Type of Component or Fitting Tee, Flanged, Line Flow Tee, Threaded, Line Flow Tee, Flanged, Branched Flow

Tee, Threaded , Branch Flow Union, Threaded Elbow, Flanged Regular 90o Elbow, Threaded Regular 90o Elbow, Threaded Regular 45o Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 90o Elbow, Threaded Long Radius 90o Elbow, Flanged Long Radius 45o Return Bend, Flanged 180o Return Bend, Threaded 180o Globe Valve, Fully Open Angle Valve, Fully Open Gate Valve, Fully Open Gate Valve, 1/4 Closed Gate Valve, 1/2 Closed Gate Valve, 3/4 Closed Swing Check Valve, Forward Flow Ball Valve, Fully Open Ball Valve, 1/3 Closed Ball Valve, 2/3 Closed Diaphragm Valve, Open Diaphragm Valve, Half Open Diaphragm Valve, 1/4 Open Water meter Valve:

Minor Loss Coefficient ξ 0.2 0.9 1.0 2.0 0.08 0.3 1.5 0.4 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.2 1.5 10 2 0.15 0.26 2.1 17 2 0.05 5.5 200 2.3 4.3 21 7

A valve is a device that regulates the flow of a fluid (gases, fluidized solids, slurries, or liquids) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways.

(1) Gate Valve:

A gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar. The gate faces can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Gate valves are sometimes used for regulating flow, but many are not suited for that purpose, having been designed to be fully opened or closed. When fully open, the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path, resulting in very low friction loss. Applications:
• •

Viscous liquids such as heavy oils, creams etc. Slurries

Figure: Gate Valve

(2) Check Valve:

A check valve, clack valve, non-return valve or one-way valve is a mechanical device, a valve, which normally allows fluid (liquid or gas) to flow through it in only one direction. Check valves are two-port valves, meaning they have two openings in the body, one for fluid to enter and the other for fluid to leave. Applications:

• • •

Few types of irrigation sprinklers and drip irrigation emitters have small check valves built into them to keep the lines from draining when the system is shut off. Offshore Oil and Gas Civil Engineering Gas-Turbine Systems

Figure: Check Valve

(3)Butterfly Valve:
Butterfly valves are throttling valves used to control flow through a circular disc by turning the valve's main axis at ninety degree or right angles towards the direction of flow in the pipe. These valves use an inflatable seat to seal with air pressure, thus requiring less torque and a smaller actuator, resulting in lower overall valve cost.

Advantages: These valves can be used in areas where space is limited, this is so, because butterfly valves

are available in small dimensions and are used in a variety of chemical services.

Figure: Butterfly valve


Globe Valve:
A Globe valve is a type of valve used for regulating flow in a pipeline, consisting of a movable disk-type element and a stationary ring seat in a generally spherical body. Globe Valves are named for their spherical body shape with the two halves of the body being separated by an internal baffle. This has an opening that forms a seat onto which a movable plug can be screwed in to close (or shut) the valve. The plug is also called a disc or disk. Applications: Globe valves are used for applications requiring throttling and frequent operation.

Figure: Globe valve

(4) Foot Valve: A suction valve or check valve at the lower end of a pipe. Application: Such a valve in a steam-engine condenser opening to the air pump.

Figure: Foot valve

(5) Ball valve:
A ball valve is a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball inside the valve. The ball has a hole, or port, through the middle so that when the port is in line with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is perpendicular to the ends of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle or lever will be inline with the port position letting you "see" the valve's position. The ball valve, along with the butterfly valve and plug valve, are part of the family of quarter turn valves. Applications: These specialty valves are available in a variety of configurations for positive leak tight shut-off and control and are used for both manual as well as remote valve actuation.

Figure: Ball valve


A Pipe Nipple is a short pipe (12 inches or less), with small opening which provides way for the liquids or gases to pass through the pipe. It has a male thread on each end and is used for extension from a fitting. Some of the popular usages of Pipe Nipple are :
• • • •

Used in fluid application to connect two FPT fittings. Used in plumbing system or for ceiling and wall supports and extensions. Used for ceiling or wall supports. Used to extend shower riser.

We saw different types of nipples in our fluid mechanics lab. These are: 1. Barrel nipple 2. Hexagonal nipple


Barrel Nipple:
Applications: Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections

Figure: Barrel Nipple


Hexagonal Nipple:
Male Pipe to Male Pipe connections

Figure: Hexagonal Nipple

A pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tube allowing a change of direction, usually 90° or 45°. The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed, etc. When the two ends differ in size, it is called a reducing or reducer elbow. Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius of types. We saw different types of elbows in our fluid mechanics lab. These are: 1. 90 degree elbow 2. 45 degree elbow 3. Male female elbow 4. Equal elbow

(1) 90 degree elbow:
90 degree elbow, also called "90 bends or 90 ells", are manufactured as SR (Short Radius) elbows and LR (Long Radius) elbows.

Applications: The main application area of an elbow (90 degree) is to connect hoses to valves, water pressure pumps, and deck drains. These elbows can be made from tough nylon material or NPT thread.

Figure: 90 degree elbow

(2) 45 degree elbow: 45 degree elbow, also called "45 bends or 45 ells" are typically made as LR (Long Radius) elbows. Available in various sizes (in mm or inches), 45 degree pipe elbow is available with different male to female BSP thread connections. Applications:
• • • • • •

Water supply facilities Food industrial pipeline networks Chemical industrial pipeline networks Electronic industrial pipeline networks Air conditioning facility pipeline Agriculture and garden production transporting system

Figure: 45 degree elbow

(3) Male female elbow and connectors: Application of Male Female Connector and elbow Male Female connectors and elbow are put to use in a number of industries depending on their specifications and internal and external diameter.
• • • • •

Pharmaceutical fittings Pneumatic tube fittings Air brake fittings Gas fittings Refrigerant fittings

Figure: male female elbow

(4) Equal elbow: Equal elbows are quick-connect fittings that are extremely helpful in routing water lines that are laid in confined areas. They are known as 'elbow fittings' because they display an angular bent so that two pipes can be easily fixed in the same manner. Applications: 1. Mains fed and indirect cold water systems. 2. Vented and unvented hot water systems. 3. Vented and sealed central heating systems.

Figure: Equal elbow

Union Cross
Union cross is essentially used for piping of tube to tube industrial fittings and connect fractional tubes. These metal fittings offer high mechanical connections for vacuum applications and

positive pressure in tube to tube piping systems. Union cross are so designed, that they can be used with orbital weld equipment, these unique fittings have enhanced surface to prevent out gassing and prevent corrosion. These widely used tube fittings allow smooth flow paths and prevent any kind of turbulence or entrapments. These tubing connections eliminate costly, hazardous leaks in instrumentation and process tubing and are available in metric and inches specifications according to various applications.

Union and Socket:
A union is similar to a coupling, except it is designed to allow quick and convenient disconnection of pipes for maintenance or fixture replacement. While a coupling would require either solvent welding or being able to rotate all the pipes adjacent as with a threaded coupling, a union provides a simple nut transition, allowing easy release at any time. We saw different types of unions in our fluid mechanics lab. These are: 1. Male female union 2. Union joint An opening in any fitting that matches the outside diameter of a pipe or tube, with a further recessed through opening matching the inside diameter of the same pipe or tube. We saw different types of unions in our fluid mechanics lab. These are: 1. Half socket
2. Co-centric reducing socket

Application of male female union, union joint, half socket are quite equivalent. These are:
• • • • •

Pharmaceutical fittings Pneumatic tube fittings Air brake fittings Gas fittings Refrigerant fittings


Male union

Female union

Half Soc

Concentric Reducing Socket

A reducer normally refers to a fitting that is used to reduce the diameter of the suction piping to fit the pump intake. It is thus used to join two pipes of different sizes. Reducer is available in both eccentric and concentric designs. Concentric or eccentric reducers are used to properly reduce into and out of circulating pumps. The various advantages include keeping big pipes and small pipes together as well as reducing noise and vibration at the same time. Applications: Some of the industries where they find application are oil, gas, petrochemical, onshore and offshore sectors. They are used in both cargo transfers operations and vapor recovery systems. Reducers for vapor recovery include a pin on one flange and vapor hole on the opposite flange. Concentric reducer save installation space and reduce costs. Piping systems must be anchored when using concentric reducer.

Figure: reducer

An impeller is a rotor inside a tube or conduit to increase the pressure and flow of a fluid. We saw different types of unions in our fluid mechanics lab. These are:

4. Semi-open impeller 5. Closed impeller 6. Open impeller

Figure: Impeller

Reducing coupler:
Application: Used for reducing area, pressure, flow and used for connections.

Figure: Reducing Coupler

Hexagonal nut:
Application: Used for joining pipes.

Figure: Hexagonal Nut

Equal Tee:
A tee is amongst the most common pipe fittings and is available with all female thread sockets, all solvent weld sockets, or with opposed solvent weld sockets and a side outlet with female threads. This is a T-shaped device which has three openings that act as an outlet for the pipe. Applications: A tee is used for connecting pipes of different diameters or for changing the direction of pipe runs.

Figure: Tee

Long and Short bend:
Applications: Use for small and large pipe connections between pipes.

Figure: Long bend

Figure: Short Bend

Centrifugal Pump:
A centrifugal pump is a rotodynamic pump that uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure of a fluid. Centrifugal pumps are commonly used to move liquids through a piping system. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits into the downstream piping system. Centrifugal pumps are used for large discharge through smaller heads.

Figure: Centrifugal Pump

A gasket is a mechanical seal that fills the space between two objects, generally to prevent leakage between the two objects while under compression. Gaskets save money by allowing "less-than-perfect" mating surfaces on machine parts which can use a gasket to fill irregularities. Gaskets are commonly produced by cutting from sheet materials, such as gasket paper, rubber, silicon, metal, cork, fiberglass or a plastic polymer. Gaskets for specific aplications may contain asbestos. It is usually desirable that the gasket be made from a material that is to some degree yielding such that it is able to deform and tightly fills the space it is designed for, including any slight irregularities. Many gaskets require an application of sealant directly to the gasket surface to function properly.

Figure: Gasket

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