‫بسم هللا الرحمن الرحيم‬

All about DT [DRIVE-TEST] problems
2G Problems [Part 1]

Prepared by: Eng. Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa RNE-Telecomax Consult E-mail: aabdelsalam@telecomaxgroup.com abdelrahman_ashraf@hotmail.com Phone: +2-0109-6739100

All about DT [Drive-Test] problems

NOTE: We can say that most of the 2G problems can be caused by/due to bad quality problem as we will proceed, so in order to solve most of 2G problems you should try to fix the main reason which is the bad quality problem.

1-Blocked Calls;

While initiating a call on TEMS, your call is blocked and you hear call blocked on TEMS, this may occur due to 1 of the following reasons:  Congestion.  Bad Radio conditions.  Hardware problem in handset MS. 1-Congestion: [Means there are no available resources in your serving cell], where in 2G there are 2 types of congestion: -SDCCH congestion problem [no SD's available for you to perform call-setup procedure] and it appears on TEMS in Layer 3 messages as [No Immediate Assignment] message.

By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa

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All about DT [Drive-Test] problems

-TCH congestion problem [no Traffic channels available to perform your call-setup procedure] and it appears on TEMS in Layer 3 messages as [No Traffic Channel Assignment] message.

NOTE: It's normal that Overshooting site to you may suffers congestion as it will be carrying traffic and serving users in its region and other users in your far away serving region. 2-Bad radio conditions: [You then suffer from bad Rx Level or bad Rx Quality so you can't communicate with your serving cell or decode any of its DL messages] -Bad Rx Levels can be a result of bad 2G coverage where there is no dominant server exists in the area. -Bad Rx Quality can be caused by bad coverage [bad levels results bad quality] or due to a high level of interference [Up-link or Down-link interference] on either your MS or your serving cell and it appears on TEMS in Layer 3 messages as [No Service] message. BUT how to differentiate that bad quality is due to bad coverage Rx levels or due to interference ? -Bad Quality in case of bad levels is normal as bad levels will normally causes bad quality -Bad Quality in case of good levels, so for sure there is interference. While

By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa

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NOTE: TEMS is a stupid software that generates events but it doesn't receive any indicators about these events from network. so it reports blocked calls with no apparent reason] and it may appears on TEMS in Layer 3 messages as [No Alert or Connect] message.O failures. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 4 . it only memorizes a specific sequence of messages. that's why in analysis we sometimes neglect events which occur in a very good radio conditions as these events occurred due to some temporary errors in your test tools. etc…]. as sometimes any sudden hardware errors in your DT tools may cause events in a very good radio conditions [Blocked calls-Dropped calls-H. NOTE: Not all the events that appear on TEMS during test actually occurred and stored/counted among network KPI's. if any of these messages dropped due to any reason and didn't received by mobile so TEMS didn't record it. it may then report blocked call with no reason.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 3-Hardware problem in ME handset: [Sometimes your test mobile suffers temporary sudden errors due to excessive usage.

Interference in up-link can be due to any external system that may be broadcasting or transmitting on a used GSM/DCS ARFCN frequency with a high power. any message or information you are transmitting on this ARFCN may suffer high amount of errors due to interference causing high BER [Bit Error Rate] so quality turned bad by time. hitting any information that is transmitted over this ARFCN and serving BTS will not be able to decode your up-link messages. -Neighboring sector to your own serving sector is transmitting on an adjacent ARFCN channel to the ARFCN channel of your serving sector [BCCH/TCH].Occur when 2 same frequencies interfere with each other BCCH's or TCH's. There are 2 imp. Military applications. ex. Down-link interference is an interference on your serving cell.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 2-Interference. When noticing that quality in 2G GSM Radio Parameters window [Rx Qual] and value of C/I in GSM Hopping Channels window are bad for a specific ARFCNs while levels of 2G coverage for the same ARFCNs are good.  Downlink interference. meaning that a neighbor or an overshooting cell is transmitting power [Information] for its serving users in the area on a specific ARFCN frequency in down-link which is the same as the frequency you are using to communicate with your serving cell. where there exist 2 types of interference:  Up-link interference. . Types for the down-link interference: -Co-Channel Interference [You find a bad quality and bad C/I problems for a specific ARFCN in good Rx levels]. -Neighboring sector to your own serving sector is transmitting on [BCCH/TCH] ARFCN channel which is the same ARFCN your serving sector is transmitting on to you in down-link. causes bad quality in down-link between your MS and the network. 2-Down-link interference: [Your mobile will not be able to decode any of the network down-link messages if there is any down-link interference on the serving BTS]. So. So. where an external system transmits power on a specific frequency ARFCN which is the same as the frequency you are using to communicate with your serving cell. causes bad quality in up-link between your MS and the network. 1-Up-link interference: [Your serving cell will not be able to decode any of your up-link messages if your MS suffers any up-link interference]. any message or information your serving cell is transmitting on this ARFCN may suffer high amount of errors due to interference causing high BER [Bit Error Rate] so quality turned bad by time. Up-link interference is an interference on your MS mobile handset. .Occur when 2 adjacent close frequencies interfere with each other BCCH's or TCH's. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 5 . -Adjacent-Channel Interference [You find a bad quality and bad C/I problems for a specific ARFCN in good Rx levels].

NOTE: Overshooting sites may cause interference as they may be using the same ARFCN's [BCCH /TCH] of your near-by serving cells due to the frequency reuse pattern as shown: 3-Overshooting.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems Conclusion: Interference is unwanted power. -In case this overshooting site was serving with good levels: Usually we get bad [Rx Qual] due to down-link interference from neighboring cells with Co. if it hits the up-link. whether this site was serving you or just appears as a neighbor with good Rx levels to you. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 6 . you will remain on serving site until call drops due to bad radio conditions. It may also cause [congestion] problem under this overshooting site as it is now serving away from its supposed coverage region so the site near-by users may found no resources to use + levels under site may be bad causing coverage problems specially indoor. user's MS mobile may then not be able to decode any of the serving cell's down-link messages and it will be named Down-link interference. When we get the signal from an away site that not close to the current area drive test. or Adjacent channel BCCH and large value for TA [Time Advance] also it may causes call drop by the time as you will not be able to perform handover because all the neighboring sites to you will be missing neighbors for it [not in your serving site BA list]. serving cell may then not be able to decode any of the user's up-link messages and it will be named Up-link interference and if it hits the down-link.

By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 7 . so it will impact it causing bad [C/I] value. or Adjacent channel interference] as due to the frequency reuse pattern. this overshooting site may be using an ARFCN which your serving site are using as BCCH or TCH.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems -In case this overshooting site appears as a neighbor with good levels : It may cause a bad [Rx Qual] due to 2G DL interference problem [Co. NOTE: Any sites near water may overshoots due to the ducting phenomena in water that it could transfers signal for a large distances.

[Reflections] Back then blocking body height may not be = or higher than site height. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 8 . you even may see the site but you still find bad levels. this obstacle: -Whether blocks LOS (Line Of Sight) for you from site.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 4-Blocking/Reflections. In reality field you find a body [building-metal-trees-mountain or hill-etc……] which existed in the bad levels region between you and serving site. Causes temporary bad levels problem When Rx levels from your serving site suddenly drops to the -90's/-100's dbm which is very bad [While it was very good] in the -60's during DT. while you are near to site and its levels to you was supposed to be very good but it suddenly turned bad for a while then while moving levels turned very good again [Temporary bad levels]. [Blocking] Back then blocking body height is = or higher than serving site. its height may be lower than site height but made from a metal/conductor material or trees causing reflection. so you can't see site from your position of bad level. -Or makes reflections to received signal so that it doesn't reaches you with good levels.

when served by sector 2 BCCH: 59 in dedicated mode after making a handover from sector 1 BCCH: 29.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems As shown above. As shown in snaps before. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 9 .once approaching near a region levels turned bad and suddenly it turned good again. a metal container exists in the area of about same height as serving site causing blockings to the received signal from site for a while. so this cell only accepts handovers in dedicated mode with good levels normally but you can't access or initiate a call on it as it is closed/barred in idle mode. but once call is ended while in front of sector 2 you find (No Service Mode) on TEMS as cell is barred and your MS can't make cell selection or reselection to it in idle mode as it is barred. levels turned bad [Red color] suddenly after it was good . When served by a cell in dedicated mode and as soon as you end your call you find yourself in ( No Service Mode) as this cell is banned to be accessed in idle mode. levels were good and coverage in front of sector 2 was good. 5-Cell Barred.

so repeated HO's causes an excessive processing load on the network and bad voice quality.High SDCCH congestion causing bad KPI's in CBR (Call Block Rate) due to high utilization on SD channels.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems Once you end your call and be in idle mode. 6. NOTE: A cell may sometimes barred by optimization teams if this cell suffers: 1. While testing. your MS will try to camp and perform cell reselection to the cell BCCH 59 considering that it was with the highest level in idle mode. you are performing many handovers between your serving cell and neighboring cells all are transmitting power in the area with very good levels NOTE: Handover process takes a lot of signaling procedure of messages and commands between MS and network also it requires a full time slot to be executed. but once MS try to read the system information on BCCH 59 for this cell. 2. May causes call drop problem In very small area/route also in a very small time period you perform many quickly handovers among 2 or more cells all are with high levels but none of them is high enough to be the only dominant serving cell in the area. many HO's will be executed over a lot of time slots TCH's. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 10 . so MS will perform forced cell reselection to any other nearby cell even if it was lower in level than this barred cell BCCH 59 and sometimes your MS may not find any neighbors to perform this forced cell reselection to any of them so it will enter SOS emergency call mode and you will see No Service on TEMS. it will know that this cell is barred and so that it should leave this cell immediately. these TCH's was supposed to be used for your traffic speech transmission but instead you are performing many HO's on them instead.Handover Ping Pong (Repeated).Temporary hardware problem.

NOTE: VSWR [Voltage Standing Wave Ratio] is simply means that the full EIRP that is generated from cabinets are not fully reaching sector antenna so levels under site turned very bad. so coverage under the site will be bad that it may causes calls to be dropped right under serving site due to bad levels. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 11 . A scene like this in site will for sure causes VSWR problem as sector feeders are bent also sector antenna is dropped down the tower to the ground.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 7-VSWR-Hardware problem. Causes bad levels or even gaps under site Right under a site on TEMS map or very near to it but the Rx levels from it is very bad. jumpers or connectors connecting the cabinet to sector antenna also it might be an antenna or a DTRU-card hardware problem inside cabinet. VSWR may be due to a problem in feeders.

1-TCH congestion: This better neighbor in level back then it may was suffering from TCH congestion.O between the 2 cells.O parameters.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 8-No or Late Handover. how??? Cell 1 Serving cell Cell 2 Neighbor cell MS Imagine you were served by Cell 1 with bad levels due to large distance away from it. leads to call dropped due to bad radio conditions In window [GSM Serving + Neighbors] . By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 12 . you find a better neighbor in level which is better than your now-serving cell but no or late(takes a while and not quickly) handover occurred to this neighbor which leads to bad radio conditions from your serving now cell by the time and might cause call dropped.O parameters require tuning. so no H. you see cell2 as neighbor with better levels but no H.O to the better neighbor cell 2.O margin between 2 cells NOTE: H.O parameters: Sometimes H.O margin of cell 1 is large so however cell 2 level was better than cell 1 but no H.O occurred!!! Usually due to large value of H.O margin is a 2G cell parameter.O occurred to it until call is dropped. No or late handover can be due to:  TCH congestion.O to the neighbor cell 2 when its level is better than cell 1 by how many dBs? In some cases like this one H.O occurred to cell 2 as its level is not reached yet the margin threshold of H. in another words I should perform H.  Poor-wrong H. 2-Poor H. so it has no TCH resources left to be assigned to new users. this parameter determines when to leave your serving cell 1 and perform H.O to cell 1 which causes the delay in H.

Handover between 2 cells should happen but H.O on cell K31281 as cell may be congested. No H.O is delayed more and more [it may not even happen] until call is dropped due to very bad radio conditions on serving cell 1541 as shown in snaps.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems Being served by cell 1541 BCCH: 66 with very bad radio conditions as Rx level is -95 dbm but you notice another neighboring cell K31281 BCCH: 67 appear as a neighbor with better levels -66 dbm. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 13 .O command has been sent to you to perform H.

r. so: [Once you found something strange that site sectors are serving in front of each other's and you can't judge.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 9-Wrong Handover.O cell 2] which is normally better than [serving cell 1] . while there exists a better neighboring cell 3 which is better in level than both [serving cell 1] and [target H.t the surrounding clutter and coverage appears to be wrong logically!!!!! How come? Sometimes you find azimuth for a sector is not logical !!!! You may find a sector antenna is serving in direction of a desert or water instead of being serving in the place which it was supposed to be serving. you notice a sector on TEMS map [cell file].O cell 2]. Visiting a site but you notice something strange in sectors levels as you sometimes suspect a cross feeder or sector but sometimes everything is normal but you can't judge. its position and direction w. suspect the site azimuths are they correct or wrong] Or visiting a site.O command to camp on it from BSC.O target cell is lower in level than serving cell] which is wrong. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 14 .O command was supposed to be on cell 3 instead of cell 2 as cell 3 level is > cell 2 level but may be cell 3 was suffering from TCH congestion so you didn't receive a H.O process occurs from a cell [serving cell 1] to another cell [target H. Or When H. When a handover procedure occurs from a better Rx-level serving cell to a lower/worse Rx-level neighbor cell [occur when H. H. so you will find bad coverage levels as this antenna is originally wrong planned or wrong directed by site installation team. 10-Wrong-Shifted Azimuths.

found that sector 2 is dominant all the time in front of sector 1 with good level while sector 1 levels is bad.2 Km but to make sure [we must go in front of sector 1] !!!!! -In front of sector 1. so case turned to be a suspected cross sector instead of being a cross feeder case between sectors 1 and 2. -In front of sector 2.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems As shown in following snaps. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 15 . for a while you suspect a cross feeder in site between sectors 1 and 2 as sector 1 serves with almost same levels in front of sector 2 about 1.

But we still must go in front of sector 2 to make sure??? By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 16 . so when correcting azimuths in TEMS cell file. as: -In front of Sector 1 BCCH: 55. so sadly the rigger performed site auditing for this site to check for correct site azimuths. everything was cleared and it was clearly a cross sector. sector 2 BCCH: 8 is dominant with good levels while sector 1 levels are bad.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems Now is it cross feeders or cross sectors problem between sector 1 and sector 2 ……????? This is up normal case as we couldn't decide!!!!! We then suspected that site azimuths may be wrong in TEMS cell file. It appeared that both sectors 1 and 2 azimuths in site were shifted.

O cell: [Means that targeted H. So clearly cross sector is now confirmed between sectors 1 and 2 in site after correcting site azimuths in cell file.  Data link failure = Layer 2 failure.W problem on targeted H.W problem on targeted cell. When you fail to perform H.O Access to new target H.O failure [from system KPI point of view] means that you [MS] did sent H. this may occur due to 1 of the following reasons:  Bad radio conditions [quality] or a H.O cell suffered from UL Up-Link interference ICM [Idle Channel Measurement external interference] at the time MS was sending its UL H.O cell.W [hardware] problem on targeted H.  Bad radio conditions [quality] on MS handset.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems -In front of Sector 2 BCCH: 8. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 17 .O from your serving cell [old] to a better level neighbor target cell [new]. so targeted H.O cell but you didn't receive physical channel information so handover fails. sector 1 BCCH: 55 is dominant with good levels while sector 2 levels are bad.O cell couldn't decode MS UL message due to UL interference or a H. 1-Bad quality or a H. 11-Handover failure. leads to call dropped due to bad radio conditions from serving cell NOTE: H.O access command to it. so you make ROC [Return to Old Channel] on your serving old cell to continue your call and you hear handover failure on TEMS.

O cell 12593 on DL.O failure occurred due to target H. so MS couldn't decode targeted H.O cell was sending its DL Physical channel information to MS.O failure occurred due to target H. As shown in the following snaps.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems As shown in the following snaps. H.O cell DL message due to DL interference. 2-Bad quality on MS handset: [Means that targeted H.O cell didn't sent the DL Physical channel information to MS.O cell 12593 BCCH: 67 suffer from DL Cochannel interference on BCCH: 67 from a neighboring cell 6403 BCCH: 67 causing bad quality on MS handset so it couldn't decode the DL Physical channel information sent by target H.O cell so it couldn't decode the UL H.O access command sent by MS on UL due to interference and as so targeted H.O cell suffered from DL Down-Link interference [Co-Adjacent channel interference] at the time new targeted H. H. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 18 .O cell C06063 BCCH: 718 suffer from UL interference from an external resource causing bad quality on targeted H.

O failure due to a 1 of the 2 radio problems that we have just mentioned.] in layer 3 messages on TEMS is considered to be a H.O fails and MS returns to old serving BTS ROC and you hear H. H.O cell to complete handover process. so in order for MS to establish connection with the new target H.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems NOTE: Any H. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 19 . 3-Data link failure: MS connection with the mobile network is established upon layers connection.O failure on TEMS. When MS fails to any reason to establish layer 2 with new BTS. MS should establish a transmission layer 2 [Data link layer] with the new BTS. etc.O failure occurred due to [Protocol error – Physical channel failure – or any other messages.

O is completed. 2-H.O failure occurred due to [Data link failure.O Access in UL to new target cell and didn't receive physical channel information from it in DL due to any of the 2 before possible reasons.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems NOTE: Any H. this issue is considered as a H. from network KPI point of view: H.O cell.O Access: Sent on UL FACCH from MS to new target H.Serving cell. 3-Target H.O failure due to a transmission problem which is not RF [Radio] problem.O failure on both TEMS and network.O cell to inform that H. Where H. 1-BSC sends H. But from TEMS point of view: H.O is considered to be failed when any of the following happens.O command in DL to MS and didn't receive H.O failure. 2-Mobile station.O cell to MS informing the MS about the new hold TCH to take it. this issue is considered as a H.O cell.N200. 4-H. About new target H. this issue is considered as a H.O cell requesting a TCH to continue call when handover occurs.O Scenario on TEMS is: 1-H.O is considered to be failed when MS send H. 3-Physical channel information: Sent on DL FACCH from targeted H. 3-Target H.O complete message in UL from MS within timer T3103. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 20 .O process is not a reason for handover failure from network KPI point of view!!!! HOW??? Handover is a process between all 3 of: 1.O failure.O process completed successfully MS sent H. NOTE: Bad radio conditions [quality] on serving cell [old] in H.O Access in UL to new target cell and didn't receive physical channel information from it in DL within timer T3124.O drop or call drop in the system not H.Layer 2 failure.O drop or call drop in the system not H.O complete: After H.O cell sends physical channel information in DL to MS and didn't receive SABM message to establish data link [layer 2] in UL from MS within timer T3105. 2.O complete to BSC through target new H.T200 timer expiry] in layer 3 messages on TEMS is considered to be a H. So.O command: Sent on DL FACCH from BSC to MS containing info.MS send H.

sometimes TEMS counts events as H.O failures in the system but as H. 4-Bad quality or a H. so MS couldn't decode serving cell DL message due to DL interference. NOTE: As a conclusion. H.O failures due to bad radio conditions on serving cell whether level or quality where MS couldn't decode the DL H. that's why sometimes in reports you find H.O command to MS.O failures from system point of view.O drops.  Bad radio conditions [quality] or H. As shown in the following snaps. but we normally analysis these types of events however they are not counted as H.O Access to new target H.O failures however these events are not counted as failures in network KPI's but they are counted as H.W problem on serving cell: [Means that serving cell suffered from bad radio conditions [level or quality] from DL Down-Link interference [CoAdjacent channel interference] at the time it was sending BSC's DL H.W [Hardware] problem on serving cell.O command sent by BSC on serving cell.O cell but you didn't receive physical channel information so handover fails and MS ROC to old BTS and By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 21 .O failure [from system KPI point of view] means that you did sent H.O command sent by BSC on the serving old cell due to the bad radio conditions between your MS and the network back then.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems So.O failure occurred due to serving cell 19101 BCCH: 79 suffer from bad radio conditions causing bad quality on MS handset so it couldn't decode the DL H. H.O drops or call drops.O failures however it is not correct as these failures are not counted as H. So we will add a 4th reason for H.

check BA list in [System information type 5] in layer 3 messages for same band BCCH's or BA list in [System information type 5-ter] for other band BCCH's to see all defined neighbors BCCH's to your serving cell. noticed 2 near-by cells [BCCH's: 83. Served by cell 12203 BCCH: 64 while radio conditions was getting bad.728] but there BCCH's don't exist in GSM Serving + Neighbor window. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 22 .All about DT [Drive-Test] problems send H.O failure as an indication to the network. they may be missing neighbors. 12-Missing Neighbor. Might leads to call dropped due to bad radio conditions from serving cell When approaching near cell 2 while attached by another serving cell 1 in dedicated mode [during a call]. you notice that cell 2 BCCH doesn't exist in GSM Serving + Neighbors window at all disappeared -To make sure cell 2 is a missing neighbor to your serving cell 1.

 Hardware problem. Under site PRTSAID-TWN but you notice both sectors BCCH's [61. you didn't find its BCCH in GSM Serving + Neighbors window [even while in Idle mode] so cell is not missing neighbor for sure but it is not serving as it is down.Info Type 5-ter in layer 3 messages and both BCCHs were not defined to serving cell BCCH. 43] are not exists in GSM Serving window as site is down during drive test. 1-Power problem: Under a cell but the Rx-Level from its BCCH in GSM Serving + Neighbors window is too bad. 13-Site-Cell Down.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems -To confirm that. this problem may be due to wrong antenna tilting or due to VSWR alarm in site.Info Type 5 and Sys. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 23 . we checked both Sys. 2-Hardware problem: Cell on TEMS map but when moving near to it. Site may be down due to 1 of the following 2 reasons:  Power problem.

So. NOTE: Any dropped call occurred due to [No service (Channel release)] in layer 3 messages on TEMS is considered to be due to bad radio conditions from serving cell [Level or quality]. dropped calls may occur due to 1 of the following reasons:     No or delayed H. which may occur due to any of the following reasons: Bad radio conditions between your MS and the network is the only reason that may cause a call to drop. Missing Neighbor to your serving cell. then this call is dropped due to sudden hardware problem on serving cell BTS which is not RF [Radio] problem. why you didn't perform H. your call is suddenly dropped and you hear call dropped on TEMS.O failure. During a call on TEMS. etc.O may was delayed or failed or you couldn't perform H.O as the neighboring cells to you were not defined as neighbors [Missing] to your serving now cell. then this call is dropped due to bad radio conditions.O but this H. BUT as for reasons like [Abnormal network release – or any other messages. Call is dropped due to only 1 reason which is the bad radio conditions [level or quality] from your serving cell. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 24 . H.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 14-Dropped Calls. you should differentiate if a dropped call occur due to any of these messages while: -Radio conditions were bad.O. but the question is why you remained on your serving cell until radio conditions turned bad. We already proceed in all these 4 reasons in our before demonstrations. -Radio conditions were good. so you remained on serving cell until call is dropped.O to any neighboring better cell ?! For sure you tried to perform H. Ping-Pong H.] in layer 3 messages.O.

NOTE: You have to make sure that these TCHs Rx-Levels aren't bad because of cross feeder problem that these TCHs power are not being transmitted in another region with good levels before deciding that it is DTRU card hardware problem. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 25 .  DL interference [Co.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 15-TCH [Traffic Channel] Problem. you find a problem in a specific TCH [Traffic Channel] while other TCH's in hopping window are good which will be due to 1 of the following reasons:  Cross feeder on TCH.  Faulty DTRU [Hardware problem]. or Adjacent]. 2-Faulty DTRU: Noticing bad Rx-Levels for specific TCHs in GSM hopping channels window while under site. the feeder carrying this TCH from TRX to antenna may be switched and fixed in another sector antenna causing this bad level for this TCH. In GSM hopping channels window. 1-Cross feeder on TCH: Noticing bad Rx-Levels for specific TCHs in GSM hopping channels window while C/I value is fair in front of site sector's main beam. this may be due to cabinet TRX-DTRU card hardware problem which generates power for these TCHs.

this may be due to DL [Co. When performing DT for a route. 16-Good Rx-Levels in 1 direction BUT turned bad in opposite direction. moving from Cell 1 towards Cell 2 While served by Cell 1. or Adjacent]: Noticing bad C/I values for specific TCHs in GSM hopping channels window while Rx-Levels for same TCHs are good.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 3-DL interference [Co. you notice normal good Rx-Levels on TEMS map BUT when moving backwards on same route from Cell 2 towards Cell 1 you notice that RxLevels turned bad on TEMS map. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 26 . or Adjacent] channel interference affecting these TCHs causing high level of interference on them in down link.

O parameters or TCH congestion on Cell 1. 1-Served by DCS of Cell 2: You were served by Cell 2 DCS band with bad levels as DCS has high serving priority over GSM even if it was serving with bad levels and GSM levels were better back then.O causes these bad levels on route as Cell 2 was serving with bad levels until H.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems This problem may occur due to 1 of 2 possible reasons:  Served by DCS of Cell 2. so overall levels on the route back were bad.  Delay H. so overall levels were good. this delayed H.O from Cell 2 to Cell 1: You performed late H. -BUT when moving back on same route from RS-SAFAGA-STH [Cell2] to RS-UM-HUWAYTAT [Cell1]: Served by RS-SAFAGA-STH [Sometimes by its DCS and sometimes with its GSM] and both were with bad levels until finally performed late HO to RS-UM-HUWAYTAT. 1-Delay H.O to RS-SAFAGA-STH. -Imagine moving from site RS-UM-HUWAYTAT [Cell1] to RS-SAFAGA-STH [Cell2]: Served by RS-UM-HUWAYTAT with good Rx-Levels along the whole route until performing H. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 27 .O from Cell 2 to Cell 1.O to Cell 1 may be due to poor H.O occurred to Cell 1 and levels enhanced.

how to find the actual position of this shifted site???!!!! Moving all around the site region until reaching a spot where you receive very good levels from this shifted site [-40's or -50's dB]. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 28 . Reaching under a site on TEMS map but in field reality you find no site exists at all in the area also you find that site Rx-Levels in GSM Serving + Neighbors window aren't very good in the -40's or -50's dB [while under site] as supposed to be. so for sure site is very near to you somewhere. visiting a site named RS-HUR-VILLAS but when reaching under it by 300 meters. Sometimes you perform a visit for a specific site and you reach its position on TEMS map but in reality you find no mobile tower at all in the field and people told you that no mobile station exists at this place. search for it !!!! As shown in the following snaps.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems 17-Shifted Site Position. So where is our site !? So. noticing its bad levels in GSM Serving + Neighbors window and no site is found in reality so for sure this site is shifted somewhere.

All about DT [Drive-Test] problems While moving around site region searching for it. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 29 . suddenly noticed that site Rx-Levels turned very good when reaching a specific spot and it turned that site is shifted in reality about 3 KM away from its position on TEMS map.

... So. Stay tuned for 2G Problems [Part 2] which will be mainly about Cross [Feeder.... contact me on my e-mail or phone.All about DT [Drive-Test] problems And as since the Cross [Feeder or Sector] problems are the most difficult detecting problems for drivetesters.. By: Abdelrahman Ashraf Mostafa 30 . For any questions. Sector] Thanks & good luck for you all..

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