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1 Project Background/Achievements to date
Peoples’ Interventions Worldwide (PIW) is a Ugandan Non-profit; people-centred Non-Government Organization (NGO) founded in 2009 to contribute to local economic development in the Teso Region. The Mission of PIW-Uganda is to enable people to build new lives through socio-economic transformation projects, advice and information, enhancing opportunities, and advocating for the rights of the poor and oppressed in society. PIW-Uganda is guided by a 5-year strategic plan 20112015 whose major focus is promoting sustainable livelihoods- built around promotion of local economic development and agricultural initiatives, through Farmer Field Schools (FFS) methodology, farming as a business for improved livelihoods at household level. PIW-Uganda’s programming integrates cross-cutting issues including Gender, HIV/AIDS, natural resource management, food and nutrition security. PIW-Uganda’s Secretariat is in Kumi Town has management team and is governed by Advisory Council (AC) which comprises of 9 eminent persons. The AC is responsible for oversight role in ensuring that the project is implemented within policy and strategic goals of PIW-Uganda. Currently, PIW-Uganda is implementing an agricultural project in 6 Sub-counties namely; Ongino and Nyero Sub-counties in Kumi District, Mukura and Kapir in Ngora District and Toroma and Magoro in Katakwi District. PIW-Uganda is supported by the Teso Development Trust-UK based Charity and Solidarite Pour Agir Ensembe (SPAE) France. Over the 2 years PIW-Uganda has trained 1,700 farmers (900 men and 800 women) in good agronomic practice on grains, legumes, tubers and fruit trees for commercial purpose. PIW-Uganda has been targeting 50 Smallholder Farmer Groups constituted by 600 men and 650 women supported initially with 80 oxen, 300 bags of groundnut seeds, 15,000 Kgs of peas, 1,000 bags of mosaic-free cassava stems promoted through strategy of ‗multiplier‘ mechanism. PIW has also supported formation of ten (10) Village Savings Loans Associations (VSLA) each now having revolving capital worth Ushs 15 million. The group savings have facilitated their income generating enterprises for retail businesses; piggery and poultry activities in Nyero and Ongino. The ‗multiplier‘ strategy promotes the pass on of cassava cuttings from initial farmers to new farmers for further multiplication to increase production of cassava as a food buffer for their households and market for income.
Sunflower Value-Chain Development Project Overview
PIW-Uganda is implementing a sunflower project in the sub-counties of Ongino, Nyero, Kapir and Mukura in Kumi and Ngora districts respectively. PIW procured seed from UOSPA (Uganda Oil Seed Processors Association) using locallyresourced funds and little savings from other projects implemented by PIW-Uganda. This sunflower seed has already been disbursed out in form of an advance loan to the 100 selected farmers out of the 8,000 small holder farmers that had been previously supported and trained in best agronomic practices under the groundnut enterprise project funded by the Agribusiness Initiative (aBi) Trust. Farmers have been issued with contracts engaging them to produce the seed and eventually selling it back to PIW-Uganda after harvesting the produce. As it stands of today, we have 100 acreage of land under sunflower production and the farmers have started harvesting the produce. Owing to the high rainfall precipitation in the area especially during the second half of the year, a substantial yield of 800 kgs per acre is expected from each harvest by the farmer. Over the last one and half years, PIW-Uganda has trained 530 female youths, 228 male youths, 2,739 adult females and 1,169 adult males on Entrepreneurship and Agri-business skills. Currently, PIW-Uganda through its foundation structures within the target communities has been able use the homes of its farmer facilitators as collection points from which the produce is collected, weighed and sold to the potential buyers. Presently, PIW-Uganda is targeting 8,000 small holder farmers in this project of sunflower production and value chain enhancement. 5,000 shall be Females and 3,000 males (these will be mostly youths and women) and they shall be organized in 320 farmer groups. 1.3 Goal and Overall Objective
The goal of PIW-Uganda is to sustainably commercialize sunflower smallholder agriculture through improved productivity and market development, resulting in marketable surpluses that raise farm incomes in Eastern Uganda, and increase food security for the nation at large. Starting with the ‗pull‘ of the market by working with sunflower for which there is strong demand, PIW-Uganda will employ a systems approach to develop integrated cropping systems around the sunflower crop farming in the eastern Uganda districts of Kumi and Ngora — combined with an accelerated cluster development approach appropriate for this eastern Uganda. In addition to agricultural intensification, attention will be paid to 2
input market development (both seeds and fertilizer), output marketing, linkages to agribusinesses and advocacy for improvement of the policy environment. By the end of the PIW-Uganda Eastern Uganda sunflower value-chain development project in December 2016, 16,000 smallholder farmers will have doubled yields, achieved a 50 percent increase in incomes, and produced an annual marketable surplus of 27,000 metric tons of cereal equivalents. This will contribute to the increased rural incomes and trade in eastern Uganda and increased food security in the region. 1.4 Project Purpose and Specific Objectives
To begin with, PIW-Uganda will focus its first year‘s work plan on 8,000 small holder farmers in Kumi and Ngora districts before gradually rolling it out to benefit the projected 16,000 small holder farmers by December 2016. The purpose and specific objectives of the first year‘s work plan of the PIW-Uganda Eastern Uganda sunflower value-chain development project is defined as here below: Purpose: To improve the livelihoods of 8,000 smallholder sunflower farmers by enhancing food and income security through increased production, productivity and marketing in Kapir and Mukura Sub-counties in Ngora District and Nyero and Ongino in Kumi district. Specific objective(s): 1. To increase production, productivity and marketing opportunities by 60% for 8,000 smallholder farmer households (1,000 men and 2,000 women, 2,000 male youth and 3,000 female youth), organized in 320 farmer groups) through training in modern techniques of groundnuts agronomy, enterprise development, post-harvest and storage, and collective marketing by the end of the project. 2. To build the capacity of sunflower smallholder farmers in understanding and appreciating gender issues as well as working towards improved gender relations in households to promote women‘s economic rights. 3. To enhance institutional capacity of PIW-Uganda to support farmer groups to improve their welfare through sunflower vegetable seed production enterprise. 1.5 Approach
PIW-Uganda will be built on a market driven approach, focusing on the development of competitive value chains and farming systems that will lead to 3
considerable marketable surpluses, contributing to increased incomes and trade in eastern Uganda and greater food security in Uganda. Starting with the market ‗pull‘ of agribusiness development in Uganda, cluster development will focus on agribusiness and entrepreneurship in eastern Uganda at all levels – from local to national. This will allow farmer beneficiaries to seize on Ugandan, regional and international opportunities by targeting markets and trade to neighboring countries, and developing supply chains to national and multinational agroprocessors. To reduce production and transaction costs in the sunflower value chain, PIW-Uganda will introduce both technical and institutional innovations to increase profitability. Market development forms the foundation of PIW-Uganda, as it is the market ―pull‖ on which cluster formation is based. PIW-Uganda will accelerate cluster development, taking advantage of the existing modest surplus production and nascent rural business linkages while simultaneously introducing commercial, environmentally sustainable farming systems that increase yields and decrease production costs per unit product. Market development and productivity enhancement form complementary halves of the virtuous cycle to smallholder agriculture commercialization. PIW-Uganda seeks to resolve a long-standing issue impeding agricultural intensification in Uganda—low fertilizer use—by working with agro-input suppliers, extension services, and finance institutions to enable farmers to access and profitably apply mineral nutrient inputs in a farming systems context. To ensure long-term farmer access to markets that is responsive to dynamic conditions, PIW-Uganda will focus on formation of vibrant agribusiness clusters in the 4 targeted Eastern Uganda sunflower-producing districts. These will be formed early on in the project, as soon as participating farmers produce tradable and commercial surpluses - at a cost of production and in sufficient quantities to be competitive. The project and its beneficiaries will be attentive to early business opportunities such as linkages with agro-inputs, bulking, storage and credit which form the basis of cluster development at farmer-group level. As these clusters develop in their transactions and in their business and market sophistication, separate commodity-specific apex clusters will be formed to take advantage of higher-level business opportunities, such as linkage with large agro-processors. These apex clusters will access better prices in input and output markets as well as improve the policy and business environment. Through PIW-Uganda, project-affiliated farmers will be able to increase investments in their own well-being as well as in their agricultural enterprises. The project‘s focus on improved post-harvest handling, storage and market-linkage through its Matching Investment Fund Initiative and linkage to credit guarantees will increase the economic resilience of these farmers. Through value chain development, 4
completing the virtuous cycle. rotated. business service providers (BSS) and market information. ensuring a strong pull for the marketable surpluses produced. will take advantage of new and expanding markets. Sunflower farmers. Particular focus will be paid on gender. integrated with livestock. it will employ a systems approach to anchor this commodity in integrated cropping systems in which the primary commodity is intercropped. The project will focus on farmers that have access to markets and market infrastructure such as roads. agribusiness.agribusinesses will be developed and strengthened. A systems approach assures that soil fertility and profitability are enhanced throughout a cropping sequence. armed with the necessary links to input suppliers. or relayed into other crops and where possible. and shared household decisionmaking. While PIW-Uganda will focus on sunflower production and value-chain development in eastern Uganda. and above) and therefore can accept a certain level of risk. as the project will promote equitable access to resources and economic returns. The project will target those farmers that possess or have access to a certain amount of land and productive assets (at least 1 Ha. 5 . The project may also work with medium to large scale farmers in the project‘s target areas (i. The balanced mix of commodities and markets reduces the risks of reliance on a narrow commodity base. A lively and competitive agribusiness environment will be a strong motivator for farmers to produce a surplus.e. Kumi and Ngora) to serve as nucleus farmers.
73% of total employment. overall yields have remained unchanged over the past decade and are far below their potential when compared to the gains made in Asia from the Green Revolution. despite the importance of agriculture in the Ugandan economy. BACKGROUND AND PROJECT RATIONALE 2. agricultural intensification has to go hand-in-hand with agricultural sector development and 1 2 Data 2010. World Bank. prevailing subsistence agriculture is marked by a diversity of crops to address farmers‘ risk management strategies and dietary needs. farmers find themselves in a ‗poverty trap‘ – unable to acquire enough additional resources to break out of the cycle of poverty. the resources and access to acquire inputs (fertilizers and quality seeds). limiting farmer access. Ibid. Yet. a liberalized economy and more recently peace in the north. Yet. In the context of increasing population pressure and the resulting subdivision of farms. smallholder producers using low input/low output subsistence farming dominate Uganda‘s agriculture sector. Because of its agro-ecological conditions (including good soils and favorable climate) and its central position in a food-insecure region. as they lack skills in commercialized production technologies. resulting in soil degradation. economic. Uganda‘s input and output markets are marked by high transactions risks and costs and poor integration. agricultural growth requires a substantial increase in productivity per land unit. and the bulk of the raw materials used by the mainly agricultural-based industrial sector1. Despite more than a decade of fundamental political. and links to markets to sell surplus production. during which GDP growth averaged 7%. However. Over 90% of the poor reside in rural areas. and social change. 85% of total export earnings. costs per unit product are high. 65% of Uganda‘s population continues to live below $2/day.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT. and nutrient inputs are low. the majority of agricultural households in Uganda lack the means and the capacities to invest in their farms. Yields per land unit are low.6%—one of the highest in the world2. farmer revenues are low. in which the a country has achieved macroeconomic stability. Compounding this situation is Uganda‘s population growth rate of 3. Uganda has the potential to become an important food exporting country.1 Overview Agriculture is the mainstay of the Ugandan economy. producing an estimated 70% of marketed produce. and while there are some large-scale commercial farmers. Additionally.2. and relying on nutrient mining to produce crops with ever-declining yields. 6 . As a result. In order to achieve this. providing 14% of Gross Domestic Product.
Sensitize the farmers on gender issues in sunflower oil seed production enterprise. 6% used improved seeds and 7% used manure. it is reported that the productivity. millet. Interventions have not addressed bulk production. value addition and marketing issues. Support local savings mobilization and entrepreneurship.2 Problem Statement and Justification From PIW-Uganda’s M&E reports. While the Abuja Declaration on Fertilizer for an African Green Revolution recognizes that increased fertilizer use is essential to increasing yields and reversing soil fertility decline in the face of rising population and set a goal of 50 kg/ha fertilizer by 2015. Farmers have to become part of solid agribusiness networks through which they can sell surplus crops and invest in their farms. In addition. household food security and income of a large proportion of the targeted farmers could be substantially higher. Sunflower is a major vegetable oil seed and income crop grown in Uganda besides groundnuts.or semi-agricultural population.market integration at all levels. Promote access to markets and market information. the full potential of the farmers has not yet been fully exploited beyond being food secure. and replace it with a virtuous cycle in which productivity gains sold into remunerative markets allow farmers to reinvest in their farms for sustained increases in income. however.4kg/ha — 7 . cassava. soya beans. sweet potatoes & sorghum. Through this project PIW-Uganda hopes to: Support farmers‘ group development to increase sunflower productivity and generate enough surplus for market.3 Agriculture Input and Output Markets Data from the Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) show that in 2006 only 1% of Ugandan farmers used inorganic fertilizers. 2. Uganda currently uses an average of 3. 3% used pesticides. The resulting improvements in local economic dynamics are also necessary to create non-farm employment for the growing non. The crop is grown by almost all households but in small unviable quantities. Through this they will permanently exit the poverty trap. Provide extension services and demonstration sites to the targeted farmer groups to improve their knowledge and adoption of technology in sunflower enterprise. maize. 2. The potential of the youth also remains substantially untapped. the reports recognize that women smallholders face particular constraints in accessing benefits of their agricultural efforts and as a result they remain under the dominance of their male counterparts.
Cereal grain markets are beginning to see some formalization through the introduction of warehouse receipts systems linked by tradable receipts to the Uganda Commodity Exchange. Farmers are often unaware of the quantity and type of fertilizer to apply to their various crops. With fertilizer costs high and farmer demand low. hygiene. tropical fruits. Beyond this however. edible oils. The situation is compounded in Uganda due to its land-locked status. Limited storage and marketing infrastructure results in unstable prices. marketing. June 2011. distribution and limited capital. While accurate data is hard to come by. which makes crop-specific fertilization difficult. “The Informal Cross Border Trade Survey Report 2009 and 2010”. the processing sector is dominated by local small-scale processing which suffers from poor packaging. to Kenya through Busia. and failure to replace nutrients removed by crops has led to nutrient mining and soil degradation. Uganda has vibrant cross-border sales of produce. Bank of Uganda and Uganda Bureau of Statistics. 3 2008 average. and through increased coordination of the private sector through the East African Grain Council (EAGC). to the DRC through Mpondwe and to a lesser extent to Tanzania and Rwanda. Ugandan farmers have grown accustomed to farming without fertilizers or improved seeds. and nontraditional crops such as vanilla. cotton. palm oil processing. coffee. Kenya and DRC4. and often farm in mixed cropping systems. Most inputs are trucked overland from Kenya via the Mombasa Port. increasing costs. Agricultural processing is starting to develop in the processing and packaging of coffee. agro-input dealers often do not stock fertilizers.one of the lowest rates in Africa3. and cotton yarn. analysis of informal trade by UBOS indicates that Uganda continues to be a net exporter to her neighbors in agricultural commodities with the leading destination for agricultural exports being South Sudan. Large-scale agro-processing in Uganda is dominated by cash crops such tea. As a result. fruit juices. World Bank Data. Poor post-harvest handling leads to losses of about 30%. such as roasted coffee. and tobacco. Due to a generally favorable climate and good inherent soil fertility. Uganda‘s agro-input dealer network is nascent and is still expanding its reach into rural areas while addressing the twin problems of counterfeits and appropriate (smaller) packaging for smallholder farmers. 4 8 . Uganda is promoting value-added exports. Low usage is compounded by poor access. sugarcane. The marketing system for the large majority of crops (with the exception of export crops such as high-value horticulture and coffee) is rudimentary. particularly in remote areas. As a net agricultural exporter. yields of almost all major commodities are well below their potential. Most industries in Uganda depend heavily on agriculture for raw material inputs. forcing farmers to sell cheaply. primarily to South Sudan through Oraba and Nimule.
However.000 ha in 2004.2 % in eastern districts7. Pallisa. Uganda had a vibrant oil seed sector up to the mid-1970s. Sunflower production supports poverty alleviation of more than 500. In the period 1992 to 2004. Sunflower is produced from both hybrid and open pollinated variety (OPVs) input seeds. Sunflower is the lead domestic raw material for vegetable oil with annual production of over 162. they are currently imported from South Africa and Kenya by large private sector company Mukwano Co. Of the total oil seed produced in Uganda 49. Hoima and Masindi 5 6 9 . despite the growing production area for sunflower.000ha to 145. The economic turmoil and civil unrest in the 1970-80‘s brought the sector completely to its knees. 4. Oyam. including macro-economic stability and human resource development. Bukedea. year after year yields have remained relatively low over the same period at 0. For purposes of this case study. Nebbi and Arua. sunflower value chain has been targeted to explain its application. The vegetable oil seed sector is one of the seven strategic commodities selected by the Ugandan government for transforming agriculture from subsistence to commercial farming within the policy framework of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP). Budaka. Ltd. Within economic development can be applied with value chain approach. Kumi and Soroti 8 Kasese.4 Setting/Situational Analysis Multi stakeholder process can be applied to any situation be it economic development or any another. The oil seed sub sector directly influences livelihoods of over twelve million Ugandans mainly in North Eastern Uganda and accounts for over 70% of vegetable oil production in the country. Sunflower is an important substitute for palm oil which gives the country an opportunity for backward integration in that increased production would lead to reduced importation of palm oil.7% rising from 39. while maintaining the processing capacity.9% Central and 10% Western8. area under sunflower grew at an average annual rate of 11.2.000 MTs in 1992 5. 7 Busia.000 farming households whose livelihood directly depends. Sironko. concerted efforts in form of enabling policies by government. Tororo.9% is produced in the Northern region6. MAAIF-Uganda National Bureau of Statistics Dokolo. 35.8metrci tons per ha. privatization and liberalization with support from the donors have made a U-turn around in the Uganda oil seed sector. Kitgum.000 MTs in 2006 from 31. Lira. Since 1986. Since Uganda is not able to produce hybrid seeds. Pader. Gulu.
incomes and employment as explained below: 10 . while processing on the other hand is by all categories of small. it equally has a pool of constraints that limits its capacity to generate the desired productivity. Registration. Figure 1: Sunflower Value-Chain Uganda Functions Export market – East Africa. fertilizers. Loans. credits Processing Processors Processors & Refiners Loans. medium and large scale processors but with varying capacities. Research. the EU & USA markets. Standards Production Small scale farmers Large scale farmers Extension services. sunflower seeds Bulk Storage Channel 1 Channel 2 During the situational and value chain analysis done by SNV. it was noted that much as sunflower has potential to transform lives of about 12 million Uganda in its predominant producing areas. Horn of Africa. Tractors Transportation & Storage Truck and storage owners Bulk Storage Input Supply Farm inputs – chemicals. Refined sunflower oil Support Consumption Local market in Uganda (oil & animal feeds) Information flow Retailer Retailing Retailer Wholesaling Unrefined oil–local market Refined oil–Local/Export Business licenses.Sunflower production is exclusively done by small holder farmers.
iv. Two reason for this. besides farmers also use own retained seed although poor yielding and less oil content. This scenario burs the small holder farmers and small & medium scale processors to access appropriate and affordable financial 11 . secondly. The banking sector is emerging from comfort zone of monopoly. Both factors imply that limited skills will compound in poor quality and low yields which translates into low incomes and low productivity. Inadequate access to high yield seed: Good quality seed access is constraint number one in transforming sunflower oil seed value chain. This situation hence breeds low business ethics. v. This limited capacity hinges on two levels one on civic expression while the other lies on the knowledge and skills in agronomy and post-harvest handling. Lack of market information: Throughout the sunflower value chain the demand for both oil and seeds far exceeds the supply. Uganda uses two main types of sunflower seeds i. this doesn‘t provide a guarantee of actual delivery of yields by farmers to the processor. Access. but the main challenge is that hybrid seeds are neither produced nor multiplied here hence is purely dependant on its importation from South Africa and Kenya. hence it isn‘t it core business to deal in seeds.i. suitability and cost of finance: The majority of the actors in the value chain have got limited sources of financing for investment which hinders the sector growth. this company‘s‘ structure and business model of contract farming often times at negatively skewed terms to its farmers. Weak producer groups: Producers groups that exist are weak and not able to effectively engage and dialogue with other actors on issues that affect them. Poor input supply system and unequal power relations in the market: The good quality hybrid seeds are imported by only one company Mukwano with capacity to procure in large volumes due to the high level of financing involved. which makes it hard to predict if investments in the oilseed sector eventually turn out to be profitable. While this provides a stepping stone for potentially increased productivity. but even still are largely urban clientele focused with limited financial products. Even where some farmers are engaged in contract farming with processors. The skewed demand versus supply attracts speculators and opportunists who take advantage of limited information between the respective actors. ii. the company is not a seed dealer. lack of trust and reliability among actors in the chain. OPVs on the other hand are currently being multiplied by NARO in collaboration with UOSPA. iii. it has vested interests in tagging seed access to own purchase of yield for their processing factory as their core business. the hybrid (Pannar) and OPV (Sunfora) seeds. Pannar Hybrid seeds are better yielding per acre with higher oil content compared to sunfola.e. This situation often puts the farmers in position of inferior bargaining position.
cluster practices.1 Sunflower Bulking Practices Bulking practices are mainly geared towards improving income for farmers. The farmers‘ bulking practices quite often affect their marketing strategies as they often produce low crop volumes and end up selling immediately at harvest hence scattered marketing. middlemen or processors. Therefore although quality is crucial but poor quality is found not have any effect on bulking since the millers always are in need of raw material. It enhances the benefits of better price and reduced transaction costs thereby bringing better incomes.services. On the other hand. The bulker has the potential to negotiate for higher prices because of the large quantities owned. However cluster practice can be strengthened into another value. As far as quantity and quality assurance is concerned. meeting the required quantity to satisfy the market demand still remains a big hurdle in the sunflower oilseed chain subsector. quality control is mostly implemented by group of farmers multiplying seeds and those on contract production. Consequently they resort to rely on own savings that often times is insufficient. However some millers are known to be trying to grab the opportunity of milling other oil seed like Shea nut oil during this scarcity phase.5. it did not affect bulking since there was no premium price being offered. Much as quality is crucial in marketing of Agricultural produce. middleman practices. There are about six different practices of bulkers existing in eastern Uganda which included the individual farmers‘ practices. neither the government institution nor other development partners have any immediate solution to this. as far as quality is concerned.5 Bulking Practices and Challenges in the Sunflower Sub-Sector 2. Bulking practices are however known to vary amongst different categories such as farmers. group farmers. 30% of farmers are found to use telephone to seek market information form produce dealers and millers and a few go personally and the rest ask from neighbours or friends to dealers to seek market price information then later share with other members. 2. produce dealers practice and millers. Individual farmers had higher transaction cost than the groups. Even though millers are found to be losing out on this since they have no option to reject because of constant demand for raw material. middlemen or processors. however lack of working capital appears to be affecting bulking since money is attached to almost all activities related to bulking. This has caused many mills in eastern Uganda to lie idle during lean periods and the farmers who are the sole producers found to have no solution over this. but middlemen are found not to mind about quality control as their priority is making profit. 12 .
and own capital. 2. The common source of working capital is mostly from family. 13 . lack of transport.6 Opportunities in Sunflower Seed Production. processing and marketing The increased production and improved marketing of sunflower oil offers several opportunities at the different levels of the value chain: Sunflower grains are produced by many small farmers in the Northern and Eastern Uganda. With farmers groups‘ revolving fund is the main source of capital. lack of working capital These challenges are found to be interlink as such one challenge leads to another In terms of institutional support. the noticeable trend is that farmers bulking individually have higher transaction cost than the middlemen. The Vegetable Oil Development Project VODP project through the department of production and marketing are more in involved in extension and research in breed sunflower varieties. 2. development partners and all concerned to strengthen cluster practice for a sustainable production of sunflower raw material which consequently promotes farmers to better income position in eastern Uganda. Increased production creates a substantial opportunity for increased income and improved welfare of small farmers. misunderstanding and lack of trust among chain actors.5. inability to meet required volume set by potential buyers. there are varying practices according to available working capital and clustering bulking practice seems to give an upper hand to farmers since the farmers are directly linked to potential buyers and because of collective bargaining power they are able to opt for a better price and subsequent high incomes. Therefore in conclusion.2 Sunflower Bulking Challenges The most common challenges to bulking are lack of appropriate storage facilities. contract farming on though side of farmers.On the issue of transaction cost and working capital. friends. Therefore there is need to for PIW-Uganda. there is little done as far as bulking is concerned. The institutional which is most operational on the ground is Uganda Oil Seed Processors Association (UOSPA) trying to promote bulking by linking up farmers groups with potential buyer. Farmers and middlemen are generally reluctant to acquiring loans from the bank because of high interest rates charged and so often resort to working as hired labour in order to source for capital.
As specialty sunflower oils with high mineral content fetch extra premium prices. Sunflower oil is excellent for human production as it is low in cholesterol. Sunflower oil is relatively easy to produce (at least raw sunflower oil) with a small investment into machinery. 14 . Oil production constitutes therefore an opportunity for small oil processors. Increased production of sunflower oil reduces the dependency of vegetable oil imports and improves therefore the foreign currency situation for Uganda. it might be worthwhile to further explore this opportunity.
1 ABC actors in eastern Uganda undertake joint purchasing. Smallholder farmers improve production. technical advice. productivity and quality in sunflower cropping systems (Production Push) The production push will focus on increased smallholder productivity through yield improvements and productivity cost reduction of sunflower in eastern Uganda. Project Objectives: Production Push Market Pull 1.2 ABC actors in eastern Uganda undertake value adding activities and diversify their products 2.1 Farmers in eastern Uganda sustainably increase yields and decrease production costs for sunflower seed 1.2 Objective 1: Smallholder farmers in Eastern Uganda improve production.1 Overview Each of the PIW-Uganda’s two objectives (Production Push and Market Pull) will be achieved through outputs that in turn drive specific project activities.3. Table 1: Objectives and Outputs of PIW-Uganda Project Goal: To sustainably commercialize smallholder sunflower production and value-chain in eastern Uganda through improved productivity and market development.2 Farmers in eastern Uganda utilize quality agro-inputs. storage. An overview of PIW-Uganda’s technical approach is summarized in Table 1 below and reviewed in more detail in this section. Agribusiness clusters (ABC) create value by productivity and quality in sunflower cropping selling into national. 2. This will be achieved by creating. and increase food security for the wider East Africa and Great Lakes Region.3 ABC actors in eastern Uganda develop sustainable relationships with large national. savings and credit 1. resulting in marketable surpluses that raise farm incomes in eastern Uganda. regional and international systems in eastern Uganda markets and agribusinesses Project Outputs: 1.4 ABC actors in eastern Uganda adapt to and lobby for reforms in the business environment 3.3 Farmers in eastern Uganda decrease postharvest losses and improve post-harvest quality at farm level 2. demonstrating and disseminating Commercialized 15 . East Africa regional and international agribusinesses 2. and selling power 2.0 PROPOSED INTERVENTIONS 3.
Thus by definition. The basic premise is farmers need to produce large surpluses at reduced productivity costs for identified markets. in which complementary crops are intercropped or rotated with the primary commodity. Farmers utilize quality agro-inputs. Farmers however do not farm value chains—rather they farm systems involving several commodities. Farmers decrease post-harvest losses and improve post-harvest quality at farm level. 3. This objective is comprised of three outputs: 1. Projected numbers of beneficiary households and increases in marketable surpluses in terms of cereal equivalents are shown in Table 2 below.1 – Farmers sustainably increase yields and decrease production costs With CSFS. savings and credit. 2. technical advice. Farmers sustainably increase yields and decrease production costs. working along a value chain entails operating along a single commodity to improve profitability and competitiveness of the whole chain and its actors.Sustainable Farming Systems (CSFSs) and from improved post-harvest handling that reduces losses and improves product quality. Farmers must have profitable market outlets in order to have the means and motivation to invest in their farms and soils. farming households in eastern Uganda will have sufficient quantities of the project‘s respective sunflower commodity for both their own consumption and as for sale as a cash crop. CSFS focuses on cropping systems that will be established around the target commodities. There are many uncertainties in the projection. With significant increases in yields through improved farming practices. Farming families will be trained on the optimal allocation of their harvest for home-use and sale to ensure that the family‘s nutritional needs are met. It is the system that must be commercialized—not a single commodity within the system – and this systems approach is a key element of CSFS. Value chain development is thus situated in the context of farming systems and livelihood perspectives. Projections do not account for crops that will be grown in rotation or association in farming systems with these commodities. Value chains encompass the full range of activities and services required to bring a product or service from its conception to sale in its final markets—whether local. regional or global. national. seasonality of 16 . including climatic unpredictability. Output 1. professional farmers can make solid gains essential to the commercialization of smallholder agriculture. though these will also be monitored.
and as linkages are formed.70 400 1. seed and fertilizer availability. Table 2: Projected project impact for Sunflower CURRENT PRODUCTION # of households Hectares in production Average yield/ha PROJECTED ADOPTION Projected households affected by end of project Projected yield/ha Projected yield increase/ha Average ha cropped/household/year (2 seasons) Projected ha affected by 2016 Cereal equivalents/yield ratio Ha affected by season 2014 second season 2015 first season 2015 second season 2016 first season 2016 second season Additional cereal equivalents produced per season 2014 second season 2015 first season 2015 second season 2016 first season 2016 second season Total cereal equivalents 50.production.8 0. the projections are conservative and achievable.000 1.2 – Farmers utilize quality agro-inputs. sustained productivity increases accompanied by decreases in the unit cost of production are not possible.000 beneficiary households and some 27. from trained and certified agro-input dealers.000 1. extension officers.000 560 2. It is likely that achievement of these projections will not be as smooth as is represented. 17 .880 26.5 8.680 10.2 16.000 metric tons of marketable surpluses will be achieved. savings and credit Access to and utilization of improved inputs including quality seed and fertilizers is essential to commercializing smallholder agriculture.200 6. and pest and disease outbreaks. and by the end of the project. and is at the core of CSFS.600 3.000 19. At the farmer group level.360 8. Without efficient use of improved inputs. Overall. technical advice. the objectives of 16. Extension advice will come from a variety of sources: initially from the project‘s own agronomists.400 8.160 4.640 Output 1. and BSSs. A key element of this output will be timely access to technical and financial advice. PIW-Uganda will link farmers in eastern Uganda to village savings and loan associations as ways of facilitating savings and credit.000 2 0.
3. will enable farmers. PIW-Uganda will catalyze the development and out-scaling of functional and dynamic agribusiness clusters in its areas of operation in eastern Uganda. public and private business support service providers (including extension services). groups.is essential. the project will facilitate the process of cluster formation through the provision of hands-on advisory services. To achieve this. and PIW-Uganda’s together with appropriate extension support will play a key role in farmers‘ ability to improve product quality. PIW-Uganda will concentrate on the processing of primary sunflower produce. financial institutions (e. As such.g. Improved PHH is also a precondition for improved storage necessary for inventory credit and warehouse receipt systems. SACCOs and other savings and credit organizations). Starting with farmlevel business transactions. Remunerative market channels are an important precondition for farmers to invest in agricultural intensification.3 – Farmers decrease post-harvest losses and improve post-harvest quality at farm level With post-harvest losses estimated at 10-30% for sunflower. Starting off with a nucleus of promising farmers organized in a group or cooperative. such as access to improved inputs and access to local market and credit. supporters and enablers collaborate to seize business opportunities. as individuals. as these provide important market opportunities and ‗pull‘ for the development of viable agribusiness clusters. Farmer-group clusters will come together to form commodity-specific apex clusters. Typically these include producer organizations. and market development. in which value chain operators.Output 1. PIW-Uganda. both in terms of the number of farmers involved as well as the diversity of partners and markets. to access funds on a matching basis for procurement of equipment. agro-input dealers. The establishment of supplier-buyer relations with agribusiness of all sizes from small local processors to large national and multinational enterprises . as explained in more detail below. product development and diversification. A market appraisal and value 18 .3 Objective 2: Agribusiness clusters create value by selling into national East Africa regional and international markets and agribusinesses (Market Pull) Market pull is the starting point for sunflower value chain development. PHH techniques and equipment vary by cropping system. traders and processors. or associations. improving post-harvest handling (PHH) contributes substantially to increased tradable surpluses. so that each cropping system is ultimately represented by an one cluster at the highest level. the clusters will evolve as their business transactions mature. Agribusiness clusters will evolve over time as the needs of the actors and their surplus production increases through agricultural intensification.
producer organizations. It is essential that cluster actors organize themselves so as not to create project-dependent clusters. or the champion identified locally. etc. the project‘s role is to assure that the ownership of the cluster really lies with the actors. seed. At the end of the project. project partners and staff will be trained in the ABC (Agri-Business Cluster) approach through a training of trainers (ToT). As the project progresses in cluster formation. On the supply side. It is assumed that market pull can accelerate growth in terms of area and productivity per farmer. in which the goals of the cluster will be linked to concrete steps to be taken by both the cluster and the project. a local service provider. as outlined above. Agribusiness Coaches The Agribusiness Coach will be a key player on the project acting as the primary contact between a cluster and the project. and will make sure that clusters have access to the project’s technical experts in the fields of business development. the clusters themselves will scale up their farmer membership to meet demand. A more stable and resilient cluster is one in which all the cluster actors have options among 19 . CSFS. An Agribusiness Coach will cover between 1 and 10 clusters – depending on size. While the value-chain approach is at the heart of the project. Once clusters have been formed. small. often organized around a single ‗golden‘ opportunity which creates high risk. these Agribusiness Coaches will be well established local consultants. communication and capacity development. it is important that clusters act as diverse networks and not single-purpose value chains. traders/aggregators. a key first step is the identification of the business champions in the clusters (for example. and complexity. fertilizer and other farm inputs will have to be available. scope. key partner staff will serve as Agribusiness Coaches to guide the process once the potential cluster actors and champions have identified business opportunities. To initiate the process of cluster development. For the initial round of cluster formation. and the number of farmers involved in clusters. As clusters and their farmer members link to markets raising farmer incomes. An Agribusiness Coach will secure the development of a solid cluster development plan. seeds. Agribusiness Coaches will be selected from either a local partner. medium or large agro-processors.chain mapping will be undertaken during the project inception phase and will be used as a guide in cluster development to maintain a market development focus.) who will help ABCs with identification of strong market opportunities. This process will be supported by the development of an ABC development plan. credit.
and marketing support services. while at the same time increasing the implementing capacity of the project. This objective is comprised of four outputs: 1. Once ABCs have sufficient demand for agro-inputs and have developed the business skills to source agroinputs directly from suppliers. In such an arrangement.1 – ABC actors undertake joint purchasing. and selling power 2.input suppliers and output buyers as this allows the cluster to respond better to external shocks. Activities include access to market information and business skills trainings on record-keeping. capacity building and training of clusters will take place with a focus on market development. PIW-Uganda will encourage farmer access to financial institutions which offer a range of appropriate products tailored to agriculture – contract farming. East Africa regional and international agribusinesses 4. extension material development services. storage. Where available and of adequate quality. inputs are made available to farmers to be repaid at the end of the season using product inventory as a guarantee. Business Support Services (BSS) are a key element of capacity building. To achieve this. ABC actors adapt to and lobby for reforms in the business environment Output 2. ABC actors undertake value adding activities and diversify their products 3. certified agro-inputs is essential for commercialization of smallholder sunflower farming. financial management and marketing. ABC actors develop sustainable relationships with large national. and selling power Reliable and consistent access to improved. The ILO‘s skills training program can be used to upgrade the skills of BSSs where gaps in geographic coverage or technical areas are identified. Storage – both as a basis for storage-based financing as well as for opportunities to profit from seasonal price fluctuations . BSS will be engaged to help the ABCs to accelerate quality support to the agribusiness sector. forward contracts. Based on the individual cluster action plans and needs and training assessment outlined in these plans. ABC actors undertake joint purchasing.is essential for improved market access. Bulk purchasing of agro-inputs can also be connected to inventory credit systems or warehouse receipt systems (WRSs). agricultural insurance etc. BSSs include training institutes. farming as a business. A 20 . ABCs will be guided in the development of business plans with required credit linkages for bulk-purchasing of inputs at discounted prices. storage.
2 – ABC actors undertake value adding activities and diversify their products As clusters mature. and production of raw material for the manufacture of paints. and ‗pull‘ agribusiness cluster formation in response to demand. certification. PIW-Uganda will support both cooperatives and financial institutions to start up additional inventory credit programs in the project region. etc. Output 2. sorting and grading and packaging—and diversifying their products. Multiple opportunities exist in all commodities and cropping systems. large agribusinesses will often enter into contract farming arrangements. PIW-Uganda will also assist cluster actors with market access requirements such as packaging. national. Access to credit guarantees already established by the aBi Trust in Uganda in collaboration with 8 banks will also be facilitated. varnishes. PIW-Uganda will initiate the development of apex clusters. East Africa regional and international agribusinesses With market pull at the core of PIW-Uganda. regional and global demand for sunflower or its products has the potential to provide large markets. Such partners provide significant guaranteed markets at fixed/predictable prices and terms of payment that can encourage professional discipline in SMEs and smallholder farmers due to their insistence on quality and volumes. they will be facilitated in developing value adding activities— including processing. inputs and extension support either on credit or factored into the final contract price. Cluster actors and PIW-Uganda will examine the supply chain strategies of key SMEs and large national and multi-national companies to identify ‗lead firms‘ able to drive targeted value chains. In sunflower. animal feed cake. Output 2. The contracts themselves can be used by the cluster actors as collateral to access credit. plastics. opportunities include processing and packaging for sunflower oil. quality control. As the lower-level agribusiness clusters develop in the complexity of their business transactions. Apex 21 . and also further allow processors and farmer groups to obtain matching funds for processing equipment. The East African Grain Council can provide technical assistance to clusters in establishing robust WRS.3 – ABC actors develop sustainable relationships with large national. agrochemicals. cosmetics and soaps and in the development of bio-diesel.particular focus will be the introduction of the inventory credit system and more sophisticated warehouse receipt systems. and assist in promoting the projects through awareness activities (study tours of operational warehouses in collaboration). Additionally. Innovation grants to cluster actors will allow them to test markets and products. providing embedded services such as planting material.
traders. together with other stakeholders such as input suppliers. Depending on the number of smallholder farmers and clusters. with representatives from individual farmer groups attending. Apex clusters will resemble lower-level clusters in their structure. government and input suppliers provides significant economies of scale and strengthens the bargaining position of primary producers. an intermediate level such as cooperative-level clusters (comprising of several farmer groups) may form to seize business opportunities such as bulkpurchasing of inputs. 22 . finance institutions. Apex clusters will form as the need arises. research organizations. Having one platform at the highest level representing large numbers of smallholder farmers to engage with agribusinesses. and government representatives at district and national levels. or linking with a district-level processor. typically once lower-level clusters have significant production volumes to be attractive to large agribusinesses or earlier if large agribusinesses are keen to engage large numbers of farmers for contract farming. particularly to access input and output markets and to influence the policy environment.clusters will form to seize opportunities at national and East Africa regional level. as summarized in the table below.
credit guarantees Policy advocacy at national level Frequency meeting of Monthly / as needed Example Focus on multiple commodities. care will be taken to ensure that the ownership of the relationship remains with the cluster actors to ensure long-term sustainability of the clusters. banks.g. ABCs will be exposed to risk. it is critical that clusters are dynamic in their response to changes in the business environment. brokers National. Opportunities depending on what farmers grow Linkage to agro-input shop Improved post-harvest handling & storage Market linkage to local traders Credit linkage through local MFIs. bagging As the project works with clusters to identify opportunities. Output 2. Banks. and risk management will be an important factor to create resilient clusters. SACCOs Value adding activities e. while at the same time advocating for reforms in the business environment that address key agribusiness constraints. Examples to changes in the business environment include changes in consumer preferences. stockists Local trader. changes in 23 . milling. broker Local processors Local BSSs Local MFI. At the same time it is important for clusters to seek a diverse range of buyers for their products (and/or suppliers for their agro-inputs) to reduce risk and dependence on single suppliers/buyers. regional and international agriprocessors WRS managers National BSSs EAGC (East African Grain Council). SACCOs Apex Clusters Farmer representatives from lower-level clusters National agro-dealers/importers National traders. Ugandan Commodity Exchange Market-linkage with national agribusinesses Linkage with national banks.Table 3: Characteristics of Low-Level Clusters and Apex Clusters Characteristics Low-Level Clusters Affiliation Individual Farmers Local agro-dealer.4 – ABC actors adapt to and lobby for reforms in the business environment To ensure sustainability. Ugandan Commodity Exchange and other relevant stakeholders Institutions/Research organizations Provincial/national government Quarterly / as needed Focus on a single commodity Source inputs directly from importers or suppliers Linkage with WRS. changes in prices for agro-inputs and outputs.
interest rates. Policy issues and constraints encountered by clusters form the starting point for engaging with government to improve the business environment. information and risk management receive specific attention. One of the ultimate strategies to respond to changes is to innovate and the project will support innovation through its innovation grants. value-adding opportunities. having alternate options (other crops. issues that cannot be resolved at that level will be filtered upwards to the apex clusters. and to develop risk mitigation strategies to respond to change. Each situation will require a response that static clusters are unlikely to withstand. 24 . and buyers/agribusinesses exiting or entering the market. buyers/market channels. competitive intelligence. PIW-Uganda will work with clusters to build these skills. These grants will support new innovations in input and output markets such as developing and testing new value addition opportunities. and may be beyond the scope of either the individual clusters or the project. products or markets. and having the skills. the participation of government at provincial or national level or of research institutes and other national-level stakeholders is critical to address constraints. etc. These issues will be brought to the attention of national stakeholder networks to continue the advocacy process.). Some policy issues at this level involve significant effort and time to bring about change in the business environment. Here. tariffs and taxes. While many locallevel issues can be addressed with local authorities. The ability to respond to external shocks is dependent on having access to timely information about fluctuations. Business management skills. financial resources and assets to respond to change.
more encouragement of private seed suppliers. 25 . processing and milling by other actors.1 Relevance The project has high policy relevance to the Government of Uganda and IFAD.0 PROJECT RELEVANCE AND EFFECTIVENESS 4. These achievements will even be amplified with greater with more applied research on soil fertility and new sunflower varieties. and high relevance to the needs of the rural poor (especially in the poorer. Successful project implementation will raise the political and economic profile of the sunflower oil subsector and promote knowledge synergies between the various sub-projects. 4.4.000 metric tons of raw sunflower seed crop to be produced). war-torn northern and eastern regions).2 Effectiveness This projected is expected to be remarkably effective.000 households and the increase in the area planted with sunflower will be spectacular (with at least 27. and a more sustained and deepened extension effort in the subsequent years. The number of beneficiaries in the target area of Kumi and Ngora districts is targeted to be upwards of 16. The project will realize significant achievements in all its outputs and it will have a catalytic role in encouraging oilseed production. high relevance to the private sector (indirectly in that of traditional oilseeds like sunflower).
000 female youth) from 30% to 60%.000 men and 2.000 women. 4. 2. 600 casual jobs created.000 female youth) from 20% to 60%. Functional 320 farmer groups (FFS) engaged in and coordinating collective production post-harvest.000 male youth and 3.4 Contribution towards aBi Trust M&E Targets (Project Year 1) 1. and rural poverty reduction. 2. Farmers will be able to add to their household and farm assets and invest in human capital. domestic vegetable oil consumption. 4. The various implementing partners will be able to give vegetable oil crops higher priority.000 men and 2. 5.3 Quantitative Impact Assessment (Project Year 1) 1.000 farmers (1. 5.1 Project-level Impacts The PIW-Uganda Eastern Uganda sunflower value-chain development project will have substantial rural poverty impacts on all the impact domains.000 sunflower farmers (1. 2.000 men and 2.000 male youth and 3. 2. Increased income for 8.000 male youth and 3. 2. Increased food security for 8. Increased savings by members from a minimum of 500/= to 2. thereby improving overall market efficiency and linkage. Agricultural production and food security will improve substantially and their capacity to manage their own economic affairs will improve through farmer organization. sharing of household activities 26 . Other actors in the sunflower value chain will benefit indirectly. 4. 5.000 women.2 Goal level Impacts The goals of the project are to increase: national production of vegetable oil crops (sunflower in particular). The macro-analysis shows that there will be a general increase in sunflower production during the project period and an increase in household consumption of cooking oil. 5. import substitution of vegetable oils.000/= per week. 3.000 women.0 EXPECTED RURAL POVERTY IMPACT 5. storage and group marketing.5.000 farmers (1.000 smallholder farmers from 320 groups trained in sunflower yieldenhancing technologies by Dec 2014 (end of First Year of Project). particularly in the target districts of Kumi and Ngora. 3. 8. Environmental impacts are negligible in the short run.000 female youth) trained in joint planning.000 sunflower farmers trained in PHH technologies by Dec 2014 (end of First Year of Project).
and benefits from sunflower production by Dec 2014 (end of First Year of Project).000 8.000 2. 6. At least 3 trade linkages formed and strengthened.800 MT of high quality Sunflower per season and market it at a premium price by Dec 2014 (end of First Year of Project). 5. At least 75% of the Sunflower farmers able to produce and bulk 4.000 TOTAL 3.000 3.000 TOTAL 3.000 27 . Increase in yield of sunflower from 480 kgs to 800 kgs/acre of sunflower seeds.5 Project Beneficiaries Table 4: Project Beneficiaries by Gender and Age Group Adults Youth Male 1.4. 5. At least 320 one-acre Sunflower demonstration sites established by Dec 2014 (end of First Year of Project).000 5.000 5. 7.000 Female 2.
0 INNOVATION. A particular innovation will be the incorporation of a component on the development of food standards. although some weaknesses are likely to remain. sunflower production is likely to be sustainable into the medium term. however. farmer extension and cottage processing.1 Innovation The type of project intervention in the sunflower sub-sector will draw on tried and tested approaches to increasing agricultural production through improved seed supply. More farmers in eastern Uganda with enhanced incomes and hence better savings that will enable them to re-invest in more sunflower production inputs and increase sunflower output. These efficiencies will improve during the project period. which will ensure a continuing demand for the product at reasonable levels of profitability for all stakeholders. Thereafter. Its ability to do this will primarily rest on the strategy of working through local government structures that have the mandate. Farmers will be able acquire capacity for bulk commercial production and gain access to better markets for higher prices that will accentuate their interest in doing sunflower farming as a sustainable agri-business enterprise. In the longer term. Nevertheless. if not the resources.2 Sustainability The sustainability of the PIW-Uganda Eastern Uganda sunflower value-chain development project’s main output – sunflower production – will hinge on the efficiency of the value chain. declining soil fertility may threaten its sustainability. further up scaling will be in the hands of the private sector. Other sustainability outcomes Continuous linkages with Local and central government agricultural support agencies – particularly NAADS for provision of specialized advice and services to the farmers.6. Trained PIW-Uganda project staff will continue mainstreaming gender in their work within the organization. not least because of the increased output from farmers. Also novel – at least to Uganda – will be the situating these activities within a more integrated subsectoral approach. to cover a large number of districts. 28 . The PIW-Uganda Eastern Uganda sunflower value-chain development project’s main strength will be in replicating and scaling up the approach to a large geographical area in Eastern Uganda. 6. SUSTAINABILITY STRATEGY AND EXIT 6.
6. at the start of each cluster and value chain development process. an exit strategy and sustainability plan will form part of the initial strategy agreed to by all the partners. 29 .3 Exit Sustainability and project exit will be built into the program through the development of an exit strategy and sustainability plan during the inception phase which will guide the project in its implementation. Cluster support through capacity building. beneficiaries sufficiently value BSSs to pay for them in full. so that by the end of PIW-Uganda. with an increased requirement for beneficiary matching contribution and decreasing provision by the project. Similarly. training and BSSs will be delivered over the project period.
MFIs and consumers. It must credibly demonstrate the project‘s contribution to value chain development. how these capabilities contribute to change within and beyond the targeted cluster and chain (e. PIW-Uganda will reach out to these agencies/organizations to share technical staff to enable learning and crosspollination of ideas. each year PIW-Uganda will organize a series of case studies to analyze in more depth issues. outputs and impacts for different types of project beneficiaries (at individual and organizational level). and commodity value chains. Based on the similar approach and goals of previous project interventions in the Traditional Oilseeds Sub Sector projects in Uganda by international agencies and government programmes. traders. Learning. as well as best practices from the development sector and its own experience. The system will balance credibility with practicality to achieve plausible attribution of project impact. PIW-Uganda may subcontract case studies to independent research institutes to minimize conflicts of interest. reaching beyond producers to processors. at the conclusion of which a performance monitoring and evaluation plan will be submitted that finalizes the conceptual framework and indicators.1 PIW-Uganda Monitoring and Evaluation System PIW-Uganda will to build upon the lessons from previous project interventions in the Traditional Oilseeds Sub Sector by international agencies like IFAD. It must also generate useful information for project decisionmaking within the practical limits of project resources.7. clusters.0 PERFORMANCE MONITORING. BSSs. The system must generate robust information on the direct changes resulting from its intervention. and how these impact upon rural livelihoods and food security. 30 . analysis and reporting systems. multiplier effects). such as the extent to which the project supports core capabilities at cluster and chain levels. setting targets and specifying data collection.g. They will also hold 1-2 joint meetings per year. timed to coincide with work plan development and/or review cycles of the two projects. Methodological rigour. and validate the relationship between those changes and food security. The system will use a comprehensive range of value chain indicators. The characteristics of the proposed system are: A clear conceptual framework linking activities.. A project log frame and a Performance Assessment Matrix will be developed during the inception phase. In addition. EVALUATION AND LEARNING 7.
tailored to different audiences including policy makers. the media to be used (written. audiovisual and online materials) and the distribution frequency.3 Reporting Based on discussions with the donor. print. Audit reports due together with the progress reports by the end of March for the previous calendar year. 4. business and trade organizations. through a variety of media including radio. 2.2 Communication Communication aims to sensitize.7. Communication will document and share experiences and lessons learned. network of development professionals. will provide a framework that brings together the messages. 2017). to include the budget request for operating funds for the coming 6 months and a forecast for the following 6 month period. Annual reports submitted at the end of January for the coming calendar year (2015. internet and mobile technology (SMS). 5. 7. Inception report and first annual work plan to be submitted at the end of January 2014 for the first full calendar year. 3. Progress reports both narrative and financial due by the end of March for the previous calendar year. 2016. the following reports will be submitted: 1. which will be developed during the inception phase. Budget and forecast requests to be submitted semi-annually (in December and June). the donor and the development sector. 6. the outreach to different audiences. television. farmers‘ organizations. The communication strategy. Final project report due three months following the end of the project. 31 . inform and connect people that support the project‘s goal and objectives.
Additionally. starting with the inception phase during which gender and youth will be a key point of analysis in the value chain studies. to avoid automatically creating a male bias. Project activities will be designed to involve all family members in all agricultural activities including planning. 32 . farming and marketing. and crop protection products so that smallholder farmers can commercialize their farming systems. Project staff will also be sensitized to give both issues proactive attention.and age-group disaggregated. An environmental assessment will be undertaken during the inception phase as part of the project‘s value chain analyses. youth need to be involved in agricultural commercialization and agribusinesses. CSFS is designed to be environmentally sustainable.1 Gender & Youth Gender and youth aspects will be given attention from the beginning of the project.8. and gender and youth will be included in the Terms of Reference for the external. partners and stakeholders will be sensitized to environmental issues. sound soil organic matter management. and final evaluation of the project. Experience has shown the importance of paying attention to these two groups in the division of labor on the farm. All project staff. advocating synergies of mineral nutrients. mid-term.2 Environment The environment is a key consideration in the project‘s methodology.0 CROSS-CUTTING THEMES 8. Particularly given Uganda‘s high population growth rate. The case studies will pay attention to these issues as well. 8. beneficiaries. and in fair access to project benefits. All project monitoring and reporting will be gender. and to meet the requirements of the project sponsor. soil stabilization through the planting of trees and fodder grasses will be advocated. while at the same time improving soil health. All program activities and their impacts will be designed to be environmentally-sustainable By its very nature. in roles and responsibilities in community organization.
Burundi. to the detriment of inefficient producers.9. free distribution of inputs.0 RISK ANALYSIS PIW-Uganda considers the risk of political insecurity (particularly during elections) to be the largest risk factor. rent-seeking and favoritism. Unrest in South Sudan. could negatively impact implementation. This may result in land consolidation (successful farmers buying land from less successful farmers. or Rwanda could badly affect regional markets. Kenya is the major corridor for fuel and fertilizers. a new social dynamic is introduced to societies. the supply of which. This risk can be within Uganda itself or in neighboring countries. similar events are anticipated. DRC. if disrupted. many of whom become ‗laborers‘). and will put in place appropriate mitigation measures. and farmers producing large surpluses that drive commodity prices down. 33 . farmers using access to credit to buy and store other farmers‘ harvest to further increase their profits. A further risk is political interference in agricultural markets through subsidies. With thousands of farmers producing marketable surpluses. Additional risks come from plant disease pandemics and climatic uncertainty (both droughts and floods) and the resultant secondary social. economic and political effects. While structural solutions to these problems are largely beyond the scope of the project and PIW-Uganda will monitor the situation if these risks unfold. With the roll-out of PIW-Uganda. price controls. Apart from contextual risks. the largest implementation risk recognized by the project is the dynamic resulting from successful increases in agricultural productivity and income. market unfriendly policies.
Human Rights. Training on PHH. Pooling/Bulking. Record Keeping . and marketing for 320 groups Training on entrepreneurship.0 WORK PLAN – YEAR ONE Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 ACTIVITY Conduct a Base line Survey. Business skills development for 160 groups Training in VSLA methodology and facilitation for 320 with saving kits Conduct a ToT for Community Gender facilitators for 3 days in Gender. Data entry & Analysis Train 320 farmer field schools groups (25 members each) in group dynamics.10. good practices sharing and production documentation (50 participants per workshop) Conduct Radio Talk Show Program for Sensitization on 34 . Record Keeping. Joint Planning. disease and pest control for increased production. counseling Pooling/Bulking . enterprise development and contract farming Procurement of sunflower improved seed & other farm inputs and distribute them to the 320 groups & establishment of gardens Hold trainings on Gender Mainstreaming and Human Rights Couple training for 320 Groups on Gender Mainstreaming and Human Rights for one Day per Group On-site Training for 320 groups on ground nuts Agronomy. VSLA Facilitation for Community Gender Facilitators Facilitate market linkages and collect market information Hold annual feedback review workshop.
Gender Issues and Human Rights Development of IEC materials Procurement of computer. motor cycle and recruitment of Gender Officer & Agriculture Officer Insurance Development of a Gender Policy for PIW Monitoring and Evaluation of Project Activities Contribution to Staff salaries and rent 35 .
200 25.000 1.000 40.240.600.000 5.600 41.000 10. Record Keeping.000 25.000 127. VSLA Facilitation for Community Gender Facilitators Facilitate market linkages and collect market information Hold Annual feedback review workshop.181.800 19. Data entry & Analysis Train 320 farmer field schools groups (25 members each) in group dynamics.400. enterprise development and contract farming Procurement of sunflower improved seed & other farm inputs and distribute them to the 320 Groups & establishment of gardens Hold trainings on Gender Mainstreaming and Human Rights Couple training for 320 Groups on Gender Mainstreaming and Human Rights for one Day per Group Training for 320 groups on sunflower agronomy.800 79. and marketing for 320 groups Training on entrepreneurship .000 78.800 13.000.000 3.000.000 31.800 5.181. joint planning.000 3.000 14.600 38.628.000 0 2.800 38.200 29.640.11.360.360.600.000 3.440.187.000 .548.756.668.000 0 0 0 0 13. Record Keeping .000 31. counseling Pooling/Bulking . Human Rights.600.000 3.835. Business skills development for 320 groups Training in VSLA methodology and Facilitation for 320 with saving kits Conduct a ToT for Community Gender facilitators for 3 days in Gender.000 30.840.360.800 23.132.0 PROJECT BUDGET SUMMARY (YEAR ONE) PIW Contribution (USHS) 0 0 48.800 13.600.000 11.360. Training on PHH.400.040.000 Total Contribution (USHS) 56.000 aBi Trust Contribution (USHS) 56.360.000 11.800 5.840.000 11.000 ACTIVITY Conduct a Base line Survey.840.120. disease and pest control for increased production.560.788. Pooling/Bulking. Good practices sharing and production documentation (50 participants per workshop) Conduct Radio Talk Show Program for Sensitization on Gender Issues and Human Rights Development of IEC materials 36 352.960.000 3.756.132.000 3.928.488.
000 9.674.000 71.600.000 81.000 0 189.500.000 543.032.000 5.000 37 .824.000 597.568.000 9.350.824.350.000 152.000 189.000 54.000 0 0 70.Procurement of computer.600.600.000 787. motor cycle and recruitment of Gender Officer & Agriculture officer Insurance Development of a Gender Policy for PIW Monitoring and Evaluation of project Activities Contribution to Staff Salaries and rent Total 10% Physical Contingencies by aBi Trust GRAND TOTAL 12.432.080.000 733.000 54.000 5.600.324.850.480.568.000 84.
181.000 3. counseling Pooling/Bulking.000 ACTIVITY Conduct a Base line Survey.200 7.000 3.814.360.628.000 Q2 Q3 Q4 TOTAL 56. and marketing for 320 groups Training on entrepreneurship.200 29.181. joint planning.040.744.334.800 79.12.000 7.000 14.187. disease and pest control for increased production.744.000 41.840.000 15.400 20.334.000 11. Record Keeping.360.680.000 30.000 11.000 14.000 11.400 39.000 3. Pooling/Bulking.187.000. Training on PHH.360.000 3.680.840.360.360.040.400 11.000 7.600 20.360.360.668. Record Keeping .000 31. VSLA Facilitation for Community Gender Facilitators Facilitate market linkages and collect market 31.000 38 7.360.600 127.000 15. enterprise development and contract farming Procurement of sunflower improved seed & other farm inputs and distribute them to the 320 groups & establishment of gardens Hold trainings on Gender Mainstreaming and Human Rights Couple training for 320 Groups on Gender Mainstreaming and Human Rights for one Day per Group Training for 320 groups on sunflower agronomy.814. Business skills development for 320 groups Training in VSLA methodology and Facilitation for 320 with saving kits Conduct a ToT for Community Gender facilitators for 3 days in Gender.400 39.440.0 FUNDS DISBURSEMENT PLAN (YEAR ONE) Q1 56.360.800 23.000.488. Human Rights.000 .000 127. Data entry & Analysis Train 160 farmer field schools groups (25 members each) in group dynamics.
000 41.000 379.000 41.392.229.000 5.200 11.000 733.000 787.640 128.information Hold annual feedback review workshop.200 3.000 121.000 9.392.283.000 2.000 90.283.200 2.000 152.565.756.656.200 409.106.800 3.960 2.000 39 .274.000 84.000 27.674.000 54.460.600.040 84.000 9.283.756.350.200 5.633.800 2.283.000 5.132.392.068. Good practices sharing and production documentation (50 participants per workshop) Conduct Radio Talk Show Program for Sensitization on Gender Issues and Human Rights Development of IEC materials Procurement of computer.800 13.000 3.600.032.652.460.460.360 97.960.000 41.080.080. motor cycle and recruitment of Gender Officer & Agriculture officer Insurance Development of a Gender Policy for PIW Monitoring and Evaluation of project Activities Contribution to Staff Salaries and rent Total 10% Physical Contingencies by aBi Trust GRAND TOTAL 11.600.000 30.000 142.400 7.600.576.200 3.324.568.800 5.573.392.850.800 151.600 6.853.
Multiply and distribute sunflower oil seeds to 8. Mobilize farmer groups through DAOs. farm visits and field days.e. increased ACTIVITIES Develop new oil seed varieties through adaptive research. Promote cottage processing using Ram press technology. sunflower oil seed and Cottage processing of sunflower processing of high-quality oil oilseeds expanded. sunflower by smallholder (i. farmer field schools (FFS) trainings. 40 .000 smallholder farmers.APPENDIX I: PROJECT LOGICAL FRAMEWORK/STRUCTURE GOALS: Long Term PURPOSE: Project and Sub. Kumi and Ngora districts) farming groups in target area Sub-objective: Production of increased. in partnership with Production and yields of Poverty reduced in project areas PIW-Uganda. vegetable oil imports production. Provide extension support through demonstrations.OUTPUTS: Deliverables Development Objectives Project Development Objectives Increased local production of Increased household cash Supply of improved sunflower sunflower in Teso region income among smallholders by seed increased through revitalizing and increasing adaptive research and seed Increased substitution of domestic sunflower oil multiplication.
000 nd 2 Bird scaring Bird scaring 15.000 Harvesting Harvesting & threshing 12.APPENDIX II: PROJECTED PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SUNFLOWER FARMERS IN TESO REGION UNDER THE PIW-UGANDA PROJECT ACTIVITY Expense Account (USHS)** Average yield per acre (kg) 720 Farm gate price per kg .600 Sub-total (milling costs) 86.000 2nd Ploughing 40.800 Milling labour charge 57.000 Planting with DAP fertilizer _ Fertilizer DAP _ Urea _ Urea application – labour _ Weeding 1st 35.400 Milling outturn (litres) 180 41 .grain 500 Mill gate price (oil) 4.400 Total production/milling costs 258.000 Framers’ own milling Transport to mill Milling charges 28.000 Drying and cleaning Bagging materials Transport from field Total field/production costs 172.000 1st Ploughing 40.000 COSTS: Land preparation Bush clearing/slashing 10.000 Seed (2 kg) Hybrid Pan 7351 (2kg) ‗Sunfola‘ _ Planting Planting without fertilizer 20.
000 72.Cake realized Income sale of grain/oil Income sale of oil cake Total revenue Gross margin Cost of Production (per kg) Return to variable costs % Margin Tenure (Months) Annualized return ** Farmers milling their sunflower for sale of oil and oil cake.07 207% 4 620% 42 .000 533.000 792. 360 720.600 359 3.
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