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PART 1

1) Climate change (Tomoki)
- Global warming is caused by a Green House Gas (GHG) - CO2, SO2, - GHGs absorb the released heat from the surface and sends it back to the surface Effects: - Sea level increasing: by the end of the century the sea level will rise 18 to 59 centimeters - Hurricanes are likely to become stronger - Ecosystems have been changing, like the butterflies and foxes moved northward in search for a suitable temperature. Corals are dying as well.

2) Water pollution (Kevin)
-Water pollution is caused by several different factors: sewage and wastewater, marine dumping, industrial waste, radioactive waste, oil pollution, underground storage leakages, atmospheric deposition, global warming and eutrophication. -Water pollution causes disturbance in the marine ecology, causing species to over populate or go extinct. -Water pollution that is caused by oil pollution is just as it’s name suggests. -29 million gallons of petroleum enters the oceans off North America every year. Surprisingly, 85 percent of the pollution comes from airplanes, recreational boats, runoff from the land and polluted rivers. -The impact of an oil spill on marine life is not directly related to the size of the spill because even a small spill in an ecologically sensitive area can have very long term impacts. It also depends on the type and amount of toxins present in the petroleum product being released

- Riskiest toxins are a class of organic compounds known as polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs). -Water pollution that is caused by acid rain -Acid rain falls down to the earth, making the water source more acidic than regular. -Acid rain can be in the form of sulfuric acid and/or nitric acid. -Acid rain is commonly thought to be only a type of air pollution but it also pollutes the water because of the acidity -Acid rain is caused by the hazardous emission that is emitted from many coal burning factories. -Acidity in water kills the plant life and also makes the water not drinkable.

3) Toxins in Food & Soil (Kevin)
-Some toxins that are in our food are: sodium nitrate, bisphenol- A,aspartame, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides(organophosphates, sodium hypochlorite) - Most of the chemicals listed above are found after the food has gone through the processing stage to make it look more appetizing -Sodium nitrate is used to make the appetizing red hue in meats such as bacon,hot dogs and sausages. -Although there are many regulations pertained with pesticides, there are many farmers who just can’t afford to grow products with the regulation, or those who just don’t care about the use of pesticides. Many fertilizers also contain phosphates and nitrates. -Non pesticide ingredients/bug repellent.NPK

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4) Depleting ozone layer (Tomoki)
- Ozone (O3)is a reactive molecule which is constantly formed and broken down around 10 to 50 kilometers above earth. - The ozone layer’s function is to reflect the ultraviolet B rays from the sun (Ultraviolet B can cause skin cancer) - Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which comes from aerosol sprays and other cooling electronics, contains Carbons, Chlorine, and fluorine. - ultraviolet B + CCl3F(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + CCl2F(g) Cl(g) + O3(g) ⇒ ClO(g) + O2(g) ClO(g) + O(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + O2(g), so the Chlorine can go break more O3

5) Air pollution (Aidan)
● 2 types of pollutants ○ Primary pollutants ■ Caused by primary sources ○ Secondary pollutants ■ Intermingling of primary pollutants ● Comes from burning of fossil fuels ○ Factories, automobiles ○ Creates carbon monoxide and Nitrogen oxides ● Carbon dioxide is the main pollutant in our atmosphere ● Factories ○ Releases massive amounts of carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, ● Mining operations ● Methane is also a major pollutant ○ Gas emitted the livestock ○ Deteriorates earths ozone layers

● Sulfur Dioxide ○ Cause of acid rain ○ Component of smog ○ Reflects light and causes earth to cool ● Effects of air pollution ○ Respiratory problems ■ Cancers, heart conditions, more exposed to air pollution→ high cases of asthma and pneumonia ○ Global Warming ■ Melting of glaciers and increasing sea levels ○ Acid Rain ■ Raid becomes acidic and can cause huge amounts of damage to humans, animals and crops ○ Eutrophication ■ High amounts of nitrogen levels ■ Turns into algae on the sea surface, adversely affecting marine wildlife ○ Depletion of Ozone Layer ■ Emit harmful rays on earth ■ Causing skin and eye related problems ■ Not as much protection from UV rays

PART 2
Climate change

Classify the reaction. Oxidation Balance the reaction (if not already balanced) and include all states. 25 O2(g) + 2C8H18(l)--------> 18 H2O (g)+ 16 CO2 (g)+ energy Identify it as a oxidation reduction reaction or not: If oxidation/reduction you will identify species oxidized & species reduced, & # of e- transferred. Oxidized: 2C82.25-(s), 2H181+(s) Reduced: 25020(g) # of e_ transferred: 50 Write the net ionic equation for each reaction. 25 O2(g) + C8H180(s) + Heat --------> 18H21+(g) + 25O2-(g) + 16C4+(g) + energy Give qualitative observations of reactants and products Black oil heated and formed a water vapor Water pollution Classify the reaction. Synthesis reaction/acid base reaction Balance the reaction (if not already balanced) and include all states.
2NO2 (g) +H2O (l) -> HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq)

Identify it as a oxidation reduction reaction or not: Not a redox equation the net ionic equation for each reaction.
2NO2 (g) +H2O (l) -> HNO3(aq) + HNO2(aq)

Write

Give qualitative observations of reactants and products A colorless gas reacts with liquid and creates a colorless acidic solution.

Depleting Ozone Layer Classify the reaction. Decomposition and synthesis

Balance the reaction (if not already balanced) and include all states. Ultraviolet B + CCl3F(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + CCl2F(g) Cl(g) + O3(g) ⇒ ClO(g) + O2(g) O3(g) + Ultraviolet B ⇒ O2(g) + O(g) ClO(g) + O(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + O2(g) Identify it as a oxidation reduction reaction or not: If oxidation/reduction you will identify species oxidized & species reduced, & # of e- transferred. Ultraviolet B + CCl3F(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + CCl2F(g) Oxidized: Cl1-(g) Reduced: C4+ (g) # of e_ transferred: 1 Cl(g) + O3(g) ⇒ ClO(g) + O2(g) Oxidized: Cl0(g) Reduced: O0(g) # of e_ transferred: 2 ClO(g) + O(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + O2(g) Oxidized: O2-(g) Reduced: Cl2+(g) # of e_ transferred: 2 Write the net ionic equation for each reaction. Ultraviolet B + CCl3F(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + CCl2F(g) Cl(g) + O3(g) ⇒ ClO(g) + O2(g) ClO(g) + O(g) ⇒ Cl(g) + O2(g) Give qualitative observations of reactants and products It’s a decomposition of gases so we will not see a single thing.

Air Pollution Classify the reaction Combination Synthesis Balance the reaction (if not already balanced) and include all states. SO3 (g) + H2O (g) → H2SO4 (g)

Identify it as a oxidation reduction reaction or not: If oxidation/reduction you will identify species oxidized & species reduced, & # of e- transferred. Not oxidation/reduction

Write the net ionic equation for each reaction. SO3 (g) + H2O (g) → H2SO4 (aq)

Give qualitative observations of reactants and products Sulfur trioxide dissolves into the atmospheric water and creates Sulfuric Acid, a component of acid rain. Clear water in gas state reacts with yellow brownish gas to create a clear liquid, no precipitate formed

Investigate Proposed Solutions to Solve these Environmental Threats: Using the Internet you will find proposed solutions to each of the 5 environmental problems that have been thought and perhaps implemented on some scale by scientists around the world. Choose at least 1 solution to each problem, briefly explain the process by which they hope to correct the threat, citing information on the chemical reactions that one would need to conduct in order to rectify the environmental threat.
***The solutions must be chemical in nature. You can not choose a non-chemical solution, such as not using pesticides to fix the toxins in food problem. You can however elaborate on the chemical nature of pesticides and discuss different chemical alternatives to pesticides and/or chemical reactions that can remove toxins from food or soil etc.***

PART 3
Climate Change Solution: To improve Global warming we can simply plant trees. Since carbon dioxide takes major part part in global warming nature is the best to decrease its amount. Reaction that would occur:

CO2(g) + H2O(l) → C6H12O6 + O2(g)

Air Pollution Solution: Although there are many types of gases that contribute to air pollution, CO2 is a significant factor. CO2 is produced by the burning of fossil fuels, respiration and decomposition. However scientists at Columbia University have genetically modified plants to absorb CO2 even faster than normal. These plants absorb CO2 at a tremendous rate and could be considered a potential world saving technology. Reaction that would occur: CO2(g) + H2O(l) → C6H12O6 + O2(g)

Water pollution Proposed solution: First of all, one must understand that there are multiple different forms of acid rain. The acid could be nitric, nitrous, sulfuric,sulfurous and almost any other type of acid. For this instance, we will use sulfur trioxide because sulfuric rain is one of the most common type of acidic rain. Sulfur trioxide is formed from the emission of sulfur dioxide that is then released into the atmosphere. In order to get rid of sulfur dioxide, you can react it with limestone(CaCo3) and it will yield calcium sulfate and carbon dioxide. Although this solution eliminates the chances of sulfuric acid being produced, instead this reaction yields carbon dioxide and calcium sulfate. Although calcium sulfate is a useful material, carbon dioxide is known to be one of the main polluting gases. Reaction that would occur: SO2+CaCO3 -> CaSO3+CO2

Ozone layer depletion Solution: The solution for the ozone layer depletion is actually quite simple because all we need to do is to stop using aerosol sprays and use the alternatives for CFCs, which are HFC134a, Ammonia and etc (what doesn't include chlorine). The problem about CFCs were its stability which made it unable to breakdown in the process of escaping to the atmosphere.

On the other hand the alternative substances i have listed are relatively easier to breakdown so it will not reach the ozone layer and it simply does not have chlorine. Reaction:
CH2FCF3(g) + Ultraviolet B ==> 2F2(g) + 2C(g) + H2(g)