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# RATE OF REACTION/F5/HST

RATE OF REACTION

1. Concept Map
Average rate of reaction Rate of reaction at a given
time

## Observable changes in chemical reaction

Rate of reaction

Collision Theory to
explain factors
Factors affecting rate of reaction affecting rate of
reaction

2. Rate of reaction

(a) Rate of reaction is the …………………at which reactants react to form products in a
chemical reaction.

(b) Not all chemical reactions have the same rate of reaction, some reactions occur
……………… with rate of reaction that is …………….., and some reactions occur
……………… with rate of reaction that is ……………...

## Type of reaction Example of chemical equation for the reaction

Neutralisation

Double decomposition
reaction
Acid with active metals

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Combustion of magnesium

## (d) Examples of slow chemical reaction.

Corrosion of iron

Photosynthesis

Reaction of hydrochloric
acid with sodium
thiosulphate solution.

(e) Time taken for a fast chemical reaction is ……………and the time taken for slow
chemical reaction of ……………. Hence the rate of reaction is …………………… to
time taken for the reaction.

Rate of reaction α
………………..

(f) The rate of reaction can be determined by measuring the time taken for an observable
chemical change to occur.

Time taken

## (g) The observable chemical changes in a chemical reaction are

(i) …………………………………………………………………………….

(ii) ……………………………………………………………………………

(iii) ………………………………………………………………………….

(iv) …………………………………………………………………………

(v) …………………………………………………………………………..

(h) Rate of reaction can be defined as the rate of change of volume of gas produced
per unit time.
Rate of reaction = Change in volume of gas produced
Time taken

## = ……………… cm3 s-1

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(i) Example: If 50.0 cm3 of hydrogen gas is collected in 20 seconds during a chemical
reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid . What is the rate of reaction?

## Rate of reaction = = cm3 s-1

(ii) Example: If 5.0 gram of magnesium ribbon reacts completely with dilute
hydrochloric acid in 25s, what is the rate of reaction?

## (a) For a chemical reaction, if the concentration of reactants or mass of reactant is

plotted against the time, sketch the graph produced:

Concentration Mass of
of reactant / reactant
mol dm-3 /g

Time/s Time/s

(b) For a chemical reaction, if the concentration of products or the volume of gas
released is plotted against time, sketch the graph is produced.

Concentration Volume
of product / of
mol dm-3 gas/cm3
Vmax

Time/s Time/s

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(c) If the concentration of reactant is plotted against 1/time, sketch the graph produced.

Concentration
of reactant /
mol dm-3

1/time , s-1

(d) In a chemical reaction involving release of a gas, it is easier to determine the rate of

## (f) There are 2 methods to determine the rate of reaction, namely

(i) average rate or overall rate of reaction

## Average rate of reaction = Total volume of gas released

Time taken
= V cm3 s-1 or cm3 min-1
t

## (ii) rate of reaction at a given time.

To determine the rate of reaction at a given time t1 s on the graph at point
M, the following steps are taken.
- Draw a tangent at the point M on the graph.
- Draw a right angle triangle using the tangent as hypotenuse.
- Determine the gradient of the tangent.
- Rate of reaction at t1 s = y/x cm3 s-1

Example:
Rate of reaction at t1
Volume =
of
gas/cm3
Rate of reaction at t2
=
M

Rate of reaction at t3
=

t1 t2 t3 Time/s

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Example: To determine the rate of reaction between zinc and dilute hydrochloric
acid.

## Aim of experiment: To investigate…………..

Apparatus:

Material:

Procedure:
(diagram)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

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Result:

Time/minute 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0

Burette 49.00 36.00 25.00 17.00 11.00 8.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 4.00 4.00
3
Volume of 0.00 13.00 24.00 32.00 38.00 41.00 43.00 44.00 45.00 45.00 45.00
gas
collected/cm3

Discussion:
1. Plot a graph of volume of gas collected against time of reaction.

## 2. From the graph, calculate the

(i) overall average rate of reaction.

(a) 1 minute

(b) 2 minute

(c) 3 minute

## 3. Compare the rate of reaction obtained in 2(iv). Explain your answer.

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4. Write a balance chemical equation of the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid.

5.What is the name of the gas released and suggest a test for the gas.

Conclusion:

## 4. Factors affecting rate of reaction

Name the factors that affect the rate of reaction..

(A)

(B)

(C)

(D)

(E)

## (A) Effect of total surface area of reactant on the rate of reaction.

(a) The smaller the size of particle of solid reactant the larger the surface area of reactant
exposed, hence the higher is the rate of reaction.

## Give 3 examples for the above statement.

(i) Cube sugar dissolves slower than that of fine sugar of the same mass in same amount
of water.

(ii) Minced meat cooks faster that solid piece of meat of the same mass.

(iii) Powdered zinc reacts faster than granulated zinc of the same mass with hydrochloric
acid of the same volume and concentration.

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(b) Experiment to investigate the effect of total surface area of calcium carbonate on
the rate of reaction

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables:
(i) manipulate variable:

## (iii) fixed variable:

Materials:

Apparatus:

Procedure:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

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(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

Results:

## (i) Experiment I using large marble chips:

Time/ minute 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
Burette 49.50 45.20 42.0 39.00 36.50 34.00 31.80 29.50 27.80 26.20 24.50 23.50
Volume of
gas
collected/cm3

## (ii) Experiment II using crushed marble chips:

Time/ minute 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5
Burette 49.00 39.00 33.00 28.50 25.00 21.50 19.00 16.70 14.70 13.00 11.50 10.00
Volume of
gas
collected/cm3

1. Plot the graph of total volume of gas collected against time taken for the reaction for
experiment I and II on the same axes.

## 2. Based on the graph , calculate

(a) the overall rate of rate of reaction for the first 5 minutes of the reaction between
hydrochloric acid and

## (ii) crushed marble chips

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## (b) The rate of reaction at 2.5 minute for

(i) large marble chips:

## (ii) crushed marble chips:

3. Based on your answers in 2(a) and 2(b) , how does the rate of reaction differ?

## 4. What is the factor that causes the difference in rate of reaction?

5. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid.

6. Explain why does the rate of reaction decreases with increase of time.

7. If both reactions are allowed to react until completion, is the total volume of gas

8. If the marble chips used in the experiment is in excess, what is the maximum total
volume of gas collected?
[ 1 mole of gas at room temperature occupies a volume of 24dm3]

Conclusion:

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## (b) Experiment to investigate the effect of concentration of sodium thiosulphate with

hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables:
(i) manipulated variable:

## (iii) fixed variable:

Procedure:
(diagram)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

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(vi)

(vii)

Results:

Experiment 1 2 3 4 5

## Volume of 0.2moldm-3 sodium 45 40 35 30 25

thiosulphate solution, V1 cm3
Volume of distilled water 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0
Volume of 1.0mol hydrochloric 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
Total volume of reactant /cm3 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0 50.0

Concentration of sodium
thiosulphate solution used/moldm-3
Time taken/s 16 20 27 41 83

1/time , s-1

1. Plot the graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution used against time taken
for the reaction.

## 4. Based on your graph, state the relationship between

(i) the concentration of sodium thiosulphate and the time taken for the reaction.

(ii) the rate of reaction and the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution.

## 5. What is colour of the precipitate formed and name the precipitate.

6. What is the time taken for the mark ‘X” to disappear if the concentration of sodium
thiosulphate solution used is 0.10 mol dm-3?

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## 8. Write an ionic equation for the reaction in this experiment.

9. If dilute sulphuric acid of the same concentration is used to replace hydrochloric acid
in this experiment, predict the rate of reaction and explain your answer.

Conclusion:

## Give two examples for the above statement.

(i)

(ii)

(b) Experiment to investigate the effect of temperate on the rate of reaction between
thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid.

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables:
(i) manipulate variable:

## (iii) fixed variable:

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Procedure:
(diagram)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

Results:

Experiment 1 2 3 4 5

Temperature/oC 30 35 40 45 50

Time taken/s 55 48 42 37 33

1/time, s-1

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## 1. Plot the graph of

(i) temperature against time and
(ii) temperature against 1/time.

2. Based on your graph, what is the relationship between rate of reaction with
temperature.

## 3. Write a balance chemical equation for the reaction of this experiment.

4. why is the volume of sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid fixed for
each experiment?

5. What is the time taken for the mark ‘X’ to disappear when the temperature is 60oC?

Conclusion:

## 7. Effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction.

(a) A catalyst is a substance which added to a chemical reaction can ………. the rate of

## …………………………the rate of reaction if it is a negative catalyst.

(c) Example: When copper(II) sulphate solution is added into a reaction between zinc
and hydrochloric acid, the rate of reaction increases but the final quantity of hydrogen
produced is the same the reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid without copper(II)
sulphate solution.

Sketch the graphs of volume of hydrogen gas against time for comparison of reaction of
zinc and hydrochloric acid with catalyst and without catalyst .

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Volume of
hydrogen
released/cm3

Time/s

(d) Experiment to investigate the effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction for
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution.

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables:
(i) manipulated variable:

## (iii) fixed variable:

Apparatus:

Materials:

Procedure:

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(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

Observation:

A

Discussion:

solution?

## 3. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in this experiment.

4. Will the mass of manganese(IV) oxide change at the end of the reaction in test tube B?

Conclusion:

(e) Experiment to investigate the effect of the amount of catalyst on the rate of
reaction for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution.

Problem statement:

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Hypothesis:

Variables:
(i) manipulated variable:

## (iii) fixed variable:

Apparatus:

Materials:

Procedure:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

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Results:
(a) Experiment 1, using 0.2g of manganese(IV) oxide

Time/s 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

Burette 49.70 48.70 47.10 45.70 44.20 43.20 42.00 41.10 40.20 39.50 39.00 38.40 38.00
Volume of
gas cm3

## (b) Experiment II, using 0.6g of manganese(IV) oxide

Time/s 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0

Burette 49.00 43.60 40.50 38.00 36.00 34.50 33.00 31.70 30.50 29.70 29.00 28.20 28.00
Volume of
gas cm3

1. Plot the graph of total volume of gas against time for experiment I and experiment II
on the same axes.

2. Based on your graph, calculate the rate of reaction at 120 seconds for each of the
reaction .
(i) Experiment I:

## 4. Which experiment shows the higher rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?

5. If both experiments are allowed to proceed until completion, is the total volume of gas

Conclusion:

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## Most catalysts are transition elements or compounds of transition elements. Catalyst is

specific in its action and only a small amount is required in a chemical reaction.

## Industrial Product Equation Catalyst

process produced
Haber Process

Contact Process

Ostwald Process

Hydrogenation of
vegetable oil
Cracking of
petroleum

(g) Other examples: Table shows the reacting conditions for the following experiments.
For the following experiments , sketch graph of
(i) volume of gas against time

## Experiment 1 5cm3 “5 volume of H2O2” + 45cm3 water + MnO2

Experiment 2 3cm3 “5 volume of H2O2” + 47cm3 water + MnO2
Volume of
oxygen/cm3

Time/s
(ii) volume of gas against time

## Experiment 1 5cm3 “5 volume of H2O2” + 45cm3 water at 40oC

Experiment 2 5cm3 “5 volume of H2O2” + 45cm3 water at room temperature
Volume of
oxygen/cm3

Time/s
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## (iii) Volume of hydrogen against time

Experiment 1 4 g of excess zinc powder + 100 cm3 of sulphuric acid 0.5 mol dm-3 +
5cm3 copper(II) sulphate solution at room temperature
Experiment 2 4 g of excess zinc powder + 100 cm3 of sulphuric acid 0.5 mol dm-3
room temperature
Experiment 3 4 g of excess zinc powder + 50 cm3 of sulphuric acid 0.5 mol dm-3 at
room temperature

8. Collision Theory

(a) For a chemical reaction to occur, the particles of the reactants must collide with each
other. However, not all collisions result in a chemical reaction to form products.

## (b) According to collision theory, only those collisions which

(i) with ……………………….. orientation and
(ii) posses ………………………amount of energy called activation energy , Ea
will result in chemical reaction.

## (c) Collisions of particles of reactants that result in chemical reaction is known as

………………………….

(d) Activation energy , Ea, is defined as the minimum amount of energy of collision that
is required for particles of reactant to react or to produce effective collision.

## (i) Exothermic reaction (ii) Endothermic reaction

Energy Energy

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(e) Using Collision Theory to explain the factors affecting the rate of reaction.

##  Using solid reactant that is smaller in size.

 When size of solid reactant is smaller, the total surface area increases
 The frequency of collision of particles of reactant increases
 The frequency of effective collision increases
 The rate of reaction increases.

##  Increasing the concentration of reactant will increase the number of

particles of reactant per unit volume.
 The frequency of collision of particles of reactant increases.
 The frequency of effective collision increases.
 The rate of reaction increases.

## o By increasing the temperature of the reactant

o Increased in temperature, increases the kinetic energy of the reactant
particles.
o The frequency of colliding particles possesses energy higher than the
activation energy increases.
o The frequency of effective collision increases
o The rate of reaction increases.

##  Addition of a positive catalyst to a chemical reaction provides an

alternative path of reaction that requires a lower activation energy.
 The frequency of effective collision increases
 The rate of reaction increases.
 Energy profile diagrams to show the effect of catalyst on rate of reaction.

Energy Energy

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## 9. The effect of pressure on rate of reaction.

(i) The effect of pressure only affects the rate of chemical reaction when the reactants are
in the gaseous state.

## (ii) Increased in pressure by increasing the concentration of gas or by reducing the

volume of the vessel,
o the number of particles per unit volume increases.
o The frequency of collision among the reactant particles increases
o The frequency of effective collision increases
o Hence the rate of reaction increases.

Reinforce exercise;
N03/P1

18. Which of the following can be used to determine the rate of the reaction?
I Release of gas per unit time.
II Change of colour intensity per unit time.
III Formation of precipitate per unit time.
IV Increase in the mass of reactant per unit time.
A. I and II
B. III and IV
C. I, II and III
D. II, III and IV

## 2Fe2+ + Cl2 2Fe3+ + 2Cl

Green Brown

In the reaction represented by the equation above, it was found that the change of
colour from green to brown was faster when the reactant mixture was heated.
This was due to the…
I. decrease in the activation energy.
II. increase in the frequency of effective collision .
III. increase in the kinetic energy of ferrum(II) ions and chlorine molecules.
IV. increase in the frequency of collision between ferrum(II) ions and chlorine
molecules.
A. I and II only
B. II and III only
C. I, III and IV only
D. II, III and IV only

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44. Table 4 shows the total volume of gas collected at regular intervals in a reaction.

## Time / s 0 30 60 90 120 150 180 210

Volume of gas/ cm3 0 2.0 3.7 5.2 6.4 7.3 8.6 8.6

## What is the average rate of reaction in the second minute ?

A. 0.040 cm3s-1
B. 0.045 cm3s-1
C. 0.053 cm3s-1
D. 0.062 cm3s-1

48. The equation below represents the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution.

## 2H2O2(aq) 2H2O(l) + O2(g)

Which of the following are produced when 1 mole of hydrogen peroxide is
decomposed completely ?
[1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room condition;
Avogadro’s constant : 6 X 1023 mol-1]

I 2 moles of water
II 12 dm3 of oxygen gas
III 3 X 1023 of oxygen molecules
IV 1.2 X 1024 of water molecules
A I and III only
B I and IV only
C II and III only
D II and IV only

N03/2B

1. The rate of reaction is affected by several factors. One o the factors is the size of
particles.

One kilogramme of meat, cut into big pieces, takes a longer time to
cook compared to one kilogram of meat cut into smaller pieces.

(a) Explain the above statement based on the size of the particles.
[2 marks]

(b) A student carried out three experiments to investigate the effects of the factors
influencing the rate of reaction. Table 1 shows the results of the experiments.

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(i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric
acid. Calculate the maximum volume of hydrogen gas produced.
[ Relative atomic mass: mg,24; molar mass volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room condition]
[4 marks]

(ii) Sketch the graphs for the volume of hydrogen gas against time for Experiment I, II
and III on the same axes.
[3 marks]

(iii) Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experriment I, II and III in cm3 s-1.
[3 marks]

(iv) Compare the rates of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II, and between
Experiment II and Experiment III.
With reference to collision theory, explain why there are differences in the rates of
reaction in the experiments.
[8 marks]

N03/P3/1

An experiment was conducted to find out the effects of temperature on the rate of
reaction. 50cm3 of sodium thiosulphate solution 0.05 mol dm-3 at 30oC was put into a
250cm3 conical flask. Then the conical flask was placed on an ‘X’ sign on a piece of
white paper.

10cm3 of hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm-3 was added to the sodium thiosulphate solution
and shaken. At the same time, the stop watch was started. The stop watch was stopped as
soon as the ‘X’ sign was no longer visible.

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The same steps of the experiment were repeated for sodium thiosulphate solution which
was heated to 35oC, 40oC, 45oC and 50oC.
Figure 1 shows the readings of the stop watch for each of the reaction at different
temperatures.

(a) Record the time for each reaction in the spaces provided in Figure 1.

(b) Construct a table and record temperature, time and 1/time for this experiment.

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(c) (i) Draw a graph of temperature against 1/time on the graph paper.

(ii) Based on the graph in c(i) , state the relationship between the rate of reaction and
temperature.

(d) Predict the time taken as soon as the sign ‘X’ to be not longer visible if this
experiment is repeated at 55oC.

## (e)(i) State the variables involved in this experiment.

Manipulated variable:

Responding variable:

Constant variable:

(ii) State how you would manipulate one variable while keeping the other variables
constant.

## (f) State the hypothesis for this experiment.

(g) From the above experiment, the student found a relationship between temperature and
rate of reaction. The same situation can be applied in our daily lives, for example,
keeping food that is easily spoiled in the refrigerator.

Using your knowledge of chemistry, state the relationship between temperature and the
rate at which food turns bad.

N04/P1

33 An experiment is carried out to study the rate of reaction between marble and
hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide gas.
Experiment Substances
I Excess marble and 50.0 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid

## II Excess marble and 100.0cm3 of 1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid

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A C
Volume I Volume
of of
I
CO2/cm3 CO2/cm3
II
II

Time/s Time/s
B D
Volume Volume
of II of I
CO2/cm3 CO2/cm3
I II

Time/s Time/s

45 The reaction between hydrochloric acid and zinc produces hydrogen gas. The
reaction is complete in 50 seconds and the maximum volume of gas produced is 25
cm3.
What is the average rate of the reaction?

## A. 0.5 cm3 s-1 C. 2.0 cm3 s-1

B. 1.0 cm3 s-1 D. 4.0 cm3 s-1

N05/P1

## 12 The diagram shows the energy profile of a reaction.

Ea is the activation energy for this reaction.
Energy

Ea
Reactant Ea’
Products
Reaction path

## What will change the activation energy from Ea to Ea’?

A. Temperature C. Concentration
B. Catalyst D. Total surface area

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## 13 Which of the following explains the meaning of effective collision?

A. The collision where its energy is less than the activation energy.
B. The collision that has a low energy
C. The collision which takes place before a reaction
D. The collision that causes a reaction

45 The diagram shows the set up of the apparatus for an experiment to determine the
rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and sulphuric acid.

Which of the following combination of conditions take the shortest time for the
mark ‘X’ to diappear from sight?

## Sulphuric acid Sodium thiosulphate Temperature

3 3 o
Volume/cm Concentration/ Volume/cm Concentration/ / C
mol dm-3 mol dm-3
A 10 1.0 50 0.5 30
B 10 1.0 50 0.5 40
C 10 0.5 50 0.5 30
D 20 0.5 40 0.5 40

## 46 In an experiment, the decomposition of 25cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide

solution produces oxygen gas.
Volume
of oxygen
gas/cm3 P

Time/s

If the experiment is repeated using another solution, which solution will produce
curve Q?
A. 25 cm3 of 0.15 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide
B. 20 cm3 of 0.15 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide
C. 15 cm3 of 0.15 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide
D. 10 cm3 of 0.25 mol dm-3 hydrogen peroxide

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N05/P2/7

(a) Food stored in a refrigerator last longer than food stored in a kitchen cabinet.
Explain why.
[4 marks]

(b) A group of pupils carried out three experiments to investigate the factors affecting the
rate of a reaction.
Table 7 shows information about the reactants and the temperature used in each
experiment.

## Experiment Reactants Temperature /oC

I Excess calcium carbonate chips and 30 cm3 of 0.5 30
mod dm-3 hydrochloric acid
II Excess calcium carbonate chips and 30 cm3 of 0.5 40
mod dm-3 hydrochloric acid
III Excess calcium carbonate powder and 30 cm3 of 40
0.5 mod dm-3 hydrochloric acid

Table 7.

## (i) Calculate the average rate of reaction for experiment I.

[2 marks]

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(ii) Based on Table 7 and graph 7, compare the rate of reaction between:
• Experiment I and Experiment II
• Experiment II and Experiment III

In each case explain the difference in rate of reaction with reference to the
collision theory.
[ 10 marks]

(iii) The chemical equation below shows the reaction between calcium carbonate and
hydrochloric acid.
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

Given that the relative atomic mass of C=12, O=16, Ca=40 and the molar volume
of any gas is 24 cm3 mol-1 at room temperature and pressure.

Calculate the maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas produced in Experiment II.
[4 marks]

N06/P1

## 30 The following statements are related to the collision theory of a reaction.

I. The total surface area of the reactant particles increases.
II. The kinetic energy of the reactant particles increases.
III. The frequency of the collision between the reactant particles increases.
IV. The number of the reactant particles per unit volume increases.
Which of the following combinations is true about the effect of the rise in
temperature on the reactant particles?
A I and II only C III and IV only
B II and III only D I and IV only

43 If you want to cook 100 potatoes within a short time, which is the most suitable
method?
A Boil the potatoes in a pan
B Boil the potatoes in a pressure cooker
C Steam the potatoes in a steamer
D Fry the potatoes in a wok

44 Which of the following reactants produces the highest rate of reaction with zinc
powder?
A 25 cm3 of sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm-3.
B 25 cm3 of ethanoic acid 0.1 mol dm-3.
C 25 cm3 of nitric acid 0.1 mol dm-3.
D 25 cm3 of hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm-3.

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N06/P2/6

Diagram 6 shows two experiments to investigate one factor that influences the rate of a
reaction.

(a) What is the factor that influences the rate of reaction in both experiments?
[1 mark]

## CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

(i) Among the products stated in the equation, which is the most suitable to be
chosen to determine the rate of reaction?

[1 mark]

32 HST/RATE OF REACTION/SMKPB
RATE OF REACTION/F5/HST

[1 mark]

## (c) State two controlled variables in both experiments.

1.

2.
[2 marks]
(d) The results for both experiments are represented by graph 6.
Quantity Key:
of product
Experiment I

Experiment II

Time
x
Based on Graph 6:

## (i) Experiment II has a higher rate of reaction.

How does the graph show this?

[1 mark]

## (ii) What has happened to the reactants at time x?

[1 mark]

33 HST/RATE OF REACTION/SMKPB