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Exercise 3.

3: Annotated Bibliography & Rough Outline To help you build a more effective evidence-based argumentative essay for your Progression 3s final writing assignment, your task now is to write what we call an Annotated Bibliography and Rough Outline. The goal of the An. Bib. is to: 1) briefly describe the background context and controversial topic/issue that you are interested in investigating regarding issues of economic sustainability and the various debt crises that our society is facingeither those addressing the student loan debt crisis, or our governmental debt crisis; 2) state a focused, specific research question you are interested in investigating; and 3) list the evidence sources you will use and how you predict they will help support your arguments and claims. After the An. Bib. helps you organize your sources and discover how they will support your argumentative essay, the next helpful step is to start a Rough Scratch Outline in which you will start to organize the large chunk content sections of your first draft. On the following pages, you will see detailed instructions and prototype examples of the formats for both your Annotated Bibliography and Rough Scratch Outline assignments. The An. Bib. and Rough Outline are due next Tuesday (after Veterans Day). Then, your first draft will be due next week Thursday. On Thursday, we will have small group peer review of your first draft, where your group members will give you some input on how to improve your draft. Then, the next Tuesday (check syllabus date) you will turn in the completed Progression 3 Essay.

Annotated Bibliography The first two introductory paragraphs of the bibliography is the place where you will informally describe the background context and controversial topic/issue that you are interested in writing/arguing about. Think of it as the place where you will practice writing a good introduction to the first draft of your 3rd (and hopefully best) essay for our class this semester. Introduce the specific problem of debt that you have observed which has piqued your interest and made you curious to find a new solution. Perhaps you have observed that our government recently shut down because Congress and Obama couldnt come to an agreement on how to pay the gov.s loan debts. Next, state the Big Social Idea that lies behind this particular problemperhaps the dangers of our representative system of government in the era of high-cost election campaigns, which turns our elected officials into stubborn bickering partisans that refuse to compromise and make appropriate decisions for the good of the people (out of fear of disappointing the rich people who contributed millions to their election campaigns). You might introduce the potential debatable sides of how to solve this debt problem, using a good template from They Say/I Say that points out how some experts might argue one kind of solution, yet others would argue other possible solutions (such as raise taxes on the rich to help out the poor vs. cut out gov. assistance to the poor, letting the rich hold onto their hard-earned income themselves). You might also include what your personal connection is to this specific debt problemwhy it resonates with your real-time experiences or situation. This lets the rest of us see the intellectual journey you have taken from observation of the problem, to the desire to discover some possible solution to it. Also, towards the end of the introduction, state your specific research question that you are attempting to answer and put this research question in boldface font so we can clearly see it.

Then, for the annotated second part, you will choose at least 5 sources to use in your essay: 1) One of the sources must be one of the five documentaries I posted on this weeks Moodle section; 2) a second source must be one you have uncovered on your own research that I did not post on Moodle (to help you out, I am allowing you to use one of the essays included in your They Say/I Say book, such as the Hacker/Dreifus article p. 179, the Carey article p. 215, the Wilson article p. 256, the Frank article p. 580, the Krugman article p. 586, or the Ruzich/ Grant article p. 624); the other three sources must be selected from three different articles I did post on this weeks Moodle section. For the annotation, you will then introduce us to all 5 of your sources, giving the MLA citation for each source (using double-spacing and indentation of the second lines), and then provide a two or three sentence summary of the main points of each sources information. No quotes are needed in the An. Bib.; however, in italics, you will then state how you will use the source information to support your arguments/claims/ (possibly subclaims) or overall thesis. Read my sample taken from a students earlier work this year at CSUN, and all this should be clarified. Remember, THE POINT OF THE AN. BIB. IS TO HELP YOU ORGANIZE YOUR SOURCES AND SHOW THE INSTRUCTOR THAT YOU HAVE A CLEAR PURPOSE IN USING THE SOURCES TO SUPPORT YOUR WORKING THESIS.

Possible Topics Related to the US Debt Problems Any of the Issues/Solutions to the Student Loan Debt Crisis taken from articles or videos from two weeks ago Crisis/Solutions to the Widening Income/Wealth Gap & Social Inequality The Pros & Cons behind the concept of Capitalism, Taxation, or Wealth Distribution The Causes/Solutions to our Government Debt Crisis Issues related to Congressional Bickering and Gridlock on solving Debt Problems Causes for the Collapse of Credit in the Housing Loan Industry and how this credit crisis plunged us into our Great Recession (predatory lending, lack of gov. oversight, Wall Street greed) Topics from the One Percent Documentary Film: Any possible topic reflected in the film that grabs your interest and compels you to want to investigate (see me for approval of your topic).

Note Well: If you choose to write about the student loan debt crisis, you still need to find something in one of the 5 documentaries we watched this week that you can use as evidence to support one of the claims you are making in your essay regarding student loan debt. Another option is for you to find a different serious and well-researched online documentary video on the subject of student loan debt that you can then draw evidence from; you will email me the link to the video so that I can check up on your sources.

Student 1

Name John Kubler English 000A 25 April 2012 Sample Argument Proposal and Annotated Bibliography Language Arts teachers in the Los Angeles public school system face an enormous challenge today. According to some experts in education, the question of whether the English language learner should be taught exclusively in English or in a combination of the students native language and English is the most contentious issue facing English Language Learner (ELL) instruction (Hayes 35). Furthermore, this debate on which language to use stirs up deeply felt emotions which are impacted by ones fundamental political bias and attitudes towards the flood of immigration into Los Angeles county over the last two decades. This political argument eventually led to California passing Proposition 227 which mandates that in its public schools, mainstream classes will be taught in English-only instruction and those students who are assessed to be classified as ELL will be placed in sheltered English immersion programs for one year. Arizona and Massachusetts are two other states that also passed anti-bilingual legislation in 2000 and 2002. So the debate over which language to use in instruction for the ELL student continues even to this day. My project is as follows: I would like to briefly look at the historical background and political underpinnings in the 1980s and 1990s which led to California passing Proposition 227 in 1998, and then focus my further reading on the actual research evidence which has been conducted that attempts to answer this research question: Compared to bilingual education, is English immersion instruction indeed more effective in teaching English Language literacy skills to the English Language Learner student in our public schools? That is, will the ELL students achieve a higher level of academic success in literacy instruction if they are taught in an English immersion classroom, as compared to a bilingual program? I will not focus exclusively on only California school studies, but will consider any studies of ELL student instruction in America. In so doing, I hope to learn more about the important linkage between literacy and power in todays educational arena.

Student 2

Sources Rossell, Christine and Keith Baker. The Educational Effectiveness of Bilingual Education. Research in the Teaching of English 30.1 (1996): 7-74. Print. This research study of the 1990s examined 300 programs of bilingual education and compared them to English immersion programs. The researchers concluded that bilingual education in the students native language was not as effective as English immersion instruction. This study, along with Rossells spotlighting of a subsequent published report regarding the effectiveness of bilingual education in Texas (Does bilingual education work? The case of Texas. Texas Public Policy Foundation, (2009)) argued the case against bilingual education. I can use this perspective to provide evidence that some researchers maintain that bilingual programs are not as effective as their proponents maintain. Rossell shows the con side of the argument against bilingual education. SiFuentes, Edward. Proposition 227: Ten years later. North County Times (November 8, 2008). Print. This newspaper article was written by a staff reporter to the North County Times, a local paper covering events in San Diego and Riverside Counties. The reporter interviewed some of the 180 educators who attended a conference dealing with evaluations of the effectiveness of Californias Proposition 227 over the 10 years 1998-2008. Prop. 227 mandated the end of bilingual education in California public schools. Most of the educators attending the conference argued that Prop 227 was based on political ideology against immigrants, and was not based on scientific research. Stephen Krashen was interviewed (arguing the pro-bilingual stance), along with Ron Unz (showing the anti-bilingual stance). I can use this perspective to show many California educators argued that, during the 10 year period 1998-2008, Prop. 227 proved ineffective, and that the law needs to be changed; but there are disagreements over how to modify it. (continue for all five of your sources)

Instructions for the Rough Outline Included here is a sample of a Rough Scratch Outline that a student made in one of my earlier classes. Make sure you have these parts included: your working thesis statement/claim, the more important ideas of your Introduction, then all the major claims that you will be making in the body of your essay, in the best order you can think ofwhere you will bullet point list key evidence arguments from your sources. You dont need entire quotes from your sources listed on the outlineonly some key words that will briefly explain how your source evidence will support your sub-claims. Then, also include ideas for your Personal Connections section, and also what Counter-arguments you will briefly address. Then, of course, dont forget the Conclusion and the points you will address that go beyond a mere recap of the thesis. The point of this outline is to jumpstart your planning, and give your fellow group members some sense of what your first draft will be like, and what your thesis and support evidence will be.

Student 1

Name John Kubler English 000A 15 March 2012 Sample Outline for Argument Essay 3 Thesis Statement: The most significant causes for the Global Recession of the last decade were the failed policies of the George Bush administration, because of its misdirected, costly war on terrorism and its undeterred faith in the economic principles of free market capitalism and low taxation. Outline: Introduction: The background context, Big Idea(s), and specific thesis statement --Healthy Budget Surplus of the 1990s Clinton Administration squandered by Bush --Devastating attacks on Sept. 11, 2001 threatened US economic downturn --Bush administrations domestic and foreign responses had fateful effects on economy Claim 1: Failed Military Response to Sept. 11th attacks --Evidence source: Ineffective Afghanistan War on Taliban. Failure to capture Osama Bin Laden American presence still needed even in 2012

--Evidence source: Lack of evidence of Weapons of Mass Destruction in Iraq No connection Saddam Hussein and Al Qaeda and Bin Laden Iraq invasion merely personal revenge on death threat against Bushs father

--Evidence source: High costs of war 2003- present Claim 2: Tax Cuts 2001-2003 depleted the US Budget Surplus of Clinton Administration --Evidence source: Budget surplus 2000 and projected surplus next 10 years --Evidence source: Bushs speech advocating giving money back to the people --Evidence source: Washington Post article analyzing effects of Bush Tax Cuts --Evidence source: Frontline Documentary Ten Trillion and Counting

Student 2 Claim 3: Dangerous Risk of Offering Low Interest Mortgage Loans --Evidence source: Bushs speech on making No Down-Payment Loans for low income families --Evidence source: Federal Reserve lowers interest rates to stimulate economy --Evidence source: Cheap loans stimulates Sub-prime mortgages --Evidence source: Predatory Lending practices

Claim 4: Housing Boom triggers Unregulated Greed on Wall Street Investment Products --Evidence source: Unregulated CDOs and Credit Default Swaps --Evidence source: Lack of Government Due Diligence

Claim 5: Faith in Free Market Capitalism to raise the Standard of Living for the Poor --Evidence source: Rising Tide lifts all Boats --Evidence source: Tax Breaks for Rich Corporations leads to Widening Wealth Gap

Personal Connections & Experiences: --Event 1: My own familys loan troubles --Event 2: My friends experiences

Naysayer Arguments addressed and Defeated: --Counter claim 1 --Counter claim 2 --Counter claim 3

Conclusion --Recap Thesis statement and Big Idea(s). --Positive social benefits of my argument/claim --Larger social implications of the debt crises of the Great Recession