Project Scheduling(PERT/CPM


   

Schedule converts action plan into operating time table Basis for monitoring and controlling project Scheduling more important in projects than in production, because unique nature Sometimes customer specified/approved requirement-e.g: JKR projects Based on Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Chapter 8

Scheduling, PERT, Critical Path Analysis


PERT -Program Evaluation and Review Technique - developed by the US Navy with Booz Hamilton Lockheed - on the Polaris Missile/Submarine program 1958

Critical Path Method Developed by El Dupont for Chemical Plant Shutdown Project- about same time as PERT

Both use same calculations, almost similar Main difference is probabilistic and deterministic in time estimation Gantt Chart also used in scheduling
Chapter 8 Scheduling, PERT, Critical Path Analysis 3

Project scheduling by PERT-CPM consists of three basic phases:  Planning • breaking down the project into distinct activities; • determining the time estimates for these activities; • constructing a network diagram with each arc representing the activity;  Scheduling • constructing a time chart showing the start and the finish times for each activity as well as its relationship to other activities in the project; • pinpointing the critical (in view of time) activities that require special attention if the project is to be completed on time. • Showing the amount of slack (or float) times for the non-critical activities;

Chapter 8

Scheduling, PERT, Critical Path Analysis


Critical Path Analysis 5 .Controlling • Using the network diagram and the time chart for making periodic progress reports. • updating the network. PERT.  Chapter 8 Scheduling.

identify critical path and activities. research and development etc 3 Used where times can be estimated with confidence. guides to monitor and controlling project Uses one value of activity time 2 Requires 3 estimates of activity time Calculates mean and variance of time Used where times cannot be estimated with confidence. building one off machines. etc 4 5 Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT. familiar activities Minimizing cost is more important Example: construction projects. Critical Path Analysis 6 . Unfamiliar or new activities Meeting time target or estimating percent completion is more important Example: Involving new activities or products. calculate float or slack.Comparison Between CPM and PERT CPM PERT Same as CPM 1 Uses network. ships.

Critical Path Analysis 7 . PERT.NETWORK     Graphical portrayal of activities and event Shows dependency relationships between tasks/activities in a project Clearly shows tasks that must precede (precedence) or follow (succeeding) other tasks in a logical manner Clear representation of plan – a powerful tool for planning and controlling project Chapter 8 Scheduling.

Chapter 8 Scheduling. No two activities can be identified by the same head and tail events (a dummy activity is introduced in such situations). PERT.Rules for constructing a network diagram: 1. Critical Path Analysis 8 . 2. Each activity is represented by one and only one arrow in the network.

PERT. Critical Path Analysis 9 .Example of Simple Network – Survey Chapter 8 Scheduling.

PERT. Critical Path Analysis 10 .Example of Network – More Complex Chapter 8 Scheduling.

AON – Activity on Node beginning or ending points of one or more activities. machinery operations Activity on Arrow (AOA) showed as arrow. uses up resource and consumes time – may involve labor. PERT. Critical Path Analysis 11 . instantaneous point in time. paper work.DEFINITION OF TERMS IN A NETWORK  Activity :  Event : any portions of project (tasks) which required by project. contractual negotiations. also called ‘nodes’ Combination of all project activities and the events SUCCESSOR ACTIVITY  Network : PRECEEDING EVENT Chapter 8 Scheduling.

PERT.before activity ‘Approve Drawing’ can be started the activity ‘Prepare Drawing’ must be completed Common error – build network on the basis of time logic (a feeling for proper sequence ) see example below WRONG !!! CORRECT  Chapter 8 Scheduling.Emphasis on Logic in Network Construction    Construction of network should be based on logical or technical dependencies among activities Example . Critical Path Analysis 12 .

Example 1.C Immediate predecessors for a particular activity are the activities that. enable the start of the activity in question.A simple network Consider the list of four activities for making a simple product: Activity A B C Description Buy Plastic Body Design Component Make Component Immediate predecessors B D Assemble product A. when completed. PERT. Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 13 .

   The graphical representation (next slide) is referred to as the PERT/CPM network Chapter 8 Scheduling. Activity C cannot be started until activity B has been completed Activity D cannot be started until both activities A and C have been completed. PERT.Sequence of activities  Can start work on activities A and B anytime. since neither of these activities depends upon the completion of prior activities. Critical Path Analysis 14 .

Critical Path Analysis 15 . PERT.Network of Four Activities Arcs indicate project activities 1 B A C 3 D 4 2 Nodes correspond to the beginning and ending of activities Chapter 8 Scheduling.

PERT.EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF DUMMYACTIVITY Network concurrent activities a 1 b 2 1 b 3 a 2 Dummy WRONG!!! RIGHT  Activity c not required for e a a b c c 1 e d 1 b d 2 e WRONG ! WRONG !!! RIGHT  RIGHT  Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 16 .

D. Critical Path Analysis 17 . PERT.E. C C F G C D.Example 2 Develop the network for a project with following activities and immediate predecessors: Activity A B Immediate predecessors - C D E B A.F Try to do for the first five (A.C.E) activities Chapter 8 Scheduling.B.

Network of first five activities 1 B C A 3 E D 4 5 We need to introduce a dummy activity 2 Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 18 . PERT.

Network of Seven Activities 1 B C A 3 dummy D E F 4 G 7 5 2 6 •Note how the network correctly identifies D. and F as the immediate predecessors for activity G. machinery. •Dummy activities is used to identify precedence relationships correctly and to eliminate possible confusion of two or more activities having the same starting and ending nodes •Dummy activities have no resources (time. etc) – purpose is to PRESERVE LOGIC of the network Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT. Critical Path Analysis 19 . labor. E.

Critical Path Analysis 20 . b and c precede f (a does not precede f) Chapter 8 Scheduling. a and b precede e.WRONG!!! RIGHT!!! a 1 d a 1 d b 2 e b 2 4 e c 3 f c 3 f a precedes d. PERT.

F B. Critical Path Analysis 21 . we can see from the network that several of the activities can be conducted simultaneously (A and B. However. Chapter 8 Scheduling.H Completion Time (week) 5 6 4 3 1 4 14 12 2 Total …… 51 This information indicates that the total time required to complete activities is 51 weeks. for example).C G. PERT.Scheduling with activity time Activity A B C D E F G H I Immediate predecessors A A A E D.

the critical path. ES = 0 and t = 5.e. Critical Path Analysis 22 . thus the earliest finish time for activity A is EF = 0 + 5 = 5   Chapter 8 Scheduling. i.. For example. for activity A.Earliest start & earliest finish time  We are interested in the longest path through the network. PERT. Starting at the network’s origin (node 1) and using a starting time of 0. The expression EF = ES + t can be used to find the earliest finish time for a given activity. we compute an earliest start (ES) and earliest finish (EF) time for each activity in the network.

PERT.Arc with ES & EF time EF = earliest finish time ES = earliest start time Activity 2 1 t = expected activity time Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 23 .

Chapter 8 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 24 .Network with ES & EF time 2 D[5. PERT.8] 3 5 7 6 4 1 3 Earliest start time rule: The earliest start time for an activity leaving a particular node is equal to the largest of the earliest finish times for all activities entering the node.

LS. EF. Critical Path Analysis 25 . PERT.Activity. duration. LF EF = earliest finish time ES = earliest start time Activity 3 2 LS = latest start time LF = latest finish time Chapter 8 Scheduling. ES.

LF = 26 and t = 2. PERT. we trace back through the network computing a latest start (LS) and latest finish time for each activity The expression LS = LF – t can be used to calculate latest start time for each activity. Starting at the completion point (node 7) and using a latest finish time (LF) of 26 for activity I. for activity I. Critical Path Analysis 26 .Latest start & latest finish time   To find the critical path we need a backward pass calculation. thus the latest start time for activity I is LS = 26 – 2 = 24  Chapter 8 Scheduling. For example.

Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT.Network with LS & LF time 2 D[5. Critical Path Analysis 27 .8] 3[7.10] 5 7 6 4 1 3 Latest finish time rule: The latest finish time for an activity entering a particular node is equal to the smallest of the latest start times for all activities leaving the node.

2 ES 5 LS 8 EF 9 EF 12 LF-EF = 12 –9 =3 LS-ES = 8 – 5 = 3 LF-ES-t = 12-5-4 = 3 Chapter 8 Scheduling. For example.e Activity C can be delayed up to 3 weeks 3 (start anywhere between weeks 5 and 8). PERT.Slack or Free Time or Float Slack is the length of time an activity can be delayed without affecting the completion date for the entire project. i. Critical Path Analysis 28 . slack for C = 3 weeks.

PERT.Activity schedule for our example Activity Earliest start (ES) Latest start (LS) Earliest finish (EF) Latest Slack finish (LF) (LS-ES) Critical path A B C D E F G H I Chapter 8 0 0 5 5 5 6 10 9 24 0 6 8 7 5 6 10 12 24 5 6 9 8 6 10 24 21 26 5 12 12 10 6 10 24 24 26 0 6 3 2 0 0 0 3 0 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 29 Scheduling. Critical Path Analysis .

F.  How long can non-critical activities be delayed before they cause a delay in the project’s completion time  Slack time available for all activities are given. Critical Path Analysis 30 . and I.  What activities are critical and must be completed as scheduled in order to keep the project on time?  Critical path activities: A.  What are the scheduled start and completion times for each activity?  ES. LF are given for each activity. EF. E.IMPORTANT QUESTIONS  What is the total time to complete the project?  26 weeks if the individual activities are completed on schedule. Chapter 8 Scheduling. LS. PERT. G.

PERT. Critical path identifies the minimum time to complete project If any activity on the critical path is shortened or extended.Importance of Float (Slack) and Critical Path 1. Chapter 8 Scheduling. 3. Slack or Float shows how much allowance each activity has. project time will be shortened or extended accordingly 2. 4. Critical Path Analysis 31 .e how long it can be delayed without affecting completion date of project Critical path is a sequence of activities from start to finish with zero slack. i. Critical activities are activities on the critical path.

PERT. up to limit of float. So.Importance of Float (Slack) and Critical Path (cont) 5. If resources can be saved by lengthening some activities. Total Float belongs to the path 6. Critical Path Analysis 32 . If can spend resources to speed up some activity. be aware that project will not meet deadline and some action needs to be taken. 9. 7. it will not shorten the project time. a lot of effort should be put in trying to control activities along this path. so that project can meet due date. If any activity is lengthened. do so only for critical activities. do so for non-critical activities. Chapter 8 Scheduling. 8. Don’t waste resources on non-critical activity.

determine the earliest start and finish times for each activity by making a forward pass through the network. Step 2 Determine the immediate predecessor activities for each activity listed in the project. Step 3 Estimate the completion time for each activity. The earliest finish time for the last activity in the project identifies the total time required to complete the project. Step 1 Develop a list of activities that make up the project. make a backward pass through the network to identify the latest start and finish times for each activity. Step 4 Draw a network depicting the activities and immediate predecessors listed in Steps 1&2. Step 6 Using the project completion time identified in Step 5 as the latest finish time for the last activity.Now. Critical Path Analysis 33 . Step 7 Use the difference between the latest start time and the earliest start time for each activity to identify the slack time available for the activity. these are the critical path activities. Step 5 Using the network and the activity time estimates. let us summarize the PERT/CPM critical path procedure. Chapter 8 Scheduling. PERT. Step 9 Use the information from Steps 5&6 to develop the activity schedule for the project. Step 8 Find the activities with zero slack.

PERT For Dealing With Uncertainty  So far. PERT.g Research. Critical Path Analysis 34 . mode. e. Use 3 time estimates m= most likely time estimate. development. confidence For many situations this is not possible. and Expected Value (TE) = (a + 4m + b) /6 Variance (V) = ( ( b – a) / 6 ) 2 Std Deviation (δ) = SQRT (V)   Chapter 8 Scheduling. times can be estimated with relative certainty. new products and projects etc. a = optimistic time estimate. b = pessimistic time estimate.

h d.Dev V  2 0 2 5 2 2 0 2.c c g.33 4 2 Chapter 8 Scheduling.4 5.c b.4 28.e 10 20 4 2 8 8 4 2 6 2 22 20 10 14 8 14 4 12 16 8 22 20 16 32 20 20 4 16 38 14 20 20 10 15 10 14 4 11 18 8 4 0 4 25 4 4 0 5. Critical Path Analysis 35 .c b.Precedences And Project Activity Times Immediate Activity Predecessor Optimistic Most Likely Pessimistic Time Time Time EXP TE Var S.32 a b c d e f g h I j a b. PERT.

5. PERT.4) d (15.4) e (10.4) f (14. Critical Path Analysis 36 .0) h (11.28.4) 7 c (10.25) 6 j (8.The complete network 2 a (20.4) 4 5 Chapter 8 Scheduling.4) i (18.4) 1 b (20.0) 3 g (4.

TIME = 43 i (18.25) e (10.4) 5 24 Chapter 8 Scheduling.4) b ( f (14.4) 43 20 1 c (10. PERT.4) 4 10 h (11.0) 7 CRIT.4) a (20. Critical Path Analysis 37 .0) 2 6 j (8.4) 3 g (4.Figure 8-13 The complete Network EF=20 35 d (15.

Critical Path Analysis 38 . PERT.Critical Path Analysis (PERT) Activity a b c d e f g h i j LS 0 1 4 20 25 29 21 14 25 35 ES 0 0 0 20 20 20 20 10 24 35 Slacks 0 1 4 0 5 9 1 4 1 0 Critical ? Yes Yes Yes Chapter 8 Scheduling.

What are the chances of meeting that deadline? Calculate Z.745 = 1. where Z = (D-S) / V Example.22 Chapter 8 Scheduling. S(Scheduled date) = 20+15+8 =43. PM promised to complete the project in the fifty days. Z = (50 – 43) / 5.Assume. V = (4+25+4) =33 1.22 standard deviations. D = 50. PERT. Critical Path Analysis 39 .

745 (1.645) = 43 + 9. PERT. Chapter 8 Scheduling.645 D = S + 5. there is a 95 percent chance of finishing the project by 52.45 days. Critical Path Analysis 40 .45 days Thus.95 is 1.45 = 52.What deadline are you 95% sure of meeting Z value associated with 0.

Helps proper communications between departments and functions. PERT. which can delay the project completion time. and work units. monitoring. Chapter 8 Scheduling. • • • Identifies so-called critical activities. Determines expected project completion date. and controlling project.BENEFITS OFCPM / PERT NETWORK Consistent framework for planning. scheduling. Critical Path Analysis 41 . • Shows interdependence of all tasks. work packages.

Shows which tasks must be coordinated to avoid resource or timing conflicts.BENEFITS OFCPM / PERT NETWORK (cont. Critical Path Analysis 42 • • • Chapter 8 . or from which resources may be temporarily borrowed Determines the dates on which tasks may be started or must be started if the project is to stay in schedule. Shows which tasks may run in parallel to meet project completion date Scheduling.) • Identified activities with slacks that can be delayed for specified periods without penalty. PERT.

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