on them the ability predict the motion of the Education, bottles they transport. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C.

Hibbeler. To and be published by to Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

The design of conveyors for a bottling plant requires knowledge of the forces that act

Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

• To state Newton’s Laws of Motion and Gravitational Attraction and to
define mass and weight.

• To analyze the accelerated motion of a particle using the equation of
motion with different coordinate systems.

• To investigate central-force motion and apply it to problems in space
mechanics.

13.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion
Many of the earlier notions about dynamics were dispelled after 1590 when Galileo performed experiments to study the motions of pendulums and falling bodies. The conclusions drawn from these experiments gave some insight as to the effects of forces acting on bodies in motion. The general laws of motion of a body subjected to forces were not known, however, until 1687, when Isaac Newton first presented three basic laws governing the motion of a particle. In a slightly reworded form, Newton’s three laws of motion are First Law: A particle originally at rest, or moving in a straight line with a constant velocity, will remain in this state provided the particle is not subjected to an unbalanced force. Second Law: A particle acted upon by an unbalanced force F experiences an acceleration a that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is directly proportional to the force.* Third Law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two particles are equal, opposite, and collinear.
*Stated another way, the unbalanced force acting on the particle is proportional to the time rate of change the particle’s linear momentum. See footnote † on next page. Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River,101 Unpublished Work ©of 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

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The first and third laws were used extensively in developing the concepts of statics. Although these laws are also considered in dynamics, it is Newton’s second law of motion that forms the basis for most of this study, since this law relates the accelerated motion of a particle to the forces that act on it. Measurements of force and acceleration can be recorded in a laboratory so that in accordance with the second law, if a known unbalanced force F is applied to a particle, the acceleration a of the particle may be measured. Since the force and acceleration are directly proportional, the constant of proportionality, m, may be determined from the ratio m = F> a.* The positive scalar m is called the mass of the particle. Being constant during any acceleration, m provides a quantitative measure of the resistance of the particle to a change in its velocity. If the mass of the particle is m, Newton’s second law of motion may be written in mathematical form as F = ma This equation, which is referred to as the equation of motion, is one of the most important formulations in mechanics.* As previously stated, its validity is based solely on experimental evidence. In 1905, however, Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity and placed limitations on the use of Newton’s second law for describing general particle motion. Through experiments it was proven that time is not an absolute quantity as assumed by Newton; as a result, the equation of motion fails to predict the exact behavior of a particle, especially when the particle’s speed approaches the speed of light 10.3 Gm> s2. Developments of the theory of quantum mechanics by Erwin Schrödinger and others indicate further that conclusions drawn from using this equation are also invalid when particles are the size of an atom and move close to one another. For the most part, however, these requirements regarding particle speed and size are not encountered in engineering problems, so their effects will not be considered in this book.

*Recall that the units of force in the SI system and mass in the FPS system are derived from this equation, where N = kg # m> s2 and slug = lb # s2> ft (see Sec. 1.3 of Statics). If, however, the units of force, mass, length, and time were all selected arbitrarily, then it is necessary to write F = kma, where k (a dimensionless constant) would have to be determined experimentally in order to preserve the equality. *Since m is constant, we can also write F = d1mv2> dt, where mv is the particle’s linear momentum.

Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

and at a latitude of 45°. according to experimental evidence G = 66. Mass is a property of matter by which we can compare the response of one body with that of another. In mathematical form this law can be expressed as F = G where F = force of attraction between the two particles G = universal constant of gravitation. As indicated above.13. recording. and hence its magnitude depends on where the measurement is made. which is considered the “standard location. we have W = mg By comparison with F = ma. In the case of a particle located at or near the surface of the earth. Inc. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. however.1 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 103 Newton’s Law of Gravitational Attraction. New Jersey. is not absolute since it is measured in a gravitational field. the only gravitational force having any sizable magnitude is that between the earth and the particle. C. Then. it will be the only gravitational force considered.” The mass and weight of a body are measured differently in the SI and FPS systems of units. This force is termed the “weight” and. or likewise. All rights reserved. Newton postulated a law governing the mutual attraction between any two particles. we can develop a general expression for finding the weight W of a particle having a mass m1 = m. The weight of a body. From Eq.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. if g = Gm2> r2. It is an absolute quantity since the measurement of mass can be made at any location. m1m2 r2 (13–1) Mass and Weight. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. Pearson Education. this property manifests itself as a gravitational attraction between two bodies and provides a quantitative measure of the resistance of matter to a change in velocity. for our purpose.73110 -122 m3>1kg # s22 m1 . For most engineering calculations g is measured at a point on the surface of the earth at sea level. For information regarding permission(s). . Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. we term g the acceleration due to gravity. Let m2 be the mass of the earth and r the distance between the earth’s center and the particle. Shortly after formulating his three laws of motion. 13–1. and the method of defining these units should be thoroughly understood. however. Hibbeler. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. m2 = mass of each of the two particles r = distance between the centers of the two particles Any two particles or bodies have a mutually attractive gravitational force acting between them.

4-lb body has a mass of 2 slugs. or transmission in any form or by any means.80665 m> s2. recording. the value g = 9.2 ft> s22 g (13–3) Therefore. and the mass must be calculated from F = ma. photocopying. or likewise. In the FPS system the weight of the body is specified in pounds. Hibbeler.” the acceleration due to gravity is g = 9. if a body has a weight W (lb) and is located at a point where the acceleration due to gravity is g 1ft> s22 then the mass is expressed in slugs as m = W> g (slug). For calculations. Fig. storage in a retrieval system. a 2-kg body weighs 19.2 ft> s2 1 = 9. and the weight must be calculated using the equation of motion. 13–1b. if the body is located at the “standard location. Pearson Education. a body of mass 1 kg has a weight of 9.81 N..81 m> s2 will be used. Inc. Hence.104 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N m (kg) mϭ W g (slug) a ϭ g (m/s2) a ϭ g (ft/s2) W ϭ mg (N) SI system (a) W (lb) FPS system (b) Fig. C. FPS System of Units. a 64. In the SI system the mass of the body is specified in kilograms. Since the acceleration of gravity at the standard location is approximately 32. Hence.62 N. For information regarding permission(s). then the weight is expressed in newtons as W = mg 1N2.2 lb has a mass of 1 slug. Fig. so that W = mg 1N2 1g = 9. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.81 m> s22. All rights reserved. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.81 m> s22 (13–2) Therefore. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. and so on. F = ma. In particular. if a body has a mass m (kg) and is located at a point where the acceleration due to gravity is g 1m> s22. 13–1a. a body weighing 32. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. New Jersey. electronic. . the mass of the body measured in slugs is m = W 1slug2 1g = 32. and so on. 13–1 SI System of Units.

Hibbeler.ma = 0. 13–2 *Recall the free-body diagram considers the particle to be free of its surroundings and shows all the forces acting on the particle. © F = ma. its magnitude and direction can be represented graphically on the kinetic diagram. For this more general case. This method for application is often referred to as the D’Alembert principle. C..2 THE EQUATION OF MOTION 105 13. Pearson Education. recording. FR = © F. F2 a P F1 (a) F2 FR ϭ ⌺F F1 Free-body diagram (b) Kinetic diagram (c) P ϭ ma Fig. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. If it is treated in the same way as a “force vector. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.. so that the particle will either remain at rest or move along a straight-line path with constant velocity. The kinetic diagram pertains to the particle’s motion as caused by the forces. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. The vector . Upper Saddle River. the equation of motion may be written as © F = ma (13–4) To illustrate application of this equation.ma is referred to as the inertia force vector.. named after the French mathematician Jean le Rond d’Alembert. Fig. 13–2a. F1 and F2 .e. For information regarding permission(s). electronic.2 The Equation of Motion When more than one force acts on a particle. All rights reserved.13. consider the particle P shown in Fig. Newton’s first law of motion.* The equal sign written between the diagrams symbolizes the graphical equivalency between the free-body diagram and the kinetic diagram. shown in Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–2b. We can graphically account for the magnitude and direction of each force acting on the particle by drawing the particle’s free-body diagram.e. the resultant force is determined by a vector summation of all the forces. . mechanical. which has a mass m and is subjected to the action of two forces.†* In particular. i. note that if FR = © F = 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. Such are the conditions of static equilibrium. storage in a retrieval system. Inc.” then the state of “equilibrium” created is referred to as dynamic equilibrium. i. Since the resultant of these forces produces the vector ma. then the acceleration is also zero. or likewise. photocopying. 13–2c. New Jersey. †The equation of motion can also be rewritten in the form © F .

as indicated by the curl. 16. a P . the measured acceleration from this observer cannot be used in Newton’s law of motion to determine the forces acting on the particle. Also. Such a coordinate system does not rotate and is either fixed or translates in a given direction with a constant velocity (zero acceleration). Even though the earth both rotates about its own axis and revolves about the sun. Hibbeler. the accelerations created by these rotations are relatively small and can be neglected in most computations. the observer will not measure the particle’s acceleration as a P .8). Pearson Education. electronic. New Jersey. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. For example. it is justifiable to consider the inertial reference frame as fixed to the stars. C. photocopying. y ¿ frame of reference. if the frame is accelerating at a O¿ the particle will appear to have an acceleration of a P>O¿ = a P . then the particle will appear to move along a curved path. if the frame is rotating. will be measured by the observer regardless of the direction and magnitude of the velocity vO of the frame of reference. in which case it will appear to have other components of acceleration (see Sec. When studying the motions of rockets and satellites. mechanical. . consider the particle P moving with an absolute acceleration a P along a straight path as shown in Fig. 13–3. whereas dynamics problems concerned with motions on or near the surface of the earth may be solved by using an inertial frame which is assumed fixed to the earth.. Inc. y frame of reference. All rights reserved. 13–3 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. if the observer is fixed in the noninertial x ¿ .a O¿ . y¿ Inertial Frame of Reference. recording. For information regarding permission(s). or transmission in any form or by any means. this acceleration. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.106 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N is applied. storage in a retrieval system. Fig. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. If the observer is fixed in the inertial x. Whenever the equation of motion y aO¿ O¿ aP P vO O Inertial frame of reference x Path of particle x¿ Noninertial frame of reference Fig. or likewise. This definition ensures that the particle’s acceleration measured by observers in two different inertial frames of reference will always be the same. On the other hand. it is required that measurements of the acceleration be made from a Newtonian or inertial frame of reference. 13–3. In any case. Instead.

13.2 THE EQUATION OF MOTION

107

We are all familiar with the sensation one feels when sitting in a car that is subjected to a forward acceleration. Often people think this is caused by a “force” which acts on them and tends to push them back in their seats; however, this is not the case. Instead, this sensation occurs due to their inertia or the resistance of their mass to a change in velocity. Consider the passenger who is strapped to the seat of a rocket sled. Provided the sled is at rest or is moving with constant velocity, then no force is exerted on his back as shown on his free-body diagram.

W

N2

N1 At rest or constant velocity

When the thrust of the rocket engine causes the sled to accelerate, then the seat upon which he is sitting exerts a force F on him which pushes him forward with the sled. In the photo, notice that the inertia of his head resists this change in motion (acceleration), and so his head moves back against the seat and his face, which is nonrigid, tends to distort.

W

F

N2

N1 Acceleration

Upon deceleration the force of the seatbelt F ¿ tends to pull his body to a stop, but his head leaves contact with the back of the seat and his face distorts forward, again due to his inertia or tendency to continue to move forward. No force is pulling him forward, although this is the sensation he receives.

W

F¿

N2

N1 Deceleration Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

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13.3 Equation of Motion for a System
of Particles
The equation of motion will now be extended to include a system of n particles isolated within an enclosed region in space, as shown in Fig. 13–4a. In particular, there is no restriction in the way the particles are connected, so the following analysis applies equally well to the motion of a solid, liquid, or gas system. At the instant considered, the arbitrary ith particle, having a mass mi , is subjected to a system of internal forces and a resultant external force. The resultant internal force, represented symbolically as fi , is determined from the forces which the other particles exert on the ith particle. Usually these forces are developed by direct contact, although the summation extends over all n particles within the dashed boundary. The resultant external force Fi represents, for example, the effect of gravitational, electrical, magnetic, or contact forces between the ith particle and adjacent bodies or particles not included within the system. The free-body and kinetic diagrams for the ith particle are shown in Fig. 13–4b. Applying the equation of motion yields © F = ma; Fi + fi = mia i

When the equation of motion is applied to each of the other particles of the system, similar equations will result. If all these equations are added together vectorially, we obtain © Fi + © fi = © mia i
z Fi fi ri G rG Fi x Inertial coordinate system (a) y fi Free-body diagram (b) i

ϭ

mi ai Kinetic diagram

Fig. 13–4
Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

13.3 EQUATION OF MOTION FOR A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES

109

The summation of the internal forces, if carried out, will equal zero, since internal forces between particles all occur in equal but opposite collinear pairs. Consequently, only the sum of the external forces will remain, and therefore the equation of motion, written for the system of particles, becomes © Fi = © mia i (13–5)

If rG is a position vector which locates the center of mass G of the particles, Fig. 13–4a, then by definition of the center of mass, mrG = © miri , where m = © mi is the total mass of all the particles. Differentiating this equation twice with respect to time, assuming that no mass is entering or leaving the system, yields ma G = © mia i Substituting this result into Eq. 13–5, we obtain © F = ma G (13–6)

Hence, the sum of the external forces acting on the system of particles is equal to the total mass of the particles times the acceleration of its center of mass G. Since in reality all particles must have a finite size to possess mass, Eq. 13–6 justifies application of the equation of motion to a body that is represented as a single particle.

Important Points
• The equation of motion is based on experimental evidence and • • • •
is valid only when applied from an inertial frame of reference. The equation of motion states that the unbalanced force on a particle causes it to accelerate. An inertial frame of reference does not rotate, rather it has axes that either translate with constant velocity or are at rest. Mass is a property of matter that provides a quantitative measure of its resistance to a change in velocity. It is an absolute quantity. Weight is a force that is caused by the earth’s gravitation. It is not absolute; rather it depends on the altitude of the mass from the earth’s surface.

Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

we have © F = ma Fz P Fx z x x y Fy z © Fx i + © Fy j + © Fz k = m1ax i + ay j + az k2 For this equation to be satisfied. storage in a retrieval system. 13–5 In particular. Most often. z frame of reference. if the particle is constrained to move only in the x–y plane. For information regarding permission(s). Inc.4 Equations of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates When a particle is moving relative to an inertial x. the respective i. draw the particle’s free-body diagram. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. or transmission in any form or by any means. Fig. . y. mechanical. Applying the equation of motion. New Jersey. for mathematical convenience assume that they are in the same direction as the positive inertial coordinate axes. z components.* • Identify the unknowns in the problem. y. we may write the following three scalar equations: y © Fx = max © Fy = may © Fz = maz (13–7) Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Procedure for Analysis The equations of motion are used to solve problems which require a relationship between the forces acting on a particle and the accelerated motion they cause. • Once the coordinates are established.110 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13. The particle’s acceleration or its components will be shown as blue colored vectors near the free-body diagram in the examples. j. the forces acting on the particle. j. *It is a convention in this text always to use the kinetic diagram as a graphical aid when developing the proofs and theory. recording. rectangular or x. k components on the left side must equal the corresponding components on the right side. Upper Saddle River. Consequently. C.. or likewise. Hibbeler. • The direction and sense of the particle’s acceleration a should also be established. then the first two of these equations are used to specify the motion. • Select the inertial coordinate system. z coordinates are chosen to analyze problems for which the particle has rectilinear motion. • The acceleration may be represented as the ma vector on the kinetic diagram. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic. and thereby makes it possible to resolve these forces into their x. 13–5. may be expressed in terms of their i. y. If the senses of its components are unknown. All rights reserved. photocopying. k components. Pearson Education. Drawing this diagram is very important since it provides a graphical representation that accounts for all the forces 1 © F2 which act on the particle. as well as its acceleration. Free-Body Diagram.

apply • • • the equations of motion in their scalar component form. 1 If acceleration is constant. it may be necessary to use the frictional equation. Spring. and s is the stretch or compression defined as the difference between the deformed length l and the undeformed length l0 .13. If the problem involves the dependent motion of several particles. Remember that Ff always acts on the free-body diagram such that it opposes the motion of the particle relative to the surface it contacts. Ff = mkN. If acceleration is a function of time.4 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES 111 Equations of Motion. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic.9 to relate their accelerations. i. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. If the particle is on the verge of relative motion then the coefficient of static friction should be used. All rights reserved. • If the velocity or position of the particle is to be found. • If the forces can be resolved directly from the free-body diagram.e. Here k is the spring’s stiffness measured as a force per unit length. New Jersey. which relates the coefficient of kinetic friction mk to the magnitudes of the frictional and normal forces Ff and N acting at the surfaces of contact.l0 . storage in a retrieval system. If a moving particle contacts a rough surface. integrate a ds = v dv to obtain the velocity as a function of position. In all cases. Friction. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. use a = dv> dt and v = ds> dt which. i. 2 2 v = v0 + 2ac1s . Kinematics. Cartesian vector analysis can be used for the solution. Inc. mechanical. recording. s = l . s = s0 + v0t + 2 ac t2. If the solution for an unknown vector component yields a negative scalar. If the geometry of the problem appears complicated. 12. photocopying. If the particle is connected to an elastic spring having negligible mass.. For information regarding permission(s). which often occurs in three dimensions. or likewise. yield the particle’s velocity and position. it indicates that the component acts in the direction opposite to that which was assumed. C. or transmission in any form or by any means. If acceleration is a function of displacement. simultaneous solution of the equations will result in errors. it will be • • • • • • necessary to apply the proper kinematic equations once the particle’s acceleration is determined from © F = ma. make sure the positive inertial coordinate directions used for writing the kinematic equations are the same as those used for writing the equations of motion. use the method outlined in Sec.s02 to determine the velocity or position of the particle. use v = v0 + ac t.. the spring force Fs can be related to the deformation of the spring by the equation Fs = ks. when integrated. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. otherwise. Pearson Education. .. Upper Saddle River.e.

the velocity of the crate in 3 s is + 2 1: v = v0 + act = 0 + 5. 13–6 ϭ (c) 50a F ϭ 0.1 P ϭ 400 N 30Њ The 50-kg crate shown in Fig.5 N. or transmission in any form or by any means.6 m> s : 490. substituting the result into Eq. recording. Hibbeler. For information regarding permission(s). Fig. NC . photocopying. = 15. All rights reserved. in the positive x direction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.5 N 400 N 30Њ F ϭ 0. 13–6b.490.3. 1. mechanical. : 400 cos 30° . The weight of the crate is W = mg = 50 kg 19. since the applied force P is constant.81 m> s22 = 490.5 + 400 sin 30° = 0 (2) Solving Eq. SOLUTION Using the equations of motion.3NC = 50a (1) x x + c © Fy = may . Since the initial velocity is zero.112 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13. 2 for NC . Upper Saddle River.0. determine the velocity of the crate in 3 s starting from rest. There are two unknowns. Free-Body Diagram. prior to applying the equations of motion. As shown in Fig. . To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. or likewise. electronic. 13–6c. New Jersey. we can relate the crate’s acceleration to the force causing the motion. Using the data shown on the free-body diagram. Note that the acceleration is constant. x (a) y a 490. 13–6a rests on a horizontal plane for which the coefficient of kinetic friction is mk = 0.5 N 400 N 30Њ Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 N a = 5. namely NC and a. and solving for a yields NC = 290. The crate’s velocity can then be determined using kinematics.19 m> s2 Kinematics. C. The acceleration a is assumed to act horizontally. since it opposes the motion of the crate. we have + © F = ma .3 NC NC NOTE: We can also use the alternative procedure of drawing the crate’s free-body and kinetic diagrams. Inc. the frictional force has a magnitude F = mkNC and acts to the left. storage in a retrieval system.19132 Ans. Pearson Education. If the crate is subjected to a 400-N towing force as shown.3 NC NC (b) Equations of Motion..

Pearson Education.4 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES 113 EXAMPLE 13.0. 13–7 dz = - Ans. For information regarding permission(s).98. recording.001v2 .1 N (b) Ans. Upper Saddle River. then 1+ c2 v2 = v2 0 + 2a c1z . or likewise. Determine the maximum height to which it will travel if (a) atmospheric resistance is neglected. Equation of Motion.02 h = 127 m 2 a 98. like every object having free-flight motion near the earth’s surface.01v 2 N tends to retard the upward motion of the projectile. v = 0. Since the acceleration is constant. . and at z = h. SOLUTION In both cases the known force on the projectile can be related to its acceleration using the equation of motion. storage in a retrieval system. Kinematics can then be used to relate the projectile’s acceleration to its position. a = .81 50 h = 114 m h 0 a 98. where v is the speed at any instant.001v + 9. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Here the acceleration is not constant since FD depends on the velocity. 13–7a.1 N (c) Fig. electronic. All rights reserved. Fig.9.9.81 m> s 2 z (a) z The result indicates that the projectile. Hibbeler.001v2 .0. z0 = 0 and v0 = 50 m> s. . v0 = 50 m> s (positive upward). Inc.9. C. a = . it acts downward as shown on the free-body diagram. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Kinematics. or transmission in any form or by any means. we can relate a to position using 1 + c 2 a dz = v dv. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Initially. Equation of Motion. realizing that initially z0 = 0.01v2 .8121h . v = 0. FD z Part (b) Free-Body Diagram. 13–7b. Part (a) Free-Body Diagram. 1 . and (b) atmospheric resistance is measured as FD = 10. is subjected to a constant downward acceleration of 9.9. the projectile’s weight is W = mg = 1019.2 A 10-kg projectile is fired vertically upward from the ground.1 N. Since the force FD = 10.500 ln1v2 + 98102 ` 2 L 0 L 50 0. 13–7c.812 dz = v dv Separating the variables and integrating. and at the maximum height z = h. measured in m> s. New Jersey. we have 0 v dv = .1 = 10a. with an initial velocity of 50 m> s. + c © Fz = maz . Since a = f1v2.1 = 10a. mechanical.812 = 98. NOTE: The answer indicates a lower elevation than that obtained in part (a) due to atmospheric resistance. We will assume the unknown acceleration a acts upward in the positive z direction. + c © Fz = maz . .81 Kinematics.98..13. As shown in Fig.81 m> s2.0.z02 0 = 15022 + 21 . photocopying. Fig.01v22 N.

3 The baggage truck A shown in the photo has a weight of 900 lb and tows a 550-lb cart B and a 325-lb cart C.3628t2 ` = 1. determine its speed in 2 seconds. where t is in seconds. New Jersey. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. what is the horizontal force acting on the coupling between the truck and cart B at this instant? Neglect the size of the truck and carts. When t = 2 s. Since the acceleration is a function of time. mechanical. electronic. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. All rights reserved.. In order to determine the force between the truck and cart B. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.7256t Kinematics. v = 0. If the truck starts from rest. then 900 + © F = ma . or transmission in any form or by any means.2 T = 39. . Equation of Motion. 13–8b. Inc. As shown in Fig.45 ft> s 0 2 Ans. it is the frictional driving force that gives both the truck and carts an acceleration. For a short time the driving frictional force developed at the wheels of the truck is FA = 140t2 lb. NOTE: Try and obtain this same result by considering a free-body diagram of carts B and C. For information regarding permission(s).2 a = 0.7256122] x x 32. Also.4 lb Ans.T = a b [0. Fig. T FA NA (b) Fig. or likewise. We have v 2 L 0 900 lb dv = L 0 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording. storage in a retrieval system. Here we have considered all three vehicles. the velocity of the truck is obtained using a = dv> dt with the initial condition that v0 = 0 at t = 0. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–8 Free-Body Diagram. photocopying. . 13–8a. Hibbeler. Equation of Motion. . we can consider a free-body diagram of the truck so that we can “expose” the coupling force T as external to the free-body diagram.7256t dt. Only motion in the horizontal direction has to be considered.114 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13. 900 + 550 + 325 + © F = ma . 40t = a ba x x 32. C. 900 lb 550 lb 325 lb A B C FA NA NB (a) NC SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram. 40122 .

The magnitude of the spring force is a function of the stretch s of the spring. Substituting these results into Eqs. mechanical. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. therefore. SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram. . determine its acceleration and the normal force of the rod on the collar at the instant y = 1 m. i. Since k = 3 N> m. Here the unstretched length is AB = 0. Fig. or likewise. Equations of Motion..900 N a = 9. 2 it is seen that the acceleration depends on the magnitude and direction of the spring force.50 N and u = 53.7522 . shown in Fig.. a.0. Furthermore.4 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES 115 EXAMPLE 13. (3) a y x 19. 13–9a. 13–9 Fs = ks = 3 A 4y2 + 10.21 m> s T 2 Ans. is attached to a spring having a stiffness k = 3 N> m and an unstretched length of 0. we obtain NC = 0. storage in a retrieval system. 13–9a. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.62 . Fs = ks.Fs sin u = 2a (1) (2) (a) A 0. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Solution for NC and a is possible once Fs and u are known. NC . .4 A smooth 2-kg collar C. : x x + T © Fy = may . Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. There are four unknowns. or transmission in any form or by any means. the collar is assumed to be accelerating so that “a” acts downward in the positive y direction. C.AB = 4y2 + 10. Ans. New Jersey. 13–9a.e.75 m. tan u = y 0.75. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). 3 and 4 yields Fs = 1. the angle u is related to y by trigonometry. Hibbeler. + © F = ma . recording.13. 13–9b. namely.NC + Fs cos u = 0 19.1°.0. 1 and 2. All rights reserved. Pearson Education.75 B From Fig.812 = 19.62 N.75 (4) Substituting y = 1 m into Eqs.75 m u B y k ϭ 3 N/m C From Eq. NOTE: This is not a case of constant acceleration. Fs . electronic.75 m. since the spring force changes both its magnitude and direction as the collar moves downward. and u. Note that the weight is W = 219.7522 . Inc. then s = CB . The free-body diagram of the collar when it is located at the arbitrary position y is shown in Fig.62 N u NC Fs (b) Fig. photocopying. If the collar is released from rest at A.

the coordinates sA and sB measure the positions of A and B from the fixed datum. All rights reserved. mechanical. 13–10a is released from rest. Fig. 13–10b. Hence A will move down while B moves up.6. Here we will assume both blocks accelerate downward. 13–10d): + T © Fy = may . photocopying. Pearson Education. It is seen that 2sA + sB = l where l is constant and represents the total vertical length of cord. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 13–10c and d. 1 to 3.2 N (d) sB Ans. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.0 N aA = 3. Fig. determine the speed of the 20-kg block B in 2 s. C. the velocity of block B in 2 s is thus v = v0 + aBt = 0 + 1 . Block B (Fig. aA .6. For information regarding permission(s). The solution yields T = 327. the positive direction was always assumed downward.T = 20aB (1) (2) 2T Kinematics. and aB . block B accelerates upward. Hibbeler.13. The three unknowns are T. then for pulley C.5 The 100-kg block A shown in Fig.. It is very important to be consistent in this assumption since we are seeking a simultaneous solution of equations. The necessary third equation is obtained by relating aA to aB using a dependent motion analysis. Block A (Fig.54 m> s2 Hence when block A accelerates downward. 12. Since aB is constant.5 N. . New Jersey.1 m> s The negative sign indicates that block B is moving upward.aB Notice that in writing Eqs. 1+ T2 aA sA 981 N (c) T aB 196. Since the mass of the pulleys is neglected.2 N.2 . Equations of Motion. storage in a retrieval system. 13–10a.27 m> s2 aB = . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc. SOLUTION Free-Body Diagrams. respectively. One can see that for A to remain static requires T = 490. 2T (b) Datum sA C sB A B (a) T T 981 . 13–10 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. 13–10c): + T © Fy = may .9. The free-body diagrams for blocks A and B are shown in Fig. electronic. Using the technique developed in Sec. Upper Saddle River. whereas for B to remain static requires T = 196. or likewise. in the direction of + sA and + sB . or transmission in any form or by any means.2T = 100aA 196. ma = 0 and we can apply © Fy = 0 as shown in Fig. If the masses of the pulleys and the cord are neglected.542122 = . recording. Differentiating this expression twice with respect to time yields (3) 2aA = .116 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13.

Each sphere has a mass of 10 kg and a radius of 200 mm. Upper Saddle River. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Neglect the effects of friction. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.PROBLEMS 117 PROBLEMS 13–1. 9m 4m 2m sB ϭ A *13–4. 13–4 Probs. .. B 5 4 4 3 3 5 v B A C Prob. A crate having a mass of 60 kg falls horizontally off the back of a truck which is traveling at 80 km> h. Galileo was able to determine experimentally that the distance through which an object moves in free fall is proportional to the square of the time for travel. Determine the coefficient of kinetic friction between the road and the crate if the crate slides 45 m on the ground with no tumbling along the road before coming to rest. photocopying. 13–2. All rights reserved. Assume that the initial speed of the crate along the road is 80 km> h. Determine the force in each of the supporting cables due to this motion. if the motor M is drawing in the cable for a short time at a rate of v = 10. pulley. 13–1/2 13–3. Pearson Education. 13–3 Prob. Show that this is the case. mechanical. C. 13–5 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. storage in a retrieval system. and D. The crane lifts the 700-kg bin with an initial acceleration of 3 m> s2.e. respectively. and tD needed for a block of mass m to slide from rest at A to points B.. and the rollers. originally at rest. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. How far does the bar move in 5 s? Neglect the mass of the cable. M 13–5. By using an inclined plane to retard the motion of a falling object. The 300-kg bar B. s r t2. C. Hibbeler. is being towed over a series of small rollers. Determine the gravitational attraction between two spheres which are just touching each other. Determine the force in the cable when t = 5 s. and thus make the observations more accurate. or likewise. recording.4t22 m> s. where t is in seconds 10 … t … 6 s2. 80 km/h sD ϭ sC ϭ B C D 20Њ Prob. Inc. by determining the time tB . tC . New Jersey. or transmission in any form or by any means. i. electronic. For information regarding permission(s).

13–8 13–7. The baggage truck A has a mass of 800 kg and is used to pull the two cars. What is the acceleration of the truck if the coupling at C suddenly fails? The car wheels are free to roll. 13–10. For information regarding permission(s). If the elevator attains a speed of 10 m> s after it rises 40 m.. A C B F v Prob. If the motor supplies a constant force of 5 kN on the cable at B. If the tractive force F on the truck is F = 480 N. should 13–9/10 New Jersey. Determine the tension in the cable at A during the motion. recording. The 500-kg fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor is being lifted out from the core of the nuclear reactor using the pulley system shown. . It is hoisted upward with a constant acceleration such that s = 0 and v = 0 when t = 0. photocopying. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Hibbeler. Prob. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cable. 13–6 Prob. 13–7 This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission Probs. or transmission in any form or by any means. starting from rest. C.2t2 + 22 m> s. determine the initial acceleration of the truck. The elevator E has a mass of 500 kg. storage in a retrieval system. A s E B A Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. All rights reserved.5 s. or likewise. Determine the force in the cable when t = 2 s if the crate is moving upward with (a) a constant velocity of 2 m> s. and (b) a speed of v = 10. each with mass 300 kg. Pearson Education. 13–9. and the counterweight at A has a mass of 150 kg. determine the constant force developed in the cable at B. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. The elevator E has a mass of 500 kg and the counterweight at A has a mass of 150 kg. *13–8. Inc. mechanical. electronic. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cable.5 m when t = 1. and s = 2.118 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–6. where t is in seconds. Neglect the mass of the wheels. The 200-kg crate is suspended from the cable of a crane. be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. determine the speed of the elevator when t = 3 s. Upper Saddle River.

write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Upper Saddle River. Determine the force in chains AC and AD during the lift. Prob. what is the acceleration of the crate? Set u = 30°. C. determine the distance and the time the car will travel before its velocity becomes 0.e. determine the acceleration of the bottom block in each case. The driver attempts to tow the crate using a rope that has a tensile strength of 200 lb.5-Mg engine is suspended from a 500-kg spreader beam and hoisted by a crane which gives it an acceleration of 4 m> s2 when it has a velocity of 2 m> s. The coefficient of kinetic friction at all surfaces of contact is m. FD = kv. All rights reserved. 13–11 s 100 ft *13–12. determine the greatest acceleration it can have if the coefficient of static friction between the crate and the road is ms = 0. B P A (a) 100 ft B P A (b) Prob. v 13–15. determine how fast the sled is traveling when s = 5 ft. Hibbeler. storage in a retrieval system. and in the pool for a short distance Fr = 80 lb. which is proportional to its velocity. Inc. photocopying. If the frictional resistance on the incline is Fr = 30 lb. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For information regarding permission(s). Assume no other frictional forces act on the car. or transmission in any form or by any means.PROBLEMS 13–11. and the coefficient of kinetic friction is mk = 0. The 3. i.. 13–13 Prob. A C 60Њ A D E 60Њ B a u Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. 13–12 13–13.5v0 . Determine the normal force the 10-kg crate A exerts on the smooth cart if the cart is given an acceleration of a = 2 m> s2 down the plane. Also.3. . Pearson Education. Each of the two blocks has a mass m. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–14 Prob. recording. mechanical. A car of mass m is traveling at a slow velocity v0 . or likewise. 119 13–14. electronic. The water-park ride consists of an 800-lb sled which slides from rest down the incline and then into the pool.4. 13–15 *13–16. 13–16 New Jersey.. Prob. If it is subjected to the drag resistance of the wind. 30Њ FD Prob. If the crate is originally at rest and has a weight of 500 lb. If a horizontal force P moves the bottom block.

The bullet of mass m is given a velocity due to gas pressure caused by the burning of powder within the chamber of the gun. Determine the cable tension if the suspended crate has a mass of 800 kg. storage in a retrieval system. 13–19 if the suitcase has an initial velocity down the ramp of vA = 10 ft> s and the coefficient of kinetic friction along AB is mk = 0. Upper Saddle River. B D vA A Prob. determine the velocity of the bullet at any instant it is in the barrel. New Jersey. 13–21. C. What is the bullet’s maximum velocity? Also. A 20 ft F F0 t 30Њ 4 ft t0 B C R Prob. If the speed of point B on the cable is increased at a constant rate from zero to vB = 10 ft> s in t = 5 s. photocopying. . mechanical. The 400-lb cylinder at A is hoisted using the motor and the pulley system shown. 13–18 Prob. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education. Inc. 13–19/20 13–18. electronic. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. All rights reserved. Determine the point where it strikes the ground at C. determine the tension in the cable at B to cause the motion.2. or transmission in any form or by any means. determine the position of the bullet in the barrel as a function of time. Assuming this pressure creates a force of F = F0 sin1pt> t02 on the bullet. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–21 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. 13–19.120 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–17. 13–17 Probs. For information regarding permission(s).. A 40-lb suitcase slides from rest 20 ft down the smooth ramp. The winding drum D is drawing in the cable at an accelerated rate of 5 m> s2. How long does it take to go from A to C? *13–20. or likewise. Hibbeler. recording. Solve Prob.

Pearson Education. All rights reserved. or likewise. B B A A Prob. It is prevented from rotating due to the track and wheels mounted along its sides. New Jersey. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cables.50 kN in its attached cable. Determine how high the 30-lb block A rises in 2 s starting from rest. B F C M A Prob. . and the coefficient of kinetic friction between it and the horizontal plane is mk = 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. At a given instant the 10-lb block A is moving downward with a speed of 6 ft> s. mechanical.PROBLEMS 13–22. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–25 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. recording. Block B has a weight of 4 lb.2. has a mass of 500 kg. including its load. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. For information regarding permission(s). Determine its speed 2 s later. If the motor M develops a constant tension T = 1. Determine its speed 2 s later. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Block B has a weight of 6 lb.. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cord. 121 *13–24. 13–23. Inc. Neglect the weight of the pulleys and cord. Upper Saddle River. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cord. 13–24 13–25. 13–23 Prob.3. determine the velocity of the elevator when it has moved upward 3 m starting from rest. and the coefficient of kinetic friction between it and the horizontal plane is mk = 0. At a given instant the 5-lb weight A is moving downward with a speed of 4 ft> s. Hibbeler. A force F = 15 lb is applied to the cord. storage in a retrieval system. 13–22 Prob. C. A freight elevator.

At the instant shown the 100-lb block A is moving down the plane at 5 ft> s while being attached to the 50-lb block B. The tanker has a weight of 80011062 lb and is traveling forward at v0 = 3 ft> s in still water when the engines are shut off. Upper Saddle River. recording. determine the acceleration of A and the distance A slides before it stops. All rights reserved. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is mk = 0.122 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–26. mechanical. determine its velocity when t = 2 s. For information regarding permission(s). determine the time needed for the tanker’s speed to become 1. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and rope.. Probs. determine his acceleration if in the confusion he doesn’t let go of the rope. where v is in ft> s. *13–28. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For a short time. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. If the car has an initial velocity v1 = 2 m> s when t = 0. electronic. Given the initial velocity of v0 = 3 ft> s through what distance must the tanker travel before it stops? S v B FD Prob.2. the force in the cable is F = 13200t22 N. where t is in seconds. For a short time. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means. Hibbeler. 13–29. If the drag resistance of the water is proportional to the speed of the tanker at any instant and can be approximated by FD = 140011032v2 lb. If the car has an initial velocity v1 = 2 m> s at s = 0 and t = 0. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cables. the force in the cable is F = 13200t22 N. where t is in seconds. determine the distance it moves up the plane when t = 2 s. The 400-kg mine car is hoisted up the incline using the cable and motor M. Pearson Education. Inc. 13–30 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. M A 5 4 3 C D v1 ϭ 2 m/s B 17 15 8 Prob. New Jersey. 13–26 13–27. If the end of the rope is given to a boy B of weight 90 lb. C. .5 ft> s. 13–27 Prob. or likewise. The safe S has a weight of 200 lb and is supported by the rope and pulley arrangement shown. storage in a retrieval system. 13–28/29 ½13–30. The 400-kg mine car is hoisted up the incline using the cable and motor M.

The 2-kg collar C is free to slide along the smooth shaft AB. which is fixed to shaft AB. Pearson Education. C. 13–32/33 Prob. 13–35 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.2 0. Determine the maximum compression of spring HI if the fixed bumper R of a 5-Mg railroad car. storage in a retrieval system. Neglecting the mass of the rope and pulley.5 m A B mBC ϭ 0. The ends of all springs are attached to their respective members and are originally unstretched. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 13–31 *13–32. Determine the acceleration of collar C if (a) the shaft is fixed from moving. The 10-kg block A rests on the 50-kg plate B in the position shown. The boy having a weight of 80 lb hangs uniformly from the bar. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 45Њ A C mAB ϭ 0. k ϭ 80 kN/m B D I H P R 123 13–34.. rolling freely at 2 m> s. Inc.5 m on the plate when the system is released from rest. In all cases. Determine the acceleration of collar C if collar A is subjected to an upward acceleration of 4 m> s2. or transmission in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. or likewise. where t is in seconds. New Jersey. The 2-kg collar C is free to slide along the smooth shaft AB. determine the time needed for block A to slide 0. B 13–35. Determine the force in each of his arms in t = 2 s if the bar is moving upward with (a) a constant velocity of 3 ft> s. Hibbeler. 13–33. Upper Saddle River. The spring mechanism is used as a shock absorber for railroad cars. . strikes the plate P. For information regarding permission(s). Bar AB slides along the guide paths CE and DF.PROBLEMS 13–31. electronic. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. and (c) collar A is subjected to a downward acceleration of 2 m> s2.1 30Њ C Probs. mechanical. 13–34 Prob. (b) collar A. the collar moves in the plane. recording. and (b) a speed of v = 14t22 ft> s. moves downward at constant velocity along the vertical rod. and using the coefficients of kinetic friction indicated. F C E k¿ ϭ 160 kN/m A k ϭ 80 kN/m 2 m/s Prob.

New Jersey. determine the shortest time the belt can stop so that the package does not slide on the belt. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 13–38. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between each crate and the ramp is mk = 0.. or transmission in any form or by any means. and the speed of the electron at any time t. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education. Inc.2 Prob. Upper Saddle River.124 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N *13–36. storage in a retrieval system. If it is subjected to two fields of force for which Fx = F0 and Fy = 0. Take u = 30°. The coefficient of kinetic friction and the weight of each block are indicated. recording. C. directed down along the ramp. vA ϭ 2. determine the equation of the path. photocopying. 13–36 Prob. An electron of mass m is discharged with an initial horizontal velocity of v0 .3F0 . electronic. mechanical. The conveyor belt is moving at 4 m> s.2. Determine the acceleration of block A when the system is released. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cord. All rights reserved.3. Hibbeler.5 m> s. . or likewise. The conveyor belt delivers each 12-kg crate to the ramp at A such that the crate’s speed is vA = 2. determine the speed at which each crate slides off the ramp at B. where F0 is constant.5 m/s B A 3m u B Prob. y ++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++ A v0 80 lb 60Њ 20 lb B x mk ϭ 0. 13–39. 13–37 Prob. Assume that no tipping occurs. For information regarding permission(s). 13–38 13–37. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–39 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. If the coefficient of static friction between the conveyor and the 10-kg package B is ms = 0.

where k is a constant. Each of the three plates has a mass of 10 kg. A parachutist having a mass m opens his parachute from an at-rest position at a very high altitude. B Prob. which is found by letting the time of fall t : q . Inc. New Jersey. All rights reserved. which has a mass 3m. Determine the largest horizontal force P which can be applied to B so that A will not slip up B. determine the acceleration of each block if someone pushes horizontally on block A with a force of (a) F = 6 lb. 13–42/43 v *13–44. What is his velocity when he lands on the ground? This velocity is referred to as the terminal velocity.PROBLEMS *13–40. determine his velocity when he has fallen for a time t. storage in a retrieval system. Neglect friction. recording. 13–40 18 N D C 15 N B A 100 N 13–41. determine the acceleration of each plate when the three horizontal forces are applied. . A u B FD C P Probs. If the coefficients of static and kinetic friction at each surface of contact are ms = 0. mechanical. All surfaces are smooth. Prob. 13–45 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. If the atmospheric drag resistance is FD = kv2. and (b) F = 50 lb. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. respectively. 13–41 D C u A 13–42. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education. Block B rests on a smooth surface. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.The coefficient of static friction between A and B is ms .2. For information regarding permission(s). Crate B has a mass m and is released from rest when it is on top of cart A.4 and mk = 0. photocopying. electronic. Prob. 125 13–43. or likewise. or transmission in any form or by any means.3. 13–44 F B 30 lb A 20 lb 13–45. Neglect any friction between B and C. Determine the tension in cord CD needed to hold the cart from moving while B is sliding down A.3 and mk = 0. Upper Saddle River. Determine the largest horizontal force P which can be applied to B so that A will not move relative to B. Hibbeler. If the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between A and B are ms = 0. Blocks A and B each have a mass m. respectively.. Blocks A and B each have a mass m. Prob. C.

sB = 0. If the tractor is traveling to the right at a constant speed of 4 m> s. If the tractor is traveling to the right with an acceleration of 3 m> s2 and has a velocity of 4 m> s at the instant sA = 5 m. Pearson Education. having a mass mB . boom. where mk is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the blocks and the ground. and pulley system. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. 13–51 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. which has a mass mB . New Jersey. 13–49. Neglect the mass of the cord and pulleys. recording. having a mass mB . For information regarding permission(s). what is the distance the blocks slide on the surface before they separate? 12 m sB k B A sA A B Probs. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. show that for separation to occur it is necessary that d 7 2mkg1mA + mB2> k. C. Probs. What is their velocity at this instant? 13–50. The block A has a mass mA and rests on the pan B. Hibbeler. determine the tension in the rope when sA = 5 m. determine the distance both blocks slide on the smooth surface before they begin to separate. 13–46/47 *13–48. If another block B. boom. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. sB = 0. When sA = 0. 13–47. determine the tension in the rope at this instant. Block B has a mass m and is hoisted using the cord and pulley system shown. Both are supported by a spring having a stiffness k that is attached to the bottom of the pan and to the ground. mechanical. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River. The tractor is used to lift the 150-kg load B with the 24-m-long rope. Block A has a mass mA and is attached to a spring having a stiffness k and unstretched length l0 . When sA = 0.126 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N ½13–46. or likewise. 13–49/50 13–51. Inc. Also. Block A has a mass mA and is attached to a spring having a stiffness k and unstretched length l0 . If another block B. is pressed against A so that the spring deforms a distance d. The tractor is used to lift the 150-kg load B with the 24-m-long rope. is pressed against A so that the spring deforms a distance d. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.. Determine the magnitude of force F as a function of the block’s vertical position y so that when F is applied the block rises with a constant acceleration aB . 2m 1m A B B A y d k Prob. and pulley system. All rights reserved. Determine the distance d the pan should be pushed down from the equilibrium position and then released from rest so that separation of the block will take place from the surface of the pan at the instant the spring becomes unstretched. 13–48 Prob. .

The above equation is satisfied provided © Ft = mat © Fn = man © Fb = 0 (13–8) Recall that at 1 = dv> dt2 represents the time rate of change in the magnitude of velocity. whereas if it acts in the opposite direction. or likewise. it is often referred to as the centripetal force. Upper Saddle River. when the particle is constrained to travel in a circular path with a constant speed. For example. if © Ft acts in the direction of motion. © Fb represent the sums of all the force components acting on the particle in the tangential. Likewise. the equation of motion for the particle may be written in the tangential. also acts in this direction. since the particle is constrained to move along the path. electronic. then © Fn .5 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COORDINATES 127 13. 13–11 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Fig. For information regarding permission(s). C. an 1 = v2> r2 represents the time rate of change in the velocity’s direction. All rights reserved. or transmission in any form or by any means.e. i. normal.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Consequently. We have © F = ma © Ftut + © Fnun + © Fbub = ma t + ma n Here © Ft . Since this force is always directed toward the center of the path. the particle will slow down. . © Fn .5 Equations of Motion: Normal and Tangential Coordinates When a particle moves over a curved path which is known. Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Note that there is no motion of the particle in the binormal direction. Hibbeler. Pearson Education. there is a normal force exerted on the particle by the constraint in order to change the direction of the particle’s velocity 1a n2. O Fig. New Jersey. photocopying. recording. the particle’s speed will increase. b ⌺Fbub t n ⌺Fnun P Inertial coordinate system ⌺Ftut The centrifuge is used to subject a passenger to very large normal accelerations caused by high rotations. Realize that these accelerations are caused by the unbalanced normal force exerted on the passenger by the seat of the centrifuge. which causes a n . mechanical. storage in a retrieval system.. and binormal directions.13. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–11. Since this vector always acts in the positive n direction. toward the path’s center of curvature. and binormal directions. normal. respectively.

The method for applying the equations of motion. n. . has been outlined in the procedure given in Sec. i.128 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N Procedure for Analysis When a problem involves the motion of a particle along a known curved path. assume it acts in the positive t direction. n. or likewise. • The particle’s normal acceleration an always acts in the positive • • n direction. Eqs.. Equations of Motion. normal and tangential coordinates should be considered for the analysis since the acceleration components can be readily formulated. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.. the radius of curvature at the point where the particle is located can be obtained from r = [1 + 1dy> dx22]3>2> ƒ d2y> dx2 ƒ . C. electronic.4. 13–8. Inc. New Jersey. If the tangential acceleration a t is unknown. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Specifically. • Establish the inertial t. If the path is defined as y = f1x2. b coordinate system at the particle and draw the particle’s free-body diagram. All rights reserved. • Formulate the tangential and normal components of • acceleration. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Kinematics. for t. or transmission in any form or by any means. storage in a retrieval system. photocopying. 13.e. Hibbeler. • Apply the equations of motion. Pearson Education. b coordinates it may be stated as follows: Free-Body Diagram. at = dv> dt or at = v dv> ds and an = v2> r. which relate the forces to the acceleration. recording. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. Identify the unknowns in the problem. For information regarding permission(s).

u (a) SOLUTION Before looking at the following solution. Here NC represents the resultant of the ground on all four wheels. or likewise. since the car moves with constant speed. Hibbeler. Also.mg = 0 (1) (2) b an n NC u W ϭ mg (b) Fig. n. a mass m. For information regarding permission(s). b axes shown. . + © F = ma . and travel around the curve of radius r with a speed v. Pearson Education. 13–12b. All rights reserved.5 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COORDINATES 129 EXAMPLE 13. Upper Saddle River. : n n + c © Fb = 0. photocopying. v2 NC sin u = m r NC cos u . a force summation in the tangential direction is of no consequence to the solution. b coordinates. Using the n. 13–12 Eliminating NC and m from these equations by dividing Eq. then at = dv> dt = 0. we obtain v2 tan u = gr v2 u = tan-1 a b Ans. If it were considered. 21–48. 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Equations of Motion.13. gr NOTE: The result is independent of the mass of the car. and as stated in the problem.. no frictional force acts on the car. recording. Assume the cars have negligible size. give some thought as to why it should be solved using t. New Jersey. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. As shown in Fig. Free-Body Diagram. storage in a retrieval system. the unknowns are NC and u. Inc. 13–12a will not have to depend upon friction to prevent any car from sliding up or down the track. or transmission in any form or by any means.6 Determine the banking angle u for the race track so that the wheels of the racing cars shown in Fig. A further analysis of this problem is discussed in Prob. electronic. C. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. mechanical. 1 by Eq. Since an can be calculated.

Solving all the equations.89 s Ans.1ND and a sense of direction that opposes the relative motion of the disk with respect to the platform. photocopying. recording.130 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13. v2 b 1 0.43 = 0 (1) (2) (3) ND (b) Fig. the unknowns are ND . The maximum tension the cord can sustain is 100 N. The other end of the cord is attached to a ball-and-socket joint located at the center of a platform. If the platform is rotating rapidly. The weight of the disk is W = 319. Equations of Motion.. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.43 N. The frictional force has a magnitude F = mkND = 0. and v. . Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. mechanical. determine the time it takes for the disk to reach a speed great enough to break the cord.812 = 29.1ND = 3at T = 3a ND . © Fn = man . the time needed to break the cord is vcr = v0 + att 5. Pearson Education. 1 can be solved for the critical speed vcr of the disk needed to break the cord. It is this force that gives the disk a tangential component of acceleration causing v to increase.981 m> s2 vcr = 5.1. thereby causing T to increase until it reaches 100 N. or likewise.77 m> s Kinematics. C.1 ND t at T an n SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram. at . 13–13a. or transmission in any form or by any means. Inc. and the disk is placed on it and released from rest as shown. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–13 Setting T = 100 N. electronic.43 N F ϭ 0.7 The 3-kg disk D is attached to the end of a cord as shown in Fig. and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the disk and the platform is mk = 0. Hibbeler. Since an can be related to v.77 = 0 + 10.9812t t = 5. For information regarding permission(s). New Jersey. Since at is constant. D 1m Motion of platform (a) b 29. © Fb = 0. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. Eq. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.43 N at = 0. © Ft = mat . we obtain ND = 29. storage in a retrieval system.29.

2 ft> s2 c NOTE: Apply the equation of motion in the y direction and show that when the skier is in mid air the acceleration is 32. point A. so that at x = 0. Here y = 200 x2 .5 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: NORMAL AND TANGENTIAL COORDINATES 131 EXAMPLE 13. Equations of Motion.2 150 a 32. Upper Saddle River. 13–14a. Since an can be calculated. r = [1 + 1dy> dx22]3>2 ƒ d2y> dx2 ƒ ` x=0 = [1 + 1022]3>2 1 ƒ 100 ƒ t = 100 ft (b) NA Substituting into Eq. t coordinates to solve this problem? Free-Body Diagram. The free-body diagram for the skier when he is at A is shown in Fig. Since the path is curved. t t NA . All rights reserved. d2y> dx2 = 100 . electronic. .200. recording.150 = 0 = 150 1652 a b r 32. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. where his velocity is 65 ft> s. Also. an = 16522 v2 = = 42. + c © Fn = man . If in this case the jump can be approximated by the parabola shown in Fig. Fig. 1 and solving for NA . at = 0 Thus. From Eq. 13–14 aA = an = 42. photocopying. New Jersey. what is his acceleration at this point? SOLUTION Why consider using n. Hibbeler. Pearson Education. we have NA = 347 lb Kinematics. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. dy> dx = 100 x. + © F = ma .13.8 Design of the ski jump shown in the photo requires knowing the type of forces that will be exerted on the skier and his approximate trajectory.. Ans.2 ft> s2 r 100 Ans. or likewise. determine the normal force on the 150-lb skier the instant he arrives at the end of the jump.200 ft). 13–14b. 2. a n and a t .2 t 2 y yϭ 1 x2 Ϫ 200 200 x 200 ft A (a) (1) (2) an 150 lb at n The radius of curvature r for the path must be determined at point 1 1 1 A(0. storage in a retrieval system. Inc. . Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. or transmission in any form or by any means. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.2 ft> s2. there are two components of acceleration. mechanical. For information regarding permission(s). . the unknowns are at and NA .

Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.The weight is W = 219. 3 into Eq. v0 = 1 m> s. New Jersey. there are three unknowns.905 L 0° sin u du u v2 v ` = ..5 m (a) NB an n u 19. The free-body diagram for a package.5 du Packages. or likewise. Pearson Education.9 v0 ϭ 1 m/s ds ϭ 0.62 N at t (b) Fig. Kinematics.8111 . v u u du r ϭ 0. mechanical. This gives v dv = 4. each having a mass of 2 kg. photocopying.905 cos u ` . SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram.62 cos u = 2 (1) 0. when it is located at the general position u. electronic. we have v dv at = (3) 0. Upper Saddle River.cos u2 + 1 2 1 0° Substituting into Eq.905 sin u du Integrate both sides. Fig. Specify the three unknowns. All rights reserved.62 N. the package leaves the surface of the ramp so that NB = 0. Hibbeler. recording.62 sin u = 2at (2) At the instant u = umax . 13–15a. Therefore. For information regarding permission(s). determine the angle u = umax at which each package begins to leave the surface. . Since at ds = v dv and ds = r du = 0.24 cos umax = 58.86 umax = 42. substitute Eq.8111 . storage in a retrieval system. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. is shown in Fig.5 m. The third equation for the solution is obtained by noting that the magnitude of tangential acceleration at may be related to the speed of the package v and the angle u. 1 with NB = 0 and solving for cos umax yields 2 19.812 = 19.The package must have a tangential acceleration a t . v2 +b© Fn = man. and u. 13–15b. 19.7° Ans. 13–15 L 1 v dv = 4. v.5 du. Equations of Motion. realizing that when u = 0°. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.62 cos umax = [9. since its speed is always increasing as it slides downward. . To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. or transmission in any form or by any means. 13–15a. Inc.5 43. 2 and separate the variables. C. NOTE: The speed of the package is increasing because its tangential acceleration is increasing with u. are delivered from a conveyor to a smooth circular ramp with a velocity of v0 = 1 m> s as shown in Fig. at .NB + 19. v2 = 9.cos umax2 + 1] 0. Eq.5 +R© Ft = mat. If the effective radius of the ramp is 0.4. 2.132 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13.5 du To solve.

13–54. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. electronic. Prove that if the block is released from rest at point B of a smooth path of arbitrary shape.e. in the y ¿ direction. or likewise. y ϭ 20(10Ϫ6)x2 ϩ 5000 Probs.. 13–53. Hibbeler. where x and y are in feet. determine the normal and tangential components of the force the seat exerts on the pilot when y = 10 000 ft. If the pilot has a weight of 180 lb. storage in a retrieval system.611062 km. recording. Upper Saddle River. knowing that the distance from the earth to the sun is 149. and the radius of curvature of the path. i.PROBLEMS 133 PROBLEMS *13–52. The plane is traveling at a constant speed of 800 ft/s along the curve y = 20110-62x2 + 5000. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.40-Mg helicopter is traveling at a constant speed of 33 m> s along the horizontal curved path having a radius of curvature of r = 300 m. the speed it attains when it reaches point A is equal to the speed it attains when it falls freely through a distance h. r Probs. If the ball has a speed v = 8 m> s at the instant it is at its lowest point. Inc. i. 13–57 13–58. u = 0°. The jet plane is traveling at a constant speed of 1000 ft> s along the curve y = 20110-62x2 + 5000. determine the normal and tangential components of the force the seat exerts on the pilot when the plane is at its lowest point. If the pilot has a weight of 180 lb. Determine the force the blade exerts on the frame and the bank angle u. determine the angle u to which the ball swings before it stops. All rights reserved. mechanical. The 600-kg wrecking ball is suspended from the crane by a cable having a negligible mass. Also. y y¿ u u 12 m 13–57. Pearson Education. Determine the mass of the sun. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The 1. y B h A x Prob. 13–53/54 13–55. The 1. New Jersey. Determine the force acting normal to the blade.40-Mg helicopter is traveling at a constant speed of 40 m> s along the horizontal curved path while banking at u = 30°. For information regarding permission(s). . where x and y are in feet.. C. or transmission in any form or by any means. 13–1 to represent the force of gravity acting on the earth. 13–55/56 Prob. *13–56. determine the tension in the cable at this instant.e. v = 22gh.. Hint: Use Eq. 13–58 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.

If the crest of the hill has a radius of curvature r = 200 ft. Pearson Education. v r ϭ 200 ft yϭ 1 20 x2 Ϫ 5 A x 5m C 2m B 10 m Prob. or likewise. At the instant u = 60°. Neglect the size of the car in the calculation. storage in a retrieval system. 13–61. recording. Upper Saddle River. the boy’s center of mass G is momentarily at rest. Neglect the size of the sled and rider. Also. 13–59/60 *13–64. The airplane.. If the plane is banked at u = 15°. 13–58. The sled and rider have a total mass of 80 kg and start from rest at A(10 m. The sled and rider have a total mass of 80 kg and start from rest at A(10 m. All rights reserved. At the instant u = 60°. which may be approximated by a parabola. the boy’s center of mass G has a downward speed vG = 15 ft> s. Probs. 0). 13–58. electronic. The boy has a weight of 60 lb. Neglect the size of the sled and rider. photocopying. Hibbeler. mechanical. The car has a weight of 3500 lb.134 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–59. Neglect his size and the mass of the seat and cords. u u 10 ft r G Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. New Jersey. or transmission in any form or by any means. Determine his speed and the tension in each of the two supporting cords of the swing when u = 90°. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Prob. The boy has a weight of 60 lb. determine the normal force that the ground exerts on the sled at the instant it arrives at point B. Determine the rate of increase in his speed and the tension in each of the two supporting cords of the swing at this instant. what is the normal force of the seat on the pilot if he has a mass of 70 kg. To be13–61/62 published by Pearson Prentice Hall. when the pilot experiences only a normal force on the seat of the plane. If the sled descends the smooth slope. determine the radius of curvature r of the turn. 13–64Inc. For information regarding permission(s). Hint: Use the result of Prob. y 13–63. Hint: Use the result of Prob. C. determine the maximum constant speed at which the car can travel over it without leaving the surface of the road. 13–63 Probs. traveling at a constant speed of 50 m> s. If the sled descends the smooth slope. 0). determine the normal force that the ground exerts on the sled at the instant it arrives at point C. is executing a horizontal turn. . *13–60. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Neglect his size and the mass of the seat and cords. which may be approximated by a parabola. 13–62.

5.75 kg and negligible size slides over the surface of a horizontal circular rod for which the coefficient of kinetic friction is mk = 0. 13–69. he has a constant speed v = 20 ft> s. Determine the resultant normal force and the resultant frictional force exerted on the tracks at the instant it reaches point A. or transmission in any form or by any means. y x 8 ft G 5m A 10 m u y ϭ Ϫ5(10Ϫ3)x3 Probs. Also. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. it is traveling at 4 m> s and increasing its speed at 2 m> s2. A collar having a mass of 0. Neglect the size of the man.Take u = 60°. Hibbeler. what are the components of force in the n. it slides on the rod before coming to rest. The 150-lb man lies against the cushion for which the coefficient of static friction is ms = 0. Determine the resultant normal force and the resultant frictional force exerted on the tracks at this instant. z 135 *13–68. If he rotates about the z axis with a constant speed v = 30 ft> s. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. For information regarding permission(s). recording.PROBLEMS 13–65. Determine the resultant normal and frictional forces the cushion exerts on him if. Upper Saddle River. 13–65/66 13–67. Inc. due to rotation about the z axis. z b u n 6m t 100 mm u s y x v Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Each chair including its passenger has a mass of 80 kg. The 150-lb man lies against the cushion for which the coefficient of static friction is ms = 0. 13–66. and b directions which the chair exerts on a 50-kg passenger during the motion? 4m Probs. electronic. 13–70 New Jersey. The 200-kg snowmobile with passenger is traveling down the hill such that when it is at point A. Neglect the size of the snowmobile. 13–68/69 13–70. The 200-kg snowmobile with passenger is traveling down the hill at a constant speed of 6 m> s. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. determine how far. storage in a retrieval system. If the collar is given a speed of 4 m> s and then released at u = 0°.3.5. . photocopying. or likewise. Pearson Education. s. Determine the constant speed of the passengers on the amusement-park ride if it is observed that the supporting cables are directed at u = 30° from the vertical. Prob. All rights reserved. C. Neglect the size of the snowmobile. t. mechanical. 13–67 Prob. determine the smallest angle u of the cushion at which he will begin to slip off.

13–72 Prob. 13–74 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. 10Њ u 200 mm r ϭ 0. Upper Saddle River. recording. Determine the normal force of the tracks on the car when the car is at point B. Hibbeler. All rights reserved. mechanical. photocopying. or likewise. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–71 *13–72. The cone is rotating at a constant angular rate about the z axis such that the block attains a speed of 0. determine the tension in the cord and the reaction which the cone exerts on the block. determine the force of the slot on the ball when the ball arrives at points A and B. having a mass of 0. The smooth block B. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. If it is released from rest when u = 10°.8 m A B 400 mm 300 mm 10Њ B Prob. Neglect the size of the block. or transmission in any form or by any means.136 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–71. The roller coaster car and passenger have a total weight of 600 lb and starting from rest at A travel down the track that has the shape shown. B p y ϭ 40 cos ( –– 40 x) u ϭ 45Њ A 40 ft B 2m x D 40 ft Prob. At this speed. Pearson Education. A ball having a mass of 2 kg and negligible size moves within a smooth vertical circular slot.. Determine the initial tension in the cord and also at the instant the bob reaches point D. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. New Jersey. Neglect friction and the size of the car and passenger.2 kg. 13–73 20 ft Prob. storage in a retrieval system. z A 13–74. . The 5-kg pendulum bob B is released from rest when u = 0°. Neglect the size of the bob. u = 45°. where it has a velocity of 15 ft> s.5 m> s. Inc. is attached to the vertex A of the right circular cone using a light cord. C. y A 13–73. electronic.

write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The 35-kg box has a speed of 2 m> s when it is at A on the smooth ramp. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. The 2-kg spool S fits loosely on the inclined rod for which the coefficient of static friction is ms = 0.25 m from A. The disk rotates in the horizontal plane. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–77 Prob. C. 13–76 Prob. If the coefficient of static friction between his clothes and the platform is ms = 0. determine the time required to cause him to slip. S 0. 13–75 *13–76.3. For information regarding permission(s).25 m A 3m 10 m Prob. and the preset compression in the spring is 20 mm. z 5 4 3 13–78. determine the minimum constant speed the spool can have so that it does not slip down the rod.. or likewise. the center of mass G of the arm is located 150 mm from the center O.PROBLEMS 13–75. Due to the rotation his # speed is increased from rest by v = 0. New Jersey.2.4 m> s2. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical. If the spool is located 0. Also. photocopying. Hibbeler. electronic. Pearson Education. and its ends are attached to the contact arm at D and to the disk at E. If the surface is in the shape of a parabola. 13–78 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. . which will close the gap. storage in a retrieval system. determine the normal force on the box at the instant x = 3 m. If the initial gap between B and the contact at C is 10 mm. determine the (controlling) speed vG of the arm’s mass center. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Inc. recording. The rotational speed of the disk is controlled by a 30-g smooth contact arm AB which is spring-mounted on the disk. The spring has a stiffness of k = 50 N> m. When the disk is at rest. G. what is the rate of increase in its speed at this instant? y 2 m/s O DG A E k ϭ 50 N/m BC A 1 – x2 y ϭ 4 Ϫ– 9 x 150 mm 10 mm Prob. 137 13–77. The man has a mass of 80 kg and sits 3 m from the center of the rotating platform.

the collar slides outward along the smooth rod DE. The collar A. Prob. When rod BC rotates about the vertical axis. storage in a retrieval system. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Determine the force of the spring on the block and the tangential component of force which the slot exerts on the side of the block. 13–81 13–82. what is the normal force of the rod on the collar? Neglect the size of the collar. The 5-lb packages ride on the surface of the conveyor belt. 13–82 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. .5 lb/ft f A u Prob. determine the constant speed of the collar in order that s = 100 mm. electronic. y k ϭ 200 N/m D 20 ft A E s B A 5 ft vA ϭ 6 ft/s p y ϭ 20 cos — x 20 x Prob. Also. B 6 in. New Jersey. C. Inc. Pearson Education.5 lb> ft and an unstretched length of 1. 13–80 Prob.25 ft. Also. If the spring is unstretched when s = 0. The coefficient of static friction between the belt and a package is ms = 0. determine the resultant normal force acting on the bicycle when it is at point A while it is freely coasting at vA = 6 ft> s. determine the maximum angle u so that none of the packages slip on the inclined surface AB of the belt. 13–79 *13–80.138 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–79. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.3. Upper Saddle River.. or likewise. k ϭ 2. If the belt starts from rest and increases to a constant speed of 12 ft> s in 2 s. having a mass of 0. The block has a weight of 2 lb and it is free to move along the smooth slot in the rotating disk. For information regarding permission(s). C 13–81. when the block is at rest with respect to the disk and is traveling with a constant speed of 12 ft> s. The spring has a stiffness of 2. Neglect the resistance due to the wind and the size of the bicycle and rider.75 kg. is attached to a spring having a stiffness of k = 200 N> m. photocopying. All rights reserved. mechanical. Hibbeler. compute the increase in the bicyclist’s speed at this point. At what angle f do the packages first begin to slip off the surface of the belt after the belt is moving at its constant speed of 12 ft> s? Neglect the size of the packages. recording. or transmission in any form or by any means. If the bicycle and rider have a total weight of 180 lb.

the respective ur . . 13–16 If the particle is constrained to move only in the r – u plane. r ϭ f (u) Tangent r ϭ f (u) Tangent c r O u P (a) N F O r u (b) Fig. then only the first two of Eqs. or transmission in any form or by any means. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education. Tangential and Normal Forces. 13–17a to move along a path r = f1u2. . The most straightforward type of problem involving cylindrical coordinates requires the determination of the resultant force components © Fr . © Fu . Fig. electronic. uz components on the left side must equal the corresponding components on the right side. however.6 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 139 13.ar . the force P causes the particle in Fig. and the difference. or likewise. Fig. along the unit-vector directions ur . To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. uu .e. 13–17 As the car of weight W descends the spiral track. 13–17b. Hibbeler. we may write the following three scalar equations of motion: © Fr = mar © Fu = mau © Fz = maz (13–9) O u r z Inertial coordinate system Fig. i. the particle’s accelerated motion is not completely specified at the given instant. photocopying..13. Inc. which is defined between the extended radial line and the tangent to the curve. If.6 Equations of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates ⌺Fzuz ⌺Fuuu P ⌺Frur When all the forces acting on a particle are resolved into cylindrical components. then some information regarding the directions or magnitudes of the forces acting on the particle must be known or computed in order to solve Eqs.az . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. uu . For information regarding permission(s). uz . The directions of N and F can be specified relative to the radial coordinate by using the angle c (psi). The normal force N which the path exerts on the particle is always perpendicular to the tangent of the path. Nu creates a transverse acceleration au . the equation of motion may be expressed as © F = ma © Frur + © Fuuu + © Fzuz = marur + mauuu + mazuz To satisfy this equation. © Fz which cause a particle to move with a known acceleration. New Jersey. Consequently. 13–16. All rights reserved. storage in a retrieval system.Nr creates a radial acceleration. Upper Saddle River.Nz creates an azimuthal acceleration . . Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. whereas the frictional force F always acts along the tangent in the opposite direction of motion. For example. W . the resultant normal force which the track exerts on the car can be represented by its three cylindrical components. mechanical. 13–9 are used to specify the motion. C. recording. 13–9..

the angle c can be determined from tan c = r du> dr. Inc. u. and then evaluate the acceleration $ $ ## $ components ar = r . it is measured in the opposite direction to positive u. or likewise. measured clockwise.a sin 30°2 = . Pearson Education.a sin u. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For example. • If any of the acceleration components is computed as a negative quantity. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. a u . Equations of Motion. 13–18 Free-Body Diagram. r. • Use the methods# of 12.732. or c = . Kinematics. the component of displacement in the radial direction is dr and the component of displacement in the transverse direction is r du. u. the equations of motion can be applied in order to relate the forces acting on the particle to its acceleration components. recording.75°. it is measured from the extended radial line to the tangent in a counterclockwise sense or in the positive direction of u.140 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N r ϭ f (u) Tangent dr ds u rc This angle can be obtained by noting that when the particle is displaced a distance ds along the path. photocopying.The following is a summary of this procedure. 13–17c. C. it is very important to use the chain rule of calculus. mechanical. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.4. au = ru + 2ru. u. • • particle’s free-body diagram. 13–18. z inertial coordinate system and draw the Fig. storage in a retrieval system.8 to determine r and the time $ Sec. Upper Saddle River. u. Hibbeler. The method for doing this has been outlined in the procedure for analysis given in Sec. Fig. • Apply the equations of motion. 13–17 (cont.. consider the cardioid r = a11 + cos u2. . For information regarding permission(s).3. as shown in the figure. Assume that a r . 13–9. a z act in the positive directions of r. If it is negative. tan c = a11 + cos 30°2>1 . or tan c = r dr> du (13–10) r du c du O (c) If c is calculated as a positive quantity. or transmission in any form or by any means. Identify all the unknowns in the problem. Since these two components are mutually perpendicular. Once these coordinates have been established. # $ $ derivatives r.ru2. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. All rights reserved. az = z. Because dr> du = . • When taking the time derivatives of r = f1u2. Fig. or in cases where the path can be conveniently expressed in terms of these coordinates. Eqs. 13. it indicates that it acts in its negative coordinate direction. then when u = 30°. c ϭ 75Њ r O u ϭ 30Њ 2a • Establish the r. #z. z if they are unknown. New Jersey.) Tangent Procedure for Analysis Cylindrical or polar coordinates are a suitable choice for the analysis of a problem for which data regarding the angular motion of the radial line r are given. shown in Fig. electronic.

the coordinates and the required time derivatives can be calculated and evaluated at t = 1 s. .942 lb NOTE: The tangential axis is in the direction of F.04° . we get F = 1. storage in a retrieval system. Fig.5 rad> s $ $ r = 20 ft> s2 u = 0 # $ ar = r . N. 13–19a moves on a smooth horizontal track. or transmission in any form or by any means. For information regarding permission(s). and the normal axis is in the direction of N.ru2 = 20 .04° + N cos 14. 13–19b.5 rad c = 14. Equations of Motion.04Њ F r u (a) Because c is a positive quantity.511 s2 = 0. 13–19b. F cos 14. New Jersey. Thus.the normal force of the track on the block. F sin 14.2 u Kinematics.25 ` dr> du 4012u2 u = 0. As shown on the block’s free-body diagram.1010.and the tangential force F are located at an angle c from the r and u axes.5t ` t=1 s = 0.522 = 17. Hibbeler. where t is in seconds. 13–19 = 10 ft u = 0. Also.10 The 2-lb block in Fig. N = 0. recording.36 lb Ans. such that its path is specified in polar coordinates by the parametric equations r = 110t22 ft and u = 10.04Њ N Tangent au F ar r c = 14.52 = 20 ft> s2 Substituting into Eqs.5 rad. There are presently four unknowns: F. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. C. ar and au . mechanical. r = 10t2 ` # r = 20t ` t=1 s u (b) Fig. 1 and 2 and solving. N.5t2 rad. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. when t = 1 s.04° = a (2) 32. 13–10. electronic.2 r 2 c + © Fu = mau .04° u 14. Inc.13. All rights reserved. To do so. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram.5 ft> s2 $ ## au = ru + 2ru = 10102 + 2120210. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. This angle can be obtained from Eq.N sin 14. Determine the magnitude of the tangential force F causing the motion at the instant t = 1 s. 2 + T © Fr = mar . we must first express the path as r = f1u2 by eliminating the parameter t between r and u. it is measured counterclockwise from the r axis to the tangent (the same direction as u) as shown in Fig. photocopying.5 rad t=1 s # = 20 ft> s u = 0. This yields r = 40u2.6 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 141 EXAMPLE 13. Since the motion is specified. u = 0.04° = a (1) 32. tan c = r 40u2 = = 0. Pearson Education. or likewise..

Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. respectively. 13–20b.62 cos u + FP . write to: Rights and Permissions Department.0.192 . recording.2 csc u cot u # # $ r = . .ru2 = 0.5 r = 0. acts perpendicular to the slot in the arm. FP .0.0.62 N FP u Since d1csc u2 = .0.522 = 0. If the arm rotates in the vertical plane at a constant rate u = 0. r can be related to u by the equation r = 19. Upper Saddle River.1csc u cot u2 du and d1cot u2 = . SOLUTION Why is it a good idea to use polar coordinates to solve this problem? Free-Body Diagram. photocopying. 13–20a.46210. 13–20b. determine the force that the arm exerts on the peg at the instant u = 60°. we have +R© Fr = mar . Hibbeler. The force on the peg. All rights reserved. C. +b© Fu = mau .11 The smooth 2-kg cylinder C in Fig. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. electronic.462 $ # u = 0 r = . 19.NC cos u = 2au 0. we get # u = 0.133 $ r = 0.csc u cot u21u2 cot u .62 sin u .2 csc u1 . Equations of Motion. Pearson Education.0.52 = .192 # $ ar = r .5 rad> s. a r and a u are assumed to act in the directions of positive r and u.41csc u cot u2u = . Identify the four unknowns. 13–20a has a peg P through its center which passes through the slot # in arm OA.0. 13–20 Evaluating these formulas at u = 60°. The free-body diagram for the cylinder is shown in Fig. From Fig.0770 $ ## au = ru + 2ru = 0 + 21 .5 rad/s A (a) Kinematics. mechanical. Using the data in Fig.4 N FP = .21 .0. Inc.133 Substituting these results into Eqs.4 m r C P O · u ϭ 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.csc2 u2u = 0.NC sin u = 2ar 19.4 = 0. The negative sign indicates that FP acts opposite to the direction shown in Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.356 N Ans.0.4 csc u sin u (1) (2) u 0.5 r = 0.0.142 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13. For information regarding permission(s).1csc2 u2 du. or likewise. 13–20b. As usual.. 1 and 2 with u = 60° and solving yields NC = 19. storage in a retrieval system. then r and the necessary time derivatives become # u = 0. New Jersey.133210.4 csc u $ # # u = 0 r = .1 csc u1cot2 u + csc2 u2 u u ar r (b) NC au Fig.

1u $ # # u = 0 r = 0. As usual. r r + T © Fu = mau . To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Fig. All rights reserved. The driving force FC acts perpendicular to the arm OA. we have + © F = ma . # $ ar = r . write to: Rights and Permissions Department.5ar FC . If the arm OA is # rotating at a constant rate u = 4 rad> s in the horizontal plane. mechanical. Since the path is specified. Fig. SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram.5au Kinematics.The slot is in the form of a spiral. 13–21b.1u. 13–21 Ans. Equations of Motion. where u is in radians.0.11p21422 = . so that f = 90° . Inc.3°. 13–21c. Identify the four unknowns in Fig.1 When u = p.13.1u = 0. which is defined by the equation r = 10. respectively.7°. 13–10.20 m> s2 Substituting these results into Eqs.1u tan c = = = u dr> du 0. 13–21a. ar and a u are assumed to act in the positive directions of r and u.. the angle c which the extended radial line r makes with the tangent. determine the force it exerts on the can at the instant u = p rad. The time derivatives of r and u are # u = 4 rad> s r = 0. or likewise. electronic. Fig.12 A can C. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.1u2 m. storage in a retrieval system. recording. Pearson Education.NC sin 17. can be determined from Eq.5 kg.1 u r C (a) u O · u ϭ 4 rad/s A FC ar r f NC f Tangent u au NC cos 17. c = tan p = 72. New Jersey.03 m> s2 $ ## au = ru + 2ru = 0 + 210. Using f = 17.2.800 N What does the negative sign for NC indicate? Fig. 13–21b. . 1 and 2 and solving yields NC = . . so that dr> du = 0. having a mass of 0. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying.7° = 0. Upper Saddle River.1.5.c = 17. moves along a grooved horizontal slot shown in Fig. NC . For information regarding permission(s).1142 = 0.4 m> s $ $ r = 0. Neglect friction and the size of the can. We have r = 0. acts perpendicular to the tangent to the curve at u = p rad. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. and therefore r 0. as shown in Fig. whereas the normal force of the wall of the slot on the can. 13–21b. Hibbeler.6 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 143 EXAMPLE 13.7° and the data shown in (1) (2) r ϭ 0.ru2 = 0 . 13–21c.42142 = 3.1u = 0 At the instant u = p rad. C.64 N FC = 0.1 u r c f Tangent u (c) uϭp (b) -1 r ϭ 0.7° = 0.

Determine the radial frictional force and the normal force of the rod on the spool at this instant. storage in a retrieval system. In this position the spring is compressed 0. which is increasing at 1 m> s2 when r = 0. u = 1t2 + 22 rad.1 sin 2u2 ft. where r = 0. Determine the components of force Fr .5 m. Fu . the spool is moving outward along the rod at 3 m> s. u.2 ft and z = 10. electronic.4 ft.0. has components r = 1. where t is in seconds. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. where r = 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The boy of mass 40 kg is sliding down the spiral slide at a constant speed such that his position.75 lb and moves back and forth as its end rolls on the contoured surface of the cam. r ϭ 0. Upper Saddle River. All rights reserved. At the in of the rod is # stant shown.5 kg. 13–87 13–86. New Jersey.5 m. If the cam is rotating at a constant rate of 6 rad> s. and z components of force which the path exerts on the particle when t = 2 s. For information regarding permission(s). and z = 1 . and z = 16 .1 sin 2u z · u ϭ 6 rad/s 0. or transmission in any form or by any means.7t2 rad. having a mass of 1. the angular rate of rotation $ u = 6 rad> s. determine the force at the end A of the follower when u = 90°. . where t is in seconds. or likewise. measured from the top of the chute.2 ft A k ϭ 12 lb/ft z C B r ϭ 1. mechanical. and Fz which the slide exerts on him at the instant t = 2 s.5t2 m. At this same instant. which is increasing at u = 2 rad> s2. where t is in seconds. photocopying. A particle.75 lb and moves back and forth as its end rolls on the contoured surface of the cam. determine the maximum and minimum force the follower exerts on the cam if the spring is compressed 0. *13–84.2 ft when u = 45°. 13–87. *13–88. The 4-kg spool slides along the rotating rod. The path of motion of a 5-lb particle in the horizontal plane is described in terms of polar coordinates as r = 12t + 12 ft and u = 10. The spring-held follower AB has a weight of 0. z u z ϭ 0. 13–85/86 Prob. Neglect the size of the boy.t32 m. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Hibbeler. Inc.t2 rad. recording. u ϭ 6 rad/s • vs ϭ 3 m/s as ϭ 1 m/s2 Prob. Determine the r. 13–88 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.5 m Probs. moves along a path defined by the equations r = 14 + 3t2 m. Neglect friction at the bearing C.. Determine the magnitude of the unbalanced force acting on the particle when t = 2 s.5t2 . If the cam is rotating at a constant rate of 6 rad> s.5 m u ϭ 2 rad/s2 O •• 13–85. Pearson Education. C.2 ft and z = 10. The spring-held follower AB has a weight of 0.144 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N PROBLEMS 13–83.1 sin u2 ft. u = 10.

To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5-lb particle is guided along the circular path using the slotted arm guide. If the arm has $ an angular velocity # u = 4 rad> s and an angular acceleration u = 8 rad> s2 at the instant u = 30°. The ramp from A to B is circular. B r u 0.5 ft Prob. recording.2 cos u2 m. C. The girl has a mass of 50 kg.5 rad/s u 600 mm C r 600 mm A 0. mechanical. Determine the force of the rod on the particle and the normal force of the slot on the particle when u = # 30°. 13–89 Probs. The rod is rotating with a constant angular velocity u = 2 rad> s..5 kg and is confined to move along the smooth horizontal slot due to the rotation of the arm OA. Pearson Education. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Motion occurs in the horizontal plane. . 13–93 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. determine the force which the rod exerts on the can at the instant u = 30°. Inc. having a mass of 3 kg.5 m u O Prob. A smooth can C. Assume the particle contacts only one side of the slot at any instant. If the path of the horse is defined by r = 4 m. storage in a retrieval system. having a radius of 600 mm. Neglect the effects of friction in the calculation and the size of the can so that r = 11. photocopying. *13–92. determine the maximum and minimum force Fz the horse exerts on her during the motion.5 rad> s. electronic. The particle has a mass of 0.PROBLEMS 13–89. For information regarding permission(s). New Jersey. 13–90 Prob. or transmission in any form or by any means. determine the force of the guide on the particle. Upper Saddle River. is lifted from a feed at A to a ramp at B by a rotating rod. If the rod # maintains a constant angular velocity of u = 0. 13–91/92 13–90. 13–93. 145 13–91. Solve $Problem 13–91 if # the arm has an angular acceleration of u = 3 rad> s2 and u = 2 rad> s at this instant. The 0. All rights reserved. or likewise.5 sin u2 m. Hibbeler. A z u r · u ϭ 2 rad/s r 0.5 ft · u ϭ 0. Assume the particle contacts only one side of the slot at any instant. She is seated on the horse of the merry-go-round which undergoes constant # rotational motion u = 1.5 rad> s. z = 10.

13–97 if u = 2 rad> s2 when u = 5 rad> s and u = 60°.8 sin u2 m. r ϭ (5u) m 2 ft r u · u 3 ft u r Prob. where t is in seconds. The fork and path contact the particle on only one side. 13–95. The smooth particle has a mass of 80 g. P P r ϭ 2u r r · u ϭ 4 rad/s O · u ϭ 5 rad/s u O u 0. $ # 13–98. u = 0. at the instant u = 5 u = 0. 13–99. 13–96 Prob. Solve Prob. If u = 10.8 rad> s2. 13–94 if the spiral rod is vertical. photocopying.4 rad > s. The guide has a constant angular velocity u = 5 rad> s.146 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–94. . 13–97. The forked rod is used to move the smooth 2-lb particle around the horizontal path in the shape of a limaçon. 13–97/98 *13–96. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5t22 rad. electronic. For information regarding permission(s). If the cord has a stiffness k = 30 N> m and an unstretched length of 0. All rights reserved. Determine the normal and frictional driving forces that the partial spiral track# exerts on the 200-kg $ motorcycle p rad. where u is in radians. mechanical. Solve Prob. Hibbeler. 13–99 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Pearson Education. r = 12 + cos u2 ft. 13–94/95 Probs. Upper Saddle River. determine the force which the rod exerts on the particle at the instant t = 1 s. Inc. It is attached to an elastic cord extending from O to P and due to the slotted arm guide moves along the horizontal circular path r = 10. If its angular rate # of rotation is constant and equals u = 4 rad> s..25 m. r = 12u2 ft. New Jersey. or transmission in any form or by any means. and 3 Neglect the size of the motorcycle. storage in a retrieval system. determine the force of the guide on the particle # when u = 60°. C.4 m Probs. determine the tangential force P needed to cause the motion and the normal force that the rod exerts on the spool at the instant u = 90°. The 2-lb collar slides along the smooth horizontal spiral rod. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. or likewise. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording.

It is originally traveling around the horizontal circular path of radius r0 = 0. The attached spring has a stiffness k = 30 N> m and an unstretched length of 0. 13–100 13–101.32 m. r2u = c. Neglect the effects of friction between the ball and horizontal plane. If the forked rod is # rotating with a constant angular velocity of u = 4 rad> s. a smooth cylinder C having a mass of 0. Inc.2 m> s. determine the force of the rod on the cylinder and the normal force of the slot on the cylinder at the instant t = 2 s.PROBLEMS *13–100. r C u r ϭ 0. If the attached cord ABC is drawn down through the hole at a constant speed of 0. storage in a retrieval system. A B u r r0 · u0 Prob. # When integrated. Pearson Education. where the constant c is determined from the problem data. The collar has a mass of 2 kg and travels along the smooth horizontal rod defined by the equiangular spiral r = 1eu2 m. determine the tension the cord exerts on the ball at the instant r = 0. The ball has a mass of 2 kg and a negligible size. where u is in radians.1 m. F r 0. C. electronic. where t is in seconds. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Hibbeler. . determine the force the cam and the rod exert on the 2-kg roller when u = 30°. mechanical.5t22 rad. If the angular position of the arm is u = 10. or transmission in any form or by any means. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. recording.25 m. Also. New Jersey.2 m/s C F u r ϭ eu Prob. compute the angular velocity of the ball at this instant. 13–103 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Determine the tangential force F and the normal force N acting on the collar when u = 90°. 147 13–102.5 m such that the angular rate of rotation is # u0 = 1 rad> s. if the force F maintains a constant # angular motion u = 2 rad> s. All rights reserved.5u2 m. Upper Saddle River.5 kg is forced to move along the vertical slotted path r = 10. The smooth surface of the vertical cam is defined in part by the curve r = 10.. For information regarding permission(s). or likewise.2 cos u + 0.5 u u Prob. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The cylinder is in contact with only one edge of the rod and slot at any instant. photocopying. where u is in radians. Using a forked rod. 13–102 13–103. 13–101 Prob. Hint: First show that of motion $ the equation # in the u ## direction yields au = ru + 2ru = 11> r21d1r2u2> dt2 = 0.

storage in a retrieval system. What direction does it act in? r r ϭ 0. If the tangential force exerted on the ball due to the air is 6 N. for further information.5-kg ball is forced to move through the tube lying in the horizontal plane and having the shape of a logarithmic spiral. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. If his speed at A is a constant vP = 80 ft> s. 13–104 13–105. Also. photocopying.2e0. New Jersey. C. mechanical. The pilot of an airplane executes a vertical loop which in part follows the path of a “four-leaved rose. take the first and second time derivatives of r = 40011 + cos u2. The smooth surface of the vertical cam is defined in part by the curve r = 10. 80 ft/s A r r ϭϪ600 cos 2u u Fϭ6N 13–107.600 cos 2u2 ft. Hibbeler. noting that vC = 0. . the 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or transmission in any form or by any means. and # when u = 45° the angular velocity is u = 6 rad> s.32 m.1u r u Prob.” r = 1 .148 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N *13–104. take the time derivative of $ # Eq. For information regarding permission(s). 12–26. Hint: To determine the time derivatives necessary to compute the acceleration components ar and au . Solve Prob. The attached spring has a stiffness k = 100 N> m and an unstretched length of 0..1 m. 13–106. determine the rate of increase in the ball’s speed at the instant u = p> 2. He weighs 130 lb. 13–106 if the tube lies in a vertical plane. Inc.1u u r u Fϭ6N Prob. r ϭ 0. Pearson Education. 12–26 to determine u. to determine u. Then. Upper Saddle River. 13–106 Prob. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. electronic.2e0. The forked rod is $ rotating with an angular acceleration of u = 2 rad> s2. All rights reserved. 13–107 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Determine the force the cam and the rod exert on the 2-kg roller at this instant. use # Eq. Using air pressure. determine the vertical reaction the seat of the plane exerts on the pilot when the plane is at A. 13–105 Prob. where u is in radians. recording.2 cos u + 0. or likewise.

determine the tangential retarding force P needed to cause the motion and the normal force that the collar exerts on the rod at the instant u = 90°. where Ns is the magnitude of the normal force of the rod on the spool.5 m.2 r ϭ— u · ·· r u ϭ 5 rad/s. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. mechanical.8r + Ns . r. 149 13–110. Determine the normal force it must exert on the 0. 13–111 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. If # the rod has a constant angular rate of rotation u = 2 rad> s in the vertical plane. electronic. Proceed to obtain vr and vu . evaluate the constants C1 and C2 to determine r at the instant u = p> 4 rad. storage in a retrieval system. Inc. Evaluate the integration constants A and B. C.19. A 0. 13–110 13–109. r = 0. P u u ϭ 2 rad/s r u r Prob. If the collar’s angular rate is constant and equals u = 4 rad> s. it can be shown that the solution of the first of these equations is # r = C1e -2t + C2e2t . Hibbeler. If r.962 cos u = 0.2-kg spool slides down along a smooth rod.PROBLEMS # *13–108. which has a weight of 3 lb. The collar. determine the radial and transverse components of the ball’s velocity at the instant it leaves the outer end at C. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. 13–111. New Jersey. or likewise. 13–109 Prob. If a 0. All rights reserved.2-kg ball B starts at the # origin O with an initial radial velocity of r = 1.5-kg particle if the particle is confined to move along the slotted path defined by the horizontal hyperbolic spiral ru = 0.1. recording. The solution is of the form r = Ae -4t + Be4t. where u is in radians and r is #in feet. 13–108 Prob.. . and determine the time t when r = 0.5 m y Prob. photocopying. The tube # rotates in the horizontal plane at a constant rate of u = 4 rad> s. z 0. u ϭ 2 rad/s2 u ϭ 90Њ x · u ϭ 4 rad/s O u r B C 0. and u are zero when t = 0. Pearson Education.9.5 m. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. slides along the smooth rod lying in the horizontal plane and having the shape of a parabola r = 4>11 . For information regarding permission(s).5 m> s and moves outward through the tube.2 m. or transmission in any form or by any means.4r .81 sin u = 0 and # 0. Using the methods of differential equations. The arm is rotating at a rate of u = 5 rad> s when $ u = 2 rad> s2 and u = 90°. show that the equations of $ motion for the spool are r .cos u2.16r = 0. Hint: Show that the equation of motion in the r direction is $ r .81> 82 sin 2t.

become -F = mc 0 = mar d2r du 2 r a b d dt dt2 d2u dr du + 2 b dt dt dt2 (13–11) The second of these equations may be written in the form 1 d 2 du c ar bd = 0 r dt dt u r u F (b) so that integrating yields r2 du = h dt (13–12) Here h is a constant of integration. 13–11 may be replaced by dr dr du h dr = = 2 dt du dt r du 2 d h dr d h dr du d h dr h dr = a b = a b = c a 2 bd dt r2 du du r2 du dt du r du r2 dt2 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. New Jersey. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. we will consider the particle P shown in Fig. C. Hibbeler. The free-body diagram for the particle is shown in Fig.150 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N *13. 13–22a notice that the shaded area described by the radius r. If the areal velocity is defined as dA 1 du h = r2 = dt 2 dt 2 (13–13) Fig. the independent variable t must be eliminated from Eqs. To obtain the path of motion. 13–22a. This type of motion is commonly caused by electrostatic and gravitational forces. the particle will sweep out equal segments of area per unit of time as it travels along the path. the motion is called central-force motion. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. From Fig. mechanical. In other words. Eqs. r = f1u2. the equations of motion. In order to determine the motion. Using the chain rule of calculus and Eq. 13–22b. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means. u). Upper Saddle River. which has a mass m and is acted upon only by the central force F.. photocopying. All rights reserved. electronic. For information regarding permission(s). it is seen that the areal velocity for a particle subjected to centralforce motion is constant. recording. 13–9. as r moves through an angle du. is 2 dA = 1 2 r du.7 Central-Force Motion and Space Mechanics P F du u O (a) r 1 dA ϭ — r 2du 2 If a particle is moving only under the influence of a force having a line of action which is always directed toward a fixed point. 13–12. 13–22 then. Using polar coordinates (r. . Inc. or likewise. the time derivatives of Eqs. Pearson Education. 13–11.

All rights reserved. 13–11 yields . From Eq. 13–1. New Jersey. storage in a retrieval system.13. It will be assumed that this velocity is initially parallel to the tangent at the surface of the earth. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. . photocopying.. or likewise.h2j2 2 2 dt du Also.h2j3 = F mh2j2 F m (13–14) This satellite is subjected to a central force and its orbital motion can be closely predicted using the equations developed in this section.†*Just after the satellite is released into free flight. 13–14 should be negative. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or transmission in any form or by any means. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. electronic. as shown in the figure. the square of Eq. the force of gravitational attraction will be considered. recording. As a typical problem in space mechanics. Hibbeler. * For application. †The case where v0 acts at some initial angle u to the tangent is best described using the conservation of angular momentum (see Prob. the only force acting on it is the gravitational force of the earth. and r is the distance between *In the derivation. and the motion of the planets about the sun. + j = This differential equation defines the path over which the particle travels when it is subjected to the central force F. F is considered positive when it is directed toward point O. Some common examples of central-force systems which depend on gravitation include the motion of the moon and artificial satellites about the earth. If F is oppositely directed. we have d2j d2r = . Pearson Education.h2j2 or d2j du2 d2j du2 .) According to Newton’s law of gravitation. since for orbits close to the earth their effect is small in comparison with the earth’s gravitation. C. the right side of Eq. 13–23. 13–12 becomes a du 2 b = h2j4 dt Substituting these last two equations into the first of Eqs. this force of attraction has a magnitude of F = G Mem r2 Free-flight trajectory v0 Satellite F r ϭ r0 Power-flight trajectory F Launching Fig.7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 151 Substituting a new dependent variable (xi) j = 1> r into the second equation. 13–23 where Me and m represent the mass of the earth and the satellite. mechanical. 15–103). G is the gravitational constant. consider the trajectory of a space satellite or space vehicle launched into free-flight orbit with an initial velocity v0 . 13–23. Fig. Inc. respectively. (Gravitational attractions involving other bodies such as the moon or sun will be neglected. For information regarding permission(s). Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. force F will always act between the mass centers of the earth and the satellite.

13–14. FP e = PA which may be written in the form FP = r = e1PA2 = e[p . 13–16. photocopying. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise. Equation 13–16 represents the free-flight trajectory of the satellite. Pearson Education. We obtain d2j du 2 + j = GMe h2 (13–15) This second-order ordinary differential equation has constant coefficients and is nonhomogeneous. C.. Upper Saddle River. The complementary solution is obtained when the term on the right is equal to zero. . To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. a conic section is defined as the locus of point P. or transmission in any form or by any means. we set j = 1> r in the foregoing equation and substitute the result into Eq. It is the equation of a conic section expressed in terms of polar coordinates. recording. 13–24 Comparing this equation with Eq.152 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N the mass centers. The solution is represented as the sum of the complementary and particular solutions. storage in a retrieval system. 13–24. New Jersey. 13–15.f2 + r p ep Fig. the complete solution to Eq. As shown in Fig. Inc.f2 where C and f are constants of integration. The fixed point is called the focus. For information regarding permission(s). The particular solution is jp = GMe h2 Thus. The constant ratio is called the eccentricity of the conic section and is denoted by e. mechanical. 13–15 is D directrix A x P uϪf r f u F focus j = jc + jp GMe 1 = = C cos1u . and the fixed line DD is called the directrix.f2] or 1 1 1 = cos1u . Hibbeler. It is jc = C cos1u . it is seen that the eccentricity of the conic section for the trajectory is e = Ch2 GMe (13–17) Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. which moves in a plane in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed point F to its distance from a fixed line is constant.f2 + r h2 (13–16) x¿ D p The validity of this result may be checked by substitution into Eq.r cos1u . electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. To obtain the orbital path. All rights reserved. Thus.

12–25. then the constant h may be obtained from Eq. mechanical. 13–16 reduces to GMe 1 = C cos u + r h2 (13–19) The constants h and C are determined from the data obtained for the position and velocity of the satellite at the end of the power-flight trajectory. electronic. storage in a retrieval system. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. If e = 0 e = 1 e 6 1 e 7 1 free-flight trajectory is a circle free-flight trajectory is a parabola free-flight trajectory is an ellipse free-flight trajectory is a hyperbola (13–23) Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Fig. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording. Pearson Education. Hibbeler. . 13–24. r = r0 .7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 153 and the fixed distance from the focus to the directrix is p = 1 C (13–18) Provided the polar angle u is measured from the x axis (an axis of symmetry since it is perpendicular to the directrix).. New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. therefore. 13–12. use Eq. For information regarding permission(s). Fig. When u = f = 0°. if the initial height or distance to the space vehicle is r0 (measured from the center of the earth) and its initial speed is v0 at the beginning of its free flight. from Eq. 13–19 with u = 0°. so that h = r2 0 or du dt (13–20) h = r0v0 To determine C. Inc. the velocity v0 has no radial component. Upper Saddle River. or likewise. 13–17. and therefore Eq.13. For example. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying. and substitute Eq. the angle f is zero. C. v0 = r01du> dt2. 13–20 for h: C = GMe 1 a1 b r0 r0v2 0 (13–21) The equation for the free-flight trajectory therefore becomes GMe GMe 1 1 b cos u + 2 2 = a1 2 r r0 r0v0 r0v0 (13–22) The type of path taken by the satellite is determined from the value of the eccentricity of the conic section as given by Eq. 13–25.

Eq. 13–17. From the curves it is seen that when the satellite follows a parabolic path. 13–25. 13–23 with Eqs. It is left as an exercise to show that ve = 2GMe A r0 (13–24) The speed vc required to launch a satellite into a circular orbit can be found using the first of Eqs. For information regarding permission(s). Hyperbolic trajectory eϾ1 Parabolic trajectory eϭ1 Elliptical trajectory eϽ1 v0 Crash trajectory v 0 Ͻ vc r0 Circular trajectory eϭ0 Fig. and therefore. we have vc = GMe A r0 (13–25) Provided r0 represents a minimum height for launching. speeds at launch which are less than vc will cause the satellite to reenter the earth’s atmosphere and either burn up or crash. ve . can be determined by using the second of Eqs. 13–21. in which frictional resistance from the atmosphere is neglected. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. v0 . Pearson Education. mechanical. recording. photocopying. The initial launch velocity. 13–23.. 13–25. The speed. Since e is related to h and C. or likewise. electronic. 13–20. .154 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N Each of these trajectories is shown in Fig. 13–20. required for the satellite to follow a parabolic path is called the escape velocity. and 13–21. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system. 13–17. 13–25 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C must be zero to satisfy this equation (from Eq. using Eq. Inc. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. it is “on the border” of never returning to its initial starting point. h cannot be zero). Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. C. Fig. or transmission in any form or by any means. New Jersey.

This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–26 All the trajectories attained by planets and most satellites are elliptical. For information regarding permission(s). recording. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 155 b rp O ra b a a Fig. All rights reserved. it can be shown that the minor axis b is determined from the equation b = 2rpra (13–29) a = rp + ra *Actually.. ra = r0 12GMe> r0v2 02 . New Jersey. or transmission in any form or by any means.* Thus. storage in a retrieval system. rp = r0 (13–26) This minimum distance is called the perigee of the orbit. C. For a satellite’s orbit about the earth. photocopying. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. or likewise. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.1 (13–27) With reference to Fig. 13–26. 13–26. the minimum distance from the orbit to the center of the earth O (which is located at one of the foci of the ellipse) is rp and can be found using Eq.13. 13–22 with u = 0°. electronic. Inc. 13–22 with u = 180°. The apogee or maximum distance ra can be found using Eq. . If any other heavenly body is located at the focus of an elliptical orbit. the semimajor axis a of the ellipse is (13–28) 2 Using analytical geometry. Hibbeler. mechanical. Fig. Therefore. the minimum and maximum distances are referred to respectively as the periapsis and apoapsis of the orbit. the terminology perigee and apogee pertains only to orbits about the earth.

This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. New Jersey. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. The third law can be shown from Eq. by direct integration. All rights reserved. dA> dt = h> 2.156 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N Furthermore. The square of the period of any planet is directly proportional to the cube of the minor axis of its orbit. and so at the time it provided important proof as to the validity of these laws. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. the period is p 1r + ra2 2rpra h p T = (13–31) In addition to predicting the orbital trajectory of earth satellites. The fact that the planets do indeed follow elliptic orbits about the sun was discovered by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in the early seventeenth century. where T is the period of time required to make one orbital revolution. mechanical. recording. the theory developed in this section is valid. 3. In this case the mass of the sun. at predicting the actual motion of the planets traveling around the sun. storage in a retrieval system. C. to a surprisingly close approximation. whatever the line’s length. 13–19. Inc. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 13–13. His discovery was made before Newton had developed the laws of motion and the law of gravitation. A mathematical statement of the first and second laws is given by Eqs. the area of an ellipse is p 1r + ra2 2rpra 2 p A = pab = (13–30) The areal velocity has been defined by Eq. Upper Saddle River. developed after 20 years of planetary observation. Integrating yields A = hT> 2. photocopying. The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun placed at one of its foci. Hibbeler. are summarized as follows: 1. 13–28. respectively. should be substituted for Me when the appropriate formulas are used. 13–13 and 13–22. or likewise. Pearson Education. . Every planet moves in its orbit such that the line joining it to the sun sweeps over equal areas in equal intervals of time. Ms . electronic. Kepler’s laws. 2. or transmission in any form or by any means. For information regarding permission(s). and 13–29. 13–30.. From Eq. 13–31 using Eqs.

.4110 -92 m-1 = e 1 6. recording. with an initial velocity of 30 Mm> h acting parallel to the tangent at the surface of the earth.9781106218333. Fig. NOTE: The farther the satellite is from the earth. Hibbeler.9781106218333.The constants h and C are first determined from Eqs. New Jersey. 13–27 Ans.73110 -122[5. 13–20 and 13–21. which is to be expected since h is constant. For information regarding permission(s). the same orbit would be maintained provided that h = rpv0 = ravA = 58. All rights reserved. mechanical. observe that the orbit is an ellipse. C.4 Mm> h Ans.97811062 m v0 = 30 Mm> h = 8333.73110 -122[5. we have rp 6. Since rp = r0 = 6378 km + 600 km = 6. the slower it moves.97811062 6.73110 -122][5.322 Hence.97811062 ra = = = 10. The eccentricity of the orbit is obtained using Eq. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. From Eq. 2. 13–27.2 m> s = 19. or likewise.9781106218333. and (b) the velocity of the satellite at apogee. If the satellite were launched at the apogee A shown in Fig.54110 -82[58. 13–27.976110242] -1 -1 rpv2 0 6. SOLUTION Part (a).. 13–23.1511092 m2> s Using Eq.13 A satellite is launched 600 km from the surface of the earth.1511092]2 Ch2 e = = = 0. determine (a) the eccentricity of the orbital path. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc.976110242 kg. Pearson Education.7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 157 EXAMPLE 13. 13–17.32 = 58.976110242] 1 f = 25. 13–27. electronic.1511092 m2> s GMe 1 C = a1 b rp rpv2 0 66. storage in a retrieval system.1511092 10.80411062 = 5382. with a velocity vA .13.322 Thus. Upper Saddle River. Assuming that the radius of the earth is 6378 km and that its mass is 5.3 m> s then h = rpv0 = 6. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.215 6 1 GMe 66. vA = 58.80411062 2GMe 2[66. Part (b). or transmission in any form or by any means.976110242] 600 km v0 ϭ 30 Mm/ h rp O ra A vA Fig. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. photocopying.

or likewise. 13–116 2400 km 800 km Prob. Determine the minimum increment in speed it must have in order to escape the earth’s gravitational field. 13–114 13–117. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.40 Mm h ϭ 4 Mm 16 Mm Prob. determine the speed of the rocket when it is at point A. 13–115. 13–29. A P Prob. P.976110242 kg. Determine its required launch velocity tangent to the earth’s surface at perigee and the period of its orbit. If it has a speed of 15 Mm> h when it is at perigee. New Jersey. electronic. 13–114. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. storage in a retrieval system.20 Mm A B O A¿ 6.60 times that of the earth’s. or transmission in any form or by any means. and the gravitational constant is G = 66. A communications satellite is to be placed into an equatorial circular orbit around the earth so that it always remains directly over a point on the earth’s surface. the mass of the sun is 1.158 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N PROBLEMS In the following problems. For information regarding permission(s). Prove Kepler’s third law of motion. If this requires the period to be 24 hours (approximately). mechanical. how far is it from the earth’s surface when it is at A? Prob. 13–112 13–113. The rocket is in circular orbit about the earth at an altitude of h = 4 Mm. Hint: Use Eqs. except where otherwise indicated. and at apogee its altitude is 2400 km. If the rocket has an apoapsis and periapsis as shown in the figure.. C. 13–115 *13–116. The planet has a mass 0. determine its speed when it arrives at apogee. Upper Saddle River. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. the earth’s mass is 5. determine the radius of the orbit and the satellite’s velocity. Pearson Education. Hibbeler. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. All rights reserved.130. assume that the radius of the earth is 6378 km. The rocket is traveling in free flight along an elliptical trajectory A ¿ A. 13–28. A. Inc. . An elliptical path of a satellite has an eccentricity e = 0. and 13–31. recording. 13–19. r ϭ 3. photocopying. Also. *13–112.73110-122 m3>1kg # s22. A satellite is to be placed into an elliptical orbit about the earth such that at the perigee of its orbit it has an altitude of 800 km.99110302 kg.

60 times that of the earth’s. The rocket is traveling in free flight along an elliptical trajectory A ¿ A.4110 -921lb # ft22> slug 2. The planet has no atmosphere.. How long does it take for the rocket to land. 6 Mm 9 Mm Prob. If the rocket has an apoapsis and periapsis as shown in the figure. 13–118 13–119.70 times that of the earth’s. determine the required free-flight speed it must have at A ¿ so that the landing occurs at B. storage in a retrieval system. The rocket is traveling in free flight along an elliptical trajectory A ¿ A. The speed of a satellite launched into a circular orbit about the earth is given by Eq. Me = 409110212 slug. electronic. and its mass is 0. . The planet has no atmosphere. in going from A ¿ to B? The planet has no atmosphere. 1 mi = 5280 ft. New Jersey. or transmission in any form or by any means. C. mechanical. 159 13–121. 13–122 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. 13–121 is to land on the surface of the planet. A B O r ϭ 2000 mi A¿ A B O r ϭ 3 Mm A¿ 4000 mi 10 000 mi Prob. 13–25. If the rocket has the apogee and perigee shown. Take G = 34. Upper Saddle River. Me = 409110212 slug. If the rocket is to land on the surface of the planet. or likewise. If the rocket in Prob. 1 mi = 5280 ft. and its mass is 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Determine the speed of a satellite launched parallel to the surface of the earth so that it travels in a circular orbit 800 km from the earth’s surface. All rights reserved. going from A ¿ to B along an elliptical path? A B O r ϭ 2000 mi A¿ r ϭ 3 Mm A B O A¿ 4000 mi 10 000 mi Prob.4110 -921lb # ft22> slug 2. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. determine the rocket’s velocity when it is at point A. 6 Mm 9 Mm Prob. photocopying. Pearson Education. determine the required free-flight speed it must have at A ¿ so that it strikes the planet at B. For information regarding permission(s). recording. 13–121 13–122. Inc. How long does it take for the rocket to land. 13–119 *13–120. and its mass is 0. determine the speed of the rocket when it is at point A.6 times that of the earth’s.PROBLEMS 13–118. Hibbeler. Take G = 34.

A satellite is in an elliptical orbit around the earth such that e = 0.76 and its perigee is 9 Mm as shown. and (c) the periods of both the circular and elliptical orbits. determine the aphelion distance of the orbit. determine the sudden adjustment in speed that must be given to the rocket in order to maintain the circular orbit. If the eccentricity of the orbit is e = 0. 13–127 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. located 135° away as shown. respectively. or transmission in any form or by any means. . A rocket is in free-flight elliptical orbit around the planet Venus.. The mass of Venus is 0. recording. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.073. If its perigee is 5 Mm. Knowing that the periapsis and apoapsis of the orbit are 8 Mm and 26 Mm. C. photocopying. determine its velocity at this point and also the distance OB when it is at point B. Determine the sudden change in speed that must occur at A so that the rocket can enter the satellite’s orbit while in free flight along the blue elliptical trajectory. 13–125. Also determine the sudden decrease in speed the rocket must experience at A in order to travel in a circular orbit about the earth. 13–126. or likewise. Inc.816 times the mass of the earth. (b) the required speed it must attain at A just after braking so that it undergoes an 8-Mm free-flight circular orbit around Venus. Pearson Education.160 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–123. electronic. Determine its speed when it is at point B. All rights reserved.3011092 km. determine (a) the speed of the rocket at point A ¿ . B Prob.58. When it arrives at B. Upper Saddle River. Hibbeler. For information regarding permission(s). An asteroid is in an elliptical orbit about the sun such that its perihelion distance is 9. 135Њ A¿ 8 Mm O A P 5 Mm O 18 Mm Prob. 13–123 *13–124. A satellite S travels in a circular orbit around the earth. mechanical. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. A rocket is located at the apogee of its elliptical orbit for which e = 0. storage in a retrieval system.156. 13–125 Prob. 13–126 13–127. A B 120 Mm A B 10 Mm S 9 Mm Prob. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. The rocket is traveling in a free-flight elliptical orbit about the earth such that e = 0. New Jersey.

For information regarding permission(s).. mechanical. Design of a Ramp Catapult The block B has a mass of 20 kg and is to be catapulted from the table. B 0. Compare your value with that of others in the class. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. assume the operator can exert a constant tension of 120 N on a single cable during operation. using cables and pulleys. storage in a retrieval system.2. Inc.13.6 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES 161 Design Project 13–1D. or transmission in any form or by any means. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the table and container is mk = 0. Submit a drawing of your design. electronic. and that the maximum movement of his arm is 0. recording. New Jersey. Upper Saddle River. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–1D Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Design a catapulting mechanism that can be attached to the table and to the container of the block. . photocopying. Hibbeler. and calculate the maximum range R to where the block will strike the ground. All rights reserved.5 m. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. C. Neglect the mass of the container. Pearson Education.75 m R Fig. or likewise.

Pearson Education. or transmission in any form or by any means. and a n = v2> r e = [1 + 1dy> dx22]3>2 ƒ d2y> dx2 ƒ Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. For information regarding permission(s). which shows the result of the forces. © Fy = may . write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Inc. It indicates the change in the velocity direction. Before applying the equation of motion. Recall that a n is always directed in the + n direction. y.) Inertial Coordinate Systems When applying the equation of motion. that is. expressed mathematically as © F = ma. Graphically. The mass represents the quantity of matter contained within the particle. t axes are often used when the path is known. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. All rights reserved. F2 FR = ⌺F F1 Free-body diagram Kinetic diagram P ϭ ma a P vO O Inertial frame of reference Path of particle © Fx = max . Hibbeler. C. Various types of inertial coordinate systems can be used to apply © F = ma in component form. electronic. the ma vector. New Jersey. This system has axes that do not rotate but are either fixed or translate with a constant velocity. © Fz = maz © Ft = mat . © Fn = man . or likewise. this diagram is equal to the kinetic diagram. This relationship is based on Newton’s second law of motion. photocopying. © Fb = 0 at = dv> dt or a t = v dv> ds.162 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N Chapter Review Kinetics Kinetics is the study of the relationship between forces and the acceleration they cause. Upper Saddle River. (See page 106. (See page 102. recording. . (See page 105. It indicates the change in the velocity magnitude. It measures the resistance to a change in its motion. it is important to make measurements of the acceleration from an inertial coordinate system. it is important to first draw the particle’s free-body diagram in order to account for all of the forces that act on the particle. Also recall that a t is tangent to the path. mechanical. storage in a retrieval system.) The mass m is the proportionality constant between the resultant force © F acting on the particle and the acceleration a caused by this resultant..) Rectangular x. Normal and tangential n. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. z axes are used to describe rectilinear motion along each of the axes.

the direction of the forces on the free-body diagram will require finding the angle c between the extended radial coordinate and the tangent to the curve. For some problems. electronic. or transmission in any form or by any means.CHAPTER REVIEW 163 Cylindrical coordinates are useful when angular motion of the radial coordinate r is specified or when the path can conveniently be described with these coordinates. For information regarding permission(s).. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. . This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.ru 22. or likewise. storage in a retrieval system. © Fu = m1ru + 2r u2. photocopying. recording. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Hibbeler. and as a result. the trajectory can either be circular. (See pages 106. such as during the free-flight trajectory of a satellite in a gravitational field. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The orbit depends upon the eccentricity e. Pearson Education. Inc.) Free flight trajectory v0 Satellite F r ϭ r0 Power flight trajectory F Launching Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. parabolic. All rights reserved. or hyperbolic. New Jersey. (See page 147.) # $ $ # # $ © Fr = m1r . © Fz = mz tan c = r dr> du Central-Force Motion When a single force acts upon a particle. then the motion is referred to as central-force motion. 123. and 135. elliptical. C.

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