# on them the ability predict the motion of the Education, bottles they transport. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C.

Hibbeler. To and be published by to Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

The design of conveyors for a bottling plant requires knowledge of the forces that act

Kinetics of a Particle: Force and Acceleration
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES

• To state Newton’s Laws of Motion and Gravitational Attraction and to
define mass and weight.

• To analyze the accelerated motion of a particle using the equation of
motion with different coordinate systems.

• To investigate central-force motion and apply it to problems in space
mechanics.

13.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion
Many of the earlier notions about dynamics were dispelled after 1590 when Galileo performed experiments to study the motions of pendulums and falling bodies. The conclusions drawn from these experiments gave some insight as to the effects of forces acting on bodies in motion. The general laws of motion of a body subjected to forces were not known, however, until 1687, when Isaac Newton first presented three basic laws governing the motion of a particle. In a slightly reworded form, Newton’s three laws of motion are First Law: A particle originally at rest, or moving in a straight line with a constant velocity, will remain in this state provided the particle is not subjected to an unbalanced force. Second Law: A particle acted upon by an unbalanced force F experiences an acceleration a that has the same direction as the force and a magnitude that is directly proportional to the force.* Third Law: The mutual forces of action and reaction between two particles are equal, opposite, and collinear.
*Stated another way, the unbalanced force acting on the particle is proportional to the time rate of change the particle’s linear momentum. See footnote † on next page. Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River,101 Unpublished Work ©of 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

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The first and third laws were used extensively in developing the concepts of statics. Although these laws are also considered in dynamics, it is Newton’s second law of motion that forms the basis for most of this study, since this law relates the accelerated motion of a particle to the forces that act on it. Measurements of force and acceleration can be recorded in a laboratory so that in accordance with the second law, if a known unbalanced force F is applied to a particle, the acceleration a of the particle may be measured. Since the force and acceleration are directly proportional, the constant of proportionality, m, may be determined from the ratio m = F> a.* The positive scalar m is called the mass of the particle. Being constant during any acceleration, m provides a quantitative measure of the resistance of the particle to a change in its velocity. If the mass of the particle is m, Newton’s second law of motion may be written in mathematical form as F = ma This equation, which is referred to as the equation of motion, is one of the most important formulations in mechanics.* As previously stated, its validity is based solely on experimental evidence. In 1905, however, Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity and placed limitations on the use of Newton’s second law for describing general particle motion. Through experiments it was proven that time is not an absolute quantity as assumed by Newton; as a result, the equation of motion fails to predict the exact behavior of a particle, especially when the particle’s speed approaches the speed of light 10.3 Gm> s2. Developments of the theory of quantum mechanics by Erwin Schrödinger and others indicate further that conclusions drawn from using this equation are also invalid when particles are the size of an atom and move close to one another. For the most part, however, these requirements regarding particle speed and size are not encountered in engineering problems, so their effects will not be considered in this book.

*Recall that the units of force in the SI system and mass in the FPS system are derived from this equation, where N = kg # m> s2 and slug = lb # s2> ft (see Sec. 1.3 of Statics). If, however, the units of force, mass, length, and time were all selected arbitrarily, then it is necessary to write F = kma, where k (a dimensionless constant) would have to be determined experimentally in order to preserve the equality. *Since m is constant, we can also write F = d1mv2> dt, where mv is the particle’s linear momentum.

Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

and at a latitude of 45°. according to experimental evidence G = 66. Mass is a property of matter by which we can compare the response of one body with that of another. In mathematical form this law can be expressed as F = G where F = force of attraction between the two particles G = universal constant of gravitation. As indicated above.13. recording. and hence its magnitude depends on where the measurement is made. which is considered the “standard location. we have W = mg By comparison with F = ma. In the case of a particle located at or near the surface of the earth. Inc. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. however.1 NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION 103 Newton’s Law of Gravitational Attraction. New Jersey. is not absolute since it is measured in a gravitational field. the only gravitational force having any sizable magnitude is that between the earth and the particle. C. Then. it will be the only gravitational force considered.” The mass and weight of a body are measured differently in the SI and FPS systems of units. This force is termed the “weight” and. or likewise. All rights reserved. Newton postulated a law governing the mutual attraction between any two particles. we can develop a general expression for finding the weight W of a particle having a mass m1 = m. The weight of a body. From Eq.. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. if g = Gm2> r2. It is an absolute quantity since the measurement of mass can be made at any location. m1m2 r2 (13–1) Mass and Weight. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. Pearson Education. this property manifests itself as a gravitational attraction between two bodies and provides a quantitative measure of the resistance of matter to a change in velocity. for our purpose.73110 -122 m3>1kg # s22 m1 . For most engineering calculations g is measured at a point on the surface of the earth at sea level. For information regarding permission(s). . Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. we term g the acceleration due to gravity. Let m2 be the mass of the earth and r the distance between the earth’s center and the particle. Shortly after formulating his three laws of motion. 13–1. and the method of defining these units should be thoroughly understood. however. Hibbeler. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River. mechanical. m2 = mass of each of the two particles r = distance between the centers of the two particles Any two particles or bodies have a mutually attractive gravitational force acting between them.

4-lb body has a mass of 2 slugs. or transmission in any form or by any means.80665 m> s2. recording. the value g = 9.2 ft> s22 g (13–3) Therefore. and the mass must be calculated from F = ma. photocopying. or likewise. In the FPS system the weight of the body is specified in pounds. Hibbeler.” the acceleration due to gravity is g = 9. if a body has a weight W (lb) and is located at a point where the acceleration due to gravity is g 1ft> s22 then the mass is expressed in slugs as m = W> g (slug). For calculations. Fig. storage in a retrieval system. a 2-kg body weighs 19.2 ft> s2 1 = 9. and the weight must be calculated using the equation of motion. 13–1b. if the body is located at the “standard location. Pearson Education. a body of mass 1 kg has a weight of 9.81 N..81 m> s2 will be used. Inc. Hence.104 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N m (kg) mϭ W g (slug) a ϭ g (m/s2) a ϭ g (ft/s2) W ϭ mg (N) SI system (a) W (lb) FPS system (b) Fig. C. FPS System of Units. a 64. In the SI system the mass of the body is specified in kilograms. Since the acceleration of gravity at the standard location is approximately 32. Hence.62 N. For information regarding permission(s). then the weight is expressed in newtons as W = mg 1N2.2 lb has a mass of 1 slug. Fig. so that W = mg 1N2 1g = 9. mechanical. Upper Saddle River.81 m> s22. All rights reserved. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.81 m> s22 (13–2) Therefore. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. and so on. F = ma. In particular. if a body has a mass m (kg) and is located at a point where the acceleration due to gravity is g 1m> s22. 13–1a. a body weighing 32. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. New Jersey. electronic. . the mass of the body measured in slugs is m = W 1slug2 1g = 32. and so on. 13–1 SI System of Units.

13.2 THE EQUATION OF MOTION

107

We are all familiar with the sensation one feels when sitting in a car that is subjected to a forward acceleration. Often people think this is caused by a “force” which acts on them and tends to push them back in their seats; however, this is not the case. Instead, this sensation occurs due to their inertia or the resistance of their mass to a change in velocity. Consider the passenger who is strapped to the seat of a rocket sled. Provided the sled is at rest or is moving with constant velocity, then no force is exerted on his back as shown on his free-body diagram.

W

N2

N1 At rest or constant velocity

When the thrust of the rocket engine causes the sled to accelerate, then the seat upon which he is sitting exerts a force F on him which pushes him forward with the sled. In the photo, notice that the inertia of his head resists this change in motion (acceleration), and so his head moves back against the seat and his face, which is nonrigid, tends to distort.

W

F

N2

N1 Acceleration

Upon deceleration the force of the seatbelt F ¿ tends to pull his body to a stop, but his head leaves contact with the back of the seat and his face distorts forward, again due to his inertia or tendency to continue to move forward. No force is pulling him forward, although this is the sensation he receives.

W

F¿

N2

N1 Deceleration Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

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13.3 Equation of Motion for a System
of Particles
The equation of motion will now be extended to include a system of n particles isolated within an enclosed region in space, as shown in Fig. 13–4a. In particular, there is no restriction in the way the particles are connected, so the following analysis applies equally well to the motion of a solid, liquid, or gas system. At the instant considered, the arbitrary ith particle, having a mass mi , is subjected to a system of internal forces and a resultant external force. The resultant internal force, represented symbolically as fi , is determined from the forces which the other particles exert on the ith particle. Usually these forces are developed by direct contact, although the summation extends over all n particles within the dashed boundary. The resultant external force Fi represents, for example, the effect of gravitational, electrical, magnetic, or contact forces between the ith particle and adjacent bodies or particles not included within the system. The free-body and kinetic diagrams for the ith particle are shown in Fig. 13–4b. Applying the equation of motion yields © F = ma; Fi + fi = mia i

When the equation of motion is applied to each of the other particles of the system, similar equations will result. If all these equations are added together vectorially, we obtain © Fi + © fi = © mia i
z Fi fi ri G rG Fi x Inertial coordinate system (a) y fi Free-body diagram (b) i

ϭ

mi ai Kinetic diagram

Fig. 13–4
Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

13.3 EQUATION OF MOTION FOR A SYSTEM OF PARTICLES

109

The summation of the internal forces, if carried out, will equal zero, since internal forces between particles all occur in equal but opposite collinear pairs. Consequently, only the sum of the external forces will remain, and therefore the equation of motion, written for the system of particles, becomes © Fi = © mia i (13–5)

If rG is a position vector which locates the center of mass G of the particles, Fig. 13–4a, then by definition of the center of mass, mrG = © miri , where m = © mi is the total mass of all the particles. Differentiating this equation twice with respect to time, assuming that no mass is entering or leaving the system, yields ma G = © mia i Substituting this result into Eq. 13–5, we obtain © F = ma G (13–6)

Hence, the sum of the external forces acting on the system of particles is equal to the total mass of the particles times the acceleration of its center of mass G. Since in reality all particles must have a finite size to possess mass, Eq. 13–6 justifies application of the equation of motion to a body that is represented as a single particle.

Important Points
• The equation of motion is based on experimental evidence and • • • •
is valid only when applied from an inertial frame of reference. The equation of motion states that the unbalanced force on a particle causes it to accelerate. An inertial frame of reference does not rotate, rather it has axes that either translate with constant velocity or are at rest. Mass is a property of matter that provides a quantitative measure of its resistance to a change in velocity. It is an absolute quantity. Weight is a force that is caused by the earth’s gravitation. It is not absolute; rather it depends on the altitude of the mass from the earth’s surface.

Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.

apply • • • the equations of motion in their scalar component form. 1 If acceleration is constant. it may be necessary to use the frictional equation. Spring. and s is the stretch or compression defined as the difference between the deformed length l and the undeformed length l0 .13. If the problem involves the dependent motion of several particles. Remember that Ff always acts on the free-body diagram such that it opposes the motion of the particle relative to the surface it contacts. Ff = mkN. If acceleration is a function of time.4 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES 111 Equations of Motion. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. electronic.9 to relate their accelerations. i. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. If the particle is on the verge of relative motion then the coefficient of static friction should be used. All rights reserved. • If the velocity or position of the particle is to be found. • If the forces can be resolved directly from the free-body diagram.e. Here k is the spring’s stiffness measured as a force per unit length. New Jersey. which relates the coefficient of kinetic friction mk to the magnitudes of the frictional and normal forces Ff and N acting at the surfaces of contact.l0 . storage in a retrieval system. If a moving particle contacts a rough surface. integrate a ds = v dv to obtain the velocity as a function of position. In all cases. Friction. Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. use a = dv> dt and v = ds> dt which. i. 2 2 v = v0 + 2ac1s . Kinematics. Cartesian vector analysis can be used for the solution. Inc. mechanical. recording. s = l . s = s0 + v0t + 2 ac t2. If the solution for an unknown vector component yields a negative scalar. If the geometry of the problem appears complicated. 12. photocopying. If the particle is connected to an elastic spring having negligible mass.. For information regarding permission(s). which often occurs in three dimensions. or likewise. yield the particle’s velocity and position. it indicates that the component acts in the direction opposite to that which was assumed. C. or transmission in any form or by any means. If acceleration is a function of displacement. simultaneous solution of the equations will result in errors. it will be • • • • • • necessary to apply the proper kinematic equations once the particle’s acceleration is determined from © F = ma. make sure the positive inertial coordinate directions used for writing the kinematic equations are the same as those used for writing the equations of motion. use the method outlined in Sec.s02 to determine the velocity or position of the particle. use v = v0 + ac t.. the spring force Fs can be related to the deformation of the spring by the equation Fs = ks. when integrated. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. otherwise. Pearson Education. .. Upper Saddle River.e.

the velocity of the crate in 3 s is + 2 1: v = v0 + act = 0 + 5. 13–6 ϭ (c) 50a F ϭ 0.1 P ϭ 400 N 30Њ The 50-kg crate shown in Fig.5 N. or transmission in any form or by any means.6 m> s : 490. substituting the result into Eq. recording. Hibbeler. For information regarding permission(s). Fig. NC . photocopying. = 15. All rights reserved. in the positive x direction. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.5 N 400 N 30Њ F ϭ 0. 13–6b.490.3. 1. mechanical. : 400 cos 30° . The weight of the crate is W = mg = 50 kg 19. since the applied force P is constant.81 m> s22 = 490.5 + 400 sin 30° = 0 (2) Solving Eq. SOLUTION Using the equations of motion.3NC = 50a (1) x x + c © Fy = may . Since the initial velocity is zero.112 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13. 2 for NC . Upper Saddle River.0. determine the velocity of the crate in 3 s starting from rest. There are two unknowns. Free-Body Diagram. prior to applying the equations of motion. As shown in Fig. . To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. or likewise. electronic. 13–6c. New Jersey. we can relate the crate’s acceleration to the force causing the motion. Using the data shown on the free-body diagram. Note that the acceleration is constant. x (a) y a 490. 13–6a rests on a horizontal plane for which the coefficient of kinetic friction is mk = 0.5 N 400 N 30Њ Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.5 N a = 5. namely NC and a. and solving for a yields NC = 290. The crate’s velocity can then be determined using kinematics.19 m> s2 Kinematics. C. The acceleration a is assumed to act horizontally. since it opposes the motion of the crate. we have + © F = ma .3 NC NC NOTE: We can also use the alternative procedure of drawing the crate’s free-body and kinetic diagrams. Inc. the frictional force has a magnitude F = mkNC and acts to the left. storage in a retrieval system.19132 Ans. Pearson Education. If the crate is subjected to a 400-N towing force as shown.3 NC NC (b) Equations of Motion..

3 The baggage truck A shown in the photo has a weight of 900 lb and tows a 550-lb cart B and a 325-lb cart C.3628t2 ` = 1. determine its speed in 2 seconds. where t is in seconds. New Jersey. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. what is the horizontal force acting on the coupling between the truck and cart B at this instant? Neglect the size of the truck and carts. When t = 2 s. Since the acceleration is a function of time. mechanical. electronic. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. All rights reserved.. In order to determine the force between the truck and cart B. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.7256t Kinematics. v = 0. If the truck starts from rest. then 900 + © F = ma . or transmission in any form or by any means.2 T = 39. . Equation of Motion. 13–8b. Inc. As shown in Fig.45 ft> s 0 2 Ans. it is the frictional driving force that gives both the truck and carts an acceleration. For a short time the driving frictional force developed at the wheels of the truck is FA = 140t2 lb. NOTE: Try and obtain this same result by considering a free-body diagram of carts B and C. For information regarding permission(s).2 a = 0.7256122] x x 32. Also.4 lb Ans.T = a b [0. Fig. T FA NA (b) Fig. or likewise. We have v 2 L 0 900 lb dv = L 0 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording. storage in a retrieval system. Here we have considered all three vehicles. the velocity of the truck is obtained using a = dv> dt with the initial condition that v0 = 0 at t = 0. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–8 Free-Body Diagram. photocopying. . 13–8a. Hibbeler. Equation of Motion. . we can consider a free-body diagram of the truck so that we can “expose” the coupling force T as external to the free-body diagram.7256t dt. Only motion in the horizontal direction has to be considered.114 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N EXAMPLE 13. 900 + 550 + 325 + © F = ma . 40t = a ba x x 32. C. 900 lb 550 lb 325 lb A B C FA NA NB (a) NC SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram. 40122 .

The magnitude of the spring force is a function of the stretch s of the spring. Substituting these results into Eqs. mechanical. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. therefore. SOLUTION Free-Body Diagram. . determine its acceleration and the normal force of the rod on the collar at the instant y = 1 m. i. Since k = 3 N> m. Here the unstretched length is AB = 0. Fig. or likewise. Equations of Motion..900 N a = 9. 2 it is seen that the acceleration depends on the magnitude and direction of the spring force.50 N and u = 53.7522 . shown in Fig.. a.0. Furthermore.4 EQUATIONS OF MOTION: RECTANGULAR COORDINATES 115 EXAMPLE 13. (3) a y x 19. 13–9a. 13–9 Fs = ks = 3 A 4y2 + 10.21 m> s T 2 Ans. is attached to a spring having a stiffness k = 3 N> m and an unstretched length of 0. we obtain NC = 0. storage in a retrieval system. 13–9a. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.62 . Fs = ks.Fs sin u = 2a (1) (2) (a) A 0. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Solution for NC and a is possible once Fs and u are known. NC . .4 A smooth 2-kg collar C. : x x + T © Fy = may . Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. There are four unknowns. or transmission in any form or by any means. the collar is assumed to be accelerating so that “a” acts downward in the positive y direction. C.AB = 4y2 + 10. Ans. New Jersey. 13–9a.e.75 m. tan u = y 0.75. Upper Saddle River. For information regarding permission(s). 3 and 4 yields Fs = 1. the angle u is related to y by trigonometry. Hibbeler. + © F = ma . recording.13. 13–9b. namely.NC + Fs cos u = 0 19.1°.0. 1 and 2. All rights reserved. Pearson Education.75 B From Fig.812 = 19.62 N.75 (4) Substituting y = 1 m into Eqs.75 m u B y k ϭ 3 N/m C From Eq. NOTE: This is not a case of constant acceleration. Fs . electronic.75 m. since the spring force changes both its magnitude and direction as the collar moves downward. and u. Note that the weight is W = 219.7522 . Inc. then s = CB . The free-body diagram of the collar when it is located at the arbitrary position y is shown in Fig.62 N u NC Fs (b) Fig. photocopying. If the collar is released from rest at A.

13–8 13–7. The baggage truck A has a mass of 800 kg and is used to pull the two cars. What is the acceleration of the truck if the coupling at C suddenly fails? The car wheels are free to roll. 13–10. For information regarding permission(s). If the elevator attains a speed of 10 m> s after it rises 40 m.. A C B F v Prob. If the motor supplies a constant force of 5 kN on the cable at B. If the tractive force F on the truck is F = 480 N. should 13–9/10 New Jersey. Determine the tension in the cable at A during the motion. recording. The 500-kg fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor is being lifted out from the core of the nuclear reactor using the pulley system shown. . It is hoisted upward with a constant acceleration such that s = 0 and v = 0 when t = 0. photocopying. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Hibbeler. Prob. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cable. 13–6 Prob. 13–7 This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission Probs. or transmission in any form or by any means. starting from rest. C.2t2 + 22 m> s. determine the initial acceleration of the truck. The elevator E has a mass of 500 kg. storage in a retrieval system. A s E B A Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. All rights reserved.5 s. or likewise. Determine the force in the cable when t = 2 s if the crate is moving upward with (a) a constant velocity of 2 m> s. and (b) a speed of v = 10. each with mass 300 kg. Pearson Education. 13–9. and the counterweight at A has a mass of 150 kg. determine the constant force developed in the cable at B. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. The elevator E has a mass of 500 kg and the counterweight at A has a mass of 150 kg. *13–8. Inc. mechanical. electronic. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cable.5 m when t = 1. and s = 2.118 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–6. where t is in seconds. Neglect the mass of the wheels. The 200-kg crate is suspended from the cable of a crane. be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. determine the speed of the elevator when t = 3 s. Upper Saddle River.

The bullet of mass m is given a velocity due to gas pressure caused by the burning of powder within the chamber of the gun. Determine the cable tension if the suspended crate has a mass of 800 kg. storage in a retrieval system. 13–19 if the suitcase has an initial velocity down the ramp of vA = 10 ft> s and the coefficient of kinetic friction along AB is mk = 0. Upper Saddle River. B D vA A Prob. determine the velocity of the bullet at any instant it is in the barrel. New Jersey. 13–21. C. What is the bullet’s maximum velocity? Also. A 20 ft F F0 t 30Њ 4 ft t0 B C R Prob. If the speed of point B on the cable is increased at a constant rate from zero to vB = 10 ft> s in t = 5 s. photocopying. . mechanical. The 400-lb cylinder at A is hoisted using the motor and the pulley system shown. 13–18 Prob. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education. Inc. 13–19/20 13–18. electronic. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. All rights reserved. Determine the point where it strikes the ground at C. determine the tension in the cable at B to cause the motion.2. or transmission in any form or by any means. determine the position of the bullet in the barrel as a function of time. Assuming this pressure creates a force of F = F0 sin1pt> t02 on the bullet. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–21 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. 13–19.120 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–17. 13–17 Probs. For information regarding permission(s).. A 40-lb suitcase slides from rest 20 ft down the smooth ramp. The winding drum D is drawing in the cable at an accelerated rate of 5 m> s2. How long does it take to go from A to C? *13–20. or likewise. Hibbeler. recording. Solve Prob.

Pearson Education. All rights reserved. or likewise. B B A A Prob. It is prevented from rotating due to the track and wheels mounted along its sides. New Jersey. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cables.50 kN in its attached cable. Determine how high the 30-lb block A rises in 2 s starting from rest. B F C M A Prob. . and the coefficient of kinetic friction between it and the horizontal plane is mk = 0. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. At a given instant the 10-lb block A is moving downward with a speed of 6 ft> s. mechanical.PROBLEMS 13–22. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–25 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. recording. Block B has a weight of 4 lb.2. has a mass of 500 kg. including its load. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. For information regarding permission(s). Determine its speed 2 s later. If the motor M develops a constant tension T = 1. Determine its speed 2 s later. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Block B has a weight of 6 lb.. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cord. 121 *13–24. 13–23. Inc. Neglect the weight of the pulleys and cord. Upper Saddle River. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cord. 13–24 13–25. 13–23 Prob.3. determine the velocity of the elevator when it has moved upward 3 m starting from rest. and the coefficient of kinetic friction between it and the horizontal plane is mk = 0. At a given instant the 5-lb weight A is moving downward with a speed of 4 ft> s. Hibbeler. A force F = 15 lb is applied to the cord. storage in a retrieval system. 13–22 Prob. C. A freight elevator.

At the instant shown the 100-lb block A is moving down the plane at 5 ft> s while being attached to the 50-lb block B. The tanker has a weight of 80011062 lb and is traveling forward at v0 = 3 ft> s in still water when the engines are shut off. Upper Saddle River. recording. determine the acceleration of A and the distance A slides before it stops. All rights reserved. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is mk = 0.122 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–26. mechanical. determine its velocity when t = 2 s. For information regarding permission(s). determine the time needed for the tanker’s speed to become 1. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and rope.. Probs. determine his acceleration if in the confusion he doesn’t let go of the rope. where v is in ft> s. *13–28. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. For a short time. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. If the car has an initial velocity v1 = 2 m> s when t = 0. electronic. Given the initial velocity of v0 = 3 ft> s through what distance must the tanker travel before it stops? S v B FD Prob.2. the force in the cable is F = 13200t22 N. where t is in seconds. For a short time. photocopying. or transmission in any form or by any means. Hibbeler. 13–29. If the drag resistance of the water is proportional to the speed of the tanker at any instant and can be approximated by FD = 140011032v2 lb. If the car has an initial velocity v1 = 2 m> s at s = 0 and t = 0. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cables. the force in the cable is F = 13200t22 N. where t is in seconds. determine the distance it moves up the plane when t = 2 s. The 400-kg mine car is hoisted up the incline using the cable and motor M. Pearson Education. Inc. 13–30 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. M A 5 4 3 C D v1 ϭ 2 m/s B 17 15 8 Prob. New Jersey. 13–26 13–27. If the end of the rope is given to a boy B of weight 90 lb. C. .5 ft> s. 13–27 Prob. or likewise. The safe S has a weight of 200 lb and is supported by the rope and pulley arrangement shown. storage in a retrieval system. 13–28/29 ½13–30. The 400-kg mine car is hoisted up the incline using the cable and motor M.

The 2-kg collar C is free to slide along the smooth shaft AB. which is fixed to shaft AB. Pearson Education. C. 13–32/33 Prob. 13–35 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.2 0. Determine the maximum compression of spring HI if the fixed bumper R of a 5-Mg railroad car. storage in a retrieval system. Neglecting the mass of the rope and pulley.5 m A B mBC ϭ 0. The ends of all springs are attached to their respective members and are originally unstretched. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 13–31 *13–32. Determine the acceleration of collar C if (a) the shaft is fixed from moving. The 10-kg block A rests on the 50-kg plate B in the position shown. The boy having a weight of 80 lb hangs uniformly from the bar. photocopying. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 45Њ A C mAB ϭ 0. k ϭ 80 kN/m B D I H P R 123 13–34.. rolling freely at 2 m> s. Inc.5 m on the plate when the system is released from rest. In all cases. Determine the acceleration of collar C if collar A is subjected to an upward acceleration of 4 m> s2. or transmission in any form or by any means. All rights reserved. or likewise. where t is in seconds. New Jersey. The 2-kg collar C is free to slide along the smooth shaft AB. determine the time needed for block A to slide 0. B 13–35. Determine the force in each of his arms in t = 2 s if the bar is moving upward with (a) a constant velocity of 3 ft> s. Hibbeler. 13–33. Upper Saddle River. The spring mechanism is used as a shock absorber for railroad cars. . strikes the plate P. For information regarding permission(s). Bar AB slides along the guide paths CE and DF.PROBLEMS 13–31. electronic. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. and (c) collar A is subjected to a downward acceleration of 2 m> s2.1 30Њ C Probs. mechanical. 13–34 Prob. (b) collar A. the collar moves in the plane. recording. and (b) a speed of v = 14t22 ft> s. moves downward at constant velocity along the vertical rod. and using the coefficients of kinetic friction indicated. F C E k¿ ϭ 160 kN/m A k ϭ 80 kN/m 2 m/s Prob.

New Jersey. determine the shortest time the belt can stop so that the package does not slide on the belt. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. 13–38. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between each crate and the ramp is mk = 0.. or transmission in any form or by any means. and the speed of the electron at any time t. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Pearson Education. Inc.2 Prob. Upper Saddle River.124 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N *13–36. storage in a retrieval system. If it is subjected to two fields of force for which Fx = F0 and Fy = 0. Take u = 30°. The coefficient of kinetic friction and the weight of each block are indicated. recording. C. directed down along the ramp. vA ϭ 2. determine the equation of the path. photocopying. 13–36 Prob. An electron of mass m is discharged with an initial horizontal velocity of v0 .3F0 . electronic. mechanical. The conveyor belt is moving at 4 m> s.2. Determine the acceleration of block A when the system is released. Neglect the mass of the pulleys and cord. All rights reserved.3. Hibbeler.5 m> s. . or likewise. The conveyor belt delivers each 12-kg crate to the ramp at A such that the crate’s speed is vA = 2. determine the speed at which each crate slides off the ramp at B. where F0 is constant.5 m/s B A 3m u B Prob. y ++++++++++++++ ++++++++++++++ A v0 80 lb 60Њ 20 lb B x mk ϭ 0. 13–39. 13–37 Prob. Assume that no tipping occurs. For information regarding permission(s). 13–38 13–37. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. 13–39 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. If the coefficient of static friction between the conveyor and the 10-kg package B is ms = 0.

where k is a constant. Each of the three plates has a mass of 10 kg. A parachutist having a mass m opens his parachute from an at-rest position at a very high altitude. B Prob. which is found by letting the time of fall t : q . Inc. New Jersey. All rights reserved. which has a mass 3m. Determine the largest horizontal force P which can be applied to B so that A will not slip up B. determine the acceleration of each block if someone pushes horizontally on block A with a force of (a) F = 6 lb. 13–42/43 v *13–44. What is his velocity when he lands on the ground? This velocity is referred to as the terminal velocity.PROBLEMS *13–40. determine his velocity when he has fallen for a time t. storage in a retrieval system. Neglect friction. recording. 13–40 18 N D C 15 N B A 100 N 13–41. determine the acceleration of each plate when the three horizontal forces are applied. . A u B FD C P Probs. If the coefficients of static and kinetic friction at each surface of contact are ms = 0. mechanical. All surfaces are smooth. Prob. 13–45 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. If the atmospheric drag resistance is FD = kv2. and (b) F = 50 lb. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. respectively. 13–41 D C u A 13–42. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. Pearson Education. Block B rests on a smooth surface. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.The coefficient of static friction between A and B is ms .2. For information regarding permission(s). Crate B has a mass m and is released from rest when it is on top of cart A.4 and mk = 0. photocopying. electronic. Prob. 125 13–43. or likewise. or transmission in any form or by any means.3. 13–44 F B 30 lb A 20 lb 13–45. Neglect any friction between B and C. Determine the tension in cord CD needed to hold the cart from moving while B is sliding down A.3 and mk = 0. Upper Saddle River. Determine the largest horizontal force P which can be applied to B so that A will not move relative to B. Hibbeler. If the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between A and B are ms = 0. Blocks A and B each have a mass m. respectively.. Blocks A and B each have a mass m. Prob. C.

sB = 0. If the tractor is traveling to the right at a constant speed of 4 m> s. If the tractor is traveling to the right with an acceleration of 3 m> s2 and has a velocity of 4 m> s at the instant sA = 5 m. Pearson Education. having a mass mB . boom. where mk is the coefficient of kinetic friction between the blocks and the ground. and pulley system. or transmission in any form or by any means. electronic. 13–51 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. which has a mass mB . New Jersey. 13–49. Neglect the mass of the cord and pulleys. recording. having a mass mB . For information regarding permission(s). what is the distance the blocks slide on the surface before they separate? 12 m sB k B A sA A B Probs. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. show that for separation to occur it is necessary that d 7 2mkg1mA + mB2> k. C. Probs. What is their velocity at this instant? 13–50. The block A has a mass mA and rests on the pan B. Hibbeler. determine the tension in the rope when sA = 5 m. determine the distance both blocks slide on the smooth surface before they begin to separate. 13–46/47 *13–48. If another block B. boom. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. sB = 0. When sA = 0. 13–47. determine the tension in the rope at this instant. Block B has a mass m and is hoisted using the cord and pulley system shown. Both are supported by a spring having a stiffness k that is attached to the bottom of the pan and to the ground. mechanical. storage in a retrieval system. Upper Saddle River. The tractor is used to lift the 150-kg load B with the 24-m-long rope. Block A has a mass mA and is attached to a spring having a stiffness k and unstretched length l0 . When sA = 0.126 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N ½13–46. or likewise. 13–49/50 13–51. Inc. Also. Block A has a mass mA and is attached to a spring having a stiffness k and unstretched length l0 . If another block B. is pressed against A so that the spring deforms a distance d. The tractor is used to lift the 150-kg load B with the 24-m-long rope. is pressed against A so that the spring deforms a distance d. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. photocopying.. Determine the magnitude of force F as a function of the block’s vertical position y so that when F is applied the block rises with a constant acceleration aB . 2m 1m A B B A y d k Prob. and pulley system. All rights reserved. Determine the distance d the pan should be pushed down from the equilibrium position and then released from rest so that separation of the block will take place from the surface of the pan at the instant the spring becomes unstretched. 13–48 Prob. .

The method for applying the equations of motion. n. . has been outlined in the procedure given in Sec. i.128 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N Procedure for Analysis When a problem involves the motion of a particle along a known curved path. assume it acts in the positive t direction. n. or likewise. • The particle’s normal acceleration an always acts in the positive • • n direction. Eqs.. Equations of Motion. normal and tangential coordinates should be considered for the analysis since the acceleration components can be readily formulated. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall.. the radius of curvature at the point where the particle is located can be obtained from r = [1 + 1dy> dx22]3>2> ƒ d2y> dx2 ƒ . C. electronic.4. 13–8. Inc. New Jersey. If the tangential acceleration a t is unknown. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Specifically. • Establish the inertial t. If the path is defined as y = f1x2. b coordinate system at the particle and draw the particle’s free-body diagram. All rights reserved. • Formulate the tangential and normal components of • acceleration. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Kinematics. for t. or transmission in any form or by any means. storage in a retrieval system. photocopying. 13.e. Hibbeler. • Apply the equations of motion. Pearson Education. b coordinates it may be stated as follows: Free-Body Diagram. at = dv> dt or at = v dv> ds and an = v2> r. which relate the forces to the acceleration. recording. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. Identify the unknowns in the problem. For information regarding permission(s).

5.75 kg and negligible size slides over the surface of a horizontal circular rod for which the coefficient of kinetic friction is mk = 0. 13–69. he has a constant speed v = 20 ft> s. Determine the resultant normal force and the resultant frictional force exerted on the tracks at the instant it reaches point A. or transmission in any form or by any means. y x 8 ft G 5m A 10 m u y ϭ Ϫ5(10Ϫ3)x3 Probs. Also. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. it is traveling at 4 m> s and increasing its speed at 2 m> s2. A collar having a mass of 0. Neglect the size of the man.Take u = 60°. Hibbeler. what are the components of force in the n. it slides on the rod before coming to rest. The 150-lb man lies against the cushion for which the coefficient of static friction is ms = 0. Determine the resultant normal force and the resultant frictional force exerted on the tracks at this instant. z 135 *13–68. If he rotates about the z axis with a constant speed v = 30 ft> s. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.. For information regarding permission(s). recording.PROBLEMS 13–65. Determine the resultant normal and frictional forces the cushion exerts on him if. Upper Saddle River. 13–65/66 13–67. Inc. due to rotation about the z axis. z b u n 6m t 100 mm u s y x v Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Each chair including its passenger has a mass of 80 kg. The 150-lb man lies against the cushion for which the coefficient of static friction is ms = 0. 13–66. and b directions which the chair exerts on a 50-kg passenger during the motion? 4m Probs. electronic. 13–70 New Jersey. The 200-kg snowmobile with passenger is traveling down the hill such that when it is at point A. Neglect the size of the snowmobile. 13–68/69 13–70. The 200-kg snowmobile with passenger is traveling down the hill at a constant speed of 6 m> s. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. determine how far. storage in a retrieval system. If the collar is given a speed of 4 m> s and then released at u = 0°.3.5. . photocopying. or likewise. Pearson Education. s. Determine the constant speed of the passengers on the amusement-park ride if it is observed that the supporting cables are directed at u = 30° from the vertical. Prob. All rights reserved. C. Neglect the size of the snowmobile. t. mechanical. 13–67 Prob. determine the smallest angle u of the cushion at which he will begin to slip off.

13–72 Prob. 13–74 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. 10Њ u 200 mm r ϭ 0. Upper Saddle River. recording. Determine the normal force of the tracks on the car when the car is at point B. Hibbeler. All rights reserved. mechanical. photocopying. or likewise. For information regarding permission(s). This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–71 *13–72. The cone is rotating at a constant angular rate about the z axis such that the block attains a speed of 0. determine the tension in the cord and the reaction which the cone exerts on the block. determine the force of the slot on the ball when the ball arrives at points A and B. having a mass of 0. The smooth block B. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. If it is released from rest when u = 10°.8 m A B 400 mm 300 mm 10Њ B Prob. Neglect the size of the block. or transmission in any form or by any means.136 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–71. The roller coaster car and passenger have a total weight of 600 lb and starting from rest at A travel down the track that has the shape shown. B p y ϭ 40 cos ( –– 40 x) u ϭ 45Њ A 40 ft B 2m x D 40 ft Prob. At this speed. Pearson Education. A ball having a mass of 2 kg and negligible size moves within a smooth vertical circular slot.. Determine the initial tension in the cord and also at the instant the bob reaches point D. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. New Jersey. Neglect friction and the size of the car and passenger.2 kg. 13–73 20 ft Prob. storage in a retrieval system. z A 13–74. . The 5-kg pendulum bob B is released from rest when u = 0°. Neglect the size of the bob. u = 45°. where it has a velocity of 15 ft> s.5 m> s. Inc. is attached to the vertex A of the right circular cone using a light cord. C. y A 13–73. electronic.

write to: Rights and Permissions Department. The 35-kg box has a speed of 2 m> s when it is at A on the smooth ramp. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. The 2-kg spool S fits loosely on the inclined rod for which the coefficient of static friction is ms = 0.25 m from A. The disk rotates in the horizontal plane. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–77 Prob. C. 13–76 Prob. If the coefficient of static friction between his clothes and the platform is ms = 0. determine the time required to cause him to slip. S 0. 13–75 *13–76.3. For information regarding permission(s).25 m A 3m 10 m Prob. and the preset compression in the spring is 20 mm. z 5 4 3 13–78. determine the minimum constant speed the spool can have so that it does not slip down the rod.. or likewise. the center of mass G of the arm is located 150 mm from the center O.PROBLEMS 13–75. Due to the rotation his # speed is increased from rest by v = 0. New Jersey.2.4 m> s2. or transmission in any form or by any means. mechanical. If the spool is located 0. Also. photocopying. Hibbeler. electronic. Pearson Education. and its ends are attached to the contact arm at D and to the disk at E. If the surface is in the shape of a parabola. 13–78 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. . which will close the gap. storage in a retrieval system. determine the normal force on the box at the instant x = 3 m. If the initial gap between B and the contact at C is 10 mm. determine the (controlling) speed vG of the arm’s mass center. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Inc. recording. The rotational speed of the disk is controlled by a 30-g smooth contact arm AB which is spring-mounted on the disk. The spring has a stiffness of k = 50 N> m. When the disk is at rest. G. what is the rate of increase in its speed at this instant? y 2 m/s O DG A E k ϭ 50 N/m BC A 1 – x2 y ϭ 4 Ϫ– 9 x 150 mm 10 mm Prob. 137 13–77. The man has a mass of 80 kg and sits 3 m from the center of the rotating platform.

the collar slides outward along the smooth rod DE. The collar A. Prob. When rod BC rotates about the vertical axis. storage in a retrieval system. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Determine the force of the spring on the block and the tangential component of force which the slot exerts on the side of the block. 13–81 13–82. what is the normal force of the rod on the collar? Neglect the size of the collar. The 5-lb packages ride on the surface of the conveyor belt. 13–82 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. .5 lb/ft f A u Prob. determine the constant speed of the collar in order that s = 100 mm. electronic. y k ϭ 200 N/m D 20 ft A E s B A 5 ft vA ϭ 6 ft/s p y ϭ 20 cos — x 20 x Prob. Also. B 6 in. New Jersey. C. Inc. Pearson Education.5 lb> ft and an unstretched length of 1. 13–80 Prob.25 ft. Also. If the spring is unstretched when s = 0. The coefficient of static friction between the belt and a package is ms = 0. determine the resultant normal force acting on the bicycle when it is at point A while it is freely coasting at vA = 6 ft> s. determine the maximum angle u so that none of the packages slip on the inclined surface AB of the belt. 13–79 *13–80.138 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N 13–79. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.3. Upper Saddle River.. or likewise. k ϭ 2. If the belt starts from rest and increases to a constant speed of 12 ft> s in 2 s. having a mass of 0. The block has a weight of 2 lb and it is free to move along the smooth slot in the rotating disk. For information regarding permission(s). C 13–81. when the block is at rest with respect to the disk and is traveling with a constant speed of 12 ft> s. The spring has a stiffness of 2. Neglect the resistance due to the wind and the size of the bicycle and rider.75 kg. is attached to a spring having a stiffness of k = 200 N> m. photocopying. All rights reserved. mechanical. Hibbeler. compute the increase in the bicyclist’s speed at this point. At what angle f do the packages first begin to slip off the surface of the belt after the belt is moving at its constant speed of 12 ft> s? Neglect the size of the packages. recording. or transmission in any form or by any means. If the bicycle and rider have a total weight of 180 lb.

become -F = mc 0 = mar d2r du 2 r a b d dt dt2 d2u dr du + 2 b dt dt dt2 (13–11) The second of these equations may be written in the form 1 d 2 du c ar bd = 0 r dt dt u r u F (b) so that integrating yields r2 du = h dt (13–12) Here h is a constant of integration. 13–11 may be replaced by dr dr du h dr = = 2 dt du dt r du 2 d h dr d h dr du d h dr h dr = a b = a b = c a 2 bd dt r2 du du r2 du dt du r du r2 dt2 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. New Jersey. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. we will consider the particle P shown in Fig. C. Hibbeler. The free-body diagram for the particle is shown in Fig.150 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N *13. 13–22a notice that the shaded area described by the radius r. If the areal velocity is defined as dA 1 du h = r2 = dt 2 dt 2 (13–13) Fig. the independent variable t must be eliminated from Eqs. To obtain the path of motion. 13–22a. This type of motion is commonly caused by electrostatic and gravitational forces. the particle will sweep out equal segments of area per unit of time as it travels along the path. the motion is called central-force motion. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. From Fig. mechanical. In other words. Eqs. r = f1u2. the equations of motion. In order to determine the motion. Using the chain rule of calculus and Eq. 13–22b. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. storage in a retrieval system. or transmission in any form or by any means. u). Upper Saddle River. which has a mass m and is acted upon only by the central force F.. photocopying. All rights reserved. electronic. For information regarding permission(s). it is seen that the areal velocity for a particle subjected to centralforce motion is constant. recording. 13–9. as r moves through an angle du. is 2 dA = 1 2 r du.7 Central-Force Motion and Space Mechanics P F du u O (a) r 1 dA ϭ — r 2du 2 If a particle is moving only under the influence of a force having a line of action which is always directed toward a fixed point. 13–12. 13–22 then. Using polar coordinates (r. . Inc. or likewise. the time derivatives of Eqs. Pearson Education. 13–11.

All rights reserved. 13–11 yields . From Eq. 13–1. New Jersey. storage in a retrieval system.13. It will be assumed that this velocity is initially parallel to the tangent at the surface of the earth. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. . photocopying.. or likewise.h2j2 2 2 dt du Also.h2j3 = F mh2j2 F m (13–14) This satellite is subjected to a central force and its orbital motion can be closely predicted using the equations developed in this section.†*Just after the satellite is released into free flight. 13–14 should be negative. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or transmission in any form or by any means. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. electronic. as shown in the figure. the square of Eq. the force of gravitational attraction will be considered. recording. As a typical problem in space mechanics. Hibbeler. * For application. †The case where v0 acts at some initial angle u to the tangent is best described using the conservation of angular momentum (see Prob. the only force acting on it is the gravitational force of the earth. and r is the distance between *In the derivation. and the motion of the planets about the sun. + j = This differential equation defines the path over which the particle travels when it is subjected to the central force F. F is considered positive when it is directed toward point O. Some common examples of central-force systems which depend on gravitation include the motion of the moon and artificial satellites about the earth. If F is oppositely directed. we have d2j d2r = . Pearson Education.h2j2 or d2j du2 d2j du2 .) According to Newton’s law of gravitation. since for orbits close to the earth their effect is small in comparison with the earth’s gravitation. C. the right side of Eq. 13–23. 13–12 becomes a du 2 b = h2j4 dt Substituting these last two equations into the first of Eqs. this force of attraction has a magnitude of F = G Mem r2 Free-flight trajectory v0 Satellite F r ϭ r0 Power-flight trajectory F Launching Fig.7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 151 Substituting a new dependent variable (xi) j = 1> r into the second equation. 13–23 where Me and m represent the mass of the earth and the satellite. mechanical. 15–103). G is the gravitational constant. consider the trajectory of a space satellite or space vehicle launched into free-flight orbit with an initial velocity v0 . 13–23. Fig. Inc. respectively. (Gravitational attractions involving other bodies such as the moon or sun will be neglected. For information regarding permission(s). Fig. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. force F will always act between the mass centers of the earth and the satellite.

13–14. FP e = PA which may be written in the form FP = r = e1PA2 = e[p . 13–16. photocopying. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. or likewise. Equation 13–16 represents the free-flight trajectory of the satellite. Pearson Education. We obtain d2j du 2 + j = GMe h2 (13–15) This second-order ordinary differential equation has constant coefficients and is nonhomogeneous. C.. Upper Saddle River. The complementary solution is obtained when the term on the right is equal to zero. . To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. a conic section is defined as the locus of point P. or transmission in any form or by any means. we set j = 1> r in the foregoing equation and substitute the result into Eq. It is the equation of a conic section expressed in terms of polar coordinates. recording. 13–24 Comparing this equation with Eq.152 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N the mass centers. The solution is represented as the sum of the complementary and particular solutions. storage in a retrieval system. 13–24. New Jersey. 13–15.f2 + r p ep Fig. the complete solution to Eq. As shown in Fig. Inc.f2 where C and f are constants of integration. The fixed point is called the focus. For information regarding permission(s). The particular solution is jp = GMe h2 Thus. The constant ratio is called the eccentricity of the conic section and is denoted by e. mechanical. 13–15 is D directrix A x P uϪf r f u F focus j = jc + jp GMe 1 = = C cos1u . and the fixed line DD is called the directrix.f2] or 1 1 1 = cos1u . Hibbeler. It is jc = C cos1u . it is seen that the eccentricity of the conic section for the trajectory is e = Ch2 GMe (13–17) Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. which moves in a plane in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed point F to its distance from a fixed line is constant.f2 + r h2 (13–16) x¿ D p The validity of this result may be checked by substitution into Eq.r cos1u . electronic. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. To obtain the orbital path. All rights reserved. Thus.

12–25. then the constant h may be obtained from Eq. mechanical. 13–16 reduces to GMe 1 = C cos u + r h2 (13–19) The constants h and C are determined from the data obtained for the position and velocity of the satellite at the end of the power-flight trajectory. electronic. storage in a retrieval system. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. If e = 0 e = 1 e 6 1 e 7 1 free-flight trajectory is a circle free-flight trajectory is a parabola free-flight trajectory is an ellipse free-flight trajectory is a hyperbola (13–23) Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. Fig. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. recording. Pearson Education. Hibbeler. . 13–24. r = r0 .7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 153 and the fixed distance from the focus to the directrix is p = 1 C (13–18) Provided the polar angle u is measured from the x axis (an axis of symmetry since it is perpendicular to the directrix).. New Jersey. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. therefore. 13–12. use Eq. For information regarding permission(s). Fig. When u = f = 0°. if the initial height or distance to the space vehicle is r0 (measured from the center of the earth) and its initial speed is v0 at the beginning of its free flight. from Eq. 13–19 with u = 0°. so that h = r2 0 or du dt (13–20) h = r0v0 To determine C. Inc. the velocity v0 has no radial component. Upper Saddle River. or likewise. 13–17. and therefore Eq.13. For example. or transmission in any form or by any means. photocopying. and substitute Eq. the angle f is zero. C. v0 = r01du> dt2. 13–20 for h: C = GMe 1 a1 b r0 r0v2 0 (13–21) The equation for the free-flight trajectory therefore becomes GMe GMe 1 1 b cos u + 2 2 = a1 2 r r0 r0v0 r0v0 (13–22) The type of path taken by the satellite is determined from the value of the eccentricity of the conic section as given by Eq. 13–25.

Eq. 13–17. From the curves it is seen that when the satellite follows a parabolic path. 13–25. 13–23 with Eqs. It is left as an exercise to show that ve = 2GMe A r0 (13–24) The speed vc required to launch a satellite into a circular orbit can be found using the first of Eqs. For information regarding permission(s). Hyperbolic trajectory eϾ1 Parabolic trajectory eϭ1 Elliptical trajectory eϽ1 v0 Crash trajectory v 0 Ͻ vc r0 Circular trajectory eϭ0 Fig. and therefore. we have vc = GMe A r0 (13–25) Provided r0 represents a minimum height for launching. speeds at launch which are less than vc will cause the satellite to reenter the earth’s atmosphere and either burn up or crash. ve . can be determined by using the second of Eqs. 13–21. in which frictional resistance from the atmosphere is neglected. write to: Rights and Permissions Department. v0 . Pearson Education. mechanical. recording. photocopying. The initial launch velocity. 13–23.. 13–25. The speed. Since e is related to h and C. or likewise. electronic. 13–20. .154 C H A P T E R 13 KINETICS OF A PA R T I C L E : F O R C E AND A C C E L E R AT I O N Each of these trajectories is shown in Fig. 13–20. required for the satellite to follow a parabolic path is called the escape velocity. and 13–21. All rights reserved. Upper Saddle River. storage in a retrieval system. 13–17. 13–25 Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. C must be zero to satisfy this equation (from Eq. using Eq. Inc. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. it is “on the border” of never returning to its initial starting point. h cannot be zero). Hibbeler. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. C. Fig. or transmission in any form or by any means. New Jersey.

This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. 13–26 All the trajectories attained by planets and most satellites are elliptical. For information regarding permission(s). recording. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R.7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 155 b rp O ra b a a Fig. All rights reserved. it can be shown that the minor axis b is determined from the equation b = 2rpra (13–29) a = rp + ra *Actually.. ra = r0 12GMe> r0v2 02 . New Jersey. or transmission in any form or by any means.* Thus. storage in a retrieval system. rp = r0 (13–26) This minimum distance is called the perigee of the orbit. C. For a satellite’s orbit about the earth. photocopying. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River. Pearson Education. or likewise. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.1 (13–27) With reference to Fig. 13–26. 13–26. the minimum distance from the orbit to the center of the earth O (which is located at one of the foci of the ellipse) is rp and can be found using Eq.13. 13–22 with u = 0°. electronic. Inc. 13–22 with u = 180°. The apogee or maximum distance ra can be found using Eq. . If any other heavenly body is located at the focus of an elliptical orbit. the semimajor axis a of the ellipse is (13–28) 2 Using analytical geometry. Hibbeler. mechanical. Fig. Therefore. the minimum and maximum distances are referred to respectively as the periapsis and apoapsis of the orbit. the terminology perigee and apogee pertains only to orbits about the earth.

.4110 -92 m-1 = e 1 6. recording. with an initial velocity of 30 Mm> h acting parallel to the tangent at the surface of the earth.9781106218333. Fig. NOTE: The farther the satellite is from the earth. Hibbeler.9781106218333.The constants h and C are first determined from Eqs. New Jersey. 13–27 Ans.73110 -122[5. 13–20 and 13–21. which is to be expected since h is constant. For information regarding permission(s). the same orbit would be maintained provided that h = rpv0 = ravA = 58. All rights reserved. mechanical. observe that the orbit is an ellipse. C.4 Mm> h Ans.97811062 m v0 = 30 Mm> h = 8333.73110 -122[5. we have rp 6. Since rp = r0 = 6378 km + 600 km = 6. the slower it moves.97811062 6.73110 -122][5.322 Hence.97811062 ra = = = 10. The eccentricity of the orbit is obtained using Eq. To be published by Pearson Prentice Hall. From Eq. 2. 13–27.2 m> s = 19. or likewise.9781106218333. and (b) the velocity of the satellite at apogee. If the satellite were launched at the apogee A shown in Fig.54110 -82[58. 13–27.976110242] -1 -1 rpv2 0 6. SOLUTION Part (a).. 13–23.1511092 m2> s Using Eq.13 A satellite is launched 600 km from the surface of the earth.1511092]2 Ch2 e = = = 0. determine (a) the eccentricity of the orbital path. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction. Inc.976110242 kg. Pearson Education.7 CENTRAL-FORCE MOTION AND SPACE MECHANICS 157 EXAMPLE 13. 13–17.32 = 58.976110242] 1 f = 25. 13–27. electronic.1511092 m2> s GMe 1 C = a1 b rp rpv2 0 66. storage in a retrieval system.1511092 10.80411062 = 5382. with a velocity vA .13.322 Thus. Upper Saddle River. Assuming that the radius of the earth is 6378 km and that its mass is 5.3 m> s then h = rpv0 = 6. write to: Rights and Permissions Department.215 6 1 GMe 66. vA = 58.80411062 2GMe 2[66. Part (b). or transmission in any form or by any means.976110242] 600 km v0 ϭ 30 Mm/ h rp O ra A vA Fig. Unpublished Work © 2007 by R. photocopying.