1815 to 1820 by women on top of the head to extend the hair. haircut Trimming and shaping of hair with scissors or razor. See hairstyles. hairdo See hairstyles. hair fibers † Fibers obtained from the fleece or pelt of an animal. hair jewelry See jewelry. hairline stripe See prints, stri pe s , and ch ecks. hair net See headwear. hairpiece See introduction to category wigs and hairpieces. hairpin See hair accessories. hairpin lace See laces. hair seal See furs. hair sticks See hair accessories.

h a i r st y l es
hairstyle Manner in which the hair is worn. Also called haird o, coiffure, co i f . Elabora te h a i rstyles were popular in ancient times, particularly with the Greeks and Romans. The complexity of hairstyles varied throughout history with some of the most elaborate styles being worn in 18th c. France. First permanent wave was introdu ced in about 1909. Ha i r spray came into general use in the 1950s, thus making possible more elaborate hair arrangements. Hairstyles from the 1960s on revived many old styles as well as introducing totally n ew on e s . Styling gel and mousse were in general use by 1980s. abstract cut Straight short geom etric hairc ut , often asym m etric, with one side of hair cut different from other. In trodu ced by English hairstylist Vidal Sassoon abstract cut in mid-1960s. Afro Style ado pted f or AfricanAmericans in 1960s in which hair that had a natural tight curl was c ut and all owed to assume its natural shape with no attem pt made to straighten the hair. The afro size of the hair style varied with the length of hair. There are many interesting variations of this style. Afro puffs Afro hairstyle variation made by parting hair in center, pulling to sides, tying near ears, and teasing to form puffs over ears. aggravators Term used for semicurls near the eye or temple, worn by men from 1830s to 1850s. Agnès Sorel coiffu re Woman’s hairs tyle wi t h ribbon bands in front and a knot in back; worn from 1830s to 1850s. Named for Agnès Sorel. A m e r i can Indian bra i ds See hairstyl e s : American Indian hairstyle. American Indian hairstyle Hair worn straight and lon g — below shoulder length—and parted in center. A headband worn low on the brow is usu a lly ad ded. The long hair may be ti ed in two pony tails, made into braids, or hang

220 hairstyles: ape drape
free. Wh en bra i ded call ed Am erican Indian braids. ape drape See hairstyles: shag. apollo knot Woman’s el a bora te evening hairstyle, worn from 1824 to 1832, made with wired loops of false hair, projecting up from crown of head, and finished with decorative comb, flowers, or feathers. artichoke Short , b ack - com bed layered hair, not too bouffant, popular in early 1960s. back-combi ng Hairdressing tech n i que of lifting each strand of hair and combing or brushing lightly toward the scalp to increase bulk; used widely in 1950s and 1960s for bouffant and beehive hairdos (see under hairstyles). Also called teasing. bandeau d’amour (ban!-doe dahm-moor!) Woman’s hairstyle or wig with high slanting and hanging curls worn in 1770s and 1780s. ba ng i ng ch ignon ( s h een !- yon ) Wom en’s hairstyle of 1770s with wide flat loop of ribbon tied hair, hanging from crown of head to nape of neck. bangs Hair com bed forward over foreh e ad and cut straight across, with the remainder left smooth or waved. Called fringe in England. Bardot hair (bar-doe!) Long hair, loosely curl ed and arranged in tousled disarray with loose tendrils around face. Popular after being seen on French film star Brigitte Bardot in 1959. barrel curls Full, round large curls frequently grouped at crown or back of the head. Beatle cut Man’s haircut worn full with sideburns (see under hairstyles) and well down the neck in back. The first 20th c. style to revive lon ger hairstyles for men, it was introduced in the 1960s by Beatle cut the Beatles, an avant-garde rock music group from Liverpool, England. b e e h i ve Hi gh, exaggera ted bu bble hair shape, ach i eved by backcombing into a rounded dome. First worn by Teddy girls in London in late 1950s, popular until mid-1960s. Also called bubble bob. beehive Benoiton coiffure ( ben-waa!- tone) Wom en’s elaborate coiffure of 1866 with hair parted in center, smooth on top, chignon and curls in back. Three gold chains were worn over the top of the head and hung in dangling loops under the chin; sometimes garlands of flowers were used instead of chains. Der. Named after La Famille Benoiton, a play by Victorien Sardou, 1865. bingle British term for very short haircut. Der. Combination of the words bob and shingle (see under hairstyles). bob Short blunt-cut hair, either with bangs or bared forehead, introduced in 1920s by Irene Castle. Also call ed Twen ties bob. Also see hairstyles: boyish bob. Boldini ( bo l!- dee - n ee ) See pom p adour #1. Al s o called Belle Epoque (bell eh!-puck), concierge (cohn!-see-ehrj), and onion. Der. For Italian soc i ety painter Giovanni Boldini (1845–1931), who often painted women wearing this style. b o u f fa n t (boo-fahnt!) Hair exaggera tedly puffed out by means of back-combing (see u n der hairstyl e s ) and held there by use of hair spray. Fashionable in early 1960s for medium-length and long hair. Der. French, “full” or “puffed.” bowl crop Men’s hairstyle of 15th c. with hair shaved at back and sides, and longer hair hanging from crown of head in round basin-shaped fashion; a fashion revived in 1970 for young men when it was called a bowl crop bowl cut (see under hairstyles). 15th c. Also called pudding-basin cut. bowl cut Modern version of the bowl crop (see under hairstyles ) that looks as if a bowl was placed over the head and then all the hair that can be seen around the ed ges of the bowl was cut. As a result, hair on top “under the bowl” is fairly long and that below can ra n ge in length from being shaved to being cut very short. Variati ons of this cut i n clude the d i pped mu s h room, or d i pped bowl cut, that dips several inches lower at the back of the head and the under cut, in which the underneath layer of hair under the bowl is cut with clippers for an additional inch or two. As a result, when the head is shaken, the bowl cut returns to its original shape.


hairstyles: coiffure à l’Agnès Sorel 221
boyish bob Woman’s extremely short hairstyle, shingled (see hairstyles: shingle) in back and short on sides. Ori gi n a lly pop u l a ri zed by Beatrice L i ll i e , Bri tish actress in the mid1920s, and worn since at intervals. boyish bob Also call ed Eton crop, gamin, and or garçon haircut ga r ç o n . braids Hairstyle made by plaiting three sections of hair together. Braids may be worn hanging down on shoulders, looped up, tied or pinned together, wound around the head in a coronet, or wound in a bun (see under hairstyles) at the nape of the neck. Popular style for children in the early 20th c., also very popular in the 1960s and early 1980s. brush cut See hairstyles: crewcut. B r u tus h ead / wig Man’s own hair worn closely cropped or brown unpowdered wig, both worn disheveled. Popular from abo ut 1790 to 1820 and inspired by the Fren ch Revoluti on. bubble bob See hairstyles: beehive. bubble curls Very loose curls, back-combed slightly and turned under, appearing on head as series of rounded bumps. bull head/bull tour Woman’s hairstyle with fringe of thick curls across forehead worn in late 17th c. Also called taure (tawr). Der. French, tauteau, “bull.” bun Large mass of hair confined neatly at crown of the head or at the nape of the neck. bun bush cut See hairstyles: crew cut. business man’s cut Men’s moderately short haircut, long enough to be parted or brushed back. Buster Brown Straight short hairstyle with bangs over forehead. Der. Named for early 20th-c. comic-strip character and popular for little boys . Also call ed dutch bob, espec i a lly if worn by girls. bustle curls Long curls worn dangling at back of head. burr cut See hairstyles: induction cut. butch cut See hairstyles: crew cut. buzz cut See hairstyles: crew cut. cadogan/cata gan ( k a - do!- ga n ) 1. Hairstyle with cluster of ringlets or braids of hair hanging at back of head, ti ed at n a pe of neck with wi de ri bbon. Worn as natural hair or as a wig by men in the 18th c. (see wigs and hairpieces: cato- cadogan #1, 18th c. gan wig) and by women in 1870s. 2. Same style worn by women with riding habit in 18th c. Hair usually pulled back, looped up, and tied with a ribbon or the hair itself formed the band. 3. Hair pulled back with a bow at the nape of neck; a style revived by Fren ch coutu ri è re Gabri elle Ch a n el in 1960s. Also see hairstyles: George. Der. British General, First Earl of Cadogan (1675– 1726). Caesar cut Contemporary men’s haircut in the style shown on Roman busts of Julius Caesar. Moderately short, the hair is layered to about one or two inches and brushed forward to a short bang over the forehead. chignon (sheen!-yon) Large roll of hair twisted into a circle or figure ei ght on the back of the head or at the nape of the neck , of ten enclosed in decorative net or held by fancy hairpins. Classic style in chignon 1860s, in 1920s, 1930s, and revived in 1980s. In the late 17th c., was sometimes called a chou (choo). China doll hair Typical Chinese hairstyle with short stra i ght hair, sometimes shingl ed in back, and bangs at forehead. chou See hairstyles: chignon. classic pull-back Long hair worn co mbed neatly to the back and tied with a ribbon. In the 1940s worn with a barrette in the back. Also see hairstyles: George. cl uster curls Groups of false ringlets or sausage curls, mounted on netting to be pinned in place as part of an elaborate coiffure. cockle Term used for woman’s curl or ringlet in the 17th c. co i f (kwaf ) An o t h er name for hairstyle or s h ortened form of the world coi f f u re (kwaffoor!). coiffure See hairstyles: coif. co i f fure à l’Agnès Sorel See hairstyl e s : Agnes Sorèl coiffure.

Slightly longer versions of the crew cut include the brush cut. and piled high. so named because it stands up like the bristles of a brush. Also see hairstyles: flattop. Marquise de Sévigné (1626–1696). Der. confidants Woman’s clusters of curls placed over the ears in late 17th c. H .cornrow braids Americans. puffed out over the ears.” coiffure à la Ninon See hairstyles: Ninon coiffure. coiffure à la Maintenon (ah la manta-naw!) Woman’s coiffure of late 17th and early 18th c. coiffure à la Titus See hairstyles: titus.veen!-yay ) Wom en’s hairstyle of 1650 parted in center. “racket. At that time it was similar to Army haircuts. “heartbreaker. When very short and even length all over. curled. coxcomb/cockscomb Woman’s upswept coiffure with hair bru s h ed to the back and pinned to form a vertical row of ringlets down center back. for curls at nape of woman’s neck. A hairstyle worn by men and women of Louis XIII period with two long locks—called moustaches—falling on either side of face. and tied with bows. term for masculine hairstyle with two long locks pulled back and tied with a ribbon. revived in early 1970s by fashion a ble Af rican. hanging in waves and curls to the shoulders with de corated bow at ear level. crisp 17th-c. Der. coiffure à la zazzera (zatz-zeh!-rah) Man’s l ong hairstyle with ends curled under— originally worn by Romans and revived by Venetians in 15th c. and the ivy league cut with hair longer at the front of the head so it can be brushed up or down or parted. term for small curls worn on the forehead. coiffure en bouffons ( on buff-on!) Woman’s hairstyle with tufts of crimped or curled hair arranged over the temples. and the forehead covered with fringe of hair called garcette (gar-cett!). second wife of Louis XIV of France. crève-coeur (krev-kur!) Term used at end of 17th c. Front hair is usually a little longer than the back. and supported by a wire hoop. frequently laccorkscrew quered to hold the shape. wound with ribbons. with hair parted in the center. French. Adopted by college men in 1940s and 1950s.” cold wave See hairstyles: permanent wave. coiffure à la mouton (ah la moo-ton!) S h ort hairs yle fringed over forehead and crimped on sides. “sheep. After the Marquise de Maintenon. co i f fure à la hériss o n See hairstyl e s : h é ri s s on. cruch es (kroosh) L a te 17th-c.” crew cut Man’s hair closely cropped so that hair on crown of h e ad stands erect. co i f fure à la S é vigné ( s ay . Worn in the Louis XIII period. then copied by others. curls cornrows Hair braided in horizontal rows by adding more hair after each plait to the braid.222 hairstyles: coiffure à la Grecque coiffure à la Grecque See hairstyles: Greek coiffure. Also worn by some women in 1980s and after. corkscrew curls Free hanging curls that appear coiled. Der. and Fra n ce . From Af rican styles worn by African-Americans in the South in the 19th c.S. term for a curl of hair worn by a woman. Der. Worn in last quarter of 16th c. called a butch cut or a buzz cut. 17th-c.Also call ed Triumph of Liberty. Worn in 1778 to honor Benjamin Franklin’s appearance at the French court for negotiation of a treaty between the U. bobbed short like a child’s. French. Der. concierge See hairstyles: pompadour #1. 2. Originally worn by oarsmen to keep hair crew cut out of eyes. coiffure à la indépendance French hairstyle with a sailing-ship model pe rched on top of wavy locks and curls. After Marie. coiffure à l’enfant (ah lon-fon!) Woman’s hairstyle of 1780s.. coiffure en raquette (on ra-ket!) Woman’s hairstyle with hair brushed up. co i f fure en cadenettes ( on ka-dey !. French. puffed over the temples. a witty correspondent and writer of the time. Der.n et ) 1.

Lengths may vary. double chignon Woman’s hairstyle of 1860s with two large rolls of hair. . F re n ch lock See h a i rstyl e s : love lock. Eton crop Variation of boyish bob (see under hairstyles) worn in England.A.” dutch bob See Buster Brown hairstyle.. curlyhead See hairstyles: poodle cut. braided on each side. and a band of n a rrow ri bbon wra pped three times around the head . French braid usually for men. Sometimes hair spray is used to make locks stand up on top of head in a tousled mass.s h a ped ornam en t . Du ring the 1980s dreadlocks and 1990s some young Af ri c a n . Worn by both m en and wom en in the 1950s. dreadlocks/Rasta dreadlocks Hair arranged in many long hanging twists that was first worn by Ra s t a f a rian (a religious sect) reggae m usicians from Jamaica. founded in 1930 when Ras Tafari (Haile Selassie) became emperor of Ethiopia. and allowed to hang in a ponytail from top of cone or wound into a cockscomb spike. spirally around the head. Popular in 1930s and revived in early 1970s.hairstyles: French roll/twist 223 cue 18th-c. Pop. feather cut Short lightly curled woman’s bob. Also called water wave. or designs were shaved on the scalp. f requ en t ly wound with braids. or som etimes by combs. finge rwave Short hair set in flat waves by means of setting lotion and held until dry by bobby pins. In another version called white walls. Empire coiffure (ohm-peer ) Hairs tyle worn in 1860s with curls in Greek manner around the face . dipped bowl cut/dipped mushroom cut See hairstyles: bowl cut. D. in which the top of the hair is cut to a flat surface.Am erican men and wom en and some Caucasians adopted the style. the cut is called a horseshoe flattop. Der. the back and sides are shaved clean. See hairstyles: ducktail haircut. embroidered with pearls. evening hairstyle made by wrapping a satin band. flip Medium-length woman’s hairstyle w ith hair turned up on ends to form an incomplete curl. one above the other. Also called D. the hanging tail of a wig. Also called French braid. earmuffs Hair parted in center. French braid See fishbone braid. This is known as a landing strip. Som etimes words. at the nape of the neck. Front is often cut in bangs. a sect from Jamaica. which first appeared for civilian wear about 1720. The head being round. fishbone or flattop G en eral category of hairs tyles. fad e A hairs tyle popular in the 1990s that originated with young African-American men in which the hair was cut very short on the sides. French roll/twist Upswept hairstyle with side and back hair com bed and roll t wi s ted in ro ll at the cen ter back. The back is done in a large chignon (see under hairstyles) with narrow ribbon wrapped around it several times. spelling of queue (see under hairstyles). bro u ght through the cone. popular in 1950s and 1960s. the scalp on the top of the head is close to the surface. Sometimes artificial hair was used. When the hair is cut so short on top that the only remaining hair forms a horseshoe-shaped ridge on the uppe r sides and across the front. and wound around to form buns over the ears. ending with two ribbon streamers down the back. cut in layers. duck ta il ha i rcut S h ort hairstyle com bed to come to a point at the n a pe of the neck . and placed on crown of head. favourites Women’s curls worn near the temples from 1690 to about 1720. and may be visible. and long on the top. E m p i re cone hairstyl e Con e .French or French twist ular in 1940s and classic style since. fishbone braid Hair is braid ed so that the interlacing of hair down center back looks similar to the spine of a fish with small bones on each side.A. slang for “duck’s ducktail haircut ass. n a m es. fillet 19th-c. when the hair is cut flat. Hair is pulled back smoothly from the foreh e ad . From the style worn by Rastafarians.

ee!. Fashionable in 19th and early 20th cs. the ballroom dancer who made bo bbed hair fashionable prior to World War I. 2. Gibson Girl Hair worn in high puffy pompadour (see under hairstyles) with small bun on top of head. Also see hairstyles: Grecian curls. 2. Also call ed kiss curl . hairdo See introduction to hairstyles.” highlights Naturally or artificially produced lighter areas of the hair that provide a contrast with darker areas. jumbo curls Very large curls similar to barrel curls (see under hairstyles). but worn with a cadogan or pigtail (see under h a i rstyl e) in back.l oo ) Wom a n’s hairstyle with short curls all and over and long ringlets in back. kiss curl See hairstyles: guiche. Irene Castle bob S h ort bob with hair bru s h ed back off the forehead and hanging in loose waves. cop i ed from Napo leonic era that in turn looked to Greece for inspiration. popular in 1940s. Also called kolbenschmitt. Also called queue de lion. called a reverse guiche. made popular in drawings of Charles Dana Gibson. gamin (gam!-in) Short boyish cut with shingled back and sides and irregularly cut bangs. lion’s tail A long piece of hair or a switch.l oo . made to form three hanging loops in back and wound around the loops at nape of neck. After Irene Castle. La Belle Époque See hairstyles: pom pado u r.s tyle headwear. guiche (gweesh) Few strands of hair made into c u rl in front of ear. hérisson/coiffu re à la hérison (air. 19th-c.224 hairstyles: fringe fringe See hairstyles: bangs. Der.b a re ! . love lock / l o ng lock Long lock of curled hair brought forward from nape of neck and worn H . Der. For men: Same cut in front.s onh) For women: Late 18th-c. ach i eved by placing hair on an ironing board and pressing wi th a warm iron to remove all waves. Sometimes arranged in two rows. Pre s i dent Geor ge Wa s h i n g ton. one shorter than the other. See headwear: helmet. In the 1860s a sausage-shaped pad over which back hair was rolled.s o h n!) See hairstyl e s: boyish bob. Greek coiffure Womans’s hairstyle of 1860s with center part. Der. or scarf. George Long hair pull ed back and secured at the nape of the neck with a twist of hair. Fren ch . Now flat irons are used to achieve super-sleek hairstyles. George hairstyle Classic style for wom en . with bangs in front and hair the same length at sides and back. induction cut An even length of stubble across the head. hurluberlu ( er. layered cut Hair cut in graduated lengths in a horizontal fashion around the head. a fad with young girls in the late 1960s. frizzy De s c ri bing hair in many ti ght small curl s . shaggy.S. either real or false. hair braided and wrapped around the crown of the head.” Also see hairstyles: boyish bob. first worn by Madame de Montespan about 1671. French. Also called burr cut. Named for hairstyle as seen in 18th-c. ribbon. Also called urchin and garçon. term for cri m ped bangs of hair. Revived occasionally. Also see hairstyles: cadogan #3. landing strip See hairstyles: flattop. frisette (frih-zet!) 1. Small curls around the face. “bri s t ly. worn on the forehead. garcette (gar-cett!) See hairstyles: coiffure en bouffons. “street urchin. Grecian curls 1. ironed hair Long stra i ght hair. ga r ç o n / garçonne ( ga r.S. ad a pted by men in early 1970s. Us ed in the 1960s with hel m et . thus appearing like a lion’s tail. kolbe (kol-be!) Man’s hairs tyle worn in mid16th c. Also called co i f f u re à la Gre cq u e . ivy league cut See hairstyles: crew cut. This is the cut given to male recruits to the U.. La Goulue See hairstyles: pompadour. Also called a cadogan or catagon. usually above the ears. Armed Services. hanging down the back. Wh en curled back toward the ear inste ad of forward. Hairstyle of the 1860s with rows of curls hanging down the back from the nape of the neck. portraits of U. twined with cord to abo ut 6" f rom the bo t tom. short hairstyle with l oose curls in back and frizzed ends at front and sides.

mini-mini braids/mini-plaits Extrem ely minute braids introduced in 1968. French lock. Maintenon coiffu re (man-te!. 2. tiny curls on the forehead. popular from 1590 to 1650s for men and sometimes women. Also called a Bourbon lock. and a chignon at the back of the neck. a legendary courtesan and Parisian fashion leader. was introdu ced . Adapted from style worn by Mohawk Indians.l ength curls at sides (som eti m e s wi red). Mohawk Style in which entire head is shaved except for upstanding fringe of hair. M o n tague cu r ls (mon!-ta-ghu ) Wom a n’s evening hairstyle w ith a fringe of crescentshaped curls pasted to the forehead in 1877. Hair worn in two side braids. shoulder. French.” pannier curls (pann-yeh!) Curls worn at sides of face in front of the ears. abo ut 3" high and 2" or more wide. The M a i n tenon toupet ( s ee under wi gs and hairpieces) could be added to secure proper effect of curls on the forehead. permanent/permanent wave Waves or curls that last until hair is cut off. Der. pompadour (pohm!-pah-dure) 1. When pins are removed. required electrical wiring to each roller. Popular style for young girls since 1940s. mistress and second wife of Louis XIV of France. introduced in beauty shops. First machine wave. new machineless wave used chemicals and heated rollers.hairstyles: pompadour 225 h a n ging over chest. Curls used on forehead or sides of face made by winding hair around the finger then set with bobby pins. with ends curled u n der at back and sides very smoothly. ribbon-tied braids all over head. Der. television star of early 1980s. May be combed out into either waves or curls. originally created by ch emicals and heated ro ll ers . in which chemicals curled the hair wi t h o ut heating it. Introduced in England in mid-17th c.. Natural hair may be styl ed in this manner or a hairpiece attached. Child’s hairstyle for short hair with tiny. Method of setting the hair by making tiny curls all over the head and securing them with bobby pins. Named for the Marquise de Maintenon. A classic hairstyle.type hairs tyle (see under hairstyles) with sideburns connected to beard and moustache. onion See pompadour #1. Der. Der. Woman’s hair brushed up high and smooth from forehead and temples. oreilles de chien (or-ray de she-en) Nickname for two long curls worn at either side of face by men from 1790 to 1800. “dog’s ears. Sometimes left long and made to stand up in “spikes” with gel. and back hair pulled into a knot. T. Ninon coiffu re (nee-nonh! kwa-foor!) Hairstyle with ringlet curls over the for ehead. pigtails 1.” pa geboy Straight hair shoulder l en g t h or shorter. pin curls 1. devised by hairdresser Marcel of France in 1907 and popular in the 1920s. the first cold wave. running from brow to the nape of the neck. marcel wave Artificial wave put in woman’s hair with heated curling irons. heart breaker. sometimes with ribbon bow tied on ends. pigeon-wings See wigs and hairpieces. later by means of chemicals alone.n on kwa-foor!) Woman’s hairstyle of early 1860s with two long hanging curls at either side of face. Also see hairstyles: marcel wave. pageboy From hair of medieval “pages. Style was later given this name after An n e de Lenclos (1620–1705). First permanent wave was invented by Charles Nestlé in 1906. Der. curl is left tightly twisted. Filmy lace decorated with foliage and flowers went over the crown of the head and hung down each side to shoulders in form of lappets (see under headwear). Popular for men in late 1970s. Mandinko Ex a ggera ted Mohawk. pixie ha i rcut Short hairs tyle cut in layered style close to head and combed in points around forehead and face. In slang. called perm. See hairstyles: porcupine. known as Ninon de Lenclos. In 1960s a soft version called a body wave gave hair more fullness for noncurly coiffures. In 1930s. as worn by Mr. This made home permanents possible. sometimes teased or rolled over false stuffing and tucked into a small bun . In the early 1940s. 2.

First abstract cut (see under hairstyles). shaped to points in front of ears. pu dding-basin cut See hairstyl e s : bowl crop. Der. Variations of this style called La Belle Epoque. Sassoon Short . Ha i r rolled up in front with back worn pompadour #1 straight and curled on ends. Ends left hanging loose like a horse’s tail. quiff Hairs tyle bru s h ed forward firs t . designed by British hairdresser Vidal Sassoon in 1964. Copied from style worn in late 19th and early 20th c. puffs Women’s hair when back-combed (see u n der hairstyl e s) to form bouffant ef fect at sides of face in early 20th c. Der. Psyche. worn at end of 18th c. and La Gou l u e in late 1960s. ringlets Loose curls that hang in dangling fashion. made immortal by Jupiter. giving a somewhat pompadour effect in front. worked over a framework of gauze. co n cierge . reverse guiche See hairstyles: guiche. and revived in 1980s. See hair accessories: pompon. punk hair A variety of unusual hairstyles including mohawk. razor cut Haircut that is done using a razor blade rather than a scissors. and hair gently turned under at back and sides. early 1940s. Also see hairstyles: quiff. Also spelled cue. with short hair standing up like bristles. popular in 1940s. and spiky hairstyl e s (see under hairstyl e s). com bed forward from crown. Worn by women in 18th c. sometimes dyed a var iety of punk hairstyle colors.ay) Ha i rs tyle of 1870s and 1880s arra n ged with ch i gn on high on back of head and curls at neck. s traight boyish hairdo. Popular in late 1930s. porcupine. Hair parted in the center and two ponytails made—one on either ponytail #1 side of the face near the ears. Similar to style affected by Elvis Presley. Named for Greek mythological maiden. then back . the lover of Cupid. before the French Revolution. 2. Rasta dread l o cks See h a i rstyles: d re adlock s. Der. pouf See hairstyles: bouffant. porcupine headdress Man’s hairstyle. Also called . 2. psyche knot (si-kee) Copy of Greek hairstyle for women with hair pulled back and twisted to form a knot at back of head. 4. cut in low bangs. poodle cut All over short curled effect similar to hair of a poodle. From Marquise de Pom p adour. Also called porc-epic. sculptured hair Hair covered with mousse so that it may be arranged in fan-shaped design H . Similar to hairstyle worn by Chinese men. sides cut sloping backward to reveal the face as an oval. pouf au sentiment (poof o sont-eh !-mont) Extravagantly high hairstyle elaborately decorated with flowers and other objects. porc-epic See hairstyles: porcupine headdress. porcupine hairstyle Man’s 1985 hairstyle with center portion from fo rehead to neck left longer with even longer strands about 8" in length made to stand up on top of head with gel or mousse. sausage curl Tightly ro ll ed horizontal curl usually arranged in layers around sides or back of head from ear level to nape of neck .226 hairstyles: ponytail on top of head. Bol d i n i . Hair pulled to crown or center back of head and tied with a ribbon or held with an elastic band. queue de lion See hairstyles: lion’s tail. romeo Modified pageboy cut (see ringlets under hairstyles) with bangs falling to eyebrows. 3. ponytail 1. queue (kew) Long single braid hanging down the back. Der. a rock-music superstar of the 1950s and 1960s. Named after hairstyle worn by Mad a m e Rècamier. mistress of Louis XV of France. Rècamier ha i rst y le (ray-cahm!. See Gibson Girl. and shingled in back to dee p V. onion. Man’s hair worn rather long and brushed straight up and back from forehead with no part.

tapered haircut The hair is cut progressively shorter down the back of the head to nape of the neck. a. 1986. shag Longish bob. Der. and pink). Der. teasing See hairstyles: back-combing.g.hairstyles: wind-blown bob 227 or brushed straight up from face and cut in scalloped de s i gn at top.sideburns ened with hair spray. white walls See hairstyles: flattop. usually made with a piece of false waved hair hanging down in back in a confined mass or in form of loose chignon with braid pulled tight at center. The front and sides are all one length. and short bangs are informally styled. Titus. Style introduced in 1920s for w omen. orange. sideburns That part of a man’s hair and whiskers that extends from his hairline to below the ears. 79–81.. achieving new popularity in the 1960s and 1980s and after. Popular in 1930s. teddy boy cut See teddy boy in alphabetical listing. framing face like Statue of Liberty crown. a rock singer in mid-1980s. Worn by film star Veronica Lake in 1940s. segmented and twisted to form pointed projections that are stiff. an Olympic figure skating champion in 1976. sprayed to stand erect. in imitation of a man’s conventional haircut. with bangs and “shaggy” in front of ears. spit curls Separate ringlets formed flat against the forehead or cheek often held in place by water. urchin See hairstyles: gamin. celebration of the restoration of the Statue of Liberty in New York harbor. An innovation of the late 1960s. shingle Tapering of hair up back of head. then secured on top of the head in curls or a pompadour (see under hairupsweep styles: pompadour #1). Sometimes dyed different colors (e. so that . spiky hair Short or medium-length hair. wedge Hair is tapered close to the head at the nape of the neck. revived after interest for older movies in 1960s. Also called apedrape. squared off at middle of ear. taure See hairstyles: bullhead. and revived in 1970s and 1980s. that resembled the way a man condemned to the guillotine wore his hair. S tyles were introdu ced by Patti LaBelle. achieved by washing hair and allowing it to hang uncombed. u ps weep/updo Pop u l a r 1940s wom a n’s hairstyle with mediumlong hair brushed upward from the sides and nape of neck. Inspired by the July 4. Der. worn in late 18th c. blue. te n d r ils Long loo s ely curled strands of hair worn hanging at the forehead. water wave See hairstyles: fingerwave. and sometimes around to the sides. layered for a shaggy look. popular with the pompadour hairstyle (see hairstyles: pompadour #1). Titus Coiffure. topknot Hair twisted into a knot or bun at the crown of the head. under cut See hairstyles: bowl cut. Above this the hair is full and all one length. 2. Hair worn in a tousled mass. waterfall Woman’s hairstyle of the 1860s and 1870s. Statue of Liberty hair Outré hairstyle of 7 spikes of hair. or lacquer. Any hair style that is cut so as to allow the hair to be washed and worn without any additional styling.d. First popular in early 1980s. tipping Hand-painting the tips of sections of the hair. making two loops of hair. Veronica Lake hairstyle Long hair parted on side with heavier sec tion hanging down almost covering one eye. The length of the hair being tapered can vary depending on the style. wash-and-wear hair 1. wind-blown bob Popular 1930s woman’s hairstyle that was cut short and shingled. Popular after it was worn by Dorothy Hamill. gel or mousse. twenties bob See hairstyles: bob. setting lotion. Also called Titus hairstyle. c ut short and bru s h ed forward over forehead. after the French Revolution. almost to a V. Also see hairstyles: guiche. From hairs tyle of Roman Emperor. sides. Also see hairstyles: bingle. or nape of neck.

half robe Low-necked. and the like). shoulders and sleeves: half sleeve. until the Refor- H . was worn suspended from man’s girdle in order to have alms for the po or. The word is often s h orten ed to ba g . half dress Late 18th and 19th-c. eyewear: half glasses.. half-jack boot See footwear: jockey boot. credit cards. half lining Lining of only part of the garment (e. A pa che bag See handbags and related acce s s ories: s quaw bag. half-moon pocket See pockets. evening wear and swimsuits.K. resilience. Sarah Josepha hair fell softly about the face as if blown by the wind. half handkerchief See scarves.g. h ei ght abo ut 5!2" to 5!8"— u su a lly sized 101⁄2 to 241⁄2. fineness. hand † Characteristics of a fabric that are revealed through sense of touch (e. By 1920s it was a necessary accessory. shirts: half shirt. Frequently used in men’s jackets and topcoats. a t ta ché case See h a n d bags and related acce s s ories: bri efcase #1. the aulmoniere. Halston * See Appendix/Designers.g. and patent leather). halo hat See headwear: pamela. plastic. leather. undergarments: demi-bra and half slip. straw. cl oa k s . From late 19th to early 20th c. American Indian bag See handbags and related accessories: squaw bag. Used on blouses. leaving shoulders and back m pass cl oak See capes. sea m See gl oves and gl ove construction. In late 19th c. canvas. See cross-references under handbags and related accessories. halter Strap encircling the neck used to support front of a garment.. ha l f.228 Hale. half kirtle See kirtle. Hale. vinyl. Hall of Fame See C oty American Fas h i on Cri tics’ Award. and cosmetics. hamster See furs. various types of handbags began to be carried mainly for traveling. half-piqué/half P. footwear: demi-boot. half Adjective used for smaller or incomplete items of apparel or accessories. revived in early 1970s and periodically since then. h a n db ags a n d r e l ate d acc e ss o r i e s handbag Acce s s ory carri ed primarily by women and girls to hold such items as money. half mourning See mourning dress. See aprons: half apron. front completely lined but only the shoulders lined in the back). smoothness. softness. Also called half-toilette or demi-toilette. half coronet See headwear: demi-coronal. Also called a pu rse or pocketbook.g. Comes in many styles and made of a va riety of m a terials (e. necklines and collars: halter neckline. Der. short-sleeved. The prefix demi is a synonym. half sizes Wom en’s ga rm ents cut for a fully developed figure: short-waisted in back. drape. half mask See masks: domino. crispness. hosiery: half hose.. thighlength tunic worn over long gown with fullness pulled in at waist by narrow ribbon. metal. dresses. belts: half belt. Hamburg lace See laces. and shawls: compass cloak. half gown See half robe. Worn from late 18th to early 19th c. half-toilette See half dress. larger in waist and hips. From resemblance to pleats on the musical instrument of this name. aulmoniere (all-mon-yeh r!) Med i eval po u ch of silk or leather suspended from girdle worn by nobles from the 13th c.. Sarah Josepha See Godey’s Lady’s Book. Popular in 1930s and 1940s. a small leather pouch. See blouses and tops: halter top. women carried a small elongated bag called a reticule. Usually made with a handle and frequently w ith a zipper compartment in the center. From 13th to 16th c. term for daytime or semiformal evening dress. In 1968 the manbag was introduced for men. Also called half-gown or demi-habilliment. . half gaiters See footwear: spats. fabric. accordion bag Bag made like an expandable filing envelope that is narrow at the top and pleated at sides and bottom.

box bag Handbag with rigid frame. beaded bag One type popular in the early 1900s was usually hand-crocheted in small elongated pouch s tyle with a draws tring top and a be aded tassel at the bottom. Large. gypsire. basket bag Applies to many types of handbags. the bag closes with a flap over the front and may have both a shoulder strap and handles. Also used by women in 14th c. 2. to carry mirrors and tweezers for t h eir hair. Made in the shape of a flat canteen used to carry water in dry climates. billfold See handbags and rela ted accessories: wallet.basket bag rials such as leather or plastic in the shape of a basket. Also spell ed gipci è re . bourse (boorce) Large purse or bag worn from 1440 until mid-18th c. beaded bag Any ornate small bag en ti rely covered with varicolored pearls or glass beads or a fabric bag. with a de s i gn worked in beads. u su a lly flat case with a carrying handl e . A small bag worn at waist having slots in the back through wh i ch a belt is drawn. From the shape barrel bag similar to a small barrel. Beaded bags were used for daytime and evening throughout the 19th c. Later spell ed burse . Also called attaché case. similar to small suitcase or lunchbox. caravan bag See handbags and rela ted accessories: safari bag. Usually has a flap closing and is worn with sportswear. Gipser was such a bag worn by men in late Mi d dle Ages. Term backpack has largely replaced knapsack (see under handbags and backpack related accessori e s) in de s c ri bing bags worn on the back. backpack Bag with straps fitting over shoulders so that it can be worn on the back. often satin. made in France. Handbag of briefcase size for woman exec utive that fe a tu res small outside pockets for personal items. Now m ade of reed. canteen bag Circular-style bag frequently made with a shoulder strap and zipper closing. sequins. Usually made of nylon or other manufactured fibers and sometimes of real or synthetic leather. or vinyl.handbags and related accessories: caravan bag 229 m ation to carry alms. s traw. Der. Variations now include a backpack designed to be carried over one shoulder and called a one-shoulder backpack. 2. One popular style resembles a small picnic hamper. budget Wallet or extra pocket hanging from belt used in 17th c. or other mate. It is made in a wide variety of materials. An extended oblong shape. book bag Slim oblong bag the size of a notebook cinched around center with strap that forms loop handle. most often made of real or synthetic leather and is large enough or can expand sufficien t ly to hold documents. ba llentine See handbags and related accessories: reticule. brass. Used since 1970s to carry books and sometimes used in place of a handbag in the 1980s and after. or it may be made with a frame. A pouch bag with handle through which a belt is drawn. but were limited to more formal wear by the 20th c. This latter type was revived in 1968. and the like. Som etimes decora ted with shells. b ra celet ba g Type of handbag with one or t wo bangle bracelets (see under jewelry) as handles. bag See handbag in introduction to handbags and related accessories. Also spelled aumoniere. Der. introduced in 1970s. interwoven plastic strips. narrow loaf of French bread. bucket bag Round handbag made in the shape of a bucket. books. May be a soft po u ch bag made of leather or fabric. was obl ong in shape with be aded fringe on the bottom and sterling silver frame and handle. almoner. ba g u e t te bag (bah-get!) Popular wom a n’s handbag origi n a ted by Italian de s i gn house of Fendi. or leather. Named after a long. . ba r re l ba g Handbag shaped like a stubby cylinder with a zipper closing and handles attached to the sides. beads. aulmonier. cane. Another style. metal. Originally woven only of reed in typical basket shapes. briefcase 1. made in leather. belt bag 1.

chatelaine bag (shat!-eh-lane) Small handbag that hung from waist by ornamental chain and hook. carryall cl u tch Woman’s wall et designed to hold coins. or a fine gold chain attached in such a manner that it is of optional use. It has two handles. 3. and revived in mid-1980s in lighter-weight fabrics. duffel bag 1. Used originally by sailors and soldiers to transport t h eir clothing and duffel bag #2 o t h er items. popular chatelaine from 1850s to the end of the century. Small taffeta evening bag in pouch style with large ruffled top closed with tasseled drawstring. In tended to be worn with the bag in the back. cross body bag Handbag with long strap designed to be worn with the strap over one shoulder and the bag on the other side of the body. Der. Mini-clutch bags are tiny versions of this style. See handbags and related accessories: wallet and clutch bag. called a sea bag.. Frequently made in envelope style. clear plastic. fanny). with snap closing on long edge and purselike sections for coins. bag clutch bag/cl u tch purse 1. 2. courier ba g See h a n d bags and related accessories: messenger bag. beach bags. and lu gga ge . drawstring bag Any handbag that is closed by pulling a cord. usually of pouch type. Usually the size of U. Wh en used by sailors. which causes the strap to cross the chest. coin pu rs e See handbags and related acce ssories: change purse. s om etimes wi t h attached leather carrying loop at one end. it has a gold House of Chanel logo Chanel bag on the front. cordé bag Popular style in the 1940s and still used. in which case it is called an envelope bag. bills. envelope bag See handbags and related accessories: clutch bag.s h a ped canva s bag with a draws tring top. Som etimes has a strap on back through which hand may clutch purse be inserted.” carryall See handbags and related accessories: tote bag. Popular in 19th c. change purse Small purse that closes by a snap clasp on the rigid frame or by a zipper. re s ting on the hips (or in slang.S. May have an extra piece of f a bric on outside that forms large pockets around outside of bag. C ha n e l bag Handbag designed by Fren ch co uturiere Gabrielle Chanel that has become a classic. late 1960s. Generally closes with a zipper. cordé bag (kor-day!) Any type of handbag made out of a fabric composed of rows of gimp (see under braids) stitched to a background fabric to make a pattern. paper money. Usually carried inside handbag to hold coins and made in leather. or matched to the larger handbag. Also called swinger or swinger clutch. the bag is made in materials ranging H . but curved on top ed ge. Of quilted leather with gold chain handles. From carpet valises popular with Northerners for travel just after the Civil War.230 handbags and related accessories: carpet bag ca r p e t ba g Handbag made of p a t tern ed carpeting or heavy tap estry. Large b a rrel . Southerners alluded to the travelers by the carpet bag derisive term “carpetbaggers. fa n ny pa ck An envel ope or po u ch l i ke bag mounted on a strap that fastens around the waist. photographs and credit cards. doctor’s bag Large handbag shaped like the bag traditionally carried by a physician. Also called a coin purse. in a large satchel style. Type of handbag frequently used for an evening bag. A variation of the shoulder bag (see under handbags and related acce s s ori e s) that developed when women started placing shoulder straps across the body in order to make the bag more secure. Copied in various sizes for handbags. 2. Regular-sized handbag without a handle. one on either side of hinged top opening. contour clutch wallet similar to a clutch purse.

copied from standard carryall issued by airlines to passengers wh en air travel was less common. 2. Material and lining are fitted into frame and sec u red perm a n en t ly by machine. mesh handbags were made with . L a ter do . playing cards for m on ey). ha tb ox ba g Handbag made to look like a hatbox. Der. Handwoven of natural sisal in horizontal strips of red and blue alternating with natural color. French pu rs e Fo l dover wall et for bi ll s . Forerunner of many open tote bags. Indian bag See squaw bag. Used to hold counters and coins wh en “ga m i n g” ( e . by 2000 it had become acceptab le daytime street wear and is especially popular with travelers. Handwoven in Greek-key designs. and variations of the bag are now made by many manufacturers. indispensible See handbags and related accessories: reticule. the firm began to call this bag the Kelly bag. framing v. feed bag Cyl i n d rical leather or canvas bag wi t h flat round bo t tom and top handles cop i ed from canvas bags used for feeding horses. Popular in early 1900s in small size with sterling silver top and chain with the metal frequently enameled in a floral design. Grace Kelly bag See handbags and related accessories: Kelly bag. Distinctive feature is a co ll a ge ef fect of decora tive pictu re s p a s ted on the out s i de and then shellacked. manbag Handbag. After Grace Kelly was seen frequ en t ly carrying an all i ga tor Kelly bag tote (see under handbags and related accessories) made by the design firm Hermès. trimmed around ed ge with cable ya rn that also forms the handle. Ke ll y bag Handbag favored by Princess Grace of Monaco (actress Grace Kelly) in the 1950s. hippie bag See squaw bag. Securing the frame to the handbag. it was first made in papier-mâché and later in metal. Kikuyu Open-top straw tote bag with leather handles. frame 1. It has since become a classic style.i t .handbags and related accessories: mesh bag 231 from stu rdy nylon to leather and in many size s. inverted frame Handbag industry ter m for type of frame covered with fabric or leather so metal frame does not show at top of bag. or embroidered fabric used in 17th c. Made with flat stiffened circular base and pleated sides. Greek bag Square or rectangular wool opentop bag. knapsack A carryall made in heavy fabric that had shoulder straps and was worn by soldiers and hikers to carry necessary gear. Introduced from Italy in 1967. interchangeable bag Complete handbag with ex tra covers that snap or but ton over frame to change colors. Now more likely to be called a backpack (see under handbags and related accessories) and made in a wide variety of materials for many purposes. larger than a handbag and small er than a suitcase. that is carried by a man. Originally a day pack for hiking. 2. usually a shoulder bag style or with a wrist strap. In the 1940s. Bag is folded over double and carried in the hand or under arm. A fashion that gained in popularity in early 1970s as an outgrowth of wide use manbag of camera bags by men. Metal top of handbag around wh ich the bag is constructed. lunchbox bag Identical in shape to the tra ditional deep lunchbox with a curved lid. fold-over clutch Small envelope bag that may be open at the top or with zippered closing. gaming purse Drawstring bag of kid. . n. velvet. flight bag 1. mesh bag Tiny links of metal joined to make a flexible bag.yo u rs el f d é co u page kits were marketed. One half incorporates a change purse with metal clasp closing at the top that is actually one end of the wallet. gipser See handbags and rela ted accessories: aulmoniere. Soft canvas satchel with zippered top closing and two handl e s . Made by Kikuyu craftsmen of Kenya. Also call ed a travel bag. Any handbag used for traveling. g.

or velvet with floral embroidery heightened by edgings of gold or silver thread.m o n naie (port-mohn!ay ) Embroidered handbag carri ed by wom en in the 1850s. this expensive jeweler’s product gained popularity wh en sold by Ca rti er in New York . In the 1930s a zippered compartment to hold small items was added to the muff. miser’s purse Small tubular purse closed at each end. one-shoulder backpack See handbags and related accessories: backpack. Also called wallet. and two movable rings to keep money at one end or other. reticule ( ret-ih-kewl!) Woman’s small purs e m ade of s a ti n . or knitting and often beaded. an accessory used to keep the hands warm. the bags varied in size with 18th c. mini-clutch bag See clutch bag.o h!-dee . pokey Sm a ll draws tring po u ch made of sueded leather. sometimes in clutch styles. simper. Eventually became a synonym for women’s handbag. Der. Carried in hand or by short chain. mesh. made of satin. French. 2. Decorated by engraved designs or set with jewels. Handbag made with stitched allover design in saffron on wine-colored leather. Too l ed leather handbag made in Morocco of Moroccan leather. Fren ch. Der. or Victorian long purse. Carried from latmiser’s purse ter half of 17th through 19th c. Made of leather and often tooled or decorated or of silk or wool worked in colored or metal yarns. m i na u d i e re ( m i n . plush. such as saffron and wine. Decorated with elaborate designs and color combinations. Now also made with a frame and handles. with a slit in center. May have either shoulder straps or handles. newsbag tote bag style (see under handbags and related accessories) with separate section on the outside to slip in a rolled magazine or newspaper. muff bag Basically a muff. “to smirk. pouch purse See introduction to handbags and related accessories. som etimes with chain handle. Constructed either by netting.” mini bag Small bags that became important in the 1960s with the introduction of miniskirts. knotting. Der. stocking purse. pannier bag (pan-yeh!) A bag with zippe r compartment in the center and tw o open compartments on either side. velvet. ring purse. rigid metal evening bag made in oval. Popular in the late 1960s. pianta bag (pee-ahn!-tah) Small evening bag i n troduced from It a ly in mid-1960s resembl i ng a tiny umbrella made from a square of fabric with four corners folded to the center and a looped center handle. Copied from a small leather bag used by ’49ers to carry gold nuggets and gold dust. popular in mid-1880s.232 handbags and related accessories: messenger bag larger white enameled links and white plastic frames. Named after Marquise de Pompadour. s qu a re appe a ra n ce is called a courier bag.” pouch Basic style ori gi n a lly made of soft shirred leather or fabric with a drawstring closing. and this became a classic item used by little girls. usually with attached shoulder chains or straps.yehr!) Sm a ll . red morocco H . frequently styled in fur. Some had double and triple frames. Moroccan bag 1. A smaller version with a more tailored. porte . A single broad handle extends from one side to the other on the outside of the bag at the middle. mistress of Louis XV of France. messenger bag Large bag with an envelopelike main com p a rtment that usu a lly closes wi t h a zipper and has a large flap over the front that fastens with a buckle or snap. Tiny bags were introduced in all styles. made with metal frame. Der. oblong or square shapes and used to hold cosmetics. “purse. pompadour bag Drawstring bag in circular or oblong shape. pocke tb o o k O ri gi n a lly an envel opelike cont a i n er for written materials and paper money carried by men in the 17th and 18th c. Inspired by bags carried by messengers. sometimes with tiny pocket on front. and Victorian period purses being larger than those of the early 19th c.

and considered Vuitton© signature bag a fashion status symbol. Made in patterns characteristic of different communities in Ecuador. May be made of genuine doeskin in natural color or made of tiny geometric contrasting patches of colored leather. Gucci. Also call ed Ameri c a n Indian bag. to early 20th c. ballantine. Classic style since the 1930s. Also called indispensible. Most bags are trimmed with fringe. squaw bag Handbag inspired by bags used by Native Americans. sometimes with inner zippered com p a rtm ent for tote bag . later copied by Hermés. a circle. Si des are usu a lly rece s s ed . Took many shapes. sovereign purse Small... and hippie bag. stocking purse See handbags and related accessories: miser’s purse. made from fibers taken from the leaves of the cabuya plant. ring pu rs e See handbags and related accessories: miser’s purse. sadd le ba gs Pair of s oft leather bags joi n ed to central strap handle. Apache bag. sporran bag (spo!-an) Adaptation for women of sporran (see highland costume) as worn by the Scots Hi gh l a n der. satchel Leather bag with a rigid flat bottom. round. a lozenge. Artisans use a looping system done with a needle to form disti n ctive patterns with natu ral and colored yarns. Used from 19th 19th c. and other materials. half-inch diameter purse on a curved metal clasp for holding small coins. Saint Lauren t . s wi nger ba g See h a n d bags and related accessories: contour clutch. The frame is metal. S h o u l der bag is made of leather with long strands of horsehair hanging from it. Popular handbag of the late 1960s. to oled leather bag Typical We s tern-type handbag made of natu ral co l ored cowh i de wi t h handstamped pattern. e. an urn. Characteristic features are the small pockets placed low on the outside of safari bag the bag. Often fastened with extra snap locks and with m etal rei n forcem ents at corn ers. Some types of shoulder straps convert to double chain handles. Name by which settlers called Native American woman. From large bags thrown over hors e’s sad dle to carry provi s i on s . others may be shortened by unbuckling a section of the strap. safari bag Double-handled bag made like a small flight bag with a zippered closing. s h o ulder ba g Handbag in any shape or size with long chain or strap to place over the shoulder. Ha n dle is gen era lly ri gid and c u rved. Carried in the 18th and 19th c. Made of f a bric in simple tote design with fabric handle and two cut-out crescent sections at the top. Originally used for storage of grain and flour. swagger pouch Bag with double handles and two open sections on either side of zippered compartment. signature bag Handbag of leather or canvas with designer’s initials or signature stenciled or printed in an allover repeat pattern. or a basket. shaped like an envelope. Der. Ma rk Cross. this bag was a favorite with British younger set in the 1960s. Also called caravan bag. When first introduced sometimes made fun of and called a ridicule. suitcase bag Handbag made of metal and shaped like a miniatu re suitcase com p l ete wi t h lock and reinforced corners. shigra Handmade handbag of tote type sold to Am erican to u rists or ex ported to the United States from Ecuador. The sides slope upward to close on metal frame hinged about halfway down the bag.g. One of the most popular bags of the late 1960s and now a classic style. Sally Jess® bag Trademarked by English designer Sally Jess.handbags and related accessories: tote bag 233 leather. Originating with Louis Vuitton in Paris. large enough to carry small packages. Similar to a doctor’s bag (see under handbags and related accessories ). tote bag 1. etc. Each individual ch a racter is stamped with a met a l die. Utility bag. reticule a shell. Der. sea bag See handbags and rel ated accessories: duffel bag.

s h eer fine fabric used for handkerchiefs and infants’ wear. s om etimes edged with lace or em broi dered. and made to fold in center.f ramed bag Triple-fra m ed bag with three separate clasps. stripes. handke rchief linen Lightweight. Also see handkerchief tunic. handkerchief skirt See skirts. many were styled as tiny mini bags (see under hangbags and related accessories). and ph o togra ph s . a bandanna handkerchief. Accessory used to carry money. accessories. or trimming made entirely by hand as opposed to machine knitting. handke rchief hem See clothing con stru cti on details. See handbags and related accessories: pocketbook. handkerchief tunic Dress of 1917 with peplum made from large square of fabric. . credit or other cards and photos. handcoverchief/hand cloth See handkerchief. sometimes with outside loop to hold umbrella. Made with open to p and two handles.g. Worn by women in 1860s. Any large bag with open top and two handles. and checks. Made w ith center op ening for waist and pointed ends hanging down over skirt. stripes. Victorian long purse See handbags and related accessories: miser’s purse. Introduced in 1967. like a handkerchief. and checks: block printing. living in Algeria or Tunisia. it was fashionable to wear in the cuff of the left sleeve. a Ka byl e tribe. ankle. Som etimes with ch a n gepurse attach ed and/or space for ch eckbook and note pad. joggi n g ).® were introduced to wear on wrist. Called a napkin in 16th c. Men’s are usually larger than women’s. 2. ha n d ke rch i e f Squ a re of co t ton. they might be black or bl ack . Also called a billfold when designed to hold paper money. Two were arranged diagonally on the front of the dress with one point reaching nearly to the hem of dress. cl o s ed with Vel c ro. hand-screened print See prints. vanity bag Stiff-framed box-shaped bag usually fitted with a large mirror and sometimes other grooming accessories. hand-painted print See prints. 4. A long-skirted jacket with shaped revers (see under necklines and co lla rs) and waistcoat com prised the bod i ce of the dress. travel bag See flight bag. Zouave pouch (zoo-ahv!) Sm a ll handbag of va rious shapes—som etimes rectangular. c a rried and used for wiping the face or nose. Copied from shape of common paper shopping bag.234 handbags and related accessories: travel bag money. and checks: silk-screen print. umbrella tote 1. but with a pocket at side for holding an umbrella. hand knitting Knitting apparel. Modern handkerchiefs are made in a wide variety of colors and sizes. Conventional satchel-type bag with zippered compartment at bottom for umbrella. Each section is an individual compartment. See handbags and related accessories: miser’s purse. or silk. t ra ve ll i ng bag Large handbag con s i s ting of two somewhat circular pouches made of fabric fringed around the edges and joined together at the top. t r i plex / t r i ple . linen. tote bag (see under handbags and related accessories). or belt. Originally used only by men. som etimes triangular—finished with tassels and hung by a hook from the waistband placed underneath the Zouave jacket. Often co l ored for day use. In 1890s. Zo u a ova. now also used by women and children. wallet 1. hand cuff See cuffs: hand fall. 3. In 1870. handkerchief dress Dress of the 1880s with a tunic made from. 2. a practice copied from the military. Used when traveling in the 1860s. stripes. H . one of the Berbers. credit c a rd s .bordered for mourn i n g. primarily wh en en ga ging in sports (e. hand sleeve See shoulders and sleeves. or resembling. Arabic. plain white cambric was correct for day or evening. 3. In 1980s smaller sizes. hand-blocked print See prints. although white predominates. Der. handkerch i e f sle e ve See shoulders and sleeve s . 2. hand fall See cuffs. Bag s h a ped like a briefcase with a zipper aro u n d it and the umbrella attach ed to the side with a plastic loop.

hardanger embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. See pri n ts . Appeared in the late 1960s to 1980s. See footwear: harlow pump and harlow slipper. 5. and setti n gs. See prints. skirts: harem skirts. stri pe s . Usually made of soft. often made as a harem harem dress 1913 skirt worn under a tunic overs k i rt . ha r lequin opa l See gem s . It became a monthly magazine in 1901 and was bought by William Ra n do l ph He a rst in 1913. These styles were revived in the 1960s. happi See sleepwear and loungewear: happi coat. Used on sweatshirts.Harris Tweed® 235 handspun yarn † Yarn made with different types of spindles or hand-spinning wheels—making yarn that is less regular in appearance than machine-made yarns. Named for Jean Harlow. harem/harem look Simulation of the costumes of the Near East primarily using full anklelength harem pants gathered at the ankle combined with blouse and bolero or in bare-midriff effect. The way in which fabric drapes on the figure after it is sewn. harem dress Symmetrically or asymmetrically draped dre s s f a lling in loose folds to the hem where it is turned under and fastened to a lining giving the hem a draped appearance. Carmel Snow. Jean See Harlow look. which adds texture and interest to the woven fabric. Also called Arabian Nights look. gem cuts. and checks: harlequin check. 2. Also used as an adjective to d escribe a pp a rel derived from clothing thought to have been worn by Mi d dle Eastern women. Stockings and pants were made in one piece and ti ed to the upper and outer garments by strings known as points. similar to tights. and slippers of this era. In styles of the early 20th c. pants: harem pants. worn by men in England in the late 14th c. clinging fabric. harlot/herlot Garment. Italian performances called comm edia dell ’ a rte. Marking the hem of a skirt with pins or chalk so it can be straightened. Der. 4. hare See furs.. Sandals are generally worn. 2. widelegged cuffed tro u s ers for wom en . Harlow. Harris Tweed® Tradem a rk of Harris Tweed As s ociation for tweed fabric. and sleepwear and loungewear: harem pajamas. buttons. harp seal See furs: hair seal. jewelry and chains complete the costume. hang Colloquial 1. a flaring brimmed black bicorne hat (see under headwear) decorated with pompons. ha ppy fa ce Styl i zed face made up of a yellow c i rcle with black dots for eyes and nose and a single black line for mouth. 3. hard hat See headwear. Harlow look Adaptation of styles of late 1920s and early 1930s including bias-cut dresses. See headwear. and a black mask. See h a rem dress. hanseline See doublet. shoes. An ad a ptation of Mi d dle Eastern dress introdu ced by Paris designers Paul Poiret and Drécoll in 1910 and revived at intervals. and pants: harlow pants. Harper’s Bazaar Womens’ fashion magazine that started in 1867 as a weekly tabloid-style newspaper containing many fashion engravings. and checks. Traditional theatrical costume made of varicolored diamond-shaped patches on tunic and tights. and in prints. From Harlequin. Cathy * See Appendix/Designers. hank See skein. since early 1970s. Hardwick. stri pes. and Diana Vreeland. Defined by the British Board of Trade and Federal Trade Commission . harlequin (hahr !-le h-kwin) 1. harlequin #1 a part played by an actor in 16th to 18th c. Der. hard goods See soft goods. jewelry. pants: harem k n i ckers . See eyeglasses. hanging sleeve See shoulders and sleeves. platinum blonde Hollywood star of the late 1920s and 1930s who wore such styles on and off the screen. Among its best-known editors were Edna Woolman Chase. Der.

firms that cre a te models that may be sold to private customers or to other segments of the fashion industry who also acquire the right to reproduce the designs. Th ere are two types a) made from handspun yarn. hexagonal. and the crown.g. around the base of the crown of a hat. In former years. turn ed down. off the coast of Scotland. headdress Synonym for headwear. but means only that the garment was designed and made in the atelier of the designer. hausse-cul See bum roll. It may also serve as a symbol of status. hatbox 1. hauberk See armor. Sir Norman as handwoven woolen fabric from the Hebrides Islands. Hartn e ll . hat See headwear. or to a variety of angles. These boxes may be round. it was first introduced in the late 1890s. and b) made from machine-made yarn. havelock See headwear. Elizabeth (1903–1971) American designer and an author who is best known for her autobiography Fashion Is Spinach. Woman’s hat with high crown and medium-sized brim worn in H . and helmets generally include the brim. so individually named items each have a separate entry. haute couture (oat koo!-toor) 1. or square in shape. up. hatband Decoration. Hawaiian shirt See shirts.. Alpine hat Various types of hats ad a pted from Bava rian and Au strian Tyrolean hats. As defined by the Chambre Syndicale de la Parisienne. See bandbox. Used mainly for women’s coats styled in a classic manner. hats. Hawes. haut ton See undergarments. haut de chausses See chausses. frequently of fur or fur-lined. e. Th e category of headwear is often divided among different-named types of headwear. It is often difficult to assign a head covering to one type. haunseleyns See doublet. hat. He adwear may be decora tive or uti l i t a ri a n or both. 1. which provided insights about the construction of clothing as done by a Parisian couture house. high fashion. Lewis. which is the rim of hat and may be narrow to wide — worn level. helmet. Popular since 1940s as a man’s sport hat. Initially a circular-shaped item of luggage with a strap handle and flat bottom that was originally made to carry large hats in the 1920s. introduced in the 13th c. Now carried by fashion models or used by stores wh en selling a hat. men wore black hatbands for mourning. 2. hat cap See headwear. Also called a Tyrolean hat. and an upturned brim in the back. cap. Sir Norman * See A ppen d i x / Design ers . hatbox bag See handbags and related accessories. hasp See closures. havelock cap See headwear: automobile cap. refers to the latest and most advanced fashions. harvest hat See headwear. a crown ( s ee under h e adwear). hat mask See masks. The components of bonnets. h e a dwe a r headwear Covering for the head. 2. 2. hat pin See headwear. An original de s i gn is not the on ly on e of its kind.. Designers show at least two collections a year of original designs to the public. The definitions of types of headwear are found under the category of headwear in the following entries: bonnet. One contem porary vers i on for men is of fur felt. usually of ribbon. As currently used in the United States and in the fashion press. headband See headwear. veil. a headcovering. Barra. a alpine hat #1 slightly peaked crown with a crease in the center. when it was worn by the clergy for church services in inclement weather. which is the portion that poke-type bonnet covers the top of the head. almuce (al!-mus) A cowl-like hood . head cloth See headwear: kerchief. consisting of Ha rris. Ui s t . heading See clothing construction details. and other smaller islands. with a slight pile.236 Hartnell. oval. head rail See headwear: kerchief. caps.

Made of leather with wool or shearling lining for warmth. and named for Duchesse d’Angoulême. Army. Most often made of gauze or chiffon. automobile veil Wide. or feathers.fet) Wom a n’s head d ress of 16th c. sometimes fitted with an oxygen mask. arch ed on ei t h er side of foreh e ad to form a “ wi dow’s pe a k” and draped completely with a veil as seen in paintings of Ma ry S tuart. for woman’s headdress of gold and gems worn on state occasions. worn in 14th and 15th c. Der. See headwear: fatigue. Queen of Scots. worn about 1830. tri m m ed with fur or orn a m ental band. worn from 1836 to 1840s. horned headdress worn by women in 14th and 15th c. or beadwork placed low on the forehead and tied at side or back. sometimes with feather in back . World War I helmet fitting the head snugly and fastened under the chin. baby Stuart cap Classic type of infant’s close-fitting cap with narrow chin band. later shortened to tire. Also called Red Baron helmet after a famous World War I ace. 2. Also see attifet 16th c. Goggles were worn on top. gold button on top of crown. automobile cap Cap and hood of waterproof fabric worn by women for automobile riding in early 1900s that consisted of a flattopped cap with brim rolled down in front and up in back. worn in 18th c. particularly Osiri s . attire Used since the 15th c. American Indian headband Narrow band of leather. the spike of olive wood on the peak of a cap worn by a Roman f l a m en . worn in early 19th c. arranged at the sides. ba g n olette (ban!-yo-let) Wom a n’s wi red hood standing aw ay from face . worn over a tight-fitting hood exposing only the face. and adjustable back strap.tee!. the gold braid is sometimes facetiously called “scrambled eggs. a priest of some particular deity. Woman’s morning cap of muslin with ribbon trimming. overseas and service caps. Named for alpine Tyrol region in Austria and Bavaria where this type hat is worn by natives. sometimes of tulle. band of gold braid around edge of crown. Small cap for evening worn by women in 1838. attifet ( a t . som etimes made of velvet. . bag bonnet Woman’s bon n et with soft crown fitted loosely over back of head.S. daughter of Marie Antoinette. sheer. 2. Usually made with wide side frills and flattened top. often made of batiste and lavishly trimmed with lace and ribbons. also dep i cted as worn by Egyptian kings. Also see headwear: havelock cap. Symbolic headdress of certain Egyptian gods. Later the entire cap was known by this name. atef Headdress consisting of tall white cap with two plumes. broad front brim narrowed at sides. worn by a pilot and crew of planes flying at high altitudes. s h a ped like a turban. atours (a-toor!) Padded. worn for motoring in early 1900s. Worn by women in French Empire pe riod.” Also called commander’s cap and flight deck cap. helmet made of highimpact plastic. baby bonnet Infant’s cap. fabric. bag cap Man’s cloth cap. a via to r ’ s helmet 1. babet bonnet/babet cap 1. that is fitted to shape of head and tied under chin. army cap Caps worn by U. covering ears and part of cheeks. long veil placed over wide-brimmed hat and tied under chin with ends flowing over front of duster. Angoulême bonnet (ahn-goo!-lem) Straw bon n et of 1814 made with high pleated crown.headwear: bagnolette 237 1890s. Copied from caps worn by astronauts and World War II naval commanders. applejack cap See headwear: newsboy cap. and tied with bow at side. covering shoulder. illustrated in portrait of Charles II painted by Van Dyck in 1634. astronaut’s cap Cap similar to a b aseball cap (see under headwear) with elaborately embroidered g old braid on visor. Marie Stuart bonnet. apex Originally. anglesea hat (angle-see!) Man’s hat with flat brim and high cylindrical-shaped crown. Also called motoring veil. worn by Am erican Ind i a ns and adopted by hippies in the 1960s.

barbette/barbet (bar-bet!) Used in the 13th and first half of 14th c. In the 1990s we a ring these caps backward became a fad among the young. sequins. d ra ped in back. fringe. bandore and pea k Widow’s bl ack head d re s s with heart . and sometimes decorated with felt. sometimes made with alternate panels of nylon net for coolness. worn from 1830 on. and worn with a small white fillet or coverch i ef (see under h e adwear). Worn with kilts in Scotland. by Jewish men. balloon hat Woman’s hat with wi de brim and large puffed-out crown. Named for Crimean War. Inspired by balloon flight of Lunardi. Ba ttle of Balaklava. May be elaborately decorated with rubber flowers. cap fit more closely to the head like a skullcap.” slogan. Also called Lunardi hat and parachute hat. worn from 1700 to about 1830. or other trimmings. Later revoked. Worn to protect hair while swimming. for the linen chin band worn pinned on the top. Usually dark blue with a red or blue pompon on top. bas eball cap Cap with dom e . made of knitted wool. beanie See headwear: skullcap. bathing cap Tight-fitting cap made of rubber or elastomers. battant l’oeil (bah-tan! loy) Woman’s cap. but Pope Paul IV in 1555 ordered all Jews to wear a green barrette. with feather and badge of the clan on one side . barre t te (ba-ret ) 1. or shells. bambin/bambino hat (bam-been) Woman’s hat with a halo-shaped brim rolling away from the face. e. worn in the 1930s. bavolet (ba-vo!-lay) A ruffle or piece of cloth extended down from the back of woman’s bon n et to shade the neck. conical crown. and the like. Clement VII on June 13. Balmoral cap/bonnet Flat Scottish beret som ewhat similar to a tam-o-shanter (see headwear: tam) with wide checked band around head. bandeau (band-oh!) Narrow piece of ribbon or fabric. See clerical dress: biretta #2. and cheeks in exaggerated fashion. usually made of bright-colored straw.s h a ped brim and bl ack vei l . c a rtoon characters. ba r b e Long piece of wh i te linen fabric. When first introduced. of the head. worn around head as substitute for a hat. Also see headwear: batter’s cap. also by military guards of Buckingham Place in London and Parliament buildings in H . ordered all Jews to wear a yel low barrette.g. The barbette and coverchief formed the wimple (see under headwear: wimple #1) in France. soft-drink brands. 2.s h a pe d crown. Same style worn for synagogue dress until early 19th c. 11⁄2! high. s ports insignia. fought October 25. and an adjustable band or elastic at the back. Fashionable from 1783 to 1785. with or without strap under chin. Now worn by mountain climbers and skiers. Worn by soldiers in 1890s and in World War I and II in cold balaclava weather. or sides. with sides projecting forward over temples. 1854. bearskin cap Ta ll cyl i n d rical cap of bl ack be a rskin with a chain or strap under lower lip or the chin. makes of cars or trucks. baseball and Little League team names. bas ket Wom a n’s hat re s em bling a wi cker basket. beach hat Hat used as a su n s h ade on the be ach or at a resort. of gauze over a wire or straw foundation. p l e a ted vertically. major league football. worn encircling the ch i n with a bl ack hood and long bl ack veil by widows and mourners from 14th to 16th c.238 headwear: balaclava ba lacla va (bal-ah-kla!-vah) Hood covering the head and shoulders exposing the face. May have any baseball cap type of “patch. eyes. either natural or synthetic. Brimless hat with round flat top worn by Jewish men and boys. or picture on front. Der. sometimes decorated. Frequently has a wide brim. worn in second half of 16th c. basque beret See headwear: beret #1. batter’s cap/batter’s helmet Du ck-bi ll vi s ored cap with hard crown for protection worn by baseball players when taking turn at bat. worn in 1770s. in a variety of shapes. 1525. Worn by some personnel of the British army. Also spelled beret.

usually without a brim. Wom a n’s hat with large bu bble-shaped crown and narrow brim trimmed with ribbon tied under chin.z h er!) Woman’s straw hat with low crown and a w ide floppytype brim. 1. 2. beguine. bebe bonnet Tiny outdoor bonnet of 1877 tri m m ed with ribbon s .” berretino See headwear: roundlet #1. with front and back bicorne brims pressed against each other. benjy British slang term for straw hat with a wide brim. 3. Some specific types i n clude. Shell is high . Also see beefeater’s uniform. beguin (bay-gan!) Early 16th-c. bicornis.“shepherdess. Der. making points on ei t h er side . Man’s tall hat made of silk in imitation of beaver fur. when she played at farming on the grounds of the palace at Versailles. basque beret (bask French or beh-ray!) Round. later with beaver-hair nap felted over wool and rabbit hair base. From metal clip worn around leg when riding a bicycle to keep trousers from catching in chain or wheel spokes. beaver hat 1. and tu ll e worn with brim turned up showing a cap underneath. Der. Fren ch . usually synonymous with tam (see under headwear).n eh) Sm a ll wom a n’s bonnet worn in 1830s w ith sides flaring upward and forward around the face and tied with lace . Also called milkmaid hat or shepherdess hat. 2. bellboy/bellhop cap Sm a ll fabric pill box. bubble beret Large bouffant beret. Also see headwear: castor. Originally made of beaver skins. worn by hotel or restaurant bellboys. Also see headwear: drum major’s hat. bi corne/bicorn ( by!-korn ) Man’s hat of the Napoleonic era in shape of a crescent.” Also call ed a Flemish hood . French. with dark adjustable vi s or and air inlets for ventilating and cooling. worn from the 1820s to the 1840s. worn in 1770s and 1780s. Der. fashionable in 17th and 18th c. often trimmed with gold bra i d . wife of Louis XVI of France. b e e h i ve hat 1. Also called a French beret. Often used for a child’s hat of fur. beret (beh . bebop cap See headwear: newsboy cap. flat. “two-horned. . Hat worn from 14th c. Also called English cottage bonnet. pancake beret Flat molded felt tam. The back was caught together at nape of neck and rem a i n der was fo l ded sym m etrically to form a wide stre a m er that hung from top of h e ad down the back . headdress made from stiffened rectangle of white linen creased in cen ter over the foreh e ad and dra ped to form a heart-shaped opening for the face. Also called hive bonnet.” bicycle-clip hat Tiny half-hat fastened over crown and side of head by piece of springy metal. soft woolen pancake beret cap worn by Basque peasants who inhabit the western Pyrenees region of France and Spain. by men and women. Worn tilted to one side of the head and associated with the dress of an artist. called silk hat. Latin. flat hat. som etimes with chin strap. Frequen t ly trimmed with a cockade . held on by a strap under the chin. beefeater’s hat Distinctive hat worn by Yeomen of the Guard in England. A headcovering with a large flat halo crown with el a bora te trim. Der. and top hat. Canada. consisting of a narrow brim and soft high crown pleated into headband with crown flaring slightly at the top. becca See headwear: roundlet. Same style decorated to look like a beehive and fashionable about 1910. 4. bi bi bonnet (bee-bee bu n . 2. opera hat.tri m m ed ribbon s . Worn by Marie Antoinette (1755– 1793).ray!) Gen eral name given to a round. sometimes tied bergère hat under chin. In the 19th c.headwear: bicycle helmet 239 Ottawa. “nu n . revived in 1860s and currently used to describe similar hats. f l owers.l i n edfor com fort . worn tilted to side of head in the early 1960s.i m p act PVC plastic lined with po lys tyren e . bicycle helmet Helmet not covering the ears. Worn from 1730 to 1800. Bewdley cap See headwe a r: M on m o uth cap. b e rg è re hat (ber. and foa m .

See headwear: bluebonnet. worn in 1887. Made without chin ties. worn from 1858 to late 1860s.i n / big-onnet) 1. bongrace #1 bonnet 1. 1850 were first worn in the Middle Ages. bobby’s hat Hat with domed high crown and narrow turned-down brim worn by English po l i cemen. children. worn in ear ly 19th c. wide. Der. Scottish. He ad ornament worn by bri des in 16th c. birlet See headwear: bourrelet. named for Henley-on-Thames. after which they were less fashionable. worn from 1880s to 1930s. F i rst worn by British cab drivers. Der. Also called bonaid. bolero toque (bow-ler!-oh toke) Woman’s small draped hat of fabric or fur. 2. See clerical dress. term for the decorative jewel ed border on Fren ch hood s . S ti f fened obl ong woman’s head-covering with drapery in back. Also called canotier. having bowl-shaped crown with knob in cen ter and narrow circular bri m . or borders. was a blue or gray felt hat of similar shape. Worn by clergy today. bluebonnet Sm a ll .” meaning policemen. Also spelled birretta. Also called bonnet en papillon (bon-neh! on pahpee!-yon). berrette. which was brought up over crown and fasten ed so as to proj ect forward over forehead. term for woman’s or ch i l d ’s cap similar to coif (see under h e adwe a r) . The H enley boater. popular since 1894. worn in 16th and ear ly 17th c. Pendant flap in b ack of French hood. round cap that later became square on top when hatters learned to use a rigid frame. s om etimes made by goldsmiths. 16th. Used for summer wear until about 1930. bi rd ca ge Dome of stiff wi de-mesh veiling pinned to crown of head covering face and ears. black streamers in back. William (Billy) Coke for shooting parties at Holkham. Also call ed habi ll ement (habiliment). Der. abillements. Also called burn grace. biretta (bih-ret!-ah) 1. bonaid See headwear: bluebonnet. Women’s bon n ets of the 18th and 19th c. England. Man’s nigh tc a p.m a h n ! ) 1. Worn in place of hat. bill yco ck / bill i co ck 19th-c. bonnet babet See h e adwear: ba bet bonnet. 2. 16th-c. and colored pompon on top. Bonnets bavolet c. beguine. Style copied in plastic for wear at political conventions. Also called barrette. of blue wool with narrow tartan (see plaids and tartans) band fitting around head. Sometimes used as a generic term for hea dcovering. colloquial term for man’s sof t . 3.. From slang Bri tish term “bobbies. Bon n et .” boater 1. curved-brimmed hat with low crown. Large mob cap (see under headwear).240 headwear: biggin/biggonet/biggon biggin/biggo n e t / biggon ( bi g . especially in late 1950s. site of boat r aces. later adopted by boater #1 women. Lower edge touching the hair was called the papillon. however is more spe cifically applied to headwear f or women. Introduced about 1865 for children.l eh . H . 16th-c.and 17th-c. with black trimming extending up over the crown. Also called hemispherical hat. Rarely worn since 1920s except by babies and young girls. u su a lly had a crown and a brim and were primarily an outdoor ga rm en t . “bonnet. Originally made in leather for pr otection when fighting. worn from second half of 16th through 17th c. Der.s i zedSco tch tam (see under headwear).s tyle headcoveri n gs predominated until about 1870. over a coi f . French. and infants that fits over the back and top of head and ties bonnet #1 with with strings under chin. 2. “nun.” bill See headwear: visor. bonnet à bec (bon-neh! ah beck) Woman’s early 18th-c. bonnet that covered top of head and had a peak over the forehead. England. later adopted by gentlemen for country wear. 2. From either (1) bullycocked hat of 18th c. bong ra ce (bohn-gra s!) 1. 2. Man’s flattopped flatbrimmed straw hat with an oval c rown. or (2) hat first worn by Mr. bollinger Man’s hat. 2. bill i m e n t / bill m e n t ( bee .

bully-cocked See headwear: cocked hat. breton (breh!-ton) Woman’s offthe-face hat made with mediumsized rolled-back brim worn on b ack of h e ad . boudoir cap ( boo!-dwar) Soft lace . Also called a dome hat. “Broad brim” t h erefore became a nickname for Quakers. burlet. Worn in 1750s and 1760s. broadbrim Wide-brimmed. bridal veil Traditionally a length of white net. called Quakers . Tem p l ers were a 15th c. popular in 1930s. Worn from late 13th to end of 14th c. low-crowned hat worn by members of the Society of Friends. Worn perched on top of head over bouffant hairstyles. worn perched above foreh e ad with lappet s . Hat with a bumper brim (see under headwear). a member of the Bourbon royal family. over entire headdress. bucket hat Casual hat made of fabric that has modera te . hips. s l oping brim that may be stitched in concentric circles and is attached to flattopped. Worn by Hussars and certain guardsmen in the British army. bumper 1. som etimes part of headdress. worn by patriots in French Revolution of late 18th c. butterfly cap Woman’s small lace cap wired in shape of a butterfly. or as base of head d re s s . A bag-shaped drapery hangs from c rown and is draped to the back. slightly cone-shaped crown. j ewel s . usually stiff rather than soft. to the throne. ankles. tulle.bon ) Blue satin hat decorated with pearls in a fleur-de-lis pattern. lace. styl e of ornamental bosses that conceal the hair. . spelled birlet. also worn as part of uniform by Australian soldiers in World War II. burngrace See headwear: bongrace. Sometimes connected by band above fo rehead. “red bonnet. su rrounding various styles of crowns. Copied from hats worn by peasants of Bri t t a ny.tri m m ed cap with gathered crown and ruffled ed ge worn over woman’s hair in bedroom in 19th and early 20th c. Also called fly cap.” Also called liberty cap. temples. bumper brim Thick ro lled-back brim. or silk illusion reaching to waist. burnet/burnette 17th-c. bubble beret See headwear: beret #3. term for pad ded sausage s h a ped ro ll worn by men and women for headdress. Popular in 1815 to celebrate Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo and return of King Louis XVIII. busby Tall cylindrical black fur or feathered military hat with cockade at to p of center f ron t . bush hat Large-brimmed Australian-type hat worn turned up on one side. Cap worn in the Netherlands by children. Der. made with tiny brim in early 1960s.s i zed. Also called bush hat caddie or caddy. Chest length in front and worn over face during wedding— turned back after ceremony.headwear: butterfly cap 241 bonnet en papillon See headwear: bonnet à bec. symbol of liberty. or veil. Also spell ed templettes. Worn in Australia and in Africa for safaris. bubble hat Puffed-out felt or straw hat. and flower tri mmings frequently added for court wear. bonnet rouge (bon-neh! rooje) Red wool peaked-top cap. with wide thick roll of yarn around the face for protection. brim See in introduction to category: headwear. h ood or head d ress. 2. bosses Decorative snoods of gold or linen covering thick coils of braided hair arranged at each side of face with a coverchief. bourre le t ( boor!-lay) 1 5 t h-c. or braid of hair around head worn low on foreh e ad . burlet See headwear: bourrelet. Used in various widths on different styles of hats. French. b row band Ri bbon . bustle back Puffs of ribbon or bows at back of hat. breton France. Also see child’s pudding under headwear. or floor in back. fitted at back of head. f a bric. beaded band. bowler See headwear: derby. Al s o bourrelet 15th c. Bourbon ha t (boor !.

indoor caps were worn only by female servants and the elderly. in the 19th c.“hide-comb. See headwear: day cap. and supported by a fez-shaped cap. Der. or fabric and worn for sports or informal occasions. ladies cap wore caps indoors. worn by Roman Cae s a rs and by Byzantine emperors. caps were worn by servants and apprentices. letting capelet fall over back of head. Same as Mountie’s hat (see under headwear).. frequently made with a visortype front. Fren ch . Usually H .l o h!.S. popular from the late 18th to mid19th c.ree-o-leh!) Large bonnet. In the 16th c. High-crown ed hat wi t h a wi de brim pe a ked in front. Created by New York milliner Sally Victor in 1956. 2.l a s h!) L a r ge hood worn from 1720 to 1790 and revived 1820 to 1839. or post chaise. After Marie Ann de Cupis Camargo (1710–1770). 2.” cabriolet bonnet ( k a b . bycocket/bycoket 1. “twowheeled carriage. cappa. After hood of “French carriage” called calash calèche. protecting bouffant hairs tyles.” cape hat Woman’s half-hat made by attaching felt or fabric capelet to a springy metal clip that crosses the head from ear to ear.ree-oll) Rare fashion of about 1755.ree-yon ) Coron et with cl o s ed crown. Usu a lly made of fel t . draped across forehead to conceal hair and ornamented in back.. Hood with attached c a pe worn in 1863 by wom en in rural areas. See clerical dress. camargo hat (kam-are!-go) Small woman’s evening hat with brim raised in front. campaign hat Broad-brimmed field hat with high crown first worn by Union soldiers in Civil War and later issued to entire U. From 1500 to 19th c. 4. 3. gentlemen began to wear caps in the country or for sports. Der. but cut away in back to show hair. towering headdress made of sheer gauze wired to stand out like wings. made with brim extending forward framing the face like a carriage top. Similar hat called a student bycocket worn by Italian students in mid-20th c. Stands away from head. capeline (cap-leen!) 1. but not in town. Der. cabas (kah-bas!) Version of Phrygian cap (see under headwear). Also spell ed capri oll . After the mid19th c. sometimes used for mayors. celebrated dancer. and tu rn ed up in back worn by men in the Middle Ages. cap Head covering fitting more snugly to the head than a hat. woman’s feather-trimmed wide-brimmed hat. worn in mid-1830s. Coach was made of gold thread with six dappled gray horses made of blown glass. army. A cap worn by schoolboy. A skullcap (see under headwear ) frequently made of leather or suede with a small matching projection like a stem on center top. Fren ch. in the 1850s and 1860s.. cake hat Man’s soft felt hat of 1890s with a low oval crown creased in manner similar to Alpine hat (see under headwear).” cache-peigne (cash payn) Sn ood of n et and ribbon worn by women to hold hair back. France.” caddie/caddy See headwear: bush hat. Der. Worn butterfly after this period by an order of headdress nuns in Normandy. lasting only a few years. “two-wh eel ed carriage. camelaurion ( k a m el . Second half of 18th c. consisting of a miniature coach-and-six. “a hooded cloak. calash/calèche ( k a . term for a 15th-c. 4. 2. made of beaver or velour. French.. Worn by soldiers in World War II with four dents in top of crown.. 3. Wide floppy bri m m ed hat with small round crown worn since 1920s. cadogan net See headwear: snood. l e a t h er. made with hinged arches of whalebone or cane covered with fabric in manner similar to folding top of convertible car. worn by women on head instead of a cap. canotier See headwear: boater. Woman’s small skullcap worn in 1940s and 1950s. Der. calotte (ca-lot!) 1. called a beanie (see headwear: skullcap). cabriole headdress (kab!. Latin.242 headwear: butterfly headdress butterfly headdress 16th-c. cap of maintenance Cap carried on a cushion before British sovereigns in coronation processions. See armor. Der. sometimes with large jeweled pin.

headwear: chapeau bras 243
made of scarlet velvet with ermine trim and symbolizing high rank. Also called cap of dignity and cap of estate. capote ( k a h - poat!) Popular bon n et of 1830s with stiff brim framing the face, soft gathered crown, and ribbon bows tied at side or under chin. By 1890, worn mostly by older women. capot-ribot ( k a - po h! ree!- bow) Bl ack velvet hat with long “curtain” (or veil), hanging below shoulders at sides and back. Popular in France after Napoleonic campaign in 1798. capuche (cap-poosh!) 1. Sharp-pointed, pyramid-shaped hood worn by an order of m on k s , the Capuchins. 2. See headwe a r: capuchin. 3. Woman’s hood attach ed to cl oa k worn in 17th c. 4. Woman’s silk-lined sunbonnet of mid-19th c. Capuchin (kap!-yoo-shen) 1. Hood worn outdoors in 16th, 17th, and 18th c. 2. Hood and shoulder cape or long cloak, sometimes lined in colored or striped silk, called a redingote (red!-in-gote), worn by women in 18th c. for traveling. Der. From capuche, “cowl worn by Ca p u chin monks of Franciscan order.” Al s o spelled capuchon, capucine, capuche. capuchon (ka-poo-shon!) 1. See h e adwe a r: capuchin. 2. Tiny bonnet made of flowers. Worn in 1877. Capulet (cap-yew-let!) Small hat conforming to shape of head and placed back from brow, sometimes with cuffed brim in front. Der. For cap worn by Juliet Capulet, heroine of Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet. caravan Small type of collapsible bonnet of 1765 similar to the calash (see under headwear). Made o f semicircular hoops that, when opened, drop a veil of white gauze over the face. Carnaby cap See headwear: newsboy cap. Caroline hat Man’s hat made of Caroline be aver, i m ported from Ca rolinas in the Bri tish Colonies, worn in England from 1680s to mid-18th c. cartwheel hat Woman’s hat with ex tra wi de stiff brim and low crown frequently made of straw. casque (cask) Hat shaped like a cartwheel hat helmet. Der. French, “helmet.” casq u e t te ( k a s s - ket!) 1. Cap with vi s or, similar to military officers’ caps, adapted for women’s headwear. 2. Woman’s straw cap worn in 1863 and 1864 similar to a Glengarry (see under headwear ) with a dditional short brim front and back. Trimmed with black velvet ribbon and ostrich feathers. casto r Hat made en ti rely of be aver fur popular in 17th and 19th c. If rabbit fur was added, it was call ed a demi-castor. The 17th-c . trade term for a man’s castor hat in the 17th century was codovec. cater cap (kay-ter ) Us ed in 16th and 17th c. to describe a square cap worn at universities, now call ed mortarboa rd . See ac ademic co stume. ca u d eb e c ( k awd!-ee-bek) An imitation beaver hat made of felt worn from end of 17th throughout 18th c. Also called cawdebink or cordybeck hat. caul (kol) 1. Mesh cap that encloses the hair and is often the work of a goldsmith. Frequently called a fret in medieval times. Also see headwear: bosses and crispine. Usually worn by unmarried girls and by women of high status during the medieval period. 2. See wigs and hairpieces. 3. In 18th and 19th c. used to de s c ri besoft crown of bon- caul #1 net or cap. ca valier hat 1. A wi de - bri m m ed velvet hat trimmed with ostrich plumes. 2. Bri m m ed hat with one side turned up worn by Theodore Roosevelt and his Rough Riders in Spanish American War. ceryphalos ( s er-rif-ah!-los) Wi de head band or fillet worn by women in ancient Greece. chaffers See headwear: English hood. chain hat Decorative close-fitting cap made with lengths of chain—some linked together, o t h ers dangling. Decora tive item of body j ewelry introduced in the late 1960s. chapeau (cha-po!) French word meaning hat or cap. chapeau à la Charlotte See headwe a r: Charlotte. chapeau bras (sha-po! bra) 1. Man’s flat three-cornered hat, evenly cocked (see under

244 headwear: chapeau claque
headwear ) or crescent-shaped, made expressly to be carried under arm; from 1760s to 1830s in France, England, and United States. By 1830, generally called broken hat. Also see headwear: opera hat. 2. Woman’s crush bonnet, or calash (see under headwear), that folded small enough to be carried in handbag or under the arm. Worn to concerts and opera in early 19th c. England. Der. French, “arm-hat.” chapeau claque (sha-po! klack) See h e adwe a r: opera hat. cha p eau cloche Sm a ll crown ed hat with wide drooping brim worn by women in 1860s to protect face from the sun. chapel cap Small round cap that fits on the back of the head, sometimes lace-trimmed, matched to choir robes, and worn by women of choir for church services. chapel cap/chapel veil Small circle of lace or tulle, frequently edged with a ruffle, worn by wom en over top of h e ad while inside a chu rch . chaperon (shap!-er-ohn) 1. Used as general designation for a hood during the Middle Age s . Worn largely by men but also occasionally by working-class women. 2. An glo-Fren ch term for a fitted hood cut in one with a shoulder cape (called a gole, collet, gorget, or guleron), which was worn from the late 12th c. until the mid-15th c. The hood had a long pendant tail called a chaperon #2 liripipe (lir!-ee-peep) in 14th c. with liripipe 3. Dra ped vers i on of the chaperon pop u l a r in the 15th c. in wh i ch the cape was ro lled and tied with the extended tail of the hood to form a turbanlike headress. 4. Woman’s soft hood in the 17th c. Also spelled chaperone, chaperonne. Also called cappuccio. chaplet 1. Originally a garland of flowers for the head worn by Anglo-Saxon men and women on festive occasions. 2. In 15th c. such a garland was worn only by a bride. 3. Circlet, or metal band set with gems, worn by both m en and wom en in 14th, 15th, and 16th c. Also called a coronal of goldsmithry. 4. In late 14th and 15th cs., a headband of t wi s ted silk or satin wound around a padded roll. 5. 17th-c. term used for a short rosary or set of beads worn on the neck. Charlotte Very large brimmed hat with lace ruffle at edge, worn drooping over forehead, sometimes worn over a lacy cap. Crown richly decorated with wide loops and bows of ribbon. Worn in mid-1780s. Der. Named for Q u een Ch a rl o t te of England (1744–1818), married to George III of England. Style later retu rn ed to pop u l a rity som ewhat mod i f i ed in late 19th and early 20th cs. Both styles also called chapeau à la Charlotte. Charlotte Corday cap Indoor cap worn in daytime in 1870s, made with puffed muslin crown gathered into a band, sometimes had a ruffle around edge, sometimes with lappets. Der. Named for Ch a rlotte Cord ay, who a s s a ssinated Marat, a leader of the French Revolution. chechia Adaptati on for wom en in the late 1930s and early 1940s of a felt hat with a tassel — s i milar to a fez but more peaked in shape—that was worn by Al gerian and Moroccan ch i l d re n. cheek wrappers See headwear: dormeuse. chef’s hat Tall, white full-crowned fabric hat starched to stand up stiffly. Set into the headband with 100 pleats, which originally indicated that the chef could cook eggs 100 ways. Also called hundred pleater. The more important the chef—the taller the hat. chignon ca p Sm a ll cap made in a va ri ety of co l ors and fabrics worn over the chignon in the 1930s and 1940s. Popular again in the 1960s and 1970s—usually made of croch eted wool— and called a bun-warmer or bun snood. chignon st ra p Band of ri bbon fastened to wom a n’s hat that passes around back of head and under the chignon to hold hat firm ly. Worn in the 1860s and 1870s, again in the 1940s and 1950s. chimney pot hat See headwear: top hat. chin stays Term used in 1830s for ruffles of tulle or lace added to bonnet strings forming a frill when tied under chin. Synonym: mentonnieres (men-ton-yehr!). chip bonnet Coarse, inex pen s ive straw bonn et made of strips or shavi n gs of wood, or


headwear: coif 245
woody material, imported from Italy and used for millinery in the 19th c. chou (shoo) choux (pl.) Soft, crushed-crown hat similar to mobcap (see under headwear). Der. French, “cabbage.” chukka hat (chuh!-ka) Domed hat with small brim copied from hats worn by polo players. Similar to, but not as high as, English policeman’s hat. Der. Named for divisions of polo game called chukkars. circumfold i ng hat See h e adwe a r: opera hat. claque See headwear: opera hat. Clara Bow hat Trademark for various styles of felt hats for women in late 1920s. The beret and cloche styles were the most popular. Der. Named after C l a ra Bow, famous movie star of the 1920s. Cla r issa Harlowe bonnet/hat Pictu red in 1857 as a wide - brimmed, lace - trimmed hat with droo ping sides and a small rounded crown with large ostrich plume placed so it curved from the crown over the back brim of hat. In 1879, described as a bonnet made of legh orn straw (see headwe a r: l eghorn hat) with a large brim lined with velvet, worn tilted on the forehead—popular until 1890s. Der. From heroine in novel Clarissa, or the History of a Young Lady, by Samuel Richardson, published in 1747–48. clip hat See headwear: bicycle-clip hat. cloche (klohsh) Deep-crowned hat with very narrow brim or brimless, fitting head closely, almost concealing all of the hair. Worn pull ed down almost to eyebrows, fashionable in 1920s and again in 1960s. Der. cloche French, “bell.” coal-scuttle bonnet Bonnet of mid-19th c. with a large, stiff brim with peak in center front. Der. Shaped like the scoo p called a scuttle that was used to pick up coal and put it into the fire. cocked hat 1. Man’s hat worn from late 17th to early 19th c. with wi de brim. To avoid we a t h er sag and deteri ora ti on , it became the fashcocked hat ion to turn up brim, which was som etimes fastened with buttons and loops to crown — f i rst one side , t h en two sides, and eventually three sides forming a tricorne. Ma ny va ri a ti ons developed, e ach invo lving i n d ivi dual details. Na m ed types inclu de : (1) bully-cock, an 18th-c. term for a broadbrimmed, t h ree-corn ered cocked hat; (2) continental hat, a three-cornered hat with a wide upturned brim worn with the point placed at center front. Worn by the Continental army du ring the Am erican Revoluti on. Rank of of f icers was denoted by various colors of cockades worn on the left side of the hat; (3) Denmark cock Man’s three-cornered hat of the second half of the 18th c. with three sides of the hat tu rn ed up, the back higher than the fron t ; (4) Dettigen cock Man’s cocked hat of the 18th c. with the brim turned up equally in three sections; (5) Kevenhuller cock Man’s three-cornered hat worn from 1740s to the 1760s, cocked with the front forming a peak and turned up higher in back. (6) Monmouth cock Broad-brimmed hat of the second half of the 17th c. turned up or cocked in back. Also see headwear: tricorne. 2. Contemporary hat inspired by any of the historic versions of a cocked hat. cockle hat Hat trimmed with a scallop shell, worn by pilgr ims returning from the Holy Land during the crusades in the 11th to 13th c. Der. French, coquille, “shell.” co f fer headd ress Woman’s small box - s h a pe d headdress of 14th c. usually worn over top of hair with coiled braids over the ears. coif (kwaf) 1. White headdress worn by nuns of some orders under the veil. 2. From 12th to 15th c., linen headcovering similar to a baby ’s bon- coif #2 net tied under chin. Art of the period 13th c. shows it to have been worn by indivi duals from many levels of society and by soldiers and knights under metal helmets. By the 16th c. it was more likely to be worn by the aged and the learned professions. Coif may be a modern term applied to this headwear. 3. From 16th to 19th c., an under cap worn mainly by women. In the late 16th c. and early 17th c. the cap was som etimes em broi dered , with sides

Early styles were worn over a cap.e a red caps. cove rch i e f / co uverchief/co uve rch e f Norman term meaning head rail. communion veil A sheer net elbow-length veil worn by girls for first com mu n i on in the Catholic Church. cornet 1. and stand away from the head . Chinese. that was used to su pport the high fon tanges h e ad d ress (see under headwear). See headwear: hennin. Day cap with rounded caul. co n t i n e n ta l hat See headwe a r: cocked hat #2. including bi c ycl i n g. duke. or l oden green . 3.246 headwear: commander’s cap curved forward to cover the ears. 3. fur. Made in napped su ede fabric in natu ral. English name for the fontages headdress. Adapted from caps worn by Russian Cossacks and accepted for gene ral wear by men and women in the late 1960s. the fillet or band securing a woman’s veil. Also see h e adwear: biggin. co m ma n d e r ’ s ca p See headwe a r: astronaut’s cap. “kuli. Copies of the above styles made in felt and straw for gen eral we a r. Similar to yachting cap (see under headwear).s i zed brim usually turn ed up at the sides and b ack. Chinese hat made of straw that may take many forms—mushroom-shaped with knob at top. 2. Band or wreath worn by women on the head like a tiara (see under headwear). or straw. Copied for men’s winter hat in the United States and England in 1950s and 1960s. Dark-colored velvet cap similar to a bongrace (see under headwear ) worn from 17th to 19th c. copintank. coppintanke. or rou n d . Nobility of Great Britain have seven different styles of crowns for prince of the blood. commode 1. Similar caps were called o rrel ets. but very fashionable from 1560 to 1620. 2. conversation bonnet See headwear: poke bonnet.sugarloaf hat blance to a loaf of sugar. and black for nobility. Also spelled copatain. coptank. Der. Also spelled coronal. earl. Also called mont la haut (mont lah hoh) and palisade. 14th-c. Introduced in 1964 by French couturier André Courr è ges as a re sult of u n iversal interest in astronauts. 2. younger son. cossa ck fo ra ge ca p Vi s ored cap with sof t c rown set on band worn toward back of head rather than pulled down on forehead. copotain (ko-poh-tan!) Man’s or woman’s hat with a high conical crown rounded at top and mediu m . Later styles had upturned pleated brim with satin lining. forming almost a parasol against the sun. 4. a draped Saxon H . Also called pantile. black . marquis. All are made of bamboo. Crown that denotes rank bel ow that of s overeign. coolie hat 1. frequently trimmed with braid around the crown and an insignia in front. in red for commoners. conical flared shape. Synonym for morta rboard ( s eeunder ac ademic dress). cottage bonnet Straw bonnet fitting head cl o s ely with brim proj ecting beyond the ch ee ks worn from 1808 to 1870s. couel British turban headdress of 15th c. These were called cheeks-and-ears. and a flared shape with a peak in the center. then called copotain or the sugarloaf hat due to its resem. A silk-covered wire frame of the late 17th and early 18th c. Revived in 1640s to 1665. Also see forage cap.” an unskilled worker. nephew. (see headwear: caul #1). and baron. Worn placed straight on forehead by train conductors. bowl-shaped. Made of be aver. Courrèges ha t (Koor !. 4. copytank. coronet (kor!-o-net) 1890s. palm leaves. commodore cap Flattopped cap with a vi s or fashion a ble for wom en for boating and sport s. tied under the chin. in first half of 19th c. Also spelled cornette. coun ter fillet Late 14th and early 15th c. conductor’s cap Cap with crown shaped like a pillbox with visor-shaped brim. First mentioned in 1508. term for open crown worn by nobility.rej) Fashion helmet shaped similar to World War I aviator’s helmet. or l e a t h er trimmed with wide band. viscount. cossack hat Tall brimless hat of fur worn by Russian horsemen and cavalrymen.. 2.

and sometimes have leather medall i ons with maps of Af rica in the co l ors of African and West Indian countries. crosscloth 1. Worn in Colonial America by woodsmen and pioneers and named after David Crock ett. crocheted cap (kro .c rown ed . day cap Muslin cap worn by adult women indoors and sometimes under bon n ets outdoors in the 18th and 19th c. cowboy hat Large wide-brimmed felt hat with crown worn creased or standing up in cone shape with the brim rolled up on both sides and dipping in front. da n d y hat Wom a n’s high . By the second half of the 19th c. frontiersman and politician. to keep the elaborate net (see headwear: caul or fret) in place. and a veil. deerstalker Checked or tweed cap with visor on both front and back and ear laps that can . Also called hat à la William Tell. A brow band worn in bed to prevent il lness. See in category heading: headwear. ro llbrimmed hat decorated with jet embroidery. crispine (kris!-pihn) An extra band at the forehead used during the late 14th c. crispinette See headwear: crispine. feathers. Introduced about 1900 and popular in the 1920s and again in the 1980s and after. graundice. A veil draped over the crispine and caul was referred to as a crispinette (kris!-pin-ett). only elderly women day cap. Davy Crockett cap Coonskin (raccoon fur) cap with tail of animal hanging down back.® coxcomb/cockscomb Hood trimmed with s trip of n o tched red cloth at the apex worn by licensed court jesters in 16th and 17th cs. Frequently embroidered to match the coif. (See cross-referen ces under headwear. 2. crown 1. Triangular kerchief of 16th and 17th cs. Popular for young boys in 1950s and 1960s after wide ex po sure on tel evi s i on progra m s . who fought and died at the Alamo in Texas in 1836. crown hats Hats of African inspiration that are round. A garland or wreath worn on the head as an ornament or sign of honor.gall on hat wh en ex tra tall and uncreased. crusher hat Comfortable man’s snap-brim felt hat that can be made into a compact roll to fit in pocket or pack for travel. Also called forehead cloth. Some styles are trimmed with metal or plastic paillettes attached at intervals. or as a beauty aid to remove wrinkles. Ci rcl et of precious metal and gems worn by kings and queens. flat-topped. term for a woman’s veil ( s ee under headwear). curch Untrimmed close-fitting woman’s cap worn in Co l onial Ameri c a . 3. Bridal headpiece worn with veil. half of 19th c. crisp 16th-c. worn by women with a coif or caul tied under chin or at back of head. worn in 1830s. cushion headdress 19th-c. first continued to wear these caps.) 2 .headwear: deerstalker 247 head covering made of different fabrics and co l ors worn by wom en of all classes from medieval times to the 16th c. at wh i ch time the term was co pyrighted. Worn in the Un i ted State s by We s tern cowboys to shade f ace and neck .. Copyright now applies to a wide variety of apparel. Styles vary — s ome are h elmet-shaped—others made like tams (see under headwear). crants G a rland of flowers or ch a p l et made of gold and gems worn by wom en from Med i eval times to 18th c. Worn by men and women from 16th to 18th c. Introduced by New York milliner Sally Victor in mid-1950s. Originally made of chain mail—later copied in knits for winter sportswear. Worn by African-Americans in late 1980s and 1990s. Also call ed ten . Also see cowboy hat: headwear: sombrero and ten gallon type Stetson. Cumberland hat Ma n’s hat with 8" high tapered crown and small brim turned up at the sides. Also spell ed craunce. Sometimes with hatband of leather and silver. Also see frontlet.s h ade!) Any type cap that is hand-crocheted. Also spell ed kerch e . 4. term for large padded roll worn as headdress by women in first half of the 15th c. crusader hood Snug-fitting hood cut in one piece with a small shoulder cape.

demi-coronal See headwear: tiara. worn from 1860s on. loosely tied under the chin. hanging tail. but brown and or bowler fawn colors were worn with Norfolk jacket ( s ee under coats and jackets ). about 1850 to 1860. dorelet (dor-reh!-lay) Term used in Middle Ages for woman’s hair net ornamented with jewels. 1809 to 1817.248 headwear: demi-castor be buttoned or tied to top of crown. derby American name fo r a hat. Also spelled Dolly. worn with top crushed down at sides. Popular after being worn by Jacqueline Kennedy when she was First Lady in early 1960s. popularly known as ch eek wra ppers. Popular at end of 19th c. Wide streamers came from underside of brim to tie u n der the chin. but not known by this name at that time. Der. A crown. Originally worn in Eng land for hunting. Worn in late 1870s through early 1880s. shallow-crowned straw bonnet of the late 1870s with one side of the brim turned up and trimmed with a rosette. Also spelled dorlet. desert fatigue cap Visor cap of cotton poplin made with soft crown set on wide band. the ficti onal detec. Worn toward back of head and secured under chin with broad ribbon ties. trimmed with ruching. Na m ed for the h eroine of Rob Roy. etc. Der. first worn ab out 1860. dormeuse/dormouse (dor-muse!) Ribbontrimmed white cap with a puffed crown and falling lappet s ( s eeunder headwe a r) tri m m ed with lace. Der. Worn in the house by women H . with a high flaring front brim. low on for ehead during Edwardian period (1890–1910) and in late 1920s. The American vers i on was named for Earl of Derby and an E n glish horse race called the Derby. Denmark cock See headwear: cocked hat. Made with two sets of bonnet strings—one tied under chignon (see under hairstyles ) in back. diadem (dy!-ah-dem) 1. called wings. 2. doll hat Miniature hat worn in different ways at different time periods. Reintroduced in 1984 to perch on the front of the head in various shapes—square. 1817 English novel by Sir Walter Scott. dink/dinky See headwear: skullcap. d iadem ca p ( dy!-ah-dem) Bathing cap of 1870s usually of oi l ed silk shaped like a shower cap with a band and upstanding ru f f l e in front and ties under the chin. Inspired by hats worn during the French Directoire Period (1795–1799). round. Named after Dolley Madison. the other.” Also called fore-and-after. Usually made from brightly colored fabrics or leather. President of the United States.eck!-twa) Bon n et ti ed under the chin. D ia na Vernon hat/Dia na Vernon bonnet Wi de -brimmed. made of hard felt with a domed crown and narrow stiff brim rolled up on the derby sides. Dolley Madison hood Lace-trimmed opera hood resembling a dust cap (see under headwear) with a deep ruffle of lace falling around the face and neck. although shape dates from 1820s. Copied from German forage cap worn in World War II and accepted for general wear in late 1960s. when it was attached to the back of head with combs or pins and sometimes had a veil. D i re c to i re bonnet ( d i r. Associated with pictu res of Sherlock Holmes. In the late 1930s. dome hat See headwear: bubble hat. diamanté head band (dya-mahn-tay!) Band of fabric set with artificial sparking jewels (example: rhinestones) and worn around head. wife of James Madison. Decorative headdress resembling a crown. fitting close over the e a rs . including “stalking deer. demi-castor See headwear: castor. pronounced darby in England. pushed forward on the head and held on with an elastic band around back of head.deerstalker tive created by Sir Art hur Conan Doyle. Usu a lly bl ack . doo rag Headcovering with the appearance of a head scarf tied in the back with long. The British version was named for the hatter William Bowler. diadem fanchon bonnet (dy!-ah-dem fan! shon) Lace and velvet bonnet of late 1860s with brim forming a halo. Der. called a bowler in England.

with brim rolled back on either side. worn by women or maids for housework from 19th to early 20th c. writers. Dutch-boy cap Cap with visor and soft wide crown usually made of navy blue wool. which could be flattened by releasing steel spring and carried under the arm. ermine cap See lettice cap. dunce cap Ta ll conical cap. Popular in late 1960s. Also see Easter parade. sometimes made o f black fabric wired to form a peak or gable over the forehead with long velvet lappets at side and the back draped in thick folds over the shoulders . From geographical location of three English towns that form a triangle on map. English hood Woman’s headdress worn from 1500s to 1540s. Disks may be fastened to a strap that goes overh e ad and ties under the ch i n . Made fashion a ble by l rene Castle. Wh en these lappets were English hood embroidered. E m p i re bonnet/Empire ca p ( em!-pire or ohm-peer!) Small outdoor bonnet of 1860s shaped like a baby’s cap with no veil or curtains in back. Forerunner of the Gibus (see under headwe a r: opera hat). or left down to cover the ears. Similar to be a rskin cap (see under headwear). Also called Dutch bonnet. usu a lly on a fabric hat. May be any type of hat. frequen t ly made of fur in bl ack or wh i te . elastic ro und hat Paten ted co ll a p s i ble hat of 1812. worn by Greta Garbo in a film about the Empress Eugenie and popular in the 1930s. with soft crown and a stiff visor in front. Sometimes used as bridal cap. Also called gable and pediment headdress. fur. After 1525. or o t h er fabric worn to keep the ears warm in winter. Adopted in 1960s by young people for sportswear. Eton cap Close-fitting cap with a short visor. dress ma ker’s brim Hat brim. that has cl o s ely spaced rows of m achine stitching or stitched tucks around the brim. dust cap Cap made of handkerch i ef or circ ular piece of fabric hemmed on outer edge and gathered by elastic. ea r m u f fs 1. Worn ti l ted sideways and to the fron t . The crown is box-pleated onto the band.headwear: Eugénie hat 249 in second half of 18th c. dunstable Hat of plaited straw origi n a lly made in Dunstable. or uti l i ty cap. e ig h t-point ca p Po l i ceman’s cap. modeled after those worn at Eton College in England. envoy hat Man’s winter hat similar to Cossack hat (see under headwear) with leather or fur crown and fur or fabric edge. and of ten trimmed Eugenie hat with one long ostri ch plu m e . usu a lly of blue-and-white striped cotton. Two disks of woo l . felt. form erly worn in sch ool by stu den t s who failed in their lessons. Som etimes wron gly called fool’s cap (see under headwear). by 19th-c. Easter bonnet An o t h ername for an Easter hat. the back drapery became two long pendant flaps. s om etimes marked with a D. Dutch cap Cap worn by women and girls in Volendam. Holland. England. or fasten ed to a spri n gy metal band that fits over top of the head. Popular in fabrics to match coa t s for young boys in the United States in 1920s and 1930s. and Windsor Nickname used in early 19th c. Crown is made by sewing together eight s traight-ed ged wed ges of f a bric making an octagon-shaped crown. 2. Staines. Der. famous ballroom dancer in 1920s. they were called chaffers (chaf !ers). drum major’s hat Very tall hat with chin band. English cottage bonnet See headwear: bibi bonnet. made of lace or embroidered muslin fitted to the head with a slight peak at the crown and flaring wings at sides of face . engineer’s ca p Round cap with visor worn by ra i l road workers. Eugénie hat (yoo-je!-nee) Small hat. Also called a French nightcap. Egham. A pair of flaps on sides of a cap that may be turned up and buttoned at top of cap. for three-cornered tricorne hat ( s ee under h e adwe a r) . worn by the leader of a band or drum major for parade functions. not necessarily tied under the chin.

Der. plastic. fille t 1. Fitzherbert hat Modified form of balloon hat (see under headwear). Al s o worn by the “Shriners. or both in 13th and 14th c. Red felt hat shaped like truncated cone with long black silk tassel hanging from center of crown worn by Turkish men until 1925. wi t h o ut tassel.: a pinner or lappet (see under headwear) fastened to woman’s day cap. fontanges hat (fawn!-tanjz) Tiny hat covering crown of head trimmed with lace. or other materials. flight deck cap See headwear: astronaut’s cap. worn from 1830s on. Also called jester’s cap. cocked or turned up at sides. by men and wom en for horseback riding. usually as a brow band. The com m ode (see under headwear) was used to support the headdress. fedora Felt hat with medium-sized brim and high crown with lengthwise crease from front to back. re s em bl ed a fan. (c) two hornlike peaks at sides of head. consisting of curved plastic strips attached to sides. and Albania. which h ad become disarranged. fedora Now a classic men’s hat style. follow-me-lads Long ribbon streamers of 1850s and 1860s hanging from back of girl’s bonnet. Empress of France. Der. fur. Paco Rabanne. Said to have ori gi n a ted abo ut 1679 wh en Ma rie An g é l i que de Scorraille de Roussilles. football helmet Molded plastic helmet that conforms cl o s ely to the head . worn by women in mid-1780s. and decorated H . fly cap See headwear: butterfly cap.S. fanchon (fan-shon!) Sm a ll lace . the back. l ace-and-ribbon head d ress placed on top of upswept hairstyle in late 17th and early 18th c. Also see jester’s costume. somewhat-shaped semicircular.” an auxiliary order of the Ma s ons. or the lace trimming on sides of an outdoor bonnet or day cap. Na rrow band ti ed around the hair. pleated . fanchon cap (fan-shon!) Small indoor cap of tulle or lace with side pieces covering the ears. Flemish hood See headwear: beguin. with wide oval brim and low crown of puffed fabric. Basic shape . (b) a cockscomb in place of peak and without ears . Worn in the last qu a rter of 18th c. S ti f fen ed band of linen worn with the ba rbette. fabric. worn from 13th to 19th c. went under the chin. a favorite of Louis XIV who was out riding with the King. 2. 3. copied for wom en’s hats in the West. Originally worn by men but now also styled for women with turnedup back brim. ribbon. fontanges (faw n!-tanjz) /fo n ta nge Wom a n’s starch ed . flandan (flahn!-dahn) Late 17th-c. worn by women from 1840s to 1860s. Types include Courrèges. See headwear: headband # 1 and #2. fatigue cap U. with point in front.fontanges tanges. fantail hat Three-cornered hat with wide brim. Popular for men after Vi ctorian Sardo u’s play Fed o ra was produ ced in 1882. Bells were added to each style. fold-up hat Straw sun hat with pleated brim and crown that folds to a 6" roll for carrying in pocket or purse. (see under headwear). Also called tower headd ress and h i gh head. also worn in Syri a . Der. Named for Eu g é n i e . fret. and chain helmets. Palestine.tri m m ed head scarf. or upside-down flower pot. fool’s cap Of three types: (a) forward-curved peaked cap with donkey’s ears. Fe a tured in Godey’s Ma gazine in 1876. A band of ribbon. with large turned-up brim. 2.250 headwear: fanchon in the side ro ll . flower-pot hat Man’s hat of 1830s with crown shaped like a truncated cone. la Duchesse de Fon. Also called turf hat. May be made of leather. and flowers with a sheet veil or curtain in back. covering the ears. Made with nose guard. a rm ed forces cap usu a lly made of twill fabric in style similar to engineer’s cap (see under headwear). used her lace and jewel ed garter to fasten back her hair. Pucci. fashion helmet Any hel m et designed as a fashion item rather than for protection. fez 1. edged with fluting. Named for town of Fez in Morocco.

straw. Named after the 18th-c. Greta. Gainsborough hat Large. proj ecting above forehead (see headwear: bongrace). frelange. Also called a pickelhaube. Small cap similar to a kepi (see under headwear). Also called a caul. Largebrimmed floppy hat of horsehair or straw worn in 1920s and 1930s for afternoon teas and garden parties. 2. frelan Late 17th-c. French sailor hat Large navy blue or white cotton tam (see under headwear). with coif or caul. . fore-and-after See headwear: deerstalker. and sometimes glossy black leather straps under the chin. 16th c. Originally worn by French seamen pulled down on forehead with top exactly horizontal. head band stiffened with cane. stitched to stiff navy blue headband and tr immed with red pompon at center of crown. 3. forage cap 1. gable bonnet/hat Woman’s hat of 1884 with front brim angled like a Gothic arch. with flat top slanting toward back. (See cro s s . Front border was curved forward French hood to cover the ears and had two c. gaucho hat (gow-cho) Wide-brimmed black felt hat made with medium-high flat crown. Worn by wom en from the 13th to early 16th c. who painted many portraits of ladies in this type of hat. French hood Woman’s head d ress. Also spelled freland.referen ces under h e adwear. Also worn in 16th and early 17th c. French beret See headwear: beret #2. garrison cap See headwear: overseas cap. Army. Copied from caps worn by merchant seamen in the 19th c. a tassel from center of crown. Ruffles or long pieces of muslin hung down to protect the wearer from the sun. soft-crown ed . O ri ginally worn by So uth Am erican cowboys.headwear: German helmet 251 with symbols indicating team. A b ack flap ei t h er enclosed the hair or was fo l ded forw a rd over head . Der. formerly worn by soldiers in U. worn at back of head and trimmed with ruching. consisting of a small bonnet over a stiffened frame. Garbo hat Slouch hat worn so frequently by Greta Garbo in the 1930s that it is sometimes called by her name. Worn by Germans in World War I and adopted by teenage boys in the late 1960s. ornamental gold bands or bi lliments. Spanish “cowboy” of Argen tina. frigate cap Utility visored cap of mid-20th c. s ti f fbrimmed bon n et of 1880s usu a lly made of plush and fastened with ties under chin. fret Mesh snood or skullcap made of gold mesh or fabric worked in an openwork lattice design and sometimes decorated with jewels. 2. Chile. See headwear: slouch hat. Made of water-repellent bl ack silky rayon with cord and buttons on front for trim. Fashionable from 1521 to 1590 and worn by some until 1630. Also see Garbo. Fasten ed under chin with leather thon g. including portrait of Duchess of Devonshire. Der. German helmet Metal hel m et made with small visor and a spike on the top decorated w ith large gold eagle on front. Made of velvet. Woman’s hat of 1860s made of muslin with flat top cut in oval shape. it was adapted for women in late 1960s and worn with gaucho pants (see under pants). term for woman’s bonnet and p i n n er (see under h e adwe a r) worn together. galatea hat (gal!-ah-teh-ah) Child’s hat of plaited straw with sailor crown and tu rn ed-up brim worn in 1890s. Cap with a visor adapted from the military for small boys in first half of 19th c. gable head ress See headwear: English hood . Large-brimmed straw hat currently worn when gardening to protect face from the sun. graceful b rimmed hat worn from late 1860s to 1890s and copied periodically since.S. and Uruguay. Also called sombrero córdobes (som-brer!-oh kordob!-ehs). frequently turned up on one side and trimmed with ostrich plumes. frontlet Decora tive brow band worn in medieval times under a coverchief or veil. Hat was frequently made with ribbon trim. garden hat 1. British painter Gainsborough. foun d l i ng bonnet Small. Worn b y all contact football players. Made with circular felt crown.) funnel hat Brimless tall conical hat of felt or fabric worn by wom en in the 1930s and 1940s. or beaver.

Also called undercap. Has back drapery to shoulders.. wide at sides and c ut straight across front and back. Elaborately trimmed with braid on visor and at seam where visor meets crown. term for a day cap worn under a hat mainly by women. hat pin Straight pin from 3" to 12" long with bead or jewel at top. hair net Fine cap-shaped net worn over the hair to keep it in place. Greek fisherman’s cap Soft cap of denim or wool with crown higher in front than in back. The Greek petasos (see h e adwe a r: petasos #1) was among the earliest of brimmed hats. Also made of chenille. Medieval hat styles included the copotain (see under headwear) and until c. hat Som etimes used as a gen eric term for headwear. British general in India. worn from 1350 to 1420. the color of the ribbon de noted length of service.252 headwear: Gibus Gibus See opera hat. halo hat See headwear: pamela. regimental badge at side front. havelock 1. and two black ribbon streamers in back. harvest ha t Bel i eved to be the term used for the first straw hats worn by farmers in the United States. or synthetic materials.l eer!) S traw hat wi t h a medium-sized brim and a shallow. Scotland. f a bric. gold. the term “h a rd hat” took on po l i tical con n o t ati on s wh en U. Sometimes made of knotted human hair and nearly invisible. becoming less common after hair was bobbed in the 1920s. Italian comedies called commedia dell’arte. term for linen headdress. From the late 1950s. slightly tapered crown with a flat top. In late 1960s. See headwear: automobile cap. Held away from the head by foam lining to absorb impact. or wh i te and worn for sportswear or boating in 1980s by both men and women. Worn fo rmerly by gondoliers of Venice. bouffant hairstyles. worn in 1938. Der. From Harlequin.. they are worn much less frequently than in the past. and later the use of wigs and falls. a part played by an actor in 16th to 18th c. H . A decorative accessory or one worn for warmth. s traw. Used by women to secure their hats in late 19th through early 20th c. when they wore either hats or bonnets for outdoors and for church. con s tructi on workers ex pre s s ed t h ei r sentiments against peace advocates. g le nga r ry ca p Military cloth cap cre a s ed to fold flat like an overseas cap (see under headwear) usually with tartan band at edge. ha r le q u i n Hat with brim. granny bonnet Ch i l d ’s bon n et of e a rly 1890s with ribbon ties under the chin. hats can be made of felt. Styl ed after the bonnets that grandmothers wore. Na m ed for Sir Henry Havelock. Made of metal or hard plastic in classic pith helmet shape or similar to a baseball batter’s cap (see under headwear). blue denim. synonym. broad flaring brim. l e a t h er. gondolier’s ha t (gon . Often purchased as a tourist souvenir by visitors to Venice. a valley in Invernessshire. go f fe red ve il 19th-c. Styled in bl ack wool. Part of the uniform of Scottish Highland regiments. however the term is more spe cifically applied to headwear that consists of a crown and a brim and that usu a lly does not tie under the chin. Nebula headdress is a 19th-c. h . Italy. Hat à la Will iam Te ll See h e adwe a r: C u m berland hat. or silver threads and worn as decoration. Women did not generally wear hats except for traveling until after the late 16th c. Also see headwear: snood. Wide ribbon trims the crown and long streamers extend down the back. with fluted or goffered frill surrounding the face. 1660 men wore hats indoors as well as out and in church. Der.S. fur. Worn by con s tructi on workers and others su bject to work hazards. made it difficult to wear hats and although hats have been periodically fashionable since then. Der. and adapted for sportswear by women and small boys in mid-19th c. and gathered conventional crown decora ted with ri bbons. 2. After Glengarry. hat cap 18th-c. gob hat See headwear: sailor hat. Cloth covering for militar y cap extending to shoulders in back in order to pro tect the neck from sun. ha rd ha t Pro tective covering for the head .

2. and. particularly by armed forces and fo r various sports. there are no specific names for these items. Strip of leather. som etimes tyi n g under the chin. hemispherical ha t See headwe a r: bo ll i n ger. Also called steeple headdress and co rner. h un d red plea ter See h e adwear: ch ef’s hat. hood 1. hennin (hen!-in) Wom a n’s tall steeples h a ped headdress worn in Burgundy during the second half of 15th c. chain mail was used during the Crus ades. Raised on sides to show netting coming down over the ears. Popular item for winter wear. or piece of fabric worn in carefree manner around the head to frame the face or as a brow band (see under headwear). Homburg. writers. high hat See headwear: top hat. it is made in all types of fabrics and fur. Preliminary. Der. First worn by Greeks and Romans with feathered crests. Differs from a hat in that it has no specific shape and usu a lly covers the en ti re head . it is sometimes made with a . Usually worn with a long veil. bandanna. Although there are a great variety of styles. 2nd half of the 15th c. Worn from 11th c. Band at bottom edge of hat crown. elastic chin strap. or caught up as drapery at waist. and button on center top. Also see armor: burgon et and morion. those of noble ladies could be only 24" or less. Princesses could wear hats a yard high. homburg Man’s hat of rather stiff felt with narrow rolled brim and lengthwise crease in the crown worn from 1870s on for formal occasions. rarely. space helmets were introduced for astronauts. From an old Fr ench word hennin. Made fashionable by Prince homburg of Wales. shaped piece of felt or straw from which the milliner works. later Edward VII. horned headd ress He ad d re s s con s i s ting of t wo horns ex tending horizontally at either side of face or curved upward. heart-shaped headdress Rolled woman’s headdress of 1420 to 1450. who vi s i ted Bad Hom burg in Germ a ny many ti m e s. Revived after President Dwight Eisenhower wore one to his inauguration in 1952.headwear: hunt cap 253 headband 1. s om etimes of cl overleaf shape. wh i ch usu a lly had a vi s or. and for winter sportswear in the 1920s and 1930s. or fabric bound around the head horizon t a lly ac ro s s the forehead. Worn in Flanders in 16th and 17th c. H e nley b oa te r See h e adwe a r: boater. Supported by a wire frame and worn tilted back with a long sheer veil hanging from tip down to floor. helmet Protective covering for the head worn primarily to prevent injury. Very popular from late 1960s and after. meaning “to inconvenience. hive bonnet See headwear: beehive hat #1. Worn with riding habit. 3. forming a heartshaped peak in center front. and in the 1960s helmet-shaped hats were introduced as a fashion acce s s ory. The style was called a miter by 19th-c. Also called a brow band. Prussia. heyke. Worn from 1410 to 1420. Sumptuary laws regulated the size of these hats. however. Band worn over top of the head from ear to ear as an ornament or to keep hair in place since ancient times. Has a h i gh ro u n ded nondescript crown and an ex tra large floppy brim.” a reference to the inconvenience such a headdress would cause. hunt cap Cap cut in six segments with small visor. 2. Der. A veil was draped over top and hung down horned the back . cast metal used from 14th c. a scarf . on for knights’ helmets. cord. headdress 15th c. In the late 1950s. Accessory worn on the h e ad and som etimes the shoulders that is frequently attached to a jacket or coat. on but replaced generally by caps in 1860s and 1870s. to 1460. Also spelled hewke. heuke ( hy u ke ) Veil enveloping wearer to k n ees or ankles—som etimes with the top s ti f fen ed by wi re — worn over head form i n g a cage. head rail See headwear: coverchief. head wrap In 1980s. ribbon. hewk.

lirapipe. Der. Covering for the head from Medieval times to end of 16th c. 2. similar to baseball cap (see under headwe a r) but with deeper crown. long hood See headwear: pug hood. a large triangle of cloth.254 headwear: hunt derby plastic shell covered with velvet or velveteen and a padded lining. jockey cap Visored cap with crown usually of bicolored sateen cut in gores. Der. liripipe 1. Made from the upper part of wheat stalks grown near Livorno. 2. where it fastened. Particularly used in the 18th and 19th cs. s om etimes fluorescent. Italy. to refer to such strips.” Langtry hood Detachable hood on woman’s outdoor garment of 1880s with a colored lining. Worn by French Foreign Legion and French General and statesman Charles de Gaulle. Copied from style worn by Jenny Lind (1820–1887). a town in Tuscany. May also be made en ti rely of pearls. lappets Long. ribbonlike strips of fabric that extend from a headdress. kiss-me-quick Popular name for tiny bonnet fashionable in late 1860s. term for woman’s outdoor cap or bonnet of triangular shape that covered the ears. In 16th and 17th c. Some had lace lappets (see under headwear). Part of a hood worn by university graduates from 1350 to 15th c. Similar caps worn by women in mid-1960s. See Fren ch Revoluti on Styles. Also called tippet. kercheve. H . liberty cap 1. kerchief 1. Livorno. Worn from 1755 to 1765. Also called Legionnaire’s cap. Made of lettice.ora n ge vi s ored cap. flattopped vi s ored cap frequently worn w ith havelock (see under headwear) in back as protection from sun. Named for Louis XV of France (1710–1774). others had small veils in back called “curtains. In 16th and 17th c. Sometimes made of scarlet and white wool. Der. kepi High-crown ed .” Joan Woman’s small . In current usage. le t t i ce ca p / b o n n e t 1. 2. enabling hunter to be seen in the woods. Jenny Lind cap Crocheted band crossing the crown of the head coming down over ears and around to the back. hun t i ng cap Bri gh t . Worn as a woman’s morning cap in late 1840s and early 1850s. J ul i e t ca p skullcap (see under headwe a r) of rich fabric worn for evening or with wedding vei l s . Fastened to crown with velvet bows and trimmed elaborately with ostrich feathers. kevenhuller hat See headwear: cocked hat. Also see scarves: kerch i ef and neckerchief. Also called ermine cap or miniver cap. kersche. Medieval costume of Juliet in Shakespeare’s play Romeo and Juliet. called a head rail. Fashionable at intervals since latter half of 19th c. kercher. leghorn hat/leghorn bonnet Woman’s hat or bonnet in leghorn straw. smooth straw braid plaited with thirteen stra n d s . a hood worn in 14th and 15th c.. 2. or square folded in triangular fashion. Also called Quaker cap. when they hang at sides or back of an indoor cap. famous coloratura soprano called the “Swedish Nightingale. Der.” Legionnaire’s cap See headwear: kepi. jewels. See headwear: Phrygian cap. See headwear: bonnet rouge. Long pendant tail of the chaperone (see under headwear). 3. Named for place of ex port for the straw. or chain. worn by racetrack jockeys . See headwear: coverchief. a fine. liripoop. man’s nightcap of lettice fur worn to induce sleep.s h a pe d straw bonnet of mid-1860s worn flat on head with sides pulled down sligh t ly and ti ed under chin with large ri bbon bow. often lace trimmed. Louis XV hat Woman’s hat of mid-1870s with large high crown and wide brim turned up on one side.f i t ting indoor cap s h a ped like baby’s bon n et ti ed under ch i n with narrow fri ll of muslin or lace around face. Named after actress Lillie Langtry. Also s pell ed liripipium. 16th-c. Italy. Der.. hunt derby Stiff protective derby (see under h e adwe a r) made with reinforced stron g p l a s tic shell covered with bl ack felt worn with riding habit. cl o s e . worn as a headcovering or around the neck. a fur resembling ermine. The Bri tish angl i c i zed the name of the city to “Leghorn. Also spelled karcher. lamba lle bonnet (lam-bahl!) Sa u cer.

. Also called Mary cap. marquis (mar-kwiss! or mar-kee!) A threecornered hat worn by women. Named for 1905 light opera The Merry Widow. Der. Der. especially for widows. A derivative of the attifet h e ad d ress (see under headwe a r) worn by Mary. Named after Ch a rlotte of Meck l en bu r g.” marmotte bonnet (mar!-mowt) Tiny bonnet of e a rly 1830s with narrow front brim similar to bibi bonnet. lunardi See headwear: balloon hat. popular from 1820 to 1870.. Design inspiration may have been an ancient Chinese court hat with wide. braid. Also called Greek lounging cap. worn in mid-1860s. Mamelukes were originally non-Arab slaves brought to Egypt. made of fur and satin for winter and decorated with a peacock feather. mafors Long narrow veil worn by wo men from 6th to 11th c. ma zarin hood (maz!-ah-rhan) Wom a n’s hood worn in the last quarter of the 17th c.headwear: milkmaid hat 255 lounging cap Gentleman’s at-home cap.S. Ro lled-up brim was som etimes slit on the sides and trimmed with crimson satin lining pulled through slashes. Made with a heart-shaped peak in center front edged with beads. Ti ed with ri bbons under chin and lavi s h ly trimmed with ru ch i n g. milkmaid hat See headwear: bergère. mantilla (man-til!-ah) Large oblong. Marie Stuart hood Separate hood of 1860s with heart-shaped peaked brim in front extended over the face with crown cut round and ga t h ered at edge. and ribbon. later trained as soldiers. matador hat (mat-ah-door) Hat shaped like the top of a bull’s head—rounded over forehead with two projections like bull’s horns covered with black tufts of fabric. placed on back of head and tied under chin. Mecklenburg cap Turban-style indoor cap worn by women in 1760s. Der. with the center of crown of embroidered velvet. m i nister to Louis XIV. also called Mary Stuart (or Stewart) (1542–1587). Mameluke turban (mama-luke!) White satin woman’s turban of 1804 trimmed with one large ostri ch fe a t h er. Named after the Duchesse de Mazarin. French. ma r m o t te ca p (mar!. Mandarin hat Woman’s bl ack velvet pork pie hat ( s eeunder h e adwear) of early 1860s wi t h feather trim over the back of the flat crown. Der. f l a ri n g. Queen of Scots. with music by Franz Lehár. Worn by bullfighters in Spain and Mexico. made in pillbox or dome shape with silk tassels fastened at center. Tri m m ed with ribbon and feathers and tied under chin. Queen of Scots cap Indoor cap worn by wom en . u ptu rn ed brim and decora tive but ton at crown (indicating rank of wearer). Frequently worn to church instead of a hat in Spain and South America. mentonnières ( m a h n . Mary. Marie Stuart bonnet/cap Bon n et with heart shaped peak or brim projecting over center of forehead. worn indoors by women in early 1830s. Milan bonnet (mee-lan!) Man’s cap of first half of 16th c. usually in rose pattern of black or white. usually black with soft puffed crown. worn wrapped over head and crossed under chin with one end thrown over shoulder. Popular after it was worn in early 1960s by U. that usually covered head and draped over shoulders. marin anglais bonnet (mar!-ahn an-glayz!) Woman’s bonnet worn on the back of the head like a child’s sailor hat in e nyeh r!) See headwear: chin stays. with the front roll ed back like a hat brim over a dom e . fine lace veil. Merry Widow hat Very wide-brimmed hat. “English sailor cap.m owt) Triangular h a n dkerchief. sometimes a yard across. Der. niece of Ca rdinal Ma z a rin (1602–1661). first lady Jacqueline Kennedy. may have side frills and lappets. embroidery.s h a pedcrown . from 1750s to 1760s. mainly matrons and widows. See under headwear. frequently of velvet and ornately trimmed with ostrich plumes. Ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1517 and remained powerful until 1811 under Turkish viceroys. who married George III of England in 1761. The Mameluke army was defeated by Napoleon Bonaparte during his Egyptian campaign in 1798.

and civilians. sailors. and ribbon worn o n the back of the head indoors in the morning by women from 1820s to end of 19th c. popular in the Un i ted States in the mid-1960s. mod ca p Cap similar to newsboy cap ( s ee u n der h e adwe a r) . Also called a breakfast cap. tulle. Worn on the back of the head in 1804. See headwear: hood #1. sometimes with a heart-shaped brim. although also worn from 1570s to 1625. a bit larger than the conven ti onal bas que beret (see headwear: beret) but set on a band like a Sco t tish tam-o-shanter and decora ted with regimental insignia. and ti ed under the ch in. Forest Rangers. usually circular. lace. m i s tress of Louis XIV of Fra n ce. 2. mortarboard See academic costume. mousquetaire hat (moose-ke-tare!) 1. Montgomery beret Military cap. Popular after being adopted by field marshal Bernard Law Montgomery. sometimes edged with wide band of black fabric worn under or over hat at funerals or during periods of mourning.256 headwear: miner’s cap miner’s cap Stiff cap with short duck-billed visor and battery-powered light attached to front of crown. Made at Mon m o ut h and Bewdley in Worcestershire. muffin hat Man’s fabric hat with round flat crown and narrow standing brim used for country wear in 1860s. Mountie’s hat Wide-brimmed hat with high crown creased into four sections with a small peak at the top. Similar to World War I army hat worn with dress uniform. the chin. Back brim was turned down. Moabi te turban ( m o!-ab-ite) Woman’s crepe turban draped in many folds and trimmed with an aigrette feather on one side. called kissing mob cap strings or bridles. Also called Bewdley cap and worn by country folk by that name as late as 19th c. tri m m ed with plume. it was made of black silk. Na m ed for Ma rquise de Mon te s p a n (1641–1707). m ista ke hat Wom a n’s hat with tall flattopped crown and brim cut in blunt point in front and turned up. Der. mourning veil Semi-sheer black veil to the shoulders. Worn by state policemen. mourning bonnet Any black bonnet worn to complete a mourning costume—especially in the 1870s and 1880s. lavishly trimmed with ruching and ri bbon. Usu a lly has a large dark . Worn tilted to back of head in early 1830s. Der. M o n tespan hat (mon-tes-pan!) Wom a n’s small round velvet evening hat of 1843 with brim turned up in front. England. and by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. The veil was arranged over the face or allowed to hang down the back. morning cap Dainty cap of muslin. which tied under 18th c. Most common in 17th c. Had side lappets (see under headwear). m o to r i ng ve il See h e adwe a r: automobile veil. Monmouth cock See headwear: cocked hat. Woman’s headband worn in ancien t Greece . Monmouth cap Man’s knitted cap with high rounded crown and small turned-down brim worn by soldiers. 2. Listed as necessary item for new settlers in America. mont-la-haut See headwear: commode. See headwe a r: h e a rt .co l ored plastic shield that snaps on to protect eyes and face. An off-the-face bonnet. com m a n der of British ground forces in World War II. motorcycle helmet Molded plastic helmet with foam lining worn when riding a motorc ycl e .s h a ped headdress. made of white cambric or muslin with gathered c rown and ruffled edge forming a bonnet. Brown mushroom-shaped woman’s straw hat edged with black lace hanging from the brim worn in late 1850s. From hats worn by Fren ch mu s keteers or royal bodyguards of Louis XIII in 17th c. Wi debrimmed hat usu a lly trimmed with three ostrich plumes. H . 1st Viscount Mon t gom ery. molded felt Hat industry term fo r the fel t hood made into hat shape by placing over a wooden block shaped like a head. mob cap Woman’s indoor cap of 18th and 19th cs. miter 1. Also called Swedish hat.

nightcap 1. applejack cap). “old town. Worn in 1870s and 1880s. but no longer. Also see headwe a r: bi ggin #2. worn pinned to the crown of the head wh en dre s s ed in uniform and on duty in hospitals. 4. night coif (kwaf) Woman’s cap worn with n egligee costume or in bed in 16th and 17th c. 3. magicians. May be referred to by various names ( mid-19th-c. on. Der. 3. Also called a military folding hat. Tied under the chin with a ribbon and tr immed with bows over crown and back of the head. rather than shiny. City in which it originates: Naples. Form erly worn by news boys and made famous by child actor Jackie Coogan in silent films of the 1920s. mushroom hat Woman’s straw hat with small round crown and downw a rd . and birds. Frequ en t ly embroi dered and usu a lly worn with foreh e ad cl oth ( s ee h e adwear: crosscloth #2). At one time. Named after English murderer whose hat led to his arrest in 1864. Norwegian morning cap/Norwegian morning bonnet Woman’s cerise and wh i te . and performers. octagonal hat Cap shaped like a tam (see headwear) made of six wedges stitched together. Small tri corne hat carri ed under the arm rather than worn from mid-18th c. Der. worn indoors by men wh en wig was rem oved. opera ha t 1. Der. obi hat Woman’s hat of 1804 with high flattopped crown and narrow brim rolled up in front. flowers. house cap or plain nightcap (see headwear: nightcap #2) worn at home when wig was removed. forming an octagonal-shaped ha t Wom a n’s hat made wi t h o ut a crown—may be of the halo or toque hat type (see under headwear). Each school of nursing has an individual style of cap. any hat made of this braid. Later. 14th. Revived in ex a ggerated form in 1960s and 1970s.headwear: opera hat 257 Muller cut-down Man’s hat of 1870s made like top hat with crown cut to half the height. 2. Man’s tall silk hat with co ll a p s i ble crown worn formerly for full dress occasions. nurse’s cap White stiffly starched fabric cap received by nurses at graduation. Popular for girls and young women in mid-1890s. Also popular in 2000 and after. s h a ped like the cap of a mu s h room . napkin-cap Man’s 18th-c. s om etimes made like man’s stocking cap of knitted silk with nightcap tassel on top. Neapolitan hat (nee-a-poll!-i-tan) Sheer lacy conical hat made in Naples of hors ehair bra i d . In 19th c. Neapol i ta n bonnet (nee-a-poll-i-tan) L eghorn bonnet of 1800 (see under headwear) trimmed with straw flowers and matching ri bbons attach ed at the crown and loo s ely tied over the chest.c u rved brim. Also called chapeau bras. trimmed with ribbons. jellybag. knitted kerchief-shaped head covering of 1860s. o p e n .” present-day Naples.s tri ped Shetland wool. skullcap with u ptu rn ed brim. newsboy cap Soft fabric cap with flat bloused crown and visor that sometimes snaps to the crown. soul. Carnaby. Greek.g. See headwe a r: napkin cap. Also worn by ringmasters. Also called a gibus (jy-bus) and made with sides containing met a l springs that snapped open to hold it upright. fabric. Der. See headwear: mob cap. Nebula headdress See headwear: goffered headdress. patented in 1837. Similar styles . Sometimes made of two contrasting fabrics and usu a lly tri m m ed with two short streamers hanging in back. Bicorne hat worn from 1800 to 1830 with a cre s cents h a ped brim front and back that could be compressed and carried under the arm.. From Antoine Gibus. Napolis. Ribbons come over crown and brim of hat. Worn again in early 1900s and in the 1930s and 1940s usually made of felt. who invented the hat in 1823. necked bonnet Lined or unlined cap with wide flap fitted around back of neck worn by men in first half of 16th c. 2. Differs from a top hat (see under headwear) by being com p l etely co ll a p s i ble and made of dull. called a 18th c. tying under chin. Plain washable cap worn in bed by men and women from earliest times. bebop.

Worn in different styles from 1855 on. flowers. Has a lengthwise pleat from front to back in cen ter of crown to enable it to fold flat. Der. Very popular at the end of 19th and beginning panama hat of 20th c. Also called cheeks-andears. petas os ( pet!-ah-soss) 1. s om etimes m ade of l e a t h er. picke l ha u b e See h e adwe a r: G erman Helm et. 2. Continued to be a basic hat style with a rounded crown and wide brim and now often called a halo hat. Som etimes impri n ted with sch ool name. similar to Phrygian cap (see under headwear). Also spelled oreillett. ex pen s ive straw obtained from the leaves of the jipijapa plant handwoven in Ecuador. Also spelled petasus. By extension. Fa s tened with bon n et stri n gs that bent it into a U-shape pamela or halo hat around the face. Pe ter Pan hat Sm a ll hat with brim ex tended in front and turned up in back. worn in early 19th c. Also called garrison cap. Made with a conical crown trimmed with long feathers. Mercury.258 headwear: oralia were called chapeau claque. orillette. or feathers. Felt brimless cap with peak folded over. orilyet. “skullcap. Worn overseas in World Wars I and II. 2. Latin. known as cornalia or cornu. made of a “saucershaped” piece of straw or fabric placed on top of the head. Cap with high rounded peak curving forward with lappets hanging at sides. parachute hat See balloon hat. See headwear: coif #3. Latin.” painter’s cap Lightweight duck-billed fabric cap made with a round. papillion See headwear: bonnet à bec. worn by fre ed Roman slaves. 2. Worn by some orders of Catholic priests. pantile See headwear: copotain. Also see pilos. circumfolding hat.” pillbox hat Classic round brimless hat that can be worn fo rw a rd or on the back of the head. Pa co Ra banne hat ( p a k!-oh rah!-bahn) Unusual cap fitted to conform to the head and covered with ti ny diamon d . Der. and elastic round hat. pancake beret See headwear: beret #2. any man’s straw summer hat regardless of type of straw. Also worn in ancient Rome.. and copied from 18th c. Der. where more than 50. Barrie’s play Peter Pan. flat-topped crown. Phrygian cap/Phrygian bonnet (frij!-ee-an) 1. Peruvian hat Woman’s rain hat made from plaited palm leaves. Italian. pileus ( p i!-lay-uss) /pilleus 1. Also see headwear: leghorn hat. “father. thus reviving the wearing of Panama hat. Introduced in late 1960s and named for French couturier Paco Rabanne. “veil. team name. frequently made of straw. or resort on front of crown. Hat made of fine.000 people were gathered. Felt hat with a large floppy brim and nondescript crown worn in a n c i ent Greece when traveling. From cap worn by house painters. See pileus #2. Der. Long Island.s h a ped mirrors linked together. Straw bonnet worn from 1845 to late 1860s. Worn in ancient Greece from 9th to 12th c. Panama hat 1. 2.” orrelet (or-let!) Term used in later half of 16th c. Close-fitting winged cap as seen in representations of Roman god. pamela 1. M. on as bonnet rouge (see under headwear). Ancient Roman skullcap worn at games and festivals. Der. Named after the hat worn by ac tress Maude Adams in 1905 when starring in J. padre hat Shovel-shaped hat with turned-up brim on the sides and long squ a re cut brim in front and back. 2. overseas cap Flat folding cloth cap of khaki or olive drab fabric worn by men and women in the armed services. palisade See headwear: commode. picture hat Hat with large brim framing the face. Introduced in late 1920s pillbox hat H . Also spelled orales. A large Panama hat was worn by the Pri n ce of Wales in 1920s at Belmont Pa rk . By first quarter of 14th c. for hanging side pieces of woman’s coif that covered ears. Trimmed on top with foliage. oralia (or-ahl!-yuh) E a rly med i eval term for pointed vei l .

as part of wardrobe for airline stewardesses. postboy hat Woman’s small straw hat of 1885 styled with high flat crown and narrow brim sloping down all around. Synonym: bumper. straw or felt. with la ppets (see under h e adwear) covering ears. polo hat See headwear: chukka hat. Made in same fabric as the dress (of ten gray) or in straw. Pucci hat (pooch!-ee) Plastic glass bubble with cut-out for the face that stands away from the head to keep hair from blowing. From small round pillboxes formerly used by chemists or druggists. Trimmed with plume in front and worn perched on top of head. A long hood was similar. Made with or without an attached cape.” pinner A lappet . worn about 1565 to 1600. when worn pinned up and. trimmed in front with foliage and in back with a large bunch of velvet ribbon loops. Also called taffeta pipkin. stiff. pith helmet See topee. Polish toque Woman’s hat of mid-1860s somewhat similar to pillbox. and copied for women in 1970s. a style worn in 1803. worn by women for riding. derived from those worn by ancient Greeks and Romans. pudding Small. pipkin Woman’s small hat. Puritan hat Black. and tied under chin. planter’s hat Wide-brimmed white or natural handwoven straw hat with high den ted crown . poke bonnet Bonnet of 19th c. Classic snap-brim man’s hat. Quaker bonnet Small close-fitting. but with long tabs on the sides to facilitate tying under the chin. term for cap itself in 17th to mid-18th c. “men on hors eb ack accompanying carriages. Also called poking bonnet. pug hood Woman’s soft hood of 18th c. Der. Worn by Southern gentlemen in the United States and popular for women in late 1960s. Still a basic hat for men. When made with rolled brim—one side extending beyond the cheek. popular in late 1930s. pork-pie hat 1. pilos (pi!-los) Conical cap wo rn by Greek peasants or fishermen. Latin. and worn over a ruffled white muslin . round pad ded cap or pad ded band worn by infants and small children to serve as shock pudding absorber in a fall . flat on top with crease around edge of crown. Worn in 1930s and copied for women in the 1940s. made with flat crown pleated into narrow brim. plug hat See headwear: top hat. 17th c. From clothes worn by postillions. worn on the back of the head. Usually trimmed with a narrow jeweled band and feathers. usu a lly be aver. Worn by Pu ritan men in Am erica in early 17th c. polka Woman’s cap of cream-colored tulle with croch eted edges app l i quéd with lace f l oral de s i gn s . made of fabric. undecorated woman’s bonnet with a puffed crown and sti f f brim ti ed under the ch i n . banded with dark ribbon. Designed by Emilio Pucci. prayer veil Small triangular lace veil worn instead of hat for church services. Usually black with colored turned-back lining and tied under the chin with matching ribbons. s trip of f a bric hanging from a woman’s indoor cap. by extension. Same as short hood. silhouetting the profile. “skullcap. pultney cap Woman’s heart-shaped indoor cap of 1760s with wired peak. Der. the other side rolled back from face. postillion (pohse-til!-yohn) Hat with tall tapered crown and narrow bri m . it was called a conversation bonnet.” pot hat See headwear: top hat. Introduced in 1860s as a hat pork pie hat for women made of straw or velvet #1 with a low flat crown and turned-up narrow brim. made with very wide brim slanting forward from small crown to frame and shado w the face. with pleats radiating from back where it fitted the head. Der. tall-crowned man’s hat with med ium-wide straight brim trimmed wi t h wide bl ack band and silver buckle in cen ter fron t .headwear: Quaker bonnet 259 and worn since with slight variations. 2. Italian couturier. p ro f ile hat Wom a n’s hat with brim tu rn ed down sharply on one side . similar to pileus (see under headwear).

The shallow back was pulled together with a drawstring.260 headwear: Quaker cap cap. Worn to deflect heat in warm weather. Quaker hat 1. Der. which was a long strip of fabric hanging forward that was sometimes worn slung over the shoulders. When kingdom bec a m e u n i ted both the red crown and the wh i te c rown (see under h e adwe a r) were worn together. Made with or without a visor from mid-18th to mid-19th c. chaperone. and trimmed with one long feather. re t i culation (re . brim turned up in back. Popular hat for small boys in the 1880s. prescri bed for wom en of Q u a ker faith by the Soc i ety of Friends. Tri corne hat with open cock and tall crown. See headwear: caul #1. roll 15th-c. Sometimes called coif. Popular after being worn by actor Rex Harrison in his role as Professor Henry Higgins in the musical My Fair Lady. Robin Hood hat Hat with high peaked crown. red crown Outward flaring crown with long extension up back worn by kings of Upper Egypt in ancient times. quartered cap Boy’s cap with flat circular crown divi ded into four segm ents and attached to stiff band. Rex H a r r ison hat Man’s snap-brim hat of wool tweed with narrow brim and matching tweed band. 2. legendary British outlaw of the 12th c. Very popular in 1890s for sportswear and bicycling and worn intermittently since. It curved around face and was finished with a ruffle. sa fari hat Ligh t weight straw or fabric hat s h a ped som ewhat like a shall ow soup dish with medium-sized brim. sometimes em- H . down in front. Shape of hat is similar to those worn on African hunting trips called “safaris. From hat in illustrations of books about Robin Hood. Sometimes with side lappets (see under h e adwe a r) pinned up or ti ed loosely under chin. term for the circular pad made when converting the man’s chaperon into a hat. roller Hat with close-fitting crown and narrow curved brim worn rolled up or with the front tu rn ed down. worn with a stuffed roll encircling the head and tail. revived in early 1970s. Also see headwear: bourrelet. ranger’s hat See headwear: Mountie’s hat. 2.ti!-cu-lay-shun) Decora tive net ting holding hair on either side of f ace worn with horned headdress by women in 15th c. 3. rain hat Any waterproof hat worn in the rain. Folds up to fit in purse when not in use. Quaker cap See headwear: joan cap. slightly rolled brim. Man’s small round hat of the 18th c. Der. This style was very popular in the reign of Henry VI of England and was also called a berretino . Hat with large. roundlet 1. Also see headwear: sou!wester. In 17th thro u gh 19th c. 2. by Quaker men. Der. rain bonnet Accordion-pleated plastic covering for head that ties under chin. Hat worn by naval enlisted personnel made of white duck fabric with gored crown and stitched uptu rn ed brim worn ei t h er on the back of the head or tilted over the foresailor hat #1 head. term used to describe the roll of the 15th-c. Rubens hat High-crowned woman’s hat of 1870s and 1880s with brim turned up on one side. worn in 18th c. Also called gob hat and tennis hat. Women’s straight brimmed hat with shallow flat crown worn since 1860s. Popular for wom en and gi rl s in 1930s and 1940s. round-eared cap Woman’s white cambric or lace indoor cap worn from 1730s to 1760s. Hat is somewhat similar to a topee (see under headwear) with a shallower crown. Red Baron helmet See headwear: aviator’s helmet. Named for hats painted by Flemish master Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640). in 1956. ranelagh mob Woman’s cap of 1760s made with a kerch i ef ( s ee under h e adwear) folded diagonally and placed over the head with two long ends tied under chin. low crown. and no ornamentation worn in the 19th c. Some hats are made of vinyl and styled with a high crown and a floppy brim. sometimes trimmed with feathers and bows. with attached streamer for carrying it over shoulder. 17th-c. called a becca. The ends were pulled back and pinned or left to hang down.” sailor hat 1.

He was ch a r ged in co u rt for “breach of peace” for frightening timid people. snood. shoe hat Hat de s i gn ed by Elsa Sch iaparelli in the 1930s that looked like a woman’s h l!-kuh) is a skullcap m ade of plain.headwear: slouch hat 261 broidered with fictitious name of a ship on a ribbon band at the base of the crown. Also see h e adwear: c a l otte and cl erical dress: calotte. sometimes shaped like a pillbox (see under h e adwe ar). 1797. a haberd a s h er of Lon don . Woman’s soft fabric hat made by tying a scarf over a lining or base. and sewed in place. or crocheted fabric that is worn by Or thodox Jewish males for day wear and in the synagogue. scoop bonnet Bonnet popular in 1840s wi t h wide stiff brim shaped like a flour scoop attach ed to soft crown. similar in style to the brimless French sailor hat (see under headwear). Invented by John Hetheri n g ton. scarf hat 1. sleep bonnet Any net. m ade of leather studded with nailheads and styled similar to World War I aviator’s helmet. similar to stocking cap (see under headwear). be aded. Has darkblue ribbon around crown and ties under ch i n. A ya rmu l ka (ya h r. or feathers are sometimes placed on top toward the back. Salvation Army bonnet High-crowned black straw bonnet with short front brim raised off foreh e ad to show a pale-blue lining. skimmer sailor hat or boater (see under headwear). round. Hat su b s equen t ly became the top hat (see under headwear) in 1830. Top is som etimes tapered. where they tied in a bow. shepherdess hat See headwear: bergère. or cap worn to bed to protect hairstyle. Saint Laurent hat Cap designed by French co uturi er Yves Saint Laurent in 1966. shoe hat shower cap Plastic or waterproof 1930s cap. which fits tightly to crown of the head. s om etimes flared. usually shirred into an elastic band. . slouch hat Woman’s hat similar to a man’s fedora (see under h e adwe a r) made with a flex i bl e brim that may be tu rn ed down in slouch hat fron t . From old-fashion ed “flour scoop. Veiling. Also called a Garbo hat (see under headwear). with exaggerated shallow crown and wide brim. service cap Army cap wo rn with dress uniform. A beanie is a skullcap cut in gores to fit the head. sil k hat Hi gh cyl i n d rical-shaped hat with flat top and silk-plush finish used by men on formal occ a s i ons and with formal riding dress by men and women. made with a stiff. with fe a t h er cock ade in front. Worn by children and by freshmen students as a part of hazing by uppercl a s s m en . it was ad a pted from a style of military cap worn formerl y. Worn with qu i l ted part in cen ter fron t and ti ed on the head like a kerch i ef (s ee under headwear). A triangular piece of colorful print or plain fabric quilted on long side. this is also called a dink or dinky. a religious and charitable organization. em broidered. Worn by other Jewish men for special occ a s i ons and religious services. ribbon. flat top and stiff visor of leather or plastic. Worn by marching bands. worn by women of the Salvation Army. 2. wide ribbons crossing under chin and brought up to top of crown.” sco t t i e A brimless hat styl ed som ewhat like the glengarry (see under headwear) with narrow recessed crown. worn to keep the hair dry when taking a shower. Der. Also see headwear: drum major’s hat. This design was ref l ective of the de s i gn er ’s i n terest in Surrealism. scarf cap Long tubular knitted or crocheted scarf with opening for head in one end. Worn by women in 1880s. sempstress bonnet Woman’s bonnet of 1812 with long. often part of ecclesiastical garb or national costume. shako (shay!-ko) Cylindrical stiff tall cap with a t t ach ed visor. usually made in eight sections. provoking a riot when first worn by him on Ja nu a ry 15. skullcap Gored cap. shade P i ece of knitted or woven fabric usually attached to a hatband and arranged to fall over the back of the head and neck to prevent sunburn.

especially the cowboy style (see under headwear). term for hat made of bra i ded split pieces of s traw ra t h er than wh o l e rounded stalks. Also spelled splinter. sometimes with silver lace. diadem. swagger hat Informal sports hat. ste p hane 1. sou!wester/southwester Rain hat made with a dome-shaped sectioned crown and broad s ti tch ed bri m — l a r gerin back . steeple headdress See headwear: hennin. H .t h ro u gh plastic with mirror-like reflective finish. sugarloaf hat See headwear: capotain.” sombrero córdobes See headwear: gaucho hat. Also see headwear: Rex Harrison hat. that was som etimes made of knotted silk yarn. or other material worn at the back of the head and nape of neck to confine the hair—sometimes attached to a hat. popular in late 1870s and early 1880s particularly for young wom en and gi rls. spoon bonnet Small-crown ed bonnet of e a rly 1860s with brim narrow at sides and projecting upward above forehead in elliptical shape. 2.. Also called toboggan cap. mesh. First worn by fishermen in New E n gland wh ere a wind from the sout hwe s t m e a nt rain. Also spelled catagan. 3. or as a badge of office or wreath used as a symbol of victory. stocking cap A knitted or crocheted cap with a long pendant tail worn hanging down the back or side frequently with a tassel on the end. st roller Ca sual mannish felt hats stocking cap worn by wom en for town and spect a tor sports in 1930s and 1940s. Crown sent by By z a n tine Emperors to o t h er mon a rchs and important dignitaries. Front secti on is made of s ee . Statue of Liberty visor Headband with seven spikes and visor in front worn during “Liberty Weekend” in 1986 in celebration of the renovation of the Statue of Liberty in New York harbor. snood Hairnet made from chenille. Often made with pockets into which pieces of cardboard or other firm material could be slipped in order to provi de stiffness to the bri m . worn over crown of head and enclosing the hair that hangs down the back .s i zed brim tu rn ed down in front. O ri gi n a lly made of yellow oiled silk—now made of any waterproof fabric for children’s rainwear and fishermen. sombre. Stetson® Trade name for a man’s hat manuf actu rer of all types of hats. In 15th and snood 16th c. Also spelled stephanos. space helmet Helmet made of molded plastic covering the head and neck completely and fastening to collar around the top of the space su i t .hat 16th-c. Ancient Greek term for anything that encircles the head . Du ring the Second Empire (1852– 1870) snoods of chenille or fine silk cord decorated with steel beads were worn over the ch i gn on ( s ee under hairstyl e s). Revived for Centennial celebrations throughout the United States. stovepipe ha t See h e adwe a r: top hat. Spanish. Snoods are revived periodically. a coronal.262 headwear: snap-brim hat snap-brim hat Man’s or woman’s hat with the brim worn at several different angles according to the preference of the wearer. Popular in 1930s and 1940s for men and women. slightly tapered crown and large uptu rn ed brim. Worn in Mexico by peons in straw and by wealthier citizens in felt lavishly trimmed around the edge. wi t h m ed iu m . soul cap See headwear: newsboy cap. Also worn in Spain and the south western Un i ted State s . or the brim of a helmet. A c adoga n net was a snood. Der. “to shade. spl y te r. often fel t . Decora ted cre s cent-shaped headdress worn in ancient Greece and Rome by brides. sun bonnet Wide-brimmed fabric bonnet tied under chin especially worn by infants and children for protection against the sun. sombrero (som-brer!-oh) Mexican hat with a tall. Worn originally by early pioneers on western treks across the United States for protection against the sun. but of ten used to mean a wide-brimmed Western-style hat. wh ere it is made of felt and s om ewhat similar to a ten-gallon hat. nets decorated with pearls and jewels were worn . Der.

Quilted padded cover for teapots used to keep the tea hot at the table. shaped som ewhat like a derby (see under headwear). Usua lly larger than other tams with a pom pon at cen ter of c rown. Term used since top hat about 1820 for a high crowned hat with a flat top and narrow brim. or topper. when it replaced the beaver hat. Der. in tropical climates since 1880s. It is a flat cap tam m ade in several ways : (a) out of t wo circles of f a bri c — one com p l ete and on e with hole cut in cen ter—sewed together at the outer ed ge .eece!) L a r gehood. Sometimes used to hold a wedding veil. Also called demi-coronal. topper See headwear: top hat. often of metal set with jewe ls or flowers. After this it was made by felting rabbit hair on top of silk and applying steam and pre s su re to make a smooth and shiny su rf ace . tam/ta m . t h re e -sto reys-a n d -a . ten-gallon hat See headwear: cowboy hat and sombrero. Thérèse/Teresa (ter. l a ter with an attach ed shoulder cape. sometimes men.” tea-coz y cap Cap introdu ced in late 1960s that fits head closely to cover hair completely. A basic hat type that has a high crown and is generally brimless or may have a very small brim. Al s o called plug hat (American term for top hat). Differs from an opera hat (see under headwe a r) in that the latter is always collapsible and made of du ll silk. 2. Can be made in various shapes. top hat Man’s tall hat made of shiny silk or beaver cloth with narrow brim. Does not fit close to the head. A stretch ter rycloth band worn around the head during exercise to absorb sweat. 2. thrum 1. because constructed with an air space between head and helmet. Made with two hats sewed together at edges of brims and worn by British women. te m plers/temples/temple t tes See h e adwe a r: bosses. originally made of cork 1⁄2" thick. tilbury ha t Man’s small hat with high tapered flat-topped crown and narrow rounded brim worn in 1830s. Band. Also called pith helmet. often turbanlike. de s i gn ed to go over tall bonn ets and hairs tyles.o -s ha n te r 1. Also called a thrummed hat. h el d o ut with wire. stovepipe hat (because of its resemblance to a stove pipe). usually made of sheepskin leather. to protect hat from sweat. pot hat. and England in 18th c. (c) made out of p i ece of circular molded felt and also called a beret (see under headwe a r) .basement Amusing name given to woman’s hat of 1886 with very high crown. Der. Name refers to European cork. Der. worn on to p of woman’s head from ear to ear. toque (tok) 1. with large brim that had a metal vent in the crown. Also see headwe a r: silk hat.headwear: toque 263 sweatband 1. (b) croch eted with pom pon on top for trim. tiara (tee-ar!-ah) Curved band. . Woman’s coif or head scarf worn in the 16th and early toque #1 17th cs. giving effect of a crown. Long-napped felt hat worn in 16th c. sometimes slightly rolled at the sides. “Tam” is a s h orten ed form of the Sco t ti s h “tam-o-shanter ” u s ed in the Un i ted State s . 2. Also called a chimney-pot hat from the 1830s. Genuine Sco t tish tams are frequ en t ly made out of l on g. placed around the inside of a man’s hat where crown joins the brim. Worn in Fra n ce from mid-1770s to 1790. terai hat Riding hat of fur or felt with red lining. Worn particularly in the jungles as a protection from the sun. topee/topi Tropical helmet shaped more like a hat with a wide brim. From the name of the main character of Scottish poem written by Robert Bu rns about 1791 called “Tam O’ S h a n ter. which was knitted i n to workmen’s caps in the United States. shaggy s triped wool fabric and cut in segm ents so that stripes form a pattern on the top. 2. Short tufts of wool left on loom a f ter fabric is cut aw ay. toboggan cap See headwear: stocking cap.

it is copied from earlier cap worn wh en “touring” in early 20th-c. turban 1. Also spelled tricorn. Trafalgar turban British woman’s evening tu rban of 1806 em broi dered with Admiral Nelson’s name. tutulus (too t . Turkey bonnet Term used in the 15th and 16th-c. or without. shallow circular crown made of felt or straw and worn ti l ted . or gauze worn attached to an outdoor bonnet H .korn ) 19th-c . See h e adwe a r: matador hat. Woman’s style was shaped like inverted flower pot with veil from crown passing under chin. Introduced in medieval times and called a coverchief. u m b re lla brim Brim of wom a n’s hat set in u m b rella pleats. cotton. Sometimes consists of fabric wrapped around a fez (see under headwear) with crown showing. When not is use. torsade (tor-sahd!) Coronet of pleated velvet or tu lle with long lappets ( s ee under headwear) worn for ev ening by women in 1864. worn in first decade of the 19th c. Made of satin or velvet with small turned-up brim in front and trimmed with ostrich feather.too!. May also drape over the face and shoulders. or decorated with a jewel in center front. tulle. ugly British term for collapsible brim worn from late 1840s to mid-1860s over a bonnet as a sunshade to protect weak eyes or when traveling. trooper cap Man’s or boy’s cap of leather or l e a t h erl i ke plastic with fur or pile lining and a flap around sides and back . starring Emma Calve. and England from the East. France. upturned brim across the front. 2. 2. Flaps can be fo l ded down to keep ears warm or up to reveal lining. Also call ed Turkey hat. Tyrolean hat See headwear: Alpine hat. or silk wound around the head. tu rn ed up to form three equidistant peaks with one peak in tricorne center front. opens out to re s em ble an u m brella. tricorne ( try!. Indoor cap made like a skullcap worn under hat by elderly men in 16th c. Der. Named for British naval victory near Cape Trafalgar. Piece of net or tulle attached to a hat. From late 18th to end of 19th c. or sheer fabric placed on the head and usually draped down the back. under cap 1. term for variation of the cocked hat (see unde r h e adwe a r) . Made of series of cane half-hoops covered with silk. police officers. Tri l by was made into a play in which Beerbohm Tree played the character Svengali. net. veil 1. toreador ha t (tor-ayah!. Va l o is hat (val-wa !) Velvet or be aver hat with brim of equal width all around worn by women in 1822. for man’s or woman’s tall cylindrical hat without a brim introdu ced to It a ly. Der. Woman’s hat of the 1890s with flat. frequ en t ly tre a ted for water repellency. 2. Adaptation of this draped hat turban #2 for women has beco me a classic style. Inspired by George de Maurier’s 1894 novel Trilby. etc. lace. Decora tive accessory usually made of l ace. In s p i re d by the opera Carmen.264 headwear: toquet toquet (toe-ket!) Woman’s small drape d evening hat worn on back of head in 1840s. Sometimes with one loose end hanging down. Origi n a lly worn by state po l i ceor “troopers . folded up like a calash. in 1805. Man’s headdress of Moslem origin consisting of long scarf of linen. a piece of net. Popular in the 1980s. Woman’s indoor cap usually shaped like a coif (#3) worn under outdoor hat from 16th to mid-19th c. t re n cher hat Wom a n’s silk hat with triang ular brim coming to point above forehead.luss) Ta ll cone-shaped hat worn by ancient Etruscan wom en with. Der.” now used by mail carri ers. in this type of hat.dor) 1. off Spanish coast. The following year. touring cap Leather or fabric cap with snapdown vi s or. trilby Man’s soft felt hat with supple brim worn from 1895 on. 2. automobiles.

Similar to hat worn by William Penn (1644–1718) when he colonized Pennsylvania. for other work duty. Has a leather adjustable strap worn under the chin to secure the hat. or permit it to hang down the back. 2. In trodu ced in late 1960s. Also called a barbe. . that fits tightly around the face but blouses in the back. Similar to gaucho hat (see under headwear). Adapted in other colors for sportswear by men . with flat crown and black or navy blue visor. wind bonnet Lightweight foldup covering for head made of net. it gradually became a part of the customary dress of widows. wi d ow ’ s p ea k Sm a ll cap wired in hearts h a ped form with peak in center of forehead. m o s t ly as trim. white crown Crown of ancient upper Egypt made in tall cyl i n d rical shape tapered in at top and ending with a knob. welding cap Cap similar to a baseball cap but with a relatively short vi s or (see under headwear). often croch eted . or chiffon to protect hair.down saucer. 1940s.headwear: yarmulka 265 or hat worn by embl em . British military hero who defeated Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Also called bill. western hat High-crowned hat with a flat top and wide brim frequ en t ly trimmed with a leather thong pulled through holes punched at regular intervals around the crown. Popular in mid-1960s. It also became a part of the habi t s of some orders of nuns. worn by women in 1866. who wore it with a dark hood and vei l . The vulture wings are a symbol of protection used by the Egyptians. decorated with yach t . watch cap Watteau hat (wat-toe!) Small hat for the seashore shaped like an upside . Worn by sailors on w a tch. this crown was worn toget h er with the red crown of lower Egypt. or as a replacem ent for wh i te du ck hat. usually attached to center front. Also see headwear: Marie Stuart bonnet. Styl ed similar to a naval officer ’s cap. and also worn by yach t . G a u ze veil of 1809 worn with evening dress.. From 1890s veils extended to the chin. Ori gi n a lly worn by Catherine de Medici as a widow’s bonnet and much worn by Mary. held on by a chin strap. and ch i l d ren. Cloth worn to cover the chin of a woman in the Mi d dle Ages. World War I helmet Cast metal helmet. When worn in battle. No hair shows from beneath the hat. Some hats are entirely covered with members on boats. Der. some with u n ded crown worn forw a rd on the head. Will iam Penn ha t Mediu m . Der. made of navy-blue wool yarn. Wellington hat Tall beaver hat worn by men in the 1820s and 1830s with a crown at least 8" high and flared at the top. Der. wig hat Soft hat. with a shallow crown and narrow brim. s om etimes covered with a piece of mu l ti colored fabric for camouflage.s i zed brim with high . fitting closely over head with turned-up cuff. Particularly worn in 1930s. Worn interm i t ten t ly since. vulture-winged headdress Egyptian qu een’s headdress with two wings hanging down on ei t h er side of the face with the uraeu s . When Egypt became united . watch cap Knitted cap. Named for the first Duke of Wellington. visor Stiffened part of a semicircle attached to a headband or to front of a cap to protect eyes from the sun. wimple 1. Na m ed for the artist Watteau. yarmulka See headwear: skullcap. Trimmed with ribbons radiating from crown to edge of brim. and 1950s. yachting cap Ca p. Queen of Scots. that did not cover the ears or conform to the shape of the head. usually wh i te. or cobra design of the sacred asp. wide-awake Man’s 19th c. Sometimes had a rosette with attach ed streamers on ri ght side. Du ring the 14th c . wom en . World War II helmet Cast metal helmet conforming closely to the shape of the head with slightly upturned edge. Arranged to cover part or the entire face or draped to back as trimming. point d’esprit. broad-brimmed low-crown ed hat of felt or other material used for country wear.

An orange color. herl See feathers. heat setting † Process used to set. lustrous fiber from the stem of the hemp plant. Hessian boot See footwear. hérisson See hairstyles. heliodor See gems. H . Stan * See Appendix/Designers. gem cuts. head wrap See headwear.266 headwear: yeoman hat yeoman ha t Woman’s fabric hat with puffed crown gathered into wide band. Also called broken tw ill weave. by applying heat and pressure. and settings. Hermés * See Appendix/Designers. creating a continuous V-shaped design like the bones of a fish. zucchetto See clerical dress: calotte. gem cuts. slanting parallel lines adjacent to other rows slanting in reverse direction. hedgehog See h a i rstyles: coi f f u re à l’heri s s on. an appearance likened to that of hard-drug addicts. and settings: bloodstone. 2. First made in lavender tones similar to the flowers of the heather plant. Cultivation of hemp plants is illegal in the United States because the plant is from the same family as mar ijuana. Henley boater See headwear. Herkimer diamond See gems. See hosiery. Basic hair dye or rinse. heelless hose See hosiery. one of the earliest dyes discovered. Hercules braid See braids. pale. heart-shaped headdress See headwear. sale of hemp fabrics and fibers is legal and the fiber is used for making apparel. herigaut See gardecorps. helmet See headwear. with large circles under their eyes. Used in tweeds. heather effect † Appearance of fabric achieved by blending dyed fibers with white fibers to produce a mottled appearance. heel lift See footwear: heels. gem cuts. then reversing the direction. hemp † A coarse. heel horn See footwear: A. hense lynes/henselyns See doublet. herringbone weave † Ch evron pattern produ ced in a fabric by using the twill weave for several rows in one direction. sometimes with uptu rn ed brim worn with walking dress from 1806 to 1812. however. Also used on toes in some Eastern countries in early days. gem cuts. 3. Orange-colored dye. heroin chic Term applied to fashion advertising and magazine photogra phy style of the late 1980s and 1990s in wh i ch models appear em aciated. heart breaker See hairstyles: c r è ve . strong.P. Henley shirt See shirts. Heim. heels See footwear. and settings. and acetate. herlot See harlot. Herman. herringbone stitch See embroideries and sewing stitches: catch stitch. heuse See footwear. heuke See headwear. heel 1. and settings. herringbone chain See jewelry. h ea rt-s haped cu t See gem s . Hedebo See em broi deries and sewing stitches. Carolina * See Appendix/Designers. simulating our nail polish. and eur and love lock. Jacques * See Appendix/Designers. See footwear. polyester. Henry IV collar See necklines and collars. embroidery.T. Henrietta jacket See coats and jackets. Henry II collar See necklines and collars. Henley neckline See necklines and collars. Usually made of yarns of two colors in yarn-dyed woolen fabric with thick yarns producing a large pattern. and settings. hematite See gems. hem See clothing construction details. heliotrope See gems. henna 1. 2. permanent pleats or creases in fabrics made of manfactured fibers such as nylon. gem cuts. Egyptians used it to dye their fingers to the first joint. comes from the plant by the same name. hemstitch/hemstitching See em broi deries and sewing stitches. hennin See headwear. Herrera. Used to dye fabrics in primitive times. herringbone Pattern made of short. but now made in many different colors. hemispherical hat See headwear. hemming stitch See embroideries and sewing stitches. and in working of fur skins.

football or baseball shirts. especially in the area of clothing for active sports. consisting of kilt. kilt. high-rise pants See pants. Also called curtain drapery in the United States and pompadour in England. athletic shoes. man’s necktie. hiking costume Costume worn by women in 1890s con s i s ting of s er ge or ligh ter. fans imitated styles worn by B-bo ys and flygir ls and wore bright. resting on hip bones. hidden rivets jeans Jeans with rivets hidden inside the pockets. plaidtop socks. h i ma t i o n ( h e . high-rise waistline See waistlines. sometimes one end was pull ed over the himation head. Also see plaids and tartans.. It is usually more expensive.hippie/hippie look 267 h i ckory st r i p es See pri n ts . manufactured by Levi Strauss between 1937 and about 1960. h igh fashion App a rel of adva n ced design available from innovative designers and/or firms. hip-hugger Contemporary term fo r low-slung pants. stretch. high head See hairstyles.own ) Greek mantle in the form of a rectangular shawl. hip length See lengths. high cut See footwear. 31⁄2 to 4 yards long and about 11⁄2 yards wide that was worn alone or over a tunic by men and women in ancient Greece. designer sportswear. and hip-hop influ ences permeated styles worn by the young. Tommy * See Appendix/Designers. Such fabrics have been used for fashion goods. baseball caps turned backward. strength. it was said that his or her smile had bling. and buttoned gaiters over shoes. hippie/hippie look Term coined in mid-1960s for young pers on who def i ed establ i s h ed customs and adopted an unconventional mode of dress . In the 1990s. Also called high performance fibers. high hat See headwear: top hat. wide belt with sporran attached. called fronts. and high running shoes with untied shoe laces. glengarry cap (see under headwear). Highland suit Boy’s suit of 1880s and early 1890s consisting of jacket. high tech fabrics/hi-tech fabrics Fabrics made f rom manu f actu red fibers with special performance characteristics (e. stri pe s . hip buttons See closures. Also called a Scotch suit. m a i n s tream fashion de s i gn ers such as tommy hilfiger incorporated hiph op styles into their lines. Worn f or mountain climbing and hiking. hinged bracelet See jewelry. and large-scale gold jewel ry. hip boot See footwear. hiking boot See footwear. hikers See footwear. B-boys (break boys) of 1970s (their female followers were called flygirls) developed an athletic dance style. and hat similar to a cowboy hat with high uncreased crown and wide brim. skirt.m a t t ! . When this music and dance became part of the mainstream in the 1980s. pleated or gathered at the waist and pulled down below the knee. baggy clothes. scarlet jacket. When a person wearing these devices smiled. heat resistance). a white shirt. Worn with a tightfitting Eton-type jacket with large lapels. high button shoe See footwear. highlights See hairstyles. serviceable shoes with flat heels worn with puttees (see under footwear) or high-top laced boots to below the knee.g. Around 2001. hip-hop A style of dancing associated with rap music that began in the Bronx in New York City. plaid over one shoulder fastened by brooch. made of gold and set with diamonds or other gems. Costume was forbidden by law from 1747 to 1782. and plaid socks copied from Highland dress.weight bloomers. Hiplets® See . fans of rap music began to wear clip-on covers for their teeth. water repellence. Highland dress Trad i ti onal man’s co s tume of Scots Highlander. feather bonnet or glengarry cap (see under headwear). Hilfiger. Made of wool or linen—usually white with border—it was usually draped over the left shoulder and wrapped under the right arm. and ch ecks. hip bags Slang term in 1883 for folds of skirt forming pa n n i ers at hips. or belt worn bel ow normal waistline.

strings of beads. Started a trend toward ethnic fashions and unusual mixtures of dress.koo) Trad i ti onal Hawaiian ga rm ent derived from the em p i re dress styles worn by American missionary women when they arrived in Hawaii in the early 1880s. Holbein work (hole-bine) See embroideries and sewing stitches. holster pockets See pockets. Over the years these garments have changed somewhat as fashions changed. and sweaters. Popular for pajamas du ring the 1950s. h olbein stitch (hole-bine) See embroi deries and sewing stitches: double-running stitch. bedding. caped coats. pouch bags. and the re su l ting gowns were altered slightly to accommodate the larger size of the Hawaiians and the climate. Hollywood top slip See undergarments. Hope Star® See gems. Also see unisex look. hood See headwear. Honiton lace See laces. aged blue jeans. long uncombed hair. Honiton gossamer skirt See undergarments. hi-rise girdle See undergarments. symbolic pen d a n t s . Most are plain we ave. Co t ton fabrics are frequen t ly call ed w a f f l e . homburg See headwear. Th ey are sometimes erroneously called waffle piqués.268 hip rider swimsuit (e. and long sleeves. hooded heel See footwear. or sandals). the other for a woman—as distinct from “unisexlook. hip-rider swi m su i t See activewear. hook and eye See closures. hoops See undergarments. and settings. Hopi bracelet See jewelry. hook-and-loop closure See closures: Velcro. Haw a i i a n roya l ty asked the mission a ries to make them dresses.” wh ere garm ents were actu a lly interchangeable. heavy wool fabrics made of coa rse. f ri n ged jackets. and goatees (see beards). 2. The full-length garment had a yoke from which the dress fell in a loose fit. home fas h i o ns Tex tile produ cts used for hom e end uses such as towels. but retain these basic lines in either more or less fitted versions and are still worn for formal occ a s i ons by women of Hawaiian descent. hipsters 1. During the late 1960s. u n even yarns. played by Dizzy hippie look G i llespie in the 1940s. holy work/hollie work See embroideries and sewing stitches. miscellaneous tops. hogger/hoker See footwear: oker. hoop petticoat See undergarments: hoops. honeycomb † Any fabric that forms a series of recessed squares similar to a waffle and is made ei t h er in a hon eycomb we ave or knit. co l orful. Fans of Bebop music. homespun † Fa brics made from handspun ya rn s and woven on a hand loom. particularly pantsuits with matching vest.. gem cuts. shirts. honeycomb stitch See embroideries and sewing stitches. hooded seal See furs: hair seal. draperies.® hoop bracelet See jewelry: bangle bracelets. hive bonnet See headwear: beehive hat #1. a high neck. hockey skate See footwear. popular for all typ es of clothing. marked by a low hori zontal belt or seam and called H by Pa ri s designer Christian Dior in 1957. hopsacking † A broad classification of fabrics made in loo s ely con s tructed plain we ave of coa rse uneven yarns. or dress. bare feet. home party See party plan. his and hers look Garments that look alike but that are specifically made one for a man. and table linen s . who wore berets. holoku (hoh-low!. wide scarves. The fabric was originally found in s acks made from coa rse undyed jute H . H-line Straight silhouette. sunglasses. hoop earrings See jewelry: gypsy earrings. hobble skirt See skirts. Contem pora ry vers i ons are now made with automatic looms from manufactured and wool blends and imitate the texture and appearance of the handmade fabrics. See pants: hiphu ggers. and wh i ch ex h i bit style ch a n ges over time in response to changing fashion trends. hoop skirt See oth. loosely constructed. Hoover apron See aprons.

Fabric made from this fiber used in combination with mohair. and top areas are of solid color while the other part is of a mu l ticolored. Includes apparel also called stockings and socks (see under hosiery). which underwent a re vival in the late 1960s. horizontal integ ration The produ cti on by a bu siness of products com peti tive with other products it makes. .sock sation when they were first wo rn at Forest Hills. French. Der. a knitted fabric producer that makes various types of knitted fabrics. a n kle . bikini pantyhose Pa n tyhose with low-slung top for wear with bare-midriff dresses. all-sheer pantyhose Sheer nylon pantyhose made with no rei n forcem en t s . hoqueton/houqueton See armor: acton. horseshoe Term for U-shape. Introduced ankle for women in 1920. Horn. Der. Also see hosiery: bobby sock. Worn today by women and children and infrequently by men. all-in-one pantyhose See hosiery: pantyhose. Anglo-Saxon hosa. textured hose in the 1960s. A machine for knitting stockings was invented in the late 1500s. the introdu cti on of nyl on hose in 1940. and other fibers woven in an openwork weave. Der. Ho s i ery was made from cotton. Carol * See Appendix/Designers. Made in co t ton . may be worn turned down or have elastic top on the cuff. An inn ova ti on of the late 1960s. Synonym: hose (see under hosiery). introduced in the late 1960s. h o si e r y Knitted item of wearing apparel covering the foot and/or leg. coats. horsehair 1. horseshoe collar/horseshoe neckline See n ecklines and collars. based on Art Nouveau designs. horsehair braid See braids. horn rims See eyewear. u su a lly on op a que or co l ored hose. argyl. “decorative art. argy le socks Sock knitted in a diamond pattern of several colors by hand or on a jacquard loom. Art Deco hose Hose printed with geometric designs derived from Art Deco styles. anti-embolism stocking A stocking specially constructed with graduated compression that aids bl ood flow and prevents bl ood clots from forming. cotton. ankle sock Short sock reaching only to the ankle. Tartan of Du ke of Argyle and Clan Campbell of Argyll. “n ew a rt . Fearnley-Whittingstall.” A rt N o uveau hose Styl i zed single or mu l tiple pri n ted de s i gns placed on the calf or climbing the leg. This caused a sen. or low-slung pants. linen. wool. † Hair fiber obt a i n ed from the mane or tail of a horse. art decoratif. O f ten hand-knit in a va ri ety of fancy stitches. horned headdress See headwear. Also call ed s h e er pantyhose. horsehide See leathers. horseshoe jumper See jumpers. d i a m on d . linen. For example. For foreru n n ers of knitted hosiery. New York. and silk yarns. anklet See hosiery: ankle sock.p a t terned plaid. sweaters. hose See hosiery. toe. Also spelled argyll. silk hosiery in the 1920s. Also called foot warmer. for an amateur tennis match in 1931 by Mrs. Worn by women with full-length slacks or pants. spun rayon . s ee chausses and chaussembles in the alphabetical listing.length hosi e ry Sock-length hosiery m ade out of conventional nylon yarn. hip-hugger skirts.” astrolegs hose Hose imprinted with signs of the zodiac. Also called anklet. and pa n tyhose ( s ee under hosiery) in the 1960s. Fren ch . Also called surgical stockings. Among the innovations in the development of hosiery were “flesh-colored. used as neckline or yoke on blouses. and also for stiffening. and the inventor presented Queen Elizabeth I with a pair of knitted silk stockings. a county in W est Scotland. athletic sock See hosiery: sweatsock. and manufactured fibers. Also see vertical integration. and dresses.hosiery: bikini pantyhose 269 or hemp into which hops were put du ring harve s ti n g. 2. Used for interfacing in suits. Coarse varieties also called burlap. Der.” or beige. Heel. bed sock Knit sock worn wh en sleeping to keep foot warm .

detacha ble pantyhose Th ree-piece pantyhose made with paten ted bands on panties to attach replacement stockings. gym sock See hosiery: sweatsock. The tops som etimes had decora ted borders made of gold or silver l ace. and called Lectra-Sox. Worn by spectators at winter sp orts events. they were called stirrup hose. bobby sock Ankle sock. worn by children and so universally popular with female teenagers during 1940s and 1950s that young girls were called “bobby soxers. Also called flat-knit hose. control pantyhose See hosiery: pantyhose. clocked hos e Hose or stock i n gs that have designs running part way up the sides of the legs. upper part with rib stitch. Now made in colors. to protect silk stockings under heavy boots. and odor. finger ba n d In all nude pantyhose. usually with turneddown cuff. checkerboard hose Hose knitted in a checked de s i gn with some squ a res sheer and som e opaque. and intermittently since. or fringed silk. ruffled linen. Also called boot stocking. Designs may be knitted in or embroidered on after hose clocked hose are knitted. Trademarked by Timely Products Corp. fishnet hose Openwork hose in a diamondshaped pattern. silver. foot warmers See hosiery: bed sock. glitter hose Hose made of shiny yarn—some made with metallic yarn that reflects silver. crew sock Heavy sock extending to lower calf with foot knitted in plain st itch. usually made of a combination of fibers. a rei n forcem ent just under the waistband to pro tect against fingernail punctures. boot That part of pantyhose or stocking that extends from the panty or welt to the toe. bootie See footwear: bootie #2. with a specially designed heating element operated by a battery held on by strap around the leg. they may be called poms. fancies Men’s socks in multicolor designs. which were called boot hose tops. fishmouth to e Method of closing a non reciprocating toe (see hosiery: reciprocating construction) in which the seam runs parallel to the bottom of the foot rather than across the top of the toe. Originally white and worn for rowing and other sports. gold. Introduced to wear with minidresses in the 1960s. Frequ en t ly given a s pecial finish to help pro tect the foot from fungus. half-hose Standard-length stocking for men that ends halfway between the ankle and the knee. boot hose tops See hosiery: boot hose.® English rib sock Man’s sock knit with a wide rib or wale and a narrow depression between the wales (see wale #2). electric s o ck He av y weight knee-high sock. Worn by men from mid-15th to 18th c. garter belt hose Hose attached to two elastic strips that connect at waistline to an elastic band around waist. dress sock Man’s sock in ligh t wei ght. footsock/footie Sock that ends below the ankle bone. flat-knit hose See hosiery: full-fashioned hose. Also called glimmer. fitted with a strap under arch of foot and laced through eyelets at top to connect with breeches. When these socks have a pompon sewn on at the back. nonbulky yarns in conservative colors. cushion-sole sock Sock worn for active sports knit with a special sole that keeps the foot from blistering—often a layer of cotton and s tretch-nyl on terry cl o t h . full-fashioned hose Hose knit in flat pieces and seamed up the back. Similar in effect to competitive stripes on knit shirts. bacteria. gold hose See hosiery: glitter hose. Courrèges flower sock See hosiery: knee-hi sock.” bodyshaper pantyhose See hosiery: pantyhose. When made with no foot. H . and copper tones. leaving fashion mark s where knitting is increased or decreased. s i l ky type . or knitted in two colors. First worn in the 16th c. gold or metallic hose. especially for men and boys.270 hosiery: blazer sock blazer sock Boys’ and girls’ socks decorated with bands of color. boot hose Long stockings of coa rse linen with flared top s .

heelless hose Hosiery without a double reinforcement at the heel. Introduced in 1986. Featured by the French coutu. evenly spaced designs such as dots. lu s trous cotton yarn. metallic hose See hosiery: glitter hose. hose Synonym for stockings (see hosiery) and hosiery (see introduction to hosiery). nylon hosiery became a “black market” item. lace hose Knitted lace in rose. See hosiery: opaque hose. Argyle and h erringbone de s i gns would be examples of jacqu a rd patterns. knee-hi sock Sock that reaches to below the knee. smooth. now worn with various types of pants and after the 1980s featured in black. Sometimes abbreviated to knee-hi. lace pantyhose Pantyhose made of patterned stretch lace in openwork styles. jeweled pantyhose Sheer pantyhose with embroidery at ankle trimmed with rhinestones. forming tiny diamond de s i gns that make hose run-resistant. making possible a mu ch sheerer type of hose that was also more durable than the silk hosiery worn previously. nude heel Wom en’s pantyhose or nylon stockings that have no reinforcement at the heel. em broidered with flowers . brown. Worn by boys in early 1900s with knickers and accepted for girls in 1920s and 1930s and after. In 1967 he introdu ced a variation called the Co u rr è ge s flower sock ( coor-rej!) . while “stockings” is used for heavier varieties of a more utilitarian nature.hosiery: opaque hose/opaque pantyhose 271 heel Porti on of the hose that fits the heel of the foot. opaque hose/opaque pantyhose (oh-pake!) Textured or plain hose or pantyhose that are . Originally worn by ballet and toe dancers when exercising and in the 1980s became a fashion item. and children thro u gh o ut 19th and early 20th c. Trademarked nylon yarn was introduced in 1939. a dainty feminine sock coming to several inches below the knee usua lly styled in wh i te with lacy top. and Spanish lace patterns used to make hosiery. Der. m esh hose Nyl on hose knit with a milanese stitch . or coloring. France. Popular for wear with backless or sling-back shoes. Nearly as fine as silk. leg lisle hosi e ry ( lyl e ) Socks and hose made warmers of co t ton lisle yarn.or knee-length sock styled with ribbed tops in extremely bright colors of 100% nylon. neats Solid co l or socks orn a m en ted with small. Adopted by teenagers and adult women in the knee 1960s as the popularity of the mini in. knee sock See hosiery: knee-hi sock. Current usage suggests that hose tends to be used when referring to the more transparent and decorative va ri eties of h o s i ery. Revived in the 1960s when longer opaque socks were popular. usually white. nylons Now synonymous with women’s hose because of the almost universal use of nylon in dress hose for women. novelties Women’s hosiery that has unusual patterns. knee-high hose Hose of conventional nylon yarn or of nylon and spandex that come to just below the knees and are finished at the top with elastic. and colors. Introduced in 1960s and popular for children and women in 1980s. lisle hosiery was worn by men. legwarmer Kn i t te d covering for legs extending from the ankle to the knee or above. wom en. jacquard hose (ja-kard!) Hosiery knit on a jacquard knitting machine that permits much variation in colors and patterns. Also call ed knee so ck. neon sock Ankle. In great demand during World War II. designs. u n til replaced by silk in 1920s and nylon in 1940s. mock seam Hosiery industry term for seam sewed into circular-knit hose to give appeara n ce of full-fas h i on ed hose (see under hosiery). white. Popular in the 1920s for children. Early spelling of Lille.high creased. or black. nonreciprocated See hosiery: reciprocated construction. mini-pane hose See hosiery: windowpane hose. trou ser so ck. F i rst made in beige and worn when dresses were long. Chantilly. and fashionable since.socks ri er Courrèges in his co ll ection in 1965. See milanese knit.

and later made in larger sizes. originally made by the flatknit process and sewed together.panty hose hose were introduced in the United States about 1963. Control pantyhose are those in which the panty portion is knit of nylon and stretch yarns (see elastom ers) to provi de the con trol of a lightweight girdle. Worn in late 17th to mid 18th c. each with a half panty and a full waistband. seamed hose 1. and argyle hose. In the mid-1980s interest in unusual pantyhose was revived and currently they are made in many patterns. . very few seamed hose were sold. also was influential in trying to find a su i t a blehose and gi rdl e combination for wear with her shortskirted dresses of early 1960s. Those pantyhose with a knittedin panty of heavier weight nyl on or co t ton are known as all-in-one pantyhose. (See hosiery: tube sock and fishmouth toe.272 hosiery: over-the-knee socks not sheer and come in all co l ors. sandalfoot pantyhose S h eer pantyhose with no rei n forcem ents at toes or heel s . Bodyshaper pantyhose are control pantyhose with the control section extending to cover the thighs in addition to abdomen and hips. having stockings and panties cut in one piece. Op a que nyl on pantyhose are 40 denier or more in weight. rollups Man’s stockings pulled up over knee of breeches and folded over in w ide band. Popular for we a ring with open -toed shoes or sandals. checkerboard. point d’esprit hose (pwan des-pree!) Netlike m achine-manufactu red hose of co t ton or nyl on with some of the holes made solid to form a decorative pattern..) re pla cea ble legs Wa i s t . Also see hosiery: tights. and average). A nonreciprocated stocking has no shape d heel or toe . e . usually white.luh) (or tights). rolling stockings. run See run in alphabetical listing. Also called rollers. Reintroduced in 1970s but made in circular knits usually with black lines up the back. and tex tu re s . pantyhose Hosiery. run-resistant hosiery See run-resistant in alphabetical listing. sanitary sock An athletic sock. patterned hose Hosiery woven in a desig n.l ength garment in wh i ch one or both legs can be replaced. Popular type hose gen era lly worn until the 1960s. made with tex tu red and sheer nylon yarns. that follows the design of tights. Full-fashioned hose with a seam up the back. Ma ry Quant. May have an op a que panty porti on. medium. short. First made in sizes for tall. A toe may also be formed. sandalfoot hose Hosiery with no reinforcem ent at the toe . Pe ds® Regi s tered trademark of Am erical Corporation for a b road range of hosiery products of varying types and uses. pantyhose were introduced for men in fall 1970. worn under a stirrup sock (see under footwear) as part of an athletic uniform. and petite heights. or be sheer to the waist. poms See hosiery: footsock. quarter socks Sock. g.g. 2. reciprocated construction In the making of a stocking. a sem i c i rc ular or “reciproc a ti n g” m o ti on of the machine shapes a pocket for the heel. In 1958 the firm called Societé de Bonneterie De Ter gn i er in Fra n ce paten ted a brand of sheer pantyhose called mitoufle (mittoof !. British designer. p ro p o rtioned hose Hosiery de s i gned to fit different types of legs (e. or hose. Also see hosiery: socklet. full above-the-knee. ribbed hose Textured hose knit with vertical wales. point d’esprit. extra long. wh en textured ya rns were inven ted with more “s tretch” making it possible to make well-fitting hose without the seam. made of acrylic and nylon with colored terry knit top in colors. Made either as a separate panty to which legs attach at the bottom or as two separate legs. colors. shorter than ankle length. u su a lly on a Jacqu a rd knitting machine. H . over-the-knee socks Sock or stocking with an elastic top that reaches above the knee. By 1968. long. which begins at the top and moves tow a rd the toe . Elastic top holds up the stocking without a garter. Panty.

thus making them more translucent. Also see under h o s i ery: stockings. s ea mless h os e Ci rc u l a r-knit hose without seam in back. m ade of ac rylic and stretch nyl on. silver hose See hosiery: glitter hose. The co t ton vers i ons were known as gym socks. the lower part. When such hose are not on the leg. Also called athletic sock. wool. stretch hos e Hosiery made with tex tu red nylon stretch yarns. they look very small. styled to keep feet comfortable while maintaining bare-leg look in summer.hosiery: tattoo pantyhose 273 seamed pantyhose Conventi onal pantyh o s e with black seam up the back. ex tending to the waist. This improves the circulation and prevents leg fatigue. tattoo pantyhose Very sheer pantyhose with l egs painted in twining floral de s i gns that appear at a distance to be tattooed on the leg. which extended to the knee or above. When this type of sock was first worn. See hosiery: boot hose. 2. The upper s ection was called the upper stocks stocking and the lower section. surgical stocki ng See h o s i ery: anti-embolism stocking. st re tch socks Socks knitted with tex tu red yarn s. Made so flexible that one size usually fits any size foo t . sheer pantyhose See hosiery: all . stay-up hose Regular hose knitted with a special top that holds the hose up without garters. it was always white and made of coa rse co t ton ya rns that stretch ed out of shape easily. socks Now generally applied to knitted coverings for the foot and part of the leg that end somewhere around the ankle or above. Hosiery in wh i ch the foo t portion is fashioned without a heel or toe but which has a strap that fits under the instep of the foot. became known as a stocking. Wh en the ga rm ent was even tu a lly divided into two separate parts in the 16th c. stirrup hose 1.s h ee r pantyhose.g. which were worn instead of wool socks for active sports and gym classes because of their washabi l i ty. socklet Very low-cut sock usually lightweight and not visible above pumps or socklet other shoes. stockings Generally applied to knitted coverings for the foot and most of the leg. Worn instead of sock for the bare-legged look.. de s i gn ed to be pushed down and gathered around the ankle. Ultra sheer hose are made with exceptionally fine yarns. The term derives from the sock Latin soccus. wom en. sweatsock Sock made of combination of fibers (e. support legwear Hosiery for men or women knitted of stretch nylon combined with spandex yarns to provide support to the muscles and veins of the legs. Usually they have a ribbed top and plain foot. The term derives from a type of leg covering called stocks that was worn in the 15th and 16th cs. Bl ends now make these sock s more washable and shape retentive. and children. See circular knit in alphabetical listing. Peds® (see under footwear) is a trademark for the first widely available socklet made in a number of fibers and styles. Also called stretch top. They are made as hose and pantyhose for women and socks or stockings for men. sometimes with cushioned sole). which was a soft Roman shoe that covered the foot and ankle.. Also made for men. slipper sock Crocheted or knit sock attached to soft. although socks are generally thought of as shorter and stockings as longer. These fabrics keep pressure on the blood vessels so they will not dilate. the lower stocks. The distinction between socks and stockings is not entirely clear-cut. day sheer or business sheer hose are less sheer and more durable. and covered the foot and leg. slouch sock An k l et with shirred tricolored top. acrylic. sheer hose Nylon hose made with a fine or low denier yarn. cotton. . Often this construction is part of an athletic uniform. moccasin-type sole. sn ea ke r s o ck Type of sock l et (see under h o s i ery) that is shaped high er in front to conform to laced instep of the sneakers.

jester of Charles VI of France. curving hips. He avi er part looks like the frame of the window. h o us e d ress A simple inexpen s ive d ress made of washable fabric. and orange).274 hosiery: textured hose tex tu red hos e Any style of hose pattern ed wi t h thick and thin sections (e.. ul t ra -sheer pantyhose See hosiery: sheer pantyhose. Frequently trained in back and so long in front that skirt had to be lifted when walking. and dagged at edge or of bagpipe-type (see under shoulders and sle eves). t ig h t s Kn i t ted pants and stockings made in one piece. h o us e coat See sleepwear and loungewear. hound’s-tooth/houndstooth check See prints. Worn with heelless shoes such as mules or clogs.Also called at-home we a r. housel See footwear: heuse. exercising. and full. l a ter worn by children. thermal sock He avy boot-length sock worn for winter activities. tights trouser sock See hosiery: knee-hi sock. introduced by Richard II of England. h o u pp e la n d e (hoop! -land) 1. In the early 1960s worn primarily by women and girls as a substitute for hose. Varied from thigh-length to trailing on the ground when worn as ceremonial robe.. they have no crotch. the wrapper evolved from a woman’s dressing gown. full. lace. Mini-pane hose have smaller squares. Sleeves were long. welt That part at the top of a stocking that is reinforced so that it is strong enough to fasten a support device. 3.. toelet Hosiery designed to cover only the toe portion of the foot.cellihn) and named after Haincelin Coq. made of fibers with good insulating qualities. See s l eepwear and loungewe a r: hostess culottes and hostess robe. etc. usually of opaque tex tu red ya rns. H . and stripes. h ostess Ad j ective used to de s c ri be informal apparel worn at home while en tertaining. housedress c. In 1980s also worn with leotards for dancing. hot pants/HotPants See shorts. a shape not unlike that of an hourglass. hourglass silhouette The shape of a woman’s dress that has a full bust. U seams Pa n tyhose in wh i ch one leg is sewn to the other with a continuous U -shaped seam. As a result. and all colors (e. it was called a wra pper. pinched-in waist. In the early 20th c. or scooped neckline. checks. sheerer section looks like the glass. houppelande #2 2. Worn originally by a t h l etes and dancers. A short houppelande with embroidery on both s l eeves was known as a h a i n cel i n ( ay n . windowpane hos e Tex tu red hose made in geometric squares in thin and thick sec tions. First introduced by Rudi Gernreich in 1964 and later shown by other couturiers such as Givenchy in 1969. hot mask See masks. One of the first items made by the ga rm ent indu s try in mass production. It may be a separate piece of fabric machine sewn to the top of the stocking or may be knitted in heavier yarn and folded double. thigh highs Nylon or nylon and spandex stocki n gs that end at the top of the thigh and u sually have elastic lace tops. worn while doing household ch ores. striped. black. with fitted bodice. Popular in the mid-1960s. Illustrated at silhouette.g. Woman’s dress worn from late 14th through the 15th c. chartreuse. hounds’ ears See cuffs. tube sock Calf or knee-length sock made of stretch yarn that does not have a knitted-in heel or toe. V-neckline with revers (see necklines and coll ars) and dickey.g. shocking pink. made with high funnel-shaped neckline—later V-shaped. Made in white. or windowpane hose). Sleeves were long and tight-fitting or voluminous with fur lining. Man’s voluminous outer robe of late 15th and 16th c. 1930s house slipper See footwear..

on the flapped pockets. jodhpurs or stirrup pants in tweeds or flannels with a stock shirt or any other type blouse. howling bags See pants. of either full attire or individual items of apparel worn when riding or for a formal fox hunt (e. hussar jacket See coats and jackets. p l e a ted tro u s ers . Overall appearance. Worn with matching full or fitted trousers to below the knees with jockey boots (see under footwear). and cuffs. hunting calf British term for reverse calf. and fur.trimmed around ed ge s . hula skirt See skirts. Hubbard blouse See blouses and tops. hunter’s pink See coats and jackets: pink coat. a n a rrow midi-length skirt with side slit worn wi th boots and hacking or velvet jacke t). generally calf-length— sometimes longer or shorter—slashed up sides. Hungarian suit A boy’s belted double-breasted tunic. 2. hunting necktie See ties. popular around 1984. and settings. huque/huke Man’s flowing outer ga rm en t .. headwe a r: hu nt cap and hunt derby.hyacinth 275 housse See garnache. human hair wig See wigs and hairpieces. Hudson seal See furs: muskrat. Trimmed with braid down the side front. worn throughout 15th c. huckaback stitch See embroideries and sewing stitches. gem cuts. hunt Adjective used to describe clothing and acce s s ories used by equestrians wh en hu n ting on horseback. hunting cap See headwear. weskit [som etimes with sleeve s ] . Hush Puppies® See footwear. hurluberlu See hairstyles. Hudson Bay sable See furs: marten. huckaback embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. Som eti m e s s l a s h ed up front and back for ease in riding horseback.g. See leathers. and a full .. Hungarian Embroidery See embroideries and sewing stitches. hussar boots See footwear. hundred pleater See headwear: chef’s hat. hunting plaid See plaids and tartans. Derby worn with stock tie. See activewear: hunt breeches. hunter’s watch See watches. huarache (wa-rach-ee) See footwear. hunting shirt See shirts. hyacinth See gems. hunt look 1. hunting vest See vests. .l en gth coat similar to a Chesterfield. huseau See footwear: heuse. that consisted of the wearing. hug-me-tight See vests. coats and jackets: pink coat. Riding habit as worn for a formal fox hunt or hacking in Great Britain. or Virginia. Hunga r ian point See em broideries and sewi n g stitches: florentine embroidery. huke See huque. husky sizes Boys’ sizes—8 to 20—cut with more generous proportions. hunting stock See ties. for daytime or evening. worn from late 1860s with a small turneddown co llar and fasten ed on the side in a doubl ebreasted manner. Massachusetts.

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