Designing & Managing Marketing Channel
Marketing channels are sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making product or service available for use or consumption. Wholesalers and Retailers-Buy, take title to and resell the merchandise; they are called Merchants. Other-brokers, manufactures’ representatives, sales agentSearch for customers and may negotiate on the producer’s behalf but don’t take title to the goods; they are called Agents. Still others-Transportation companies, ware houses, banks, advertising agencies assist in the distribution process but neither take title to goods nor negotiate purchases or sales; they are called Facilitators.
Push vs Pull Strategies
A Push strategies involves the manufacturer using sales force and trade promotion money to induce intermediaries to carry, promote and sell the product to end users.
A Pull strategy involves the manufacturer using advertising and promotion to persuade consumers to ask intermediaries for the product, thus inducing the intermediaries to order it.
Role of Middlemen or Intermediaries Information Price Stability Promotion Financing Title Factors determining length of the channel Size of the market Order lot size Service requirement Product variety
Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer
Wholesaler Wholesaler Retailer Retailer Jobber Retailer
Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer Manufacturer
Manufacturers Representatives Industrial Distributors Manufacturer’s sales branch
Industrial Consumer Industrial Consumer
Marketing Channel Functions
Specialization and Division of Labor Channels Fulfill Three Important Functions
Providing Contact Efficiency
Specialization and Division of Labor
• Provides economies of scale • Aids producers who lack resources to market directly • Builds good relationships with customers
Discrepancy of Quantity Discrepancy of Assortment
The difference between the amount of product produced and the amount an end user wants to buy. The lack of all the items a customer needs to receive full satisfaction from a product or products.
Temporal Discrepancy Spatial Discrepancy
A situation that occurs when a product is produced but a customer is not ready to buy it. The difference between the location of a producer and the location of widely scattered markets.
Zenith Sony RCA Toshiba
Channel Design Decision
• Analyzing customer needs • Establishing channel objectives • Identifying major channel alternatives • Evaluating major channel alternatives
1.Analyzing customer needs
The marketer must understand the service output levels desired by the target customer. Channel produce 5 service outputs: 1.Lot Size 2.Waiting & Delivery time 3.Spatial convenience 4.Product variety 5.Service backup
2.Establishing channel objectives
• Channel objective vary with the product characteristics.
3.Identifying major channel alternatives a. the types of available business intermediaries
b. the no. of intermediaries needed- Exclusive distribution, Selective distribution, Intensive distribution c. the terms & responsibility of each channel membersprice policies, conditions of sale, territorial rights 4.
Evaluating the major alternatives
a. Economic criteria b. Control & adaptive criteria
Channel Management decisions
Selecting Channel Members: No. of years in business Other lines carried Growth & profit record Financial strength Cooperativeness Service reputation Training Channel Members: Companies need to plan & implement careful training programmes for their intermediaries.
Motivating channel members
• • Company needs to view intermediaries the same way it views its customer. It needs to determine intermediaries needs and construct a channel positioning such that its channel offerings is tailored to provide superior value to intermediaries.
Channel Power- The ability to alter channel members behaviour so that they take actions they would not have taken otherwise. Coercive Power- Manufacturers threatens to withdraw or terminate if intermediaries fail to cooperate. Reward Power- Manufacturers offers an extra benefit for performing specific acts or functions. Legitimate Power- Manufacturers requests a behaviour that is warranted under the contract. Expert Power- Manufacturer has special knowledge that the intermediaries value. Referent Power- Manufacturer is so highly respected that intermediaries are proud to be associated with it.
Evaluating channel members
• Producers must evaluate intermediaries performance against such standard as:
sales quota attainment average inventory levels customer delivery time treatment of damaged & lost goods cooperation in promotional & training programmes.
Underperformers need to be counseled, retrained, motivated or terminated
Channel Integration & Systems
Conventional Marketing channel: It comprises an independent producer, wholesaler & retailer. Each is a separate business seeking to maximize its own profits, even if this reduces profit for the system as a whole.
Vertical marketing Systems:
It comprises the producer, wholesaler and retailer acting as a unified system One channel member (channel captain) owns the other and has so much of power that they all cooperate. It arose because of strong channel members attempt to control channel behaviour & eliminate the conflict when members pursue their own objectives.
Types of VMS
1.Corporate VMS: It combines the successive stages of production & distribution under a single ownership. (BPCL) 2.Administered VMS: It coordinates successive stages of production & distribution through the size & power of one of the members. (Kodak, HUL, Gillette command high level of cooperation from resellers) 3. Contractual VMS: It consists of independent firms at diff levels of prodn and distribtn integrating their programmes to obtain more sales. Wholesaler-sponsored voluntary chains Retailer cooperatives Franchise organization
Horizontal Marketing Systems (HMS) • Here two or more unrelated companies put together resources or programmes to exploit an emerging marketing opportunities.
(HUL’s strategic tie up with PepsiCo for bottling and distribution of Lipton’s ready to drink beverages)
Multi-channel Marketing Systems (McMS) It occurs when a single firm uses two or more marketing channels to reach one or more customer segments. Benefits- Increased market coverage, Low channel cost, Customized selling.
Channel Conflict & Cooperation
Channel conflict is generated when one channel member’s action prevent the channel from achieving its goal. Channel coordination occurs when channel members are brought together to advance the goals of the channel as opposed to their individual goal.
Types of Channel conflict:
Vertical channel conflict: Between diff. levels within the same channel. Horizontal channel conflict: Between members at the same level within the channel. Multi-channel conflict: It exists when the manufacturer established two or more channels that sell to the same market.
Causes of Channel conflict:
• Goal Incompatibility • Unclear roles and rights • Difference in Perception • Intermediaries dependence on Manufacturer Managing Channel conflict: (Constructive vs. Dysfunctional conflict) Adoption of Subordinate goals( common interest) Exchange persons between two channel levels Co-optation to win support of the leaders of other orgn by including them in advisory councils. When conflict is acute- Diplomacy, mediation, arbitration
Diplomacy- When each side sends a person or group to meet with its counterpart to resolve the conflict. Mediation- Resorting to a neutral third party who is skilled in conciliating both the parties interest. Arbitration- When both parties agree to present their argument to one or more arbitrator and accept the arbitration decision.