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OF

THE EARLIEST DYNASTIES


1901.

PAET

II.

BY.

W. M.
EDWARDS PEC"

FLINDERS

KT
F.
C.

'

n
-Ot.)

Hon. D.G.L., Litt.D., LL.D., I'h.D..

ilo?;.
V"

.OK "" EGYPTOLOGY, UNIVERSI'i


i

LLt
i

.
.

.,

LONDON;
;

MEMBER

01

HE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL

NS'C T T r*""E

CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF SOCIETY OF ANTHROT

IN-

MEMBER

MEMBER OE THE ROMAN SOCIETY OF AHHS01. 01 THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN .'"I

With
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Chapter

by

Li.

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M.A., F.S.A

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01

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION


PUBLISHED BY ORDER OF THE COMMITTEE

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The

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4: 3

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF KING

ZER.

BRACELETS.

THE ROYAL TOMBS


OF

THE EARLIEST DYNASTIES


n
1901.

PART

II.

BY

W. M.

FLINDERS PETRIE
(Scot.)
; ;

Hon. D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D., Ph.D., Hon. F.S.A.

EDWARDS PROFESSOR OF EGYPTOLOGY, nNIVERSITT COLLEGE, LONDON MEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE
CORRESPONDING MEMBER OF SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY, BERLIN
;

MEMBER OF THE ROMAN SOCIETY OF ANTHROPOLOGY MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NORTHERN ANTIQUARIES.
;

With
F.

Chapter

by

Ll.

GRIFFITH, M.A.,

F.S.A.

TWENTY-FIRST MEMOIR OF

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND


PUBLISHED BY OBDEB OF THE COMMITTEE

LONDON
SOLD AT

The OFFICES OF
and by
B.

THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND,


and
59,

37,

Great Russell Street, W.C.

Temple Street, Boston, Mass., U.SA.

KBGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road, W.C. QOARITCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. ASHER & Co., 13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden, W.C.
;

1901

LONDON
riUNTED BY GILBERT AND JUVINGTON, LT
ST.

JOHN'S HOUSE, OLE It KEN WELL.

EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.


resident.

SIR

JOHN EVANS,

K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., P.R.S.

H)lce=ipresi5ent6.

Sie E.

Maunde Thompson,

K.C.B., D.C.L.,

The Hon. Chas.

L.

Hutchinson

(U.S.A.).

LL.D. Lt. - General

Peof. G. Maspebo, D.C.L. (Prance).

Sie Feancts G.C.M.G., G.C.B.

Geenfell,

Peof. Ad. Eeman, Ph.D. (Germany).


Josiah Mullens, Esq. (Australia).

The Eev. Peof. A. H. Sayce, M.A., LL.D. The Rev. W. C. Winslow, D.D., D.O.L.
(U.S.A.).

M. Chaeles Hentsch

(Switzerland).

1bon. treasurers.

H. A. Geuebee, Esq., E.S.A.

P. C. Postee, Esq. (Boston, U.S.A.).

1foon.

Secretaries.
C.

J.

S.

Cotton, Esq., M.A.

The Rev. W.

Winslow, D.D. (Boston, U.S.A.).

,/IBembers ot Committee.

T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., K.C., V.D. Miss M. Beodeick, Ph.D. (for Boston).

The Rev. W. MacGbegoe, M.A.


A. S.

Mueeay, Esq., LL.D., P.S.A.

Majoe E. B. Cassatt, B.A.


delphia).

(for

Phila-

The Mabquess of Nobthampton.


Pbancis
P. G.

Wm.

Peecival, Esq., M.A., P.S.A.

Somees Claeke, Esq., P.S.A. W. E. Oeum, Esq., M.A. Louis Dyee, Esq., M.A. (for Chicago). Aethue John Evans, Esq., M.A., P.R.S.
P. Ll. Geiffith, Esq., M.A., P.S.A.

Hilton Peice, Esq., Die.S.A.

Mes. Tibabd.

Mes. P. Ll. Geiffith. T. Paemee Hall, Esq.


P. G. Kenyon, Esq., M.A., Litt.D.

The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A. Emanuel M. Undebdown, Esq., K.C. Sie Heemann Webeb, M.D. E. Towey Whyte, Esq., F.S.A.
Majoe-Geneeal Sie Chaeles W. Wilson,
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., P.R.S.

Mes. McCluee.

CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION.
SBCT.

1.

Details of publication.

2. Previous

wreck of tombs

CHAPTER
The The The The
groups of tombs
order of tombs

I.

Site of the Royal Tombs.


3. 4.
5.
.

kings before the 1st Dynasty


kings of the Ilnd Dynasty
.

6.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

VI.
By
SECT.

CHAPTER
The

VII.

Inscriptions.

The Vases.
SECT.

F. Ll. Griffith, M.A., F.S.A.

PAGE

36. Condition of the material 37. Method of classifying


38. Restoration of forms 39. Igneous rocks
.

41
41

42

42
43 44

40. Sedimentary rocks

4 1. Secondary examples
42. The Aegean pottery 43. The marks on pottery

46
47

LIST OF PLATES
(WITH REFERENCES).
The plates
i.

lxiii.,

without
iiiA.

letters,

are given

to all

Subscribers.

The plates for Students,

IviA.,

with

letters,

are issued in a Supplement, which can be ordered,.

Plate
I.

PAGE
Frontispiece.

Plate

page Sealings
of

Jewellery
17

XVII.
19, 48 20,

Zer

and
31, 32

of Zer
II.

Merneit

125135

Inscriptions before

Mena

XVIII.

of

Den Setui
136145 Den Setui, 146155 Den Setui, 156163
31, 52

III.

Tablets of
11

Mena
11

49

IIIa.

21, 49

XIX.

of

IV.

Objects
earlier

of

Mena
.

and
21, 49

31, 53

XX.
XXI.
XXII.
XXIII.

,,

of

V.

Inscriptions of Zer

22, 49
23, 49

31, 52

Va.
VI.
Objects of Zer
11

of

Perabsen

VIA.
VII.

...
and

23, 49 24, 49

164177
of

31, 53

Perabsen

Inscriptions of Zet

178190
25, 49

31, 53

Den
VIIa.
VIII.
Objects of

of

Khasekhemui

Den

25,

50

191201

31, 53

Inscriptions of Mersekha,

XXIV.
26, 50

,,

of

Khasekhemui

Qa, and Perabsen

202216

31,

54
32

VIIIa.

Inscriptions of Merpaba,

Qa, and Perabsen

27, 51

IX.

Objects of Khasekhemui

27 28

XXV. XXVI. XXVII.


XXVIII.

Signs on vases
Steles

IXa.
X.

Copper objects
Tablets of

,,

Narmer and
19/51
.20.

Mena

XL
XII.

Tablets of

Mena

21,51
28, 51

XXIX. XXIXa. XXIXb.

4994 Key 95146 Key 4960 Zer 6171 Zer 7282 Zer 8394 Zer
120132 Den 133146 Den
Perabsen
of
.

32, 54
.

33,

54

Painted inscriptions
Sealings of

XXX.
XXXa. XXXI.
XXXII.

XIII.

XIV.

XV.
XVI.

Ka and Nar8996 mer of Aha Mena 97104 of Zer Ta 105113 of Zer Ta 114124
.

30, 51

Inventory
period

Mena
.

30, 52

36

XXXIII.
30, 52

Inventory of

Tomb

M.I.

36
37 37

XXXIV.

of Zer, ivory of Zer, ivory of Zer,

XXXV.
31, 52

XXXVI.

wood.

37

8 7 1

LIST OF PLATES.
PLATE

PAGE

PLATE

PAGE

XXXVII. XXXVIII. XXXIX.


XL. XLT.
XLII.
XLIII.

Inventory of Zet
n
>i

38 38 38 38

LIh.
LII.
Lilt.

Vases of Alabaster
11

of

Cemetery

ofMerneit

11

11

1 1

Den ofDen ofAzab


of
of of

LUIa.
LIIIb

11

329-344 345360 361377 378398


399425 426445 446458
limestone

44
44
44
44

.39
.

coloured limestone

39 39
LIIIc.

44

,,

Mersekha

44

XLIV.

Mersekha and

LIIId.

11

ii

44
44 44

Qa

39

LIIIe.

Vases

of

grey

XLV.
XLVI.

of Perabsen and

Khasekhemui
Vases
of

39

LIIIf.

,,

459474 475484
485502

Quartz

Crystal

LIIIg.

white limestone

XL VII.
XLVIIa. XLVIIb. XLVIII. XLVIIIa. XLVIIIb.
Basalt,

Porphyry,

126 27-50 5168 6983 84106

42 42

44
46 47
47

LIV.

43
43 43

XLIX. XLIXa.
L.

11

Volcanic,

La. LI.
LIa.
Serpentine,
Slate,

LIb. LTc.

107121 122128 129136 137150 151160 161175 176190 191206 207230


marble

43
43 43

LV. LVa. LVb. LVc. LVd.


LVI.

Aegean pottery Marks on pottery,


.

62

63160 161258
25'J 354

47 47 47

Views
Views

of

43

43
43
43 43

LVIa.
LVII.

of

355491 Tombs, Mena to Den Tombs, Den to


Perabsen 9

79

11
12
3 3 3

Views of

Tombs, Perabsen
and Khasekhemui 11

43

LVIII.

General Plan

...
. . . .

Dolomite

LIX. 44
44

Plan of B tombs

LId.
LIe.

LIf.

Alabaster

LIg.

231252 253266 267288 289311 312328

LX. LXI.
LXII.
LXIII.

Plan of Zer tombs

Plan of Zer and Perabsen

44 44
44

Plan of Den tomb

Plan of Khasekhemui tomb

12

KINGS MENTIONED IN THIS VOLUME.

THE

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


INTRODUCTION.
1
.

1st

DYNASTY.

The present volume describes the continuwork on the Royal


It has not
this

arranging

material.

Miss

Orme's

help

was
all

ation and conclusion of the

more valuable than ever, as she developed

Tombs

of Abydos,

begun

last year.

my
of

photographs, and inked in fifty-seven plates

been practicable to include every result in

my

pencil drawings, beside drawing

marks

account, as some classes of objects require more


study, such as the carved slate fragments and

on pottery and helping in sorting the stone vase

the

worked

flints.

Nor

is

there

any

special

virtue in comprising the whole of

my
still

results in

two volumes, when

so large

an amount of the
is

Without her doing such a great mass of work, this volume could not have appeared till many weeks later. Miss A. Urlin sorted much of the vase fragments, and joined
fragments.

material from the same

site

lying in

many complex

fractures, besides doing a great

Paris awaiting publication.


is

But

at least there

part of the daily marking of objects.

now

issued every inscription, and almost every

class of objects,

which have been obtained

in

The general course of work was, that I photographed in the morning, sorted and drew stone
vases in the afternoon, and sorted and
sealings in the evening
;

this final

work of rescue

by my

careful

worka

drew

men.

though each kind of

The production

of ninety-eight plates

is

matter requiring time, both for digesting the


material into order from rough heaps of frag-

ments, and for the merely mechanical labour of

To carry out this, several workers were needed. Mr. Mace superintended the excavations, and so left me free to work out the
drawing.
piles

work was also taken at other times. The importance of the material for study makes it needful to thoroughly publish every But as much of it will only be fragment. wanted by specialists, and would not add to the
general interest in the subject,
divide the
plates
as

we have had

to

in

the

publication of

of sealings, stone fragments, and small


I only occasionally

Dendereh.

The

large edition presented to all

objects.

saw the digging,

subscribers contains sixty-three plates, of


fifteen

which

mainly for planning the tombs of Den and


Perabsen, the central chamber of Zer, and the

are photographs and forty-eight litho-

graphs.

Besides this the supplementally plates

south

half

of

Khasekhemui

the

rest

were
the

planned by Mr. Mace.


plans,

My
much

wife
in

drew

all

which are not of general interest number thirtyfive, of which ten are photographs and twentyfive lithographs.

besides

doing

sorting

and

These are

all

distinguished
B

by

ROYAL TOMBS OP THE


letters

1st

DYNASTY.
(Fouilles,

added to the numbers, and are

fully

perience "
interesting

1896,

p.

18)

the

most

described in the text of this volume.

be procured either separately or


Avith the

They can bound together

remains of the wooden tomb chamber

of Zer, a carbonized mass 28 feet

by

3 feet,

whole

series.

studded with copper fastenings, have entirely


disappeared, and of another

Again a rich harvest of history has come from the site which was said to be exhausted
.

tomb we read "

j'y

and in place of the disordered confusion of names without any historical connection, which was
all

rencontrai environ deux cents kilos de charbon de bois" (Fouilles, 1896, p. 15), which has been
all

removed.

The ebony

tablets of

that was

known from

the

Mission

Mena

the most
all

priceless historical

Narmer and monuments

Amelineau,
of kings

we now have

the complete sequence

were

broken up in 1896 and tossed aside

from the middle of the dynasty before


detail the fluctuations of

in the rubbish,

Mena

to probably the close of the Ilnd Dynasty,

whence we have rescued them and rejoined them so far as we can. In every
direction

and we can trace in


results

we can but apply


" tous
brises

to

the destroyer

art throughout these reigns.

from our work

will

The 166 plates need some twenty

of

his

own words

concerning the Copts


.

who

left

or

the remains,

de la maniere la

thirty to be yet added to record the whole of

plus sauvage " (Fouilles, 1896, p. 33).

the information, which no one could hope to

Of new methods employed

in this

work some

have recovered two years ago.

may
the

be Avorth future use, such as the restitution

And

this

recovery

is

not only after

of the forms of the stone vases

by an adjusting
stones

removal of everything that was thought of value,


both by the Mission, and
also

frame, the

clearing

of

the weathered
face,

by the
it is

thieves of
in spite of

by a

filling of

sand on the

and the adoption

Abydos who did the work, but


spot.

of a complete

mode

of registering every

wrought

the determined destruction of the remains on the

fragment from a tomb by inventory sheets of


outlines (plates xxxii. to xlv.), Avhich enable a

The pottery

jars

were smashed, avowedly


obtaining them.
fanatics,

to prevent

any one

else

The
are

general idea to be obtained of the contents, and the trial of any union with pieces
preserved.
elseAvhere

stone vases, broken anciently by

referred to thus, " ceux qui 6taient brisks et que


j'ai

reduits

en miettes

"

(Amelineau, Fouilles,

As most
upper

of the

tombs are diagonal to the


it

1897, p. 33), and


to

we indeed found them stamped


are

points of the compass,

may be

stated that the

chips

the

stacks of great jars which

sides of all the plans here are called the


pi.
lxii.,

recorded as having been found in the tomb of

north in the descriptions, except


top of Avhich
is

the

Zer

(Fouilles,
;

1898,

p.

42) were

entirely

called

east,
;

as oAving to the

destroyed

the jars of ointment were burnt, as

shape

it

could not be turned


lviii.,

and the general

we read,

" les matieres grasses brulent pendant

plan, pi.

which

is

placed with the west at

des journeys entieres,

comme

j'en ai fait l'ex

the top.

CHAPTER

I.

THE SITE OF THE ROYAL TOMBS.


3.

The general

periods

of

the

different

groups of tombs can be readily distinguished

X
U.

by re-use

of vases.

by the change
found in them.
there
is

in the character of the objects

In the sealings, for instance,

Q by
,

position after U.
\

a class of animal-figure seals which are

Raneb
,T JN eteren

closely like the later prehistoric

work these
;

are

/by re-use J
r |

only found commonly in the

group of tombs,
still

r.

T)

rerabsen
latest,

of vases.
sealings.

few in the tomb of Zer, fewer


Zet.

in that of

by

On

the other hand, the seals of Perabsen


like those of

and Khasekhemui are more nearly


the IVth Dynasty
:

Hence the order of the tombs


westward from
side of
Avest of

is

in a line

and those of Perabsen are

to

then alternate on each

intermediate between the earlier style and that


of

Y are
U
;

T,

X, and

U Q
;

is

placed further

Khasekhemui.
it is

From
;

the

objects

alone,

and then,

after a pause,

comes P on

therefore,

clear

which are the


in

earliest

and

the
to P.

opposite side, and then

again opposite

which the
tions

latest

tombs

while the relative posi-

on the ground show

most cases the

In this order we have not fixed the place of


the separate kings of the

order betweeen these limits.

It is evident that

group, nor that of


is

the earliest royal tombs are the easternmost of

Hotepahaui, except that he


Perabsen.

shortly before

the larger ones, and that the progress was to the


west, planting the tombs alternately north and

But

so

far

we have been
lists.

inde-

pendent of the historical


5.

south of the middle

line.

Even without any


this

In the

first

volume

of

Royal Tombs we

internal evidence of the order of certain kings,

have already shown

how

this order of the

tombs

we should
succession.

place

the

groups in

general

agrees with those which can be identified in the


lists.

Two more
;

such identifications can

now

4.

When
is
.

we"

examine the
closely fixed

details,

the rela-

be added

for

on seal 109 we read Zer


seal 2 (vol.
i.)

Ta,

tive order

more

of re-used vases of a king in


later king.
lists

by the presence the tomb of a


all historical

and similarly on

we read Zet
in order

Ath, thus corresponding to the Teta and Ateth


of Sety's
list.

So that

if

we

ignore

Of the tombs placed

we can
in

restore the order of the

tombs

in

above we can then identify

the following manner, referring to the letters

shown

pi. lviii.

Zer Ta=Teta, 2nd king, Z Zet Ath = Ateth, 3rd,

B by
z

style of

Qrder

B
Z

by re-use
of vase.

Y
T Den Setui=Hesepti,
5th,
6th,

sealings,

X
TJ

Azab

Merpaba=Merbap,

by

sealings,

between Z and T.

Mersekha

Shemsu=Semempses,

7th,

b 2

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE


and
I

1st

DYNASTY.

bave sbown bow tbe early form of the

hotep (see

De Morgan,

Becherches
seal.

ii.,

fig.

559),

second

name
i.

of

Qa Sen
:

was

mistaken for
list

and was the queen's own

Qebb
Sety.

(vol.

23), and so stated in tbe

of

We may now
more
in detail.

consider this group of

tombs

We know

of this age several

It is evident

then that

five or six of the eight

kings whose works are ruder than those of

kings

named

in the 1st

Dynasty are

identified

Mena, and who therefore must be presumed to


have preceded him in that rapidly rising
zation.
civili-

here in the right order of the tombs.


is

Hence

it

to the

group of tombs marked


for

that

we
it

But unhappily

the contents

of these

must look
is

Mena and

his predecessors;

and

tombs have been

so ruthlessly confused

and
lost.

in this group that

abundant objects of King

destroyed by recent digging that the chance of


recovering their history has been almost

Hence Aha must be within a reign or two of Mena. Looking at the sealings, is it clear that the seals of Aha are more like those of Zer than are any of the other earliest sealings. Hence Aha would come to be identiare found.
fied

Aha

The

list

of

named

bjects associated with certain


:

tombs

is as

follows (see pi. lix)

Ka, pottery

with Mena, entirely apart from the evidence

of the ivory tablet from Naqada, on which that


identification has hitherto rested.

Here a question
of

arises,

How

is it

that objects

should be so abundant at Abydos when tomb has been already found at Naqada ? Where was his tomb ? at Naqada or Abydos ? Now at Naqada were found many ivory labels of necklaces, mentioning the number of stones, and with the name Neit-hotep on the back. These probably belonged to a queen of Mena. And if we must fix on one tomb as that of Aha, and one as that of a connection of his, it would be the Abydos tomb which would be that of Aha, where several ebony tablets record offerand it would be the tomb with ings to him Neit-hotep's necklaces which would be that of a queen. Also it is far more likely that a tomb
his
;

Aha

in the great series of royal

tombs should be that

of the king,

and that a tomb apart in another


for a

cemetery should be

queen of

his.

Hence it seems that the facts as now known would show that Aha Mena was buried in the and that the tomb at royal series at Abydos

Naqada was
ing to

that

of

his

queen

Neit-hotep,

naturally buried with vases and objects belong-

the king.

Further,

it

seems not imis

probable that one of the sealings there found


to be

read " the spirit of Neit-hotep," ba Neit-

THE SITE OF THE ROYAL TOMBS.

we

are Jed to place

Sma

as the

immediate prehis

and hence they seem to have been added in


reign as tombs of his domestics.

his

decessor of Mena,

who married
extreme

daughter
of

Neit-hotep.

The

rudeness

the

Moreover objects of Mena were in

14, in-

sealing and pottery inscriptions of

Ka

certainly

cluding three with Bener-ab, " sweet of heart,"

point to his being before Narmer.

Hence we

probably a queen or daughter of Mena


other pieces with this same

and

have the

series

name

lay near by.

Ka,

The whole
gether
all

result of this inquiry, piecing to-

Narmer,

we
sites

can,

Sma,
Mena,
with Zeser probably before Sma, and yet after Ka. How far can the tombs be identified with these kings ? The general order is from east to
west.

and the
thrown,

from the order of the kings, where their objects have been
:

is

thus

B
B B B B

Ka
Zeser

10
15

Narmer

Hence Mena; and it


found.

B
is

19

is

probably the tomb of

19

Sma Mena
Bener-ab
Domestics of

in No. 19

and the tombs ad-

joining
are

it (15, 17,

18) that the objects of

Mena
been
19

And

B B
B

14
16

Mena

such have doubtless

scattered in throwing the contents of No.


into tombs already opened.

The two tombs Unnumbered to the north of 14 were cleared last year by Mr. Maclver,
there pottery (see B. T.,
i.,

The
certain.

objects of

Sma

are found about

B
is

15,

who found
xl. 8)

xxxix.

2,

but on the surface, so that their place

not

with rough figures of a hawk like that on

There would be nothing against the being B 15, next to Mena. tomb of The objects of Narmer are found in B 6, 17,

sealing 96,

and a

bit of a bracelet

with what

is

Sma

probably the name

Aha roughly

cut.

So pro-

bably these were of sons or brothers of Mena.

18.

The large

jar in

is

not likely to have

Thus we have reconstructed the list ofThinite


kings before

been thrown
turned out of
back.
so small a

far,

and might well have been


10 in throwing the contents
is

Mena

so far as the facts

allow,

and perhaps
ascertain

so far as

we
case

are

ever likely to

So great a king

not likely to have had

them.

tomb

as

17 or

18,

where only

very different

would have been had these tombs not been so con-

The

small objects of his were found.

So that

10

fused by the previous


6.

work

here.

has a better claim than any other to be the tomb


of Narmer.

The

facts

about the second dynasty, the

The tomb
of cylinder

Ka is certain, as it was still full jars, many of which bore his name
of
;

now be studied. In the tomb of Perabsen we found that there were buried with him vases of three other kings,
kings after Qa, must

and

the only other things of his


side, at

were found some


after

which

by the

unbroken rule here are thereTheir names are Hotep;

on either

11 and 15.

fore his predecessors.

And
more

as Zeser

was probably

Ka

it

is

ahaui, Raneb,

and Neteren

and

it

is

certain

likely than not that

9 was his tomb,

that

Raneb preceded Neteren,

as the latter

had
(pi.

the only dated object in which was a sealing of

defaced and re-used a vase of the former


viii.

Narmer, who was probably his successor. The whole of the three rows of private tombs
to the east of these great

As on statue No. 1 (Cairo Museum) 2). these three names are in the above order, and
the succession of two of
is

tombs contained no

them

is

now

proved,

it

name on

the sealings but that of

Aha Mena

only reasonable to accept them in this order,

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


The only
link to the
list

1st

DYNASTY.

of Sety

I. is

that

if

these are the immediate successors of

King Qa
is

(who closed the


contrary fact this

1st

Dynasty), then Neteren


list.

The length of the Ilnd Dynasty in the copyists of Manetho would at first sight be longer. But in the version of Africanus, which
is

the king Baneteren of the

As

there

is

no

usually the best, Syncellus, his copyist, intro;

may

be accepted.

duces two more kings from Eusebiiis

and we

After these comes Perabsen, and therefore he

now

see

that this

is
is,

probably an erroneous

would be the Uaznes of Sety's list. Before Khasekhemui must probably be placed
Khasekhem, whose statues and vases were found
at Hierakonpolis (Hierakonpolis, pis. xxxvi. to
xli.)
;

emendation. There

however, a King Khaires,

who may

well be the king

Kara whose cylinder


(El

Mr. Quibell found at El

Kab

Kab
it
:

xx. 29).

if so

he wuld be the Senda of the

list,

From all we ought to


Tombs.

these available facts

seems that

restore the dynasty thus

Sethenes of Manetho.

Then there remains but one name


dynasty, Zaza, according to Sety's
that of Khasekhemui.
for this
list,

in this

to 'be

Now

there seems reason

king being the


is

last ruler of the Thinite

dynasties, as there

than his at Abydos.

no royal tomb known later Moreover we meet in his

tomb with sealings naming the " king-bearing mother " Hapenmaat. She seems to have been
adored

throughout

the
the

Illrd
deified

Dynasty, and
ancestress
of

thus appears to be
that dynasty.

Also a sealing of Perabsen was found in the

tomb

of

king

Neterkhet
for the

(opened

by Mr.

Grarstang,

working
;

Egyptian Research

Account)

and this king is the same as Zeser on the Seheyl stele, the 2nd king of the Illrd Dynasty according to Sety. This shows that there was no great interval between Perabsen

and the Illrd Dynasty.

CHAPTEE

II.

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS.


7.

The
is

oldest

assign of

that

tomb that we can definitely marked B 7 (pi. lix.), the tomb


This
is

posts on each long side, and probably one in the

middle of each end, to carry the wooden


This tomb was never burnt.
9.

roof.

King Ka.
is

a pit with sloping sides,


1

about 20 feet by 10
brick walls

feet.

The

thickness of the

The tomb

15

is

probably that of King


not quite so

that of the length of one brick,


soft footing of
it

Sma

(see pi. lvi. 2).

Its walls are

about 11 inches; and the

the

thick, beina;

50 inches at the end.


;

The
is

size is

wall and pressure of sand behind

has over-

about 26 feet by 16 feet

and there
is 13-| feet.

a large

thrown the longer


never been burnt.

The chamber has The broken pottery mixed


sides.
filled
it,

batter of 14 inches in the sides, and 12 inches


in the ends.

The depth

The post
five

with the sand, which

largely consisted

holes in the floor suggest that there

were

on

of cylinder jars, like the later prehistoric form

the long side, and one in the middle of each

80 (see Naqada,

pi.

xxxii.)

and these had

many

inscriptions on them, written in ink with

a brush, most of which showed the


in the usual panelled frame
.

name

of

Ka

tomb of Narmer. But along the sides are holes for roofing beams near the top of the wall (lower sides at 149 from the floor, the wall
end, as in the

There can therefore

being 160 to 170 inches high)

they are drawn

be no doubt of the attribution of this tomb.

here on the east side, but others on the west were

The tomb B 9 is perhaps that of King Zeser, who seems to have been a successor of Ka. It
is

mostly broken away and inaccessible.


roof beams do not at
all

These
;

accord with the posts

of the

same construction
feet.

as that of Ka,

and

and

this proves

that, here at least, the posts

about 18 by 10
8.

It

never was burnt.

were for backing a wooden chamber inside the


brick chamber.
If this be the case here
it
;

The tomb

10 appears to be the oldest


its

was
and

by point to this as his Narmer of objects and the tomb (see pi. lvi. 1). The brick walls are 5 feet
of the great tombs,

easternmost position

probably also true

in

Narmer's tomb

hence these brick tombs were only the protective

thick at the end, and 7 feet on the long The batter is 9 inches at the end, and 12 inches
side.

around a wooden chamber which conThis same system is known tained the burial.
shell

in the 1st

Dynasty tombs, and we

see here the

in the sides.

Thus

in both the thickness

and

source of the chambered tombs of Zer and Zet.

the batter of the walls there is a care shown in proportioning the strength of the ends and the
sides.

Before the age of Mena, the space around the

wood chamber was used for dropping


between the framing posts
;

in offerings
after

The

size is
feet.

about 26

the depth 10|


floor,

by 16 feet, and There are two holes in the


feet

and then,

Mena, separate brick chambers were made around

side

one being at the middle of each long and two other holes between these and the
:

wooden chamber in order to hold more This chamber was burnt offerings. and is
the
;

south corners
i

so

it

seems that there were

five

apparently that mentioned by M. Amelineau


Fouilles, in extenso, 1899, p. 107.

The

details of exact dimensions are placed together

for comparison at the

end of

this chapter.

10.

The tomb

19,

which contained the

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE


best tablet of Ahafor, as

1st

DYNASTY
seen on the

Mena

is

probably his tomb

wood can be
to the bricks.

mud

mortar adhering

we bave
is

noticed, the

tomb with

his vases

The beams on which the wooden

at INaqada

more probably that of


of the
it

his

queen

planking of the sides rested were

9x5 inches

Neit-hotep.

of the 9 inches the Avail end covered 3,

and the
for

The length
the breadth of

tomb

is

about 26

feet,

and

mud
thus

mortar stood out 2 inches more, covering


5

17 feet; with a batter of the

inches,

and leaving 4 inches wide

walls like that of the other tombs.


It appears to
side, like the

the footing of the planks.

There are also long


floor,

have had

five posts along each

shallow grooves in the

a wide one (10

other tombs.

inches across) near the west wall, 3 narrow ones

As both
north of

of the

tombs

17 and 18, to the


it is

(2 inches across) parallel

to that

and a short
Besides

this,

contained objects of Mena,

cross groove

all

probably the places of beams


four years ago, a great mass
side of the

probable that they were tombs of his family.

which supported the wooden chamber.


these there was,
of carbonized
floor,
till

But
this

the great cemetery of the domestics of


is

age

the triple

row
;

of

tombs
the

to the east

wood along the north


36 inches, or 28

of the

Royal tombs

in

all

34

tombs

331

3 feet

in

here no

name was found


;

beside that of

Aha on
6,

Avhich were copper wire

and

nails.

This was
it

the jar sealings

and the two tombs

14,

probably part of the flooring of the tomb, but


has entirely been
lineau uncovered
it.

seem to be probably of the same age. In B 14 were only objects of Aha, and three of them
with Bener-ab, probably the name of a wife or

destroyed after M.

Ame-

The

floor

of the

tomb, beneath the wood-

daughter of Mena, which


other tomb.

is

not found in any

work, was covered with a layer of bricks 3


inches thick, which lay on
sand.
5

In

was a vase of Narmer, pro-

inches of clean

bably turned over from his tomb


is clearly of the

10, as

But

all

the middle of the

tomb had been

same group

as

14, the

tomb

cleared to the native


Osiris shrine, of

marl for building the

of Bener-ab.
11
.

which some fragments of sculp-

The Tomb of King ZerTa


shrine
of
Osiris
(for

(pis. lx., lxi.),

ture in hard limestone are

now

all

that remain.

has an important secondary history as the


of the
;

site

The

size

over

all

of the

wooden chamber must


square
;

established of the

in

the

have been about 28

feet

the whole

XVIIIth Dynasty
offered there
III.),
is

none

pottery

space including the cells around being about 43


feet

earlier

than that of Amenhotep

38

feet.

The

best preserved parts of the


it is 8-| is

and visited with offerings from that time


the

wall are 9 feet high, and

feet thick.

until

XXVIth

Dynasty, when additional

A
the

strange feature here

that

of the red
last

sculptures were placed here.


especially despoiled

Afterwards

it

was

recesses,

such as I have described


of Zet.

year in

worship

of Osiris.

by But

the Copts in erasing the


of this later history the

tomb

The

large ones are on the


cell

west wall, and in the second


wall.

on the north on the


cell

main remains were collected already by Amelineau, and it is the early state of the place as the tomb of King Zer that we have to study
here.

Beside these, there are very shallow ones


cell walls

on each side of each of the

north and south, except the eastern narrow

The tomb chamber has been


and the brick
sequently
cells

built of

wood
as

on the north, and the two most eastern ones on the south there is also one niche in a cell on
;

around
the

it

were built subchamber,

the east.

No meaning

can yet be assigned to

against

wooden

these, except as spirit-entrances to the cells of


offerings, like the false doors in

their rough unplastered ends show (pi. lvi. moreover the cast of the grain of the 3, 4)
;

tombs of the Old

Kingdom.

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS.


In the north-west corner of the tomb, a
stair-

chambers on either side of


the excavation and

it,

the north side of


of the

way

of bricks

was roughly inserted

in later

brickwork

great

times in order to give access to the shrine of


Osiris.

chamber

and the south-west step passage and


it
;

That
:

this is not

an original feature

is

chamber by
and those

the other system

is,

(2) the great

manifest

the walls are burnt red by the burn-

chamber, the north and south rows of graves,


to the west.

ing of the tomb, while the stairs are built of

black

mud brick with

fresh
;

mud mortar

smeared

How

can this error have arisen?

The

sur-

over the reddened wall

also the bricks of the

rounding rows of graves are probably later than


the setting out of the great chamber, later, that
is,

tomb are 9^ inches


14 inches long.

long, those of the stairs are

by some hours or perhaps days.


of the
it is

From
is

the

In the narrow chamber at the head of this


stair

fact

two stairways having the same


seen that their direction
It seems
first

we found

several jars of the

Aegean type
liv.

bearing

not

(base of pi.

liv.)
;

remaining perfect, with carare noticed with pi.


entirely

a stray error.

most

likely that the

bonized cloth

these

The later stairway was


to

removed

in order

recover the

early remains,

including the
pi. v. 4,

marked out by pointing to an object on the horizon, and the pit dug for the chamber. The error arose in making the
stairways were

beautifully engraved ivory box,


13,

xxxv.

south side

of

this

pit

not

parallel

to

the

which was under the

stairs.

north
side,

the building was started on the south

It is notable that the

burning of these tombs

the north had then to

follow

that

the

took place before the re-use in the XVIIIth

north and south rows of graves followed the


sides of the

Dynasty

as

is

also seen

the tomb

of

Den

(pi. lvi.

by the rebuilt doorway of 6), which is of large


It is

chamber

while the east row had to

be square with the entrance passage.

black bricks over smaller red burnt bricks.


therefore quite beside the

The length
Its

of the passage

is

78 feet over

all.

mark

to attribute this

general appearance in relation to the pit

is

burning to the Copts.

this

The tomb had been nearly


;

great ranks of graves of domestics around


all

cleared out

by the

plunderers of the past

and only a few objects


as the ivory lions (pi.
(pi. vi.

were found in them, such


vi.

shown on pi. lvi. 5, and a nearer view in fig. 6. The great brick chamber is about 50 feet by 28 feet, and 20 feet deep. The recess at the east end of it is 15 feet by 5 feet. The astonishing feature of this chamber is its
granite

34) in

29
;

the copper tools

23

26)

pavement,
quite

such

considerable
until

use

of

in

31

the gold pin and tablet

(pi.

va. 6,

granite being

unknown

the

step

7), etc.

12.

The tomb

of

King Den

Setui was parpi. lxii.

pyramid of Saqqara, early in the Illrd Dynasty. At first sight it might here be connected with
the repairs of this

tially cleared last year around the smaller graves on the N.E. and S.W. ; it has now been com-

tomb under Aahmes

II.

but

I found that the casts of stone vases (of the 1st

pletely examined.
will be

The plan given on


indeed
it is

seen to differ considerably from that


;

Dynasty forms) yet remained upon the granite, proving that it was a part of the original tomb.

published by M. Jequier
to see

difficult

Of

this

paving but few blocks remain

one at

how some
The

of his imaginary details were of the building,

the west end, three at the north side, three or four lying loose, one threshold, and three small blocks in the south-west chamber.
block, with a groove cut along

invented.

irregularities

the varying angles, and the curvature of the entrance and sides of the chamber, are all carefully verified.

There are two systems of directhe


eastern

photographs,
of the

pi. lvi a.
is

1,

2.

The western it, is shown in Around the sides

tion;

(1)

the entrance passage,

chamber

a flooring of bricks, bordering

10

EOTAL TOMBS OF THE


floor,

1st

DYNASTY.
such timbering was
side,

the granite
are
laid

as

seen in

pi. IviA. 1

these

in

excavations, a second

as

three lengths

and

one

breadth,

built to

form the chamber

with the

joist

making up 27 inches width

of brick bordering.
is

uprights towards the other joists, and the 'Smooth

At

the north side the brick border

16 inches

plank face forming the inside of the chamber.

wide.
granite,

Some

of the slabs are of grey gneissic


splits

The space
outer and
wide.

in

which the

joists stood

between the
inches

which
thick

into

thin

masses,

the

inner plank facings was 38

western slab being 111


5

64 inches, and only


of

This space, partially divided


joists,

by the
in the

inches

other

slabs are

hammer6

upright

was

floored over with brickwork

dressed massive pink granite.

The blocks on
28, running

on the granite, 5 inches thick.

And

the north side are (1)

53
;

X
(2)

space were placed large quantities of stone bowls

inches under the east wall

52

x X
is

27 inches.

28; (3) That there were other

98

and

vases.

In the burning of the tomb, the

resins, ointment,

&c, which were in

these,

melted

blocks

clear

by the

cast of a block
line

remaining

and ran out, forming a paste with the mud, and


so the vases

against the

side of this

of blocks.

The
all

became bedded.
all

Afterwards these

eastern recess of the chamber was, however,

stone vases were

removed, probably at the


dated by

paved with brick,

like

the

bordering of the

time of clearing out the tomb and rebuilding


the door jambs, a restoration which
is

pavement on the other


inches thick
stele,
it

sides.
is

block lying in
10

the middle of the chamber


;

55

+ x X 47 X
The

a piece of a stele of

Aahmes

II.,

found here by

has been called an uninscribed


stele

Amelineau.

On
beam

the east side of the

tomb there

but

is

clearly a paving stone.

appears to have been only a single screen of


planks, as a
foot
joists

of Den was probably of limestone,

like those of
stele

7 inches It

wide

is

placed at the

Zer and Zet,

as the

back of a limestone
is

of the wall.

may

be noted that the

with rounded top, 21* 6 inches wide,


the tomb of Den.

lying in

were roughly hewn at the lower end, of


Avas left in the

which the impression


is

mud brick

Having now described what


granite,

left

of the

we turn to the traces of the structure over it. Upon the three northern granite blocks traces remain of the wooden structure, casts of
two beams, two planks, and seven post
It will be best if I describe the structure

had twisted on the base where it had no attachment, showing that it was firmly
joist

and every

attached at the top.


in the wood,
is

This twist, due to winding


is

about 20, and

exactly like

ends.

that often seen in the posts supporting railway

which

platform roofs.

The

twist

was that of a
is

left-

they prove to have existed, rather than state


the
details.
side, of

handed screw in

all cases.

Against the north wall was a


planks laid horizontally, the outer
;

The height of the chamber

quite

unknown.

timber

The thick wall has a

definite flat top, plastered

skin 3 inches thick, the inner 2 inches

it

is

possible, however, that one cast might be due to

over 259 inches (21-J feet) above the granite floor. This top has a sharp outer edge, which I
carefully searched for, regarding it as a

a plank dropping out of place, so that there

may

have been only one skin 2 or 3 inches


posts to maintain them

thick.

wall like that of Zet


it

but when

it

dwarf was defined

These horizontal planks were fastened to upright


;

the posts were on the


like

proved to be in line with the outer face of the thick wall where broken down and hence it is
;

inner side, and were

much

modern

joists,

the wall

itself

which was smooth plastered


.

flat

3x10 inches, with the narrow


planks
inches.
;

edge against the

on the

top, while a coat of

mud

plaster

was

and they were at intervals of about 35

also spread out eight inches

lower than the wall,


wall, to the

Having thus faced the brick wall, much like a modern timbering of an earth face

on the native marl,

far

beyond the

outer rows of graves.

DESCEIPTION OF THE TOMBS.

11

so it

The outside of the west wall was not found, is left in open outline. The spaces left

The tomb appears

to have been cleared out

with a view to repairs in the

XX Vlth Dynasty
the old bricks, the

white as chambers on the west wall were the remains of chambers built on the wall, which is continuous below them.

the door jambs were renewed with thicker bricks

14
9-7

X 7 X 5 inches, in place of X 4 8 X 2'9 inches and


-

crumbling

At the south-west corner is a strange annex, the irregularity of which gave some trouble.
stairway leads

bricks burnt red were thus replaced


brick,

which has never been


is

fired

by black But since.

down from
;

the west and then


is

there

no sign of such repair having been

turns to the north


in pi. IviA. 3, 4.

this

lower end of it

shown

carried out around the chamber, the sides of

At

the foot of the


inserting

first flight

which are much crumbled away.


dated example of late work here
is

The only
the stele of

of steps

is

a space for
close the

planks and

brickwork to
This

chamber,

like the blocki.,

Aahmes
13.

II.

ing of the door of the tomb of Azab (R.T.

lxi.).

The tomb

of Perabsen shows a great


series.

small chamber below was therefore in-

change in form since the earlier


founders of the monarchy

A new

tended to be closed.

In the chamber

itself

were

dynasty with new ideas had succeeded the great


;

three blocks of granite.

One

(20

29 inches)

and three reigns had

was
it

still

embedded

in the floor on the west side


;

(see cross shade

on plan)

and

in the wall above

passed by before we can again see here the system of the tombs. Even the national worship

was the

cast of a large post of

wood

of 12

14

inches.

At

the east wall, opposite to this, was


floor,

a hole in the

23 inches) lying by

and a block of granite (20 it, which fitted, and is


in place (see cross shade).

was changed, and Set had become prominent. The type of tomb which had been developed under Azab, Mersekha, and Qa seems to have
given

way

to the earlier pattern of Zer

and Zet.

therefore

drawn here

In

this

tomb

of Perabsen

we

see the

same row

brick paving covered the north half of the


;

of small cells separated of the early kings central


;

by

cross walls, like those

chamber

the square hole in this has blocks

but in place of a wooden


is

of limestone foundation beneath, apparently to

chamber there
is

a brick chamber, and a


it

support a slab of grey granite (23

43 inches)

free passage

left

around

communicating

of suitable thickness, which lay displaced near


it.

with the

cells.

What was
it

the

form of the

It

seems then that there were three slabs of

south side of that chamber cannot


as,
if

granite in a line, one of which certainly was the


footing for a great

any wall existed,

is

now be traced, now entirely


is

wooden

post, so

probably the

destroyed.

The

entirely

new

feature

the
;

others were for a similar purpose.

These three

continuous passage around the whole tomb


this

posts thus indicated must have carried a great weight, as there would be only 6 or 7 feet space

reminds us of the continuous passage around

that splendid rock-cut


at Grizeh,

tomb
was

of the Old

Kingdom
Perhaps
against

between them and over to the walls. Whether this small chamber was for the burial of one of
the royal family, or for the deposit of offerings,

known
the

as Campbell's to

Tomb.
guard

in

both

object

plunderers entering by digging sideways into


the tomb.

we cannot now

say.

The same

principle

is

seen at Tell el

Of the various rows of graves around the great tomb there is nothing to record in detail. In two places, one in the north and one in the east row, a large block of limestone came in the

Amarna where
The
feet.

a passage thus runs round the

royal palace in the thickness of the wall.


central

chamber

is

24

feet
is

by 9J

feet,

and the outside passage around

53 feet by 42

way

it
it.

was

left

where

it

stood,

and walls built

The views
pi. IviA.

of corners of the
;

chamber are

round

given in

the view looking west along

12

ROYAL TOMBS OP THE


is

1st

DYNASTY.
less loss
it

the north passage

in pi.

lvii. 1 is

and the north


in
lvii. 2.

been recorded with

than was the case

end of the central chamber

shown

with the other tombs,


give a

will be useful here to

The many holes in the wall there have been made by plunderers seeking for hidden treasure.

summary
and
1

of

all

the

remains whose

positions are known, from the French excavations of 1897,

We

did not find anything of importance in


;

my own

of 1901. of

position

the names of three earlier kings on


filling,

Chambers

12.

Sealings

yellow

clay

stone vases being only loose in the

and

found here are of different types from those found


at the opposite

the two great steles lying under a few inches of

end of the tomb (55

58),

and

sand to the S.W. of the tomb.

In the central

are distinguished in

drawings 211, 216, 217,

chamber Amelineau found vases of copper, of stone, and glazed objects, none of which are
published.

218

(pis.

xxiv.,

xxv.).

In 1897 were found

coarse vases
stone, which, vases.

in

alabaster,

and covers of limefit

In

the passage

on the west he

however, would not

any of the

found a great quantity of pieces of stone vases,

Also sealings in black and yellow clays,


tools, flint tools,

but neither are these published.

The

sealings

metal
.14.

and pottery.
pi.

which I found
in pi. xlv.

in this
;

tomb

are given in this

Copper vases

(as

ix.

13);

table of

series, pis. xxi., xxii.

and the few small objects

offerings.

16.

Vases of syenite

(see

plan), red marble,

14.
different

The tomb

known.

Khasekhemui is very from any of the other royal tombs yet The plan on j)l. lxiii. is divided in two
of

blue veined with white, porphyry, &c.


17.

Large vases of red and white breccia, 200


all.

vases in

parts in order to preserve the same scale as the

18. In

corridor opposite,

two great
Recherches

jars of
ii.,

other plans
will

the

numbering of the chambers


2 to 32
is

alabaster (see

De Morgan,

figs.

make

the junction of the two parts clear.

822, 823), marble and alabaster vases, table in

The length from chambers

103 feet
;

two

steps,

and fragments of
827).
axes,

inscriptions.

from 32 to 46, the central block, is 39 feet and from 46 to 58 is 81 feet, making a total of 223
feet.

19.

Copper needles,
ii.,

chisels, axes,

vase with

handle (Bech.
20.

fig.

The breadth

in

the middle
is

is

40
;

feet.

Two

copper

which

had

been

But the whole


to

structure

very irregular

and
it

add

to the confusion the greater part of

wrapped in cloth (pi. xlv. 76). Cylinders of limestone, and spherical vases of breccia and
of,

was

built

of freshly

made mnd

bricks,

which

granite.
21.

have yielded with the pressure and flowed out


sideways, until the walls are often double their
original breadth.

In corridor opposite, a complete deposit

of copper dishes
tion of pi. ixA.

and model

tools,

see descripsix vases of

Nothing could be taken

as

Near these were


ix.

certain except the bottom inch or two of the


walls, or the points of

dolomite marble and one of carnelian, with gold


covers (see
pi.

attachment of the cross


It

10)

and copper bowls &c, in


all

walls to the side walls.

was only owing


in finding so

to

and ewers
594

(pi. ix.

13

15).
filled

this flow of the walls over the objects in the

22. Flint knives, scrapers, axes,


objects.

chambers, that

we succeeded

valuable things perfect, and in position.

many Where

29 and onward, pottery jars


32. Five perfect jars,

with grain.
jars, in

the whole of the original outline of a wall had

like canopic

disappeared,

the

form

is

given in the plan

wooden box.
34

with wavy outline.

36.
je

"

Ne

contenaient absolument
deja trouve"

rien

As

nearly

all

the contents of this


in

removed by the French work

tomb were 1897, and have

que

n'eusse

des centaines de

fois" (Fouilles; 1897; p. 42).

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS.


37.

13

Many hundreds

of

carnelian beads

of

courses vary two or three inches in different


parts
;

spheroidal form, found under the wall in 1901.

but these, and

all

the exact dimensions,

Fragments of vases of dolomite marble, beads and small objects of


glazed ware.
40.

38. Stone chamber.

are given in the next section.

The blocks
being
soft,

of

stone were

all

fresh quarried
tool,

and

dragging under the


of
alabaster
cases.

when

dressed.

The
;

Fragments of vases
in

and

natural cleavages were used as far as possible

breccia, nearly all


chisel in

wooden

Copper

and often half a


rest

face will be a cleavage,

and the

doorway.

hammer-dressed.

All of the adze-dressed

41. Skeleton 42.

broken up by plunderers.

faces are entirely dressed.

The adze had a short

These two bodies were doubtless those of domestics, like those found around other royal tombs.
43. In passage
pi.

Contracted skeleton.

handle, as seen
;

two bowls or cups of copper,


and diorite bowl,

by the radius of curvature of the and the cutting edge was of flint and not cuts of copper, as seen by examining the marks of The internal joints dressing with a magnifier.
of the
stones

ixA. 2, 3.
44.

are

not

all

square,

but

are

Model

chisels of copper,

frequently skewed.
roof
;

pi. ix. 11.

doubtless

it

There is no sign of any was of wooden beams, and

45. 46.
47.

Large pottery

jars of offerings.

has been entirely destroyed.

Some

objects of copper.

47

The brick
the
stone
0,

walls are at a higher level around

54. Pottery jars with clay sealings con;

chamber.

The
is

floor

of
is

the

stone

taining grain and fruits

some

jars placed in

being

the top of the stone wall

69 inches,

grain stored in large boxes.


48.

the floor of chamber 41


(pi. ix. 1)

78 inches, the floor of

Of the gold and sard

sceptre

the

the south gallery

is

81 inches, the top of the

larger part lay close to the wall of the chamber,

walls in the south gallery 160 inches,

and that of

having been passed over within an inch or two

by previous work.
this in the

The

shorter part lay near

doorway.
or two packets of reeds.
seats, &c.

55.
57.

One

chamber 161 inches. But these latter have lost, both by wear and by The top of the west outer wall sinking bodily. is 172 inches, and this is the highest and best
the walls by the
stone

Basket work, from

preserved

part.

It

seems

then,

that

the

A
55
of

great quantity of sealings of yellow clay


last

generality of brick
feet

were found in the

few chambers, and they


the chambers
official

chambers were about 7^ high, and the stone chamber sunk 6 feet
floor.

had probably been

all originally in

below the general

58.

Black clay
45

seals,

mainly of the

Hapenmaat (No.
chambers

210), were

found in the
the

other

54

but

pottery

The arrangement of the brick walls around the central chamber is strange but it was very carefully verified by cutting back the masses of
;

found in 1897 had nearly


scattered.

all

been removed or
the most impor-

crushed brick to reach the original

faces,

of

which only a few inches remained at the base.

The

central stone

chamber
it is

is

The

cross walls of

34

36
them

were traced forward and the chamber.

tant part of the whole, as


struction yet known.

the oldest stone con-

close to the

chamber, and leave no room for a

The general view looking


lvii.

brick wall between

north
the

is

given in pi.
in
fig. 5,

work

the closer view of and the mode of stone


;

The very thick wall east of the chamber was


also verified.

Remembering that the chamber


flush with the floor
it, it

dressing in

fig. 6.

The chamber
is

is

207 to 211

was probably roofed over


level

inches long, and 121 to 128 inches wide, roughly

around

may be

suspected that perhaps

17 by 10 feet

the depth

nearly 6

feet.

The

cross walls

were put over the chamber opposite

14

EOYAL TOMBS OP THE

1st

DYNASTY.

those of 34

36, so as to hide it
1

and make

it like

a part of the chambers

32.

On

the east side of the chamber a hollow has


at 15 to

been cut out of the stone

40 inches from
:

the north end, for three courses from the top

4 inches have been cut away


This was probably, like the

at the

maximum. cutting away of


to find place

some brick walls elsewhere, done some large wood which was too tight a
for
coffin or
fit.

other furniture

The southern end

of the

anciently at chambers 53-4.

tomb was walled up But it was clear


filled

that there were two doorways through the wall

between 31 and 34, which were merely with fallen earth and bricks.
1

The

principal measurements of the royal

tombs are here stated in inches in the same order


as the description

which has just been given.


S.

Ka.
E. 247,

B
B
. .

7.

N. 128,
inches.

126 (118 at base),

W. 246
9.

Probably

6x12

cubits.

Zesek.

Top
Base

N. 118
109

S.

127

E. 223

W. 240
223

120

218

This seems to be only a bad copy of the


previous tomb in
its

dimensions.

Narmer.

DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMBS.


16.

15

The mean dimensions

of the bricks of
:

Mersekha

the tombs are as follow, in inches

Qa

B B

Perabsen
15 (Sma?)

19 (Mena?)

8-9x4-5x3 9-6x4-9x3
9-6

Khasekhemui

9-2x4-4x2-5 9-9x4-9x3-0 9-5x4-6x2-8 10-5x4-9x2-9

Zer

X 4-8x2-5

There seems in these fluctuations to be a slight


lengthening, the
latter five
first five

Merneit

Den. Azab

8-8x4-5x2-4 9-7x4-8x2-9 9-8x4-7x2-8

averaging 9 "4, and the

averaging 9'8 inches.

16

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE

1st

DYNASTY.

CHAPTEE
Pls.
17.
in the

III.
&c.

THE INSCRIBED TABLETS,


II. XII.
verification

The account
tombs
will

of the various objects found

of the

exact order of
or two,

threading

be stated in the order of their

occupied
magnifier,

an

hour
wife

working with a
assisting.

publication in the plates, as that enables the

my

and Mr. Mace

reader to refer most readily either


the plates and text.

way between

When

recorded, the gold was put in the scales

and weighed against sovereigns before the work-

C Plate
the

I.

(Frontispiece).
is

The most important

man, who saw everything.

Rather more than

discovery of this year

that of the jewellery in

the value of gold was given to the men, and thus

tomb

queen.

King Zer, which belonged to his While my workmen were clearing the
of

we ensured
future.

their goodwill
is

and honesty

for the
all

The sequel

instructive.

Though

tomb they noticed among the rubbish which they were moving a piece of the arm of a

our camp of workers knew about this and about


several other finds of gold, yet the willing separa-

mummy

in its wrappings.

It lay in a

broken
hole

tion

hole in the north wall of the

tomb

the

between our workmen (who came from Koptos, fifty miles away) and the local natives
so complete that

seen in the top of the


in views pi.
lvi.

cell

next to the stairway,

was

no

tales of the gold got

found

it

looked

When the Arabic papers The party of four who 3, 4. in to the end of the wrappings copied the discovery from my letter in the Times,
about the country.
rosette in the
to
after I

and saw a large gold bead, the


second bracelet.

had

left

Egypt,

it

caused a great ferment

They

did not yield

the
it

in

the neighbourhood, and huge tales of the

natural wish to search further or to remove

gold and treasures rent the hearts of the local


plunderers,

but laid the arm down where they found

it

until

who

till

then were in ignorance of

Mr. Mace should come and verify

it.

Nothing

the valuables that

my men

had found.

There

but obtaining the complete confidence of the

could not be a more

satisfactory hold over the


is

workmen, and paying them for all they find, could ever make them deal with valuables in
this careful

workmen than
whole
affair.

that which

proved by

this

manner.
it

On

seeing

it

Mr. Mace told

The

history
It

of the

arm can be somewhat


plunderer, or the

them to bring
it

to our huts intact,

and

I received

inferred.

certainly had not been looked into


since the first

quite undisturbed.

In the evening the most

by any one

intelligent of the party

was summoned up

as

obvious lump of gold would have been taken.

a witness of the opening of the wrappings, so


that there should be no suspicion that I had not
dealt fairly with the men.
I

And

the plunderers

who broke up

the body of

the queen must have been

later than those

who

then cut open the

hacked the holes in the walls in


treasure.

search of

linen bandages,

and found,

to our great surprise,

So we may reconstruct the history in

the four bracelets of gold and jewellery, in the

this fashion.

The roof
let

of the

tomb had become


plunderers broke

order in which they are shown upon the

arm

in

decayed and

the sand pour through, over the


first

the central photograph of the frontispiece.

The

queen's body, before the

THE INSCRIBED TABLETS,


in to ransack the king's treasures.

&c.

17

They made

outward, the
photograph.

order was

as

in

the
of

central
lazuli
81),

holes

in the walls while probably standing on a sand heap, high up, in search of hidden

Similar single

pieces
(pi.

and of ivory have been found loose


showing
existed.

xxxv.

valuables.

When
the

the

tomb was
shrine,

cleared out for

that other jewellery of this design also

building

Osiris

in

the

time

of

Whether the punched

rectangles on

Amenhotep
his age,

III. (for the oldest offerings are of

the gold are to be understood as part of the


panelling, or as a
in the sign Zer,
is

and none even


up.

of

Tahutmes
hastily

III.),

then

rough rendering of the spaces


not certain.

probably the body of the queen was found and

On

the plaques
the
holes

broken
got so
else

One workman

put

this

of turquoise,

which are the

older,

forearm in the hole in the wall, and then either

generally conform to the three grooves below,

much more plunder

that he ran away, or

but on the gold plaques there

is

no conformity,

perished in a squabble.

This hole never

and

this points to their

being copied from the

seems to 'have been disturbed when building the


stairway close by
it
;

spaces in the zer sign.

The plaques have a

and for more than a


few
of

system of numbering on the bases beginning


with the largest, and proceeding in gradation
to the smallest
;

thousand years offerings continued to be made


here,

and

visitors passed within a

feet

half are

numbered with upright


bracelet,

the

arm without looking

at

it.

The Copts then


that they could

strokes for one half of the

and the
5 of gold

destroyed the shrine and


find,

all

other half with sloping strokes.

But

but never touched the arm.

Amelineau cleared the tomb, but


lay in the hole in the wall.

still

The Mission the arm

and 4 of
no

lazuli are missing

and 4

lazuli

have

strokes,

Lastly
it

my men
all

the places
still

but by their marked with


:

size
(?)

probably belong to

here.

The numbers

eyed the gold, and preserved

with

care

preserved are

and these bracelets will now be preserved in the Cairo Museum, until some future convulsion when they may share the fate which denies more
than a few centuries of existence to any known
treasure.
G
1

GoldUpright
lines
..

..

4 5 6
..

..

8 9
..

Sloping lines

2 3

5 6 7

Turquoise
turn
to

18.

We now

the

details

of the

Upright

lines 1
..

2 3 4 (?)....(?)
(?)

..

bracelets.

Sloping lines
bracelet (pi.
i.

3 4 5 6 7 8

(?)

The hawk

1)

consists of 13

gold and 14 turquoise plaques in the form of the facade with the hawk, which usually encloses the
lea

The gold hawks have been cast in a mould with two faces, and the junction line has been They are carefully removed and burnished.
alike in the height of the bird,

name

of the king.

The

strip

was

set

and the width

up
1

for

photographing with

the

inner
on

side

but
to

differ in total

height from the varying depth

The

last century has seen Napoleon's raids

artistic

wealth, thefts from at least three national museums, the attempted burning of one great museum, the destruction
of the gold in two provincial

which the mould was filled at the base. The two horizontal threading holes were probably cast, as there is no tapering and no burr to

museums, and the

entire

wreck of every thing in another important museum, without counting the looting and burning of the Summer Palace

Such are the chances that valuables suffer when known. The printed description distributed in all tbe longer than most of the libraries of the world will last far
at Pekin.
objects themselves.

them but they are not all on the same level. The gold was worked by chisel and burnishing no grinding or file marks are visible. The chisel used for surface work Avas "035 inch wide
; ;

the punch Avas "026

To
is

leave important remains without

'016.

any diffused record


their destruction.

a crime only exceeded by that of

The end

pieces are

made

as a beaten cone,

flatted to an oval, and closed at the open end

18

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


plate soldered in.
in

1st

DYNASTY.
;

by a

Four thread
the
plate,

holes were

front

group has the gold rosette in the middle


from

afterwards drilled
drilling
still

the

burr of

this is copied

the centre of the lotus flower,


plate has

The turquoise was cut with a saw, and worked over with a drill and a graving point. The drill holes for threading are conical, up to "024 inch wide.
showing.

made

hollow, and pierced with three holes at

each side for threading.

The middle

been soldered halfway down the cup of gold, and the edges then turned inward over it. The
turquoises are irregular in form, but polished

On examining
plaques there
at a little
is

the

edges

of

the turquoise

seen on some of them a wear

and

pierced.

The
are
;

three

gold

balls

which

distance from the threading holes,

separate them,

hammered

out,

and then

leaving a rise of stone around the hole.

This

can only have been caused by a large bead with


a wide conical hole (such as the amethyst ball

but so finely that no trace of soldering can be seen and the only evidence
soldered together
of
it is

that the

axis of one ball

is

slightly

beads in bracelet 2) wearing on the turquoise.

askew.

The

little

spacer pierced with


is

three
in one

And

it

will

be seen that the hawks on the

holes next to the amethysts

hammered

turquoise are like those of

Mena

(see pi.

iii.

1,

piece

like a similar

spacer in the middle of


large ball amethysts are

&c), while those on the gold are like those of

the back group.


of deep colour.

Zer

(see pi. v. 1,

&c).
bracelet seems to be

The The

fastening of the braclet

fHence the history of the


(1)

was by a loop and button.

This button

is

an armlet or bracelet of turquoise plaques


(?) ball

and amethyst

beads,

made

at the close

hollow ball of gold with a shank of gold wire fastened in it no trace of solder can be seen
;

of Mena's reign or beginning

of that of Zer,
;

very probably at the queen's marriage


gold

(2) the

on examining the inside with a magnifier but the perfectly tight union of the wire and the
;

hawks cast of a later style when the permanent type was almost developed, and the armlet threaded with gold and turquoise alternate
;

inside of the ball

shows that
is

it

must be

soldered.

The

third bracelet

formed of three similar


of each

groups, one larger, and the other smaller on


either side.

(3)

nine of the plaques

lost,

and the
;

rest

The middle

group consists

threaded to the smaller size of a bracelet

for

of three beads of dark purple lazuli, a bint that


I

had the diminution been intentional the plaques

have never seen before in

Egyptian

use.

would have been removed


irregularly.

in

pairs

and not

These beads are carved in a spiral imitating the


gold beads.

(The

interest

of

this

beautiful

bracelet

is

coiling

The long gold beads are made by a gold wire, which is wrought thicker at
This
is

increased

embodying the turning point of the crystallization of Egyptian style, containing,


its

by

the end than' in the middle, to harmonize with


the barrel form of the whole bead. the

as

it

does, the archaic


is

work along with


is

that

same form
pure and

as the large gold

bead of the age of

which

almost fully developed^]


bracelet, with the rosette,
)

Mena found by
enof

De Morgan.

The gold

is

so

^The second

soft that

on parting the

coils of

one

tirely different in design.

The two groups


tails

bead with the finger-nail to see whether they

beads are united at the sides by bands of gold


wire and thick hair, probably from
of oxen.

were soldered, the gap could be closed again by


a simple pressure on the end.
are
all

The gold

balls

The
hair

plait

was made with three gold


so brittle that

wires, three
]J

wrought hollow, and the groups of three

hairs,

and three wires, interwoven


is

but the
is

are soldered together.


turquoise.

The smaller beads

are of

now

some of

it

lost.

The

fastening of this bracelet was

The wire has been carefully wrought to just the same thickness as the hair, "0L3 inch. The

by a loop and button. The fourth bracelet, with the hour-glass beads,

THE INSOEIBBD TABLETS,


is

&c.

19

again entirely different from the other three.


of hour-glass beads are each of gold

photograph will be seen how small


impression that

is

the sole

The groups
on either

we
to

have.

It is

on hard black

side,

and of amethyst

in the middle,

mud, and seems

have consisted of only a row

brown limestone. Each bead has a double ridge around the middle of it, with a deep groove between. Two hairs were passed through the pierced beads, and then
or in one case of dark

of enclosures containing the name.


2.

fragment of a name appears on close

examination to be that of
3.

Aha

Mena.
liii.),

A fine jar of
B
The forms
like that
is

alabaster (see pl.

partly

parted one
beads,

on either

side

of the

hour-glass

broken, was found in the most south-western of


the small
here.

The hairs were kept in place by binding them close on each side of the bead by a lashing of very fine gold wire. The turquoises are lozenge-shaped, with gold caps on the ends to prevent wear
;

and lodged in the groove.

graves, and

its

inscription

is

shown
is

are coarser than on the slate


:

carvings, but are very distinct

the
;

hawk

much

on the great

slate

the deeply

curved top

usual under Narmer, though only


is

the caps in the middle being each a double cone


in one piece.
'

occasional under Mena, and then flatter, and

never seen under later kings.


extraordinary

The

fish is well

\Such
before

is

this

group of the
Here,
art,

figured,

and the

chisel

is

the true mer with

oldest jewellery

known, some two thousand years


Dahshur.
at

excentric blade.
4.

that

from

the

Two

pieces of an

ebony tablet

(see

drawing

crystallizing point of

Egyptian

we
of

see the

in pl. x. 1)

were found recently broken in tomb


is

unlimited

variety

and

fertility

design.

18,

and unfortunately the remainder

lost.

Excepting the plain gold


single bead in

balls, there is

not a

any one braclet which would


with
those
in

The name was not seen until it was cleaned, owing to the coat of burnt resins which clogged
it
;

be

interchangeable

another

the fish nar

is

clear,

and the top of the

bracelet.

Each
from
all

is

of independent design, fresh

chisel

mer

is

just

preserved.
s,

The
line

fortified

and

free

convention or copying.

And
;

enclosure contains the sign


is

and another which

yet not any one of these would be in place

new

to us.
is

The vase with wavy

on the

among the

jewellery of the Xllth Dynasty

they

lower piece

apparently intended for a stone

all belong to the taste of their age,

the purest

vase of water, similar to that


pl. xii. 4.
5.

drawn on a

tablet,

handwork, the most ready designing, and not a suspicion of merely mechanical polish and
"litter.

small piece of ivory has the


it.

name

of

The

technical perfection of the solder-

Narmer engraved on
6.

ino- has never been excelled, as the joints show no difference of colour, and no trace of excess.

A
A
A

fragment of an alabaster jar has the

front corner of the

name

of Narmer, with the


3.

Happy

is

it

that the exact order of the beads

high peak like that on No.


7.

was fully observed, so that we can replace their


and collection, which has been Dahshur fate of the gathered together all confused, owing to being
original design
effect
;

piece

of
it.

alabaster

jar

with

sign

so different

from the

scratched upon
8.

piece of a basalt jar bears the

name

of

the " double lord,

Sma

"
;

shows the same on

by ignorant workmen, and


partly lost^

the value of

it

thus

an ivory jar

and 10 the same on an ivory rod.


title is rare,

This form of the


1.

and does not occur


14
;

19. Pl.
that of

II.

The earliest
differs

sealing found

was
of

later
is

than King Zer

(see v. 13,

xii. 1)

it

King Ka, which


its

much from
;

all

also

known
i.

as the title of

King Zeser (Royal


it

the others in

simplicity.
pl.

It will be noticed

Tombs,

iv. 3).

But

in later times
it,

always

with the sealings on

xiii.

but from the

has the vulture and uraeus upon

as in the

c 2

; ,

20

ROYAL TOMBS OP THE


of

1st

DYNASTY.

many examples

King Qa
is

(see

pi.

viii).

Apparently the same name


ivory lid of Neit-hotep,
irregular in form the sign

placed
11, for

on the

No.
is

though

closely like the in

example No.
sects.
4,

9.

As we have pointed out


King Sma, and

The king is said to be ones Anpu, "born of Anubis " just as on the other ebony tablets, iii. 4, iiiA. 5, 6=x. 2 and xi. 2, he is said to be born of Horus and Amiut (a form of Anubis). Then follows the name of a town or palace.
bow."
;

9, this indicates

that Neit-hotep was


as she appears
this suggests

3.

An ivory label apparently belongs to objects


It

closely related to
to

from Khent-ta, or Nubia.


refer to

might further

have been the wife of Mena,

"wood from Sha,"

Pa-sha, a town of

that

Sma was

her father, reigning next before

Mena.
1

An ivory jar of Neit-hotep found, with 1 1


King Zer
;

Upper Nubia (Br. Geog. 767), or Shat, a district of Nubia (Br. Geog. 774). This is from B 10. 4. The upper half of an ebony label, in good
condition,
half, 6, of
is

in a grave of a domestic of

she had

apparently duplicated in the lower

probably been a handmaid of Queen Neit-hotep,

a label
of

now
is

carbonized.

In front of

and so had received the disused


13, 14.

toilet articles.
si,

the

name

Aha

a building with the khaJcer


is

These inscriptions, as

are on hard

ornament.
receiving

Next
(captives)

res

tneh

shep,

perhaps

pottery and alabaster, and should be compared

of the

south and north.

with other early groups, up as (Royal Tombs,


iv.

i.

Below

is

a superintendent standing, and a

man

5
15.

here, xxv. 2).

seated, apparently stabbing a seated captive in

An

irregularly cut

piece

of serpentine

the breast.

This suggests a scene of sacrificing


Lastly
is

bowl seems to have a part of the same group as on the sealing No. 113 (pi. xv.). These differ
from the group of three birds on the vases of the Naqada Mena-tomb, as those always have
small wings above the back.
.

captives at the royal funeral.


" born of
5.

the

title,

Horus and Amiut " (Anubis).


of

well-cut piece

a dolomite marble
followed by

bowl, with the

name

of

Aha

pa

t.

20. Pl.
has the

III.

1.

The large thick

label of ivory

the

Compare the fragment of a porphyry cup from tomb of Den (B. T. i. xi. 7) with the same
7.

hawk

developing toward the later form,

bird after the name.

with the
tip.

tree

tail sloping down and a separate wing The name of Aha is followed by the palm and heart, which often occur on small
iii. ii.,

The name

of

Aha on

another piece of

dolomite marble.
8.

piece of the top of an

ebony

tablet,

objects of this reign, see

20

iiiA. 9, 11,

13

De Morgan,
of a queen

Becherches

figs.

813, 814.
is

It

showing the horns and ear of an ibex, and a branch (Jchet) bowl (neb) and numerals 23.
9

has been well suggested that this


or

the

name
this

18.

Small ivory

labels,

with signs incised,

name Bener-ab
very probable
all
;

"sweet

daughter of Mena;
of heart''

and

would

and, in one instance, painted (17).

Three bear
14,

be

numbers ("100" on

9,

"6"

on

"8" on
Naqada
like

moreover, as these objects are

16) like the labels with

numbers

in the

small pieces of ivory, they are likely to be


toilet articles.

tomb

of Mena, though here these are too few


of beads

from
2.

(See also the drawing,

pl. xi. 1.)

An

ebony

numbers the Naqada labels.


to be the

on a necklace

tablet of

Aha

Mena was broken in pieces in the


This seems to have

on No. 11,

The hippopotamus occurs and the elephant on No. 18. The

previous excavations, and only the upper two


parts have been recovered.

birds can hardly be identified in view of the


diversity of drawing of well-known bird hiero-

number

been an enumeration of captives, of which the is lost below, but the name remains,

glyphs at this time.


19.

An

ivory

slip

from an inlay with the

apparently Khent-ta or Nubia, " the land of the

scorpion holding a pick, like the scorpion tribal

THE INSCEIBED TABLETS,

&c.

21

emblem on the lower part


Cairo,

of a carved slate at

the

Fayum.

In the fourth line


the
first

is

a continuous
is

showing the capture of towns. 20. An ivory comb, probably of Bener-ab Jm-ab), a queen or daughter of Mena.
Pl.
IIIa.
1

line of hieroglyphs,

of such that in No. 6,

(or

known.

The second version

drawn
is

in pl. xi. 2,
essential.

shows that the second sign

not

The ivory

slips

1,

2,

3,

bear

On
:

the backs of these tablets are a spindle


(pl.

figures of captives, probably of

Libyan

race,

and

painted signs
sign with
7.

x.

3),

and a men

with these compare

pl. iv. 3 to 6,
is

and

12.

The

twist pattern of border

here seen on No. 1 to be as old as Mena, having the same mysterious


crescents below
it

two kinds of gaming pieces (pl. xi. 3). curved bar of gold was found in tomb two ends of which are shown in and the whole
is is

18, the

fig. 7.

which even appear down to


ii.

The

sides are even,

carefully

the Xllth Dynasty (L. Denk.,


4.

126-132).

wrought.
of

Near the top

a hole, and below

An

ivory hemisphere with the

name

that the

name

of

Aha

incised.

At

the lower
is

Aha.
5.

end
See the drawing,
pl. x. 2.

is

a close cross hatching, and the same

on

A duplicate
is

of

the under side near the upper end.


of
it is

The purpose

this,

much

broken,

is

in No. 6,

and a drawing
the most
half

entirely unguessed.

It

weighs 216 grains,

in xi. 2.

This ebony tablet of

Mena

a heavy example of the old standard for gold,

complete of his works.

The lower

was

known
8.

as early as

Khufu.

found in tomb

18,

and at the

close of all the

work

the upper half

came from

19.

In the

top line after the name of Aha, with the title, " born of Amiut," there are two sacred barks,

An ivory figure of a girl was found in tomb B 14, possibly of the deceased Bener-ab, The to whom this tomb apparently belonged.
dress
is

long, to the ankles,


It differs
;

and the hands placed

and a shrine and temenos of


on
is

Neit.

The resem-

on the breast.
yet

from any other figure

blance of this to a shrine on a cylinder, copied


this plate, should

known of this age


like
it.

those from Hierakonpolis,

be noted.
offering,

In the next line

with the mantle folded across the arms, being

man making an

with two signs

most
9.

(Hierakon. x.

7, 8, 11.)

above, possibly uaau, " alone."

Behind him

is

A polygonal slip

of ivory, flat

on one

side,

a bull running over

wavy ground

into a net

and with three faces on the other side, seems to


imitate a flint flake.
It bears the

stretched between two poles, exactly the same


position

name

of xAha,

of the

net as seen on the far later

and pieces of other such models were found.


10.

Vapheio gold cups. stork standing on a


wild

At

the end

is

a crane or
this

A piece
ii.,

of an ivory
at

fish,

similar to those

shrine.

Compare with

from the Mena tomb


Rech&rches,
11.
figs.

the stork on a shrine, above an enclosure of


cattle,

Naqada (De Morgan, 702707).


(?)

on the mace head of Narmer (Hieraxxvi. B).

An

ivory handle of a fan

having a
it

slit

Iconpolis,

pl.

The

third line shows

cut along the widened end, has on


of Aha,
12.

the

name
of

three boats on a canal or river passing between


certain places.
It is

and Bener-ab.
ivory rod, bearing also the

tempting to see in these place

An

name

names Bin, a

Pa
the

Memphis (Br. Geog. 184), " dwelling of the lake," capital of She, the
district of

Aha.
13.
lid,

panel of ivory, probably from a box

Fayum,

and the canal of

Mer

or

Bahr Yusuf
and below

with the name of Aha, and Bener-ab.


1, 2.

(B. G. 278), divided in two, above

Pl. IV.

Pieces

of alabaster with un-

known
All plates with lettered numbers are issued only as a supplement, which can be also had bound together in the
1

signs.
5.

3,

4,

Pieces

of ivory with

figures

of a

subject race doing homage.

The

pieces 4 and 5

volume.
given in

The more important enlarged drawings on

tablets of this plate are also


pis. x., xi.

may

not belong together, but

are

clearly of

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE


similar nature.

1st

DYNASTY.
appearance that their con-

The long spotted robe


(Brit. Mus.).

is like-

were

so different in

that belonging to a conquering people on the


slate palette
6.

nection was not seen until they were photo-

with giraffes

Piece

of ivory with figure

of a

subject

bearing a stone vase on the head.


7. 8.

They seem to name " Hathor in the marshes of King Zer's city of Dep" or Buto (Br. Geog. 939-41). The figure of Hathor with the
graphed.
feather

Part of an ivory bracelet.


9.

between the horns


at the royal

is

already known.
to

Pieces of ivory with parts of a figure

This label

may have been attached

an offering
Unless the

and of a dog.
10. Piece of ivory

made from Buto


box with name
of Aha,

tomb.

and

continuity of the

Bener-ab.
11

shows that

name can be disproved, it Buto far down in the marsh of the


named
after Zer, just

Piece of ivory decoration with figures of

Delta was already established at the beginning


of the 1st Dynasty, and
as the farms

The sides appear to be of reeds bound together and the roof was probably of palm ribs interlaced and covered
early huts.

or maize-stalks

and towns of the Old Kingdom were

named

after the kings

who founded them.


2

with palm-leaf mats,


those

like the Bisharin tents of

2,3. Small ivory labels, burnt.

names the
;

the present day at Aswan.

These huts are

like

commander

of Zer's palace, Zer-hor-ab

and 3

shown on the mace head of Narmer, and on the long slate palette. The upper part of this ivory slip has the dome top of the hut and
a subject bearing a branch, as in
Fouilles, in extenso, 1899, pi. xlii.).
12.
fig.

may
4.

refer to the ruler of the

Fayum, ur
in

she.

A long
(see pi.

box of ivory divided

two lengthshoAvn

ways
here.

xxxv. 13), has a similar inscrip-

(see

tion on either side, the better of


It gives

which

is

one of the best examples of the

A figure

of a

Libyan captive on

ivory,

zer

sign,

and was found with other objects


in the

with the feather in the hair.


13.

covered over by the brick steps of the XYIIIth

Unexplained fragment of ivory.


arrow-heads

Dynasty

tomb

of Zer.

14. Flint

from

tomb

18.

5.

A A

piece of a limestone vase

names a man

Some dozens of these were found in the filling of the pit. Some hundreds had, however, been
already removed in the French work, though

Neit-her.
6.

piece of an ivory
;

wand

bears the

name

Mer-neit

it

may, of course, have strayed over


kina-.

unfortunately not one of them


in the Cairo

is

now to be found

from the tomb of that


7.

Museum.
of
subjects

Several ivory cylinder cups were inscribed

15. Figures
offerings,
16.

bringing vases as

for

King Zer

on an ivory panel.
projected holding a

the style

example shows how complete of drawing the royal hawk had become
;

this

Piece of ivory with a part of a standard,

at this early date,

from which an arm has


17. Piece

The conventions are fixed in the final form which lasted down to Roman times.
8
is

mace, possibly part of the group Aha.


of

a small ivory label with a


sign.

ram and an

ivory with

a standard,

from
is

unknown
9,

which

is

an arm holding a cord.


site,

Below
palette

10, are

wooden

labels,

respectively for

perhaps ua

as

on the

slate
i.e.

of

arrows and for clothing. o


11.

Narmer, " the prince of the lake,"


18. 19. Pieces of

Fayum.

an ivory cup.

sealing

Only a piece of one ebony cylinder for was found, although thousands of imwhich
different
seal
is

20. Slip of ivory with a

bound together
21, Pl. V.

much

like

row of five captives the work of groups

pressions were placed in the tombs, from

over

two hundred

inscriptions

of captives from Hierakonpolis.


1.

have been copied.


of a cylinder
;

This piece

about a third

Two

pieces of an ivory tablet

it

bears ankh and mid around the

THE INSCRIBED TABLETS,


top, and below that repetitions of a

&r

23

name

or

title

15

18.

Fragments of ivory disconnected

written with Neit,


12.

Jch,

and

ijwo yokes.

possibly the -remainders

may

be found in some

piece of

a thin vase
relief

of crystal has
;

other collection.
19, 20. Pieces of stone

petals carved in

low

on the surface

it is

bowls with du

(?) Ichent

polished outside, but finely ground inside.


13, 14.

and

Iwtep.

These

two

inscriptions

vases to have

been used for


fragments
flat

show the " the washing of


found
of

bowl inscribed Merneit may very probably have strayed from


21.

piece of a stone

the hand of the double lord."


15.

the
the

tomb

of that king, as

it

is

roughly incised

Other

were

like his other works.

strangely carved

dish of dolomite marble,


i.

22, 23, 24. Pieces of stone bowls, bear


khent,

up

ast

found
16.

last

year (B.
the

T.

xii. 10).

up

ast,
1.

and the outlines of a corded

jar.

fragments was found a wooden carving of an ear of bearded


barley.
17.

Among

carbonized

Pl. VI.

fragment of an ivory bracelet,


iias alternately.

bearing anlch and


2.

The head

of a snake in

ivory, carefully

A
The
24.

unique

clay

sealing

with
is

very

carved.
3, 4.

elaborate door pattern


here.
18.

of

King Zer

shown
in

Two

lions carved in ivory

were found

one of the private tombs around that of Zer.


are
;

figure of a corded jar

was engraved
on
of

They
about

much worn on

the bases

on a stone bowl, similar


pi. va.

to the jar outline

and the

lines of the fur are

by sliding worn off by


they were
the

long continued handling just at the centre of


1

Pl.

Va.

are

small
;

fragments

gravity.

It is evident therefore that

inscription on stone and ivory

4 and 5 being

playing pieces in some game, probably

from ivory cups.


6.

same
lion

as the prehistoric

game

of four lions

and

An
is

ivory label bearing up-as, as on pieces

22, 23,

and an uncertain sign below.


a metal pin, apparently of base gold,
is

as,

Naqada vii. 2). The form of the more advanced than that of the lion found in the Naqada Mena-tomb (De Morgan,
a hare (see
is

though not bright, there


copper corrosion upon
centric circles
it.

no trace of green
of conalso occurs
is

Becherches

ii.

699)

but the

tail

turns up the

The pattern

back with a crook at the end in the regular


prehistoric mode.

round a spot

on the

The two
known,
I

spots over the eyes

early ivories, and therefore there


for assigning this to a later age.
8.

no ground

of the lesser lion are not usual


figures,

on Egyptian
informed,

but are

am

on

fragment of an ivory tablet shows the

Mesopotamian
5

figures.

king walking, and a small attendant following with a standard.


9

10.

Some

arrow-heads

of crystal

were

Below

is

a canal.

found, and the handle end of a crystal knife.


fit

12

are ivory fragments

which do not

These do not bear the same regular and delicate

any yet' known.


anticipation,

12 seems to show the king on

work
11

as the flint arrow-heads,

and they are

a throne and a lesser figure perhaps,


of

upon

his knee,

an

doubtless funerary offerings.

Akhenaten's family

16. Flint

arrow-heads were also found

group.
13.

piece of

an ebony tablet
contains

is

scarcely

around the tomb of Zer, mostly of the same type Two are, however, of a form as those of Mena.
entirely

The three bound captives.


legible.

enclosure

apparently

unknown
is

as yet in

any country
and
It

(13, 14).

The end
it.

of the chisel form,

this passes

14

is

a square tipped rod of ivory, with the

below into the pointed form.

might be made

sign of the same, engraved upon

with a view to a second use of the arrow after

24

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


animal
;

1st

DYNASTY.
piece of a

the tip had broken off in some

the

4.

wooden wand, now carbonized,

detached arrow shaft would then retain enough


flint

with the name of Zer, and the jackal and dagger


hieroglyphs, aitpu, tep.
5.

to

be quickly trimmed into a pointed

arrow.

The
of

flint set in

the

wood
strain,

did not seem

An ebony label with veryroughly scratched


The ivory
lid of
ii.

capable

bearing

any

but

it

was

signs that are not yet read.


6.

explained
tatuing

by

my

friend Prof.

Giglioli as a

a slate palette for kohl,


11.

instrument of the

usual

form.

As

similar to that in pl.


7.

tatuing was used in prehistoric times (as shown

Carved ivory
This
is

bull's

leg

from a

stool or

on figures then), and in the Xllth Dynasty (as shown by the body of a priestess at Cairo),
there
tool.
is

casket.

one of the most perfect examples


is

of this type,

which

found in most of the royal

nothing surprising in finding such a

tombs
8. 9.

(see pis. xxxii. to xliv.).

An

ivory wand, complete.


;

Model ears of corn carved in ivory were found, and other pieces are shown on pi. xxxiv.
17.

Part of a figure of a hunting dog

pro-

bably a game piece, like the


1
.

lions, pl. vi. 2.

82, 83. 18,

23

26.

Piece of an ivory vase with plaited pattern

A set of three chisels and a graver


in

in bands.
11

of copper were found together of the graves around the

31, one

Part of an ivory

wand with animal's head.

tomb

of Zer.
;

The
the

This bent form appears in the dancers' wands at

forms are such as we should expect then


historic type

Deshasheh (Desk.

xii.).

adze 23 being intermediate between the late pre-

12. Bull's leg in ivory. 13.

and that of the Illrd Dynasty.


fig.

The
18.

Top
the

of a chair

leg in ivory, like those

signs on a chisel are given enlarged in

from

Naqada
figs.

Mena-tomb
all

(De Morgan,

The
19

tools

2326

are on scale

|-.

21.

Berherches,
14.
scale.

689, 690).
of a dwai'f
;

Pieces of elaborately carved broad

Humerus

of these are half

were found, which from the uniform dead black colour seem to have been
bracelets of ivory

15.

Upper part

of a

chair

leg
as

of wood,

intentionally stained, and not merely burnt

by

originally covered with copper

foil,

shown by

19 has a twisted net pattern over it, and shows a trace of the name of Kino- Zer. 20
chance.

the

16.

row of nail holes. Lower end of a wooden


foil originally.

staff,

also covered

21 have patterns somewhat like those cut on the ivory slips (see pis. xxxiv. 53 55 xl. 56), but

with copper
17.

Slip

of

highly-polished

cloudy

agate,

far

more

detailed.

brown and
18.

white.

22.

A piece

of ivory cup has a bold relief of

Clay sealing of King Zer,

a bull's head,

full face, in

a style very different

16.

Hollow frame of gold, forming a cap


with a
flat plate,

to

from usual Egyptian work.


27.

some woodwork, which remained carbonized in


it.

A
is

small pink marble vase of the usual


entirely
relief.
1.

It is closed at the top

and

form

covered with a carved

net

carefully
20.

rounded

at the ends.
;

pattern in
Pl. VIa.

Handle

to a saucer of ivory

others of the

Fragment

of ivory label

with

the royal hawk, and ha signs.


2.

same pattern are found The end of the handle


runs up the
21.
side.

in carbonized wood.
is

sunk, and a groove

Part of a label so similar to that on


it

pl. v. 1

that
3.

might be from the same source. Sign on a panel of ivory. For such signs
see pl. xxv. 6, 7.

Cap

of electrum, on

which

is

minutely

engraved the sign

ab, the Osiris-wig

standard of

on stone vases

Abydos.

THE INSCRIBED TABLETS,


22, 23.

&c.

25

Pieces

of the

dish with reliefs, in


pi. v. 15.

tombs by the Mission Amelineau,


other precious records.

like so

many

dolomite marble, like that in


24. Piece of

dolomite

marble,

inscribed

10.

The upper part


this year.

of the finely- engraved

" libation to Anubis."


25, 26. Pieces

crystal vase, figured in Royal

Tombs

i.

vii. 4,

was

of a tray

of

brown

schist,

found

The

Avhole

group can now be

elaborately carved with basket pattern.

restored.

The

lioness goddess

Mafdet is standing
is

22. Pl. VII.

1.

Piece of serpentine bowl of

holding an uas sceptre, beneath her


" mistress of the house of life."
11

the

title

King
2.

Zet.

Piece of a large and thick bowl of rough


of

Another fragment of a Avooden

tablet of

limestone
third.
3.

King

Zet.

Scale

about

one

Den

does not seem to join any of those already


it is

published last year, but

a duplicate of that

Piece of ivory rod of King Zet.


Piece of dolomite marble bowl, inscribed

figured in B. T.

i.

xi.

4 and xv. 18, in part, and

4.

probably in the whole.


12.

for Zet.

A small ivory panel from a box


fine

bears the
reign.

5^6. The only impression of the royal seal of

most crisp and


Beside the

cutting

of
is

this

King Den.
to be, (1)

above. (2)
tion,

The whole design of the seal appears The lea name Den with the hawk The king standing. (3) An inscrip-

name
latter

of

Den

there

the uraeus of

judgment, the sign of gold, and the sign of a


seal.

The

is

instructive, as hitherto that

em

se ab en

....
is

uebti.

(4)

Den having
(5)
(6)

hieroglyph has been taken to be a figure of a


finger ring, but such a ring
this age,
is is

hooked a crocodile

drawing him up out of the


spear him.

quite

unknown

at

water, and preparing to

The

and the base of it

far too

long for a

king's personal name, Setui or Semti.

Den

bezel of any period.

It is clearly the figure of a

wrestling with a hippopotamus.

A small part of
and was

signet cylinder rolling on the clay.

This group

such an impression was found


the
first

last year,

suggests that the


seal

object which

showed that Den was the


cylinder
jar
is

box had contained the golden of judgment of King Den.

name
7.

of Setui.

13.

cylinder of ivory has the lower end


flat,

On

tall

alabaster

an
This

polished quite

and the upper end

slightly

inscription in high relief, with the standard of

coned and pierced with a small hole in the


axis.
It
is

the goddess Mafdet and the


is

name of Den.

exactly

adapted for the handle of

the only such relief inscription yet found.


8.

a measuring cord.
of a
Setui.

On

it

is

the

hieroglyph

A portion

of

an ivory plaque shows around


within a
is

measuring cord, and the

king's

name,

the edge the line of a fortification, implying that the whole subject
is

city.

The gate
Within
it,

Pl. VIIa.

Fragments of an ivory

tablet,
;

with khalcer ornament


in the walls
is

seen at the

left.

with the king holding turns of cord on his arm


his

a sacred enclosure with a

ram

name
(Z?.

above, Setui
It

and the jackal standard


last

and a
to

shrine,

above which

is

a bucranion, similar

in front.

may
xi.

be part of one found

doorways on an ivory carving from with bucrania surmounted Hierakonpolis,


the
(Hicralcon. xiv.)
;

year
2.

T.

i.

8 and xiv. 8).


tablet.

piece of an ebony

The three
perhaps be

note the use of animal skulls

signs in the fortified enclosure

may

for hanging up, by the " pan-grave " people In 9 we see a part of (Diospolis Parva xxxix.). a duplicate of No. 8, showing the king's name

the same as on the tablet


3.

pl.
is

va. 13.

A
An

fragment which
i.

a duplicate

of the
title

piece in B. T.

xi. 5

and xiv. 12, with the

and

title,

and the head of a man.

These plaques

mes Tehuti,
4.

like

mes Anpu, &c.


to be a

were smashed up in the general wreck of these

ebony fragment which seems

26

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


i.

1st

DYNASTY.

duplicate of the left-hand side of tablet B. T.


xi.

5.

This piece of a tablet appears to be of

14 and xv. 16.


5.

King Mersekha
of tablet of the

Semempses,

as it

is

a duplicate

A fragment
i.

same

style as

of that found last year, figured in B. T.i. xii. 1

B. T.
6.

xl. 6.

and
6.
i.

xvii. 26.

A A

fragment which might by the work


i.

Inscription on stone bowl

compare B.

T.

belong to B. T.
7.

xi. 5.

viii. 9.

group of bows and arrows was found in


are formed of two long straight horns

7.

Inscription

on stone bowl, joining that


i.

one of the private graves west of that of Den.

published in B. T.
8

ix.

10.

The bows

10. Inscriptions of Hotep-ahaui on stone

of the oryx,

fastened

together
;

by

a tapered

bowls.

These show that the signs are not seh-

plug of wood in the cores

doubtless binding
splitting.

hem, as was supposed from the engraving on the


statue No.
1,

round the horns secured them from

Cairo

Museum but from


;

the open

The wooden plug is seen just below the two top horns. The arrows are long bone points set in
reed shafts, with a notch for the bow-string cut
just

tops these
sealings

must be aha.

In no case on the

xxiv.)

is

showing the selchem sign (pis. xxiii., The the top divided in this manner.
of the

below a knot in the reed.

13.

Fragments of carved wood now

car-

name of the tomb is given as " the house Ka of the Horus Hotep-ahaui."
11.

bonized were found in the tomb of Den.

No. 13

On

this piece

found

like the Nos. 8

shows the shoulder and arm of the king grasping a group of emblems, including a ring and a

13 in the tomb of Perabsen

we
:

see another

tomb name, which

is

probably a fuller form of


reads " the

dad sign or possibly the hand held a staff, and a group of lotus flowers stood before the king as on the slab of Men-kau-hor in Paris.
:

that above named, but which might belong to


either of the following kings
it

house of the

Ka

of

called Neteralchet "or


is

14.

A piece
it,

of ivory inlay has the sign anlch

" the divine glory."

-This

approaching the

upon
15.

of which half the

bow and one end

of

type of the pyramid names of the Old Kingdom.


12.

the tie

remain.

piece of a

bowl of grey volcanic rock,


for

A A

bull's

leg in ivory shows a clumsier

originally

inscribed

" the
.

palace
.

of

the

style than that of the reign of


16.

Zer

(via. 7).

Horus Ra-neb
is

called Sa-ha

."

This

name

perfect jar of slate, found


it,

in

grave

of the

same type

as those of the palaces of

5,

has two signs upon

which are similar

kings

Qa

(Sa-ha-iieb),

and king Hotep-ahaui


erased
this

to those
17.

on the pottery.
scratched

(So -ha-ha).

This inscription has been


;

Several signs are


:

upon

ala-

by

his

successor

showing that

was not
and

baster

a group of three neter signs can alone

inscribed for the tomb, but for the palace,


so left

be read.

in use
is

till

the next reign.

The

later

23.
labels

Some weathered ivory were picked up by our workmen from the


Pl. VIII.
1

4.

inscription

of the king Neteren, the third of


1.

those on statue No.


this

From

loose

rubbish that had been thrown out of

bowl was used

for

this we see that the king's " washing

Four of these are of King Qa, No. 3 being repeated in drawing in pl. xii. 6. It will
tombs.

every day," like the bowls and jars for the


king's hands, pl. v. 13, 14, xii.
13.
1,

xxv.

1.

be seen

how

the

name

sen on these has the sign

Another
for

piece

of

bowl was carefully

of breath (the nose) as a determinative.

From

inscribed

king Neteren.

The presence

of

a comparison of these tablets the separate groups can be cleared up, when the serious

the boat here alone, and the instances of specific

use of bowls which

we have

just noted, suggests

study of these inscriptions

is

undertaken.

that the boat inscriptions on bowls

show that

THE INSCBIBED TABLETS,


such objects belonged to the king's travelling
outfit.

&c.

27

could not be a handle for a fan, as


long,

it

is

too

It

would be quite

in character with the


strict

and

far too liable to fracture of the sard


if

detailed account keeping,

and the

personal

cylinders
is,

any weight bent the copper rod


safely.

it

responsibility for things, that each branch of the

in fact,

only just strong enough to carry

its

royal service, for the palace, for travelling, &c,

own weight

Again,

it

is

complete at

should have

its

own
1,

canteen and furniture.


Pieces of inscriptions
of

the thinner end with a plain cap of gold, which

Pl. VIIIa.

2.

shows no sign of any attachment.


clear that
it

It

seems

Merpaba.
3.

can only have been a ceremonial


is

Base of vase inscribed

for

the

" royal

rod of the king, that


2

to say, the royal sceptre.

palace."
4.

10.

Six vases of dolomite marble and one

Piece of an inscription of king Qa, fitting


i.

vase of carnelian were found together in the

the piece published in B. T.


5.
6.

viii. 3.

tomb
beso

of

Khasekhemui

(near

chamber

24,

Piece with

name

of king Qa.

pl. lxiii.).

Each

of these has a cover of thick

Piece with a royal

name apparently
it
is

gold

foil fitted

over the top and secured with a

ginning with a bird.

Unfortunately,
it

double turn of twisted gold wire.


of the wire a small

Over the
is

tie

much sand -worn that whether new name cannot be decided.


7.

belongs to a

lump

of sealing clay

fixed.

With
Sekhem-ab
xxi.
pl.

these were

two gold

bracelets, one perfect,

The

finest

sealing

of

king

the other crushed


11.

Perabsen, drawn in seal No. 164,


8.

A perfect

by the yielding of the wall. bowl of diorite was also found

The jackal standard written

in ochre on a

covered over by the collapse of one of the walls,

piece of an alabaster vase.


9.

between chambers 40 and 44.


her,

Part of an inscription, Neit,

khent.

12. Pieces of a dish of dolomite

marble were

Probably of the time of Merneit, by the rough


style.

found carved in imitation of basket-work.


13

10

15.

Two

copper pans, two copper ewers,

12.

For adjusting the fragments of stone


This

and a vase of dolomite marble were


together

found

bowls a frame was employed in order to obtain


the forms and draw the restored outlines.
is described in the account of stone bowls, chap. vi.

under
24.

collapsed
of each kind
13.

wall

opposite

chamber

One
fig;.

were grouped
strange a
co-equal

together as in

The ewers both have


for so

tomb of king Khasekhemui were found two pieces of a The larger sceptre (see chamber 48, pl. lxiii.).
24.
Pl.

IX.

I.

In the

double spouts.

The motive
perhaps

form

may

be seen

in

the

worship of
ings 191

Set and Horus


;

in this reign (see seal-

piece was complete at the thinner end and 23 the shorter had been broken inches in length
;

205)

the simultaneous offering of

libation to both gods could be secured

by

this

from the longer, but was not complete at either end it was 5 inches long. In the photograph each piece but it is is shown one end of
;
;

double spout.

Similarly there

is

the

double
at

co-equal temple of

Set

and Horus

Kom

Ombo,
16.

of

which the foundation seems

likely to

impossible in a book-plate

to

represent

the

belong to this age.

whole of such a long slender object on any From this plate can be seen the useful scale.
double bands of thick gold which encircle the
sceptre at every fourth cylinder, the cylinders of polished sard which form the body, and the

piece of dolomite marble was inserted

in

damaged bowl, and held in place by a lining plate, to which it was fastened by long
a
pins of gold.

The photograph shows the inner


which seem
to

side of the patch with the gold pins projecting.

corroded rod of copper which binds the whole As to the purpose of this object, it together.

17

18. Pieces of ivory

have

belonged to a carving of a panelled doorway, as

28

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


ornament
in

1st

DYNASTY.

they have bands of the usual


relief.

Pl. IXa.

A
3.

dish and

two vases of

copper were found near together, in the doorway

between the south and middle parts of the tomb of Khasekhemui.


4

11.

large

mass

ol

funeral models in

copper were found stacked together, the tool

models inside of the large pan, and the


dishes turned

lesser

The whole group had been covered by a collapsed wall. The


over them.

models are
copper
1
;

all

roughly cut out of thin sheet


:

they comprise the following forms

pan, 15 inches across, riveted

THE INSCRIBED TABLETS,


chamber
fortified

&c.

29

supposed, but it is the gateway, as in the Shunet ez Zebib at

as

generally

the

tomb

of Qa, has

the
it,

remains of the inkalternately the shrine

written inscription on
of

Abydos, and elsewhere. This was suggested by Maspero in Proc. Soc. Bib. Arch. xii. 247.
4.

Anpu and
model
ivory

the
of

king's

name.

It

was a
for

funerary
sealing.
6.

an

incised

cylinder

part of a very thick tablet of ebony

shows traces of signs in red and black.


5.

The

tablet

drawn here

is

that

wooden

cylinder, found last year near

already mentioned in the account of

pi. viii. 3.

30

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE

1st

DYNASTY.

CHAPTER

IV.

THE SEALINGS AND STELES.


26.
sealings

Pl.

XIII.

The

numbers
thus the

of

the

The form
sign
is

of the

playing pieces on the


that

men
the

are continuous

from those described


I.
;

exactly
(pis.

found actually
;

in
xli.

in

Royal

Tombs,
to

Part

number

tombs
94.

xxxii.

34

xxxv.

5,

74

alone

suffices

distinguish

any

published

xlv. 46).

sealing.

seal

with a repetition of lake signs

is

89.

Only a
of
it

single impression of the seal of


(see
is

of the age of
94, 96.

Narmer by the

associated sealings.
either of the time of

King Ka was found


reality

pl.

ii.

1)

but the

Two seals may be

the

name

enforced

by
it

the

writing of

on the unbaked clay of several jars on

Mena or a little before that. 97104. Sealings of King Aha-Mena.


these 98 and 99

Of
the

here figured, and by the ink writing of

were

also

found in the Naqadafigs.

many
will

jars

found together in one tomb, which


of

Mena tomb
are

(Becherches,

556,

557);

was probably that


be
published
incrustations on

king Ka.
being

These

latter

after

cleaned,

but

them prevent their being yet photographed. The ka arms are turned downward more usually than upward in this name.
90.

Naqada The seal 100 is the only example of the sign men that we find in this reign, except tbat on the back of the wooden tablet, pl. xi. The objects figured on the animal
other six are new, and four found at

unknown

at

Abydos.

small piece of sealing cannot be underit

seals are

probably traps.

stood,

but

may have some


sealings

connection with

27.
108.

105107. Sealings

of

King

Zer, with

King Ka.
91

only his name.


Several
of

92.

Narmer
is

were

found, which show that

Nar alone

the true

name,

and that

mer

is

an epithet separately

applied.
93. This seal, of
sions remain,
is

The most advanced sealing of the early time is the royal seal of King Zer, showing him seated, wearing the crown of Upper and that of Lower Egypt. The work is final as regards
the position, the crowns, and the throne
its
;

which fragmentary impres-

and

of

the

word men.

Narmer alternating with Were it not for the clear

type might belong equally to any subsequent

age down to

Roman

times.

evidence of the ivory tablet from the Naqada-

109. This seal, with the

name of Zer alternata valuable link.


i.

Mena tomb, we should see in this perhaps a reason for Narmer being the name of
Mena.
there

ing with Zeren and

Ta

is

On

a seal of Zet published last year (B. T.


his

xviii. 2)

There

is,

however, a possibility that

may have been two kings named Mena, with ha names Narmer and Aha. If so, it is nevertheless Aha who is the first king of the
1st
roll

Ath which I suggested might refer to Ateth, his name in the list of Sety I. Now we can place together
alternates with
;

name

Dynasty, because of his position in the


of

[a

name

eight

kings

recorded

whose

tombs

can be identified in that order on the ground.

THE SEALINGS AND STELES.

31

From these

it

seems that we have the original

135.

The upper and

loAver lines are perhaps

forms of the personal names that were modified by Sety I. Zeren is perhaps a fuller form of
the

duplicate in
sed nebui
(?)
(?)

arrangement, the series running


;

jackal standard; selchet


zef
;

nebui;
;

name
is

Zer, as

Narmer
seal

is

a fuller form of

un nebui

uaz nebui jackal standard

Nar.

and another standard, making a six-group


the
latest

seal

Ill
style

of
;

the

prehistoric

altogether.

with groups of animals


is

but the alchu ha


the
sealings

136

163.

The

sealings of

Den

are solely of

here

an

anticipation
steles of
tAvo,

of

of

interest for titles

and language, and so need

Merneit and the


112. There
different styles

Den.
or

not be noticed in this chapter.


three,

are

even

very

28. and

164, &c.

The

sealings

from the tomb

of

running on concurrently in the


seals.

Perabsen name in
this

many cases
coll.),

a king Sekhem-ab,

work

of these

The rough
a
coarse

figures
scale
;

of

might have

led to difficulties, but for a

animals

and
from
of

men on
the

come
96,

unique sealing (F.P.

Avhich Avas found at

down
of Zer;

prehistoric
;

time

see

some

site

unknoAvn, some years ago, Avith the


tAvo

101104,

Mena,&c.

111, 113,114, 122, 123,


;

form Sekhemperabsen, showing the


combined.
It
Avill

names
is

8, 9, 10,

128, 132, of Zet

after

which
seals

such disappear.

The common hieroglyph

be seen that the haAvk of Horus

may rank
Mena,
125
&c.

separately; see 91, 92, 97, 98, 99 of


;

always over the Sekhem-ab name,

Avhile Set is
seals, as

127

of Zet.

105107, 116, 124 of Zer; 17, But an entirely different


very delicate work, which

always over the Perabsen name on the

on

his stele, pi. xxxi.

These are then the Horus

class is that of the

was probably on stone rather than on wood


see 108, 109, 112, 118, 119, 120 of Zer; 135 of

and Set names of the king. The seals of the Ilnd Dynasty are generally
of a smaller style

and more elaborate than those

Zet.

It

is

not

till

the time

of

Den

that a

of the 1st Dynasty.

The sharp

detail of those

general coarse uniformity of style was fixed

best preserved points to their being

made

in

upon, though even then the royal seal was of


the delicate class
113. See
pi.
ii.

stone or metal rather than in Avood.

(pi. vii. 5, 6).

The
seals.

first

figures of deities are found

on these

account of stone vase inscription,

The haAvk -headed god,

Avho has some-

15.

times the feather on the head (No. 199), and the

114

117.

The

seals

with a shrine should be

goddess of vegetation (No. 176), Avith growing


plants on her head, and probably the same Avith
lotus sceptre in the

compared, though none of them are duplicates. On 116 seems to be the earliest form of sah.

The leopard and bent bars on his back recall The genei-al form of the the panel of Hesy.
shrine
is

On
The

the seals of

hand (Nos. 191, 192, &c). Khasekhemui Ave see in every


as co-equal.

case Set

and Horus placed together

like the early huts, Avith reed sides

and

full-length
'
;

name

of the

king expressly

interAvoven

123 121

is

palm rib roof. the same design


seal.

refers to this,

the appearing of the dual poAver are


at

as the seal 10 of Zet,

in Avhich

the two gods

peace"

(see

but a different
is

Maspero, Rev. Grit., 15


as

Dec, 1897).
of the
if

the same design

the

seal

20 of
the
is

194.

The appearance
surprising,

name Amen here


more
complete
it

Merneit, but differs in having du for


fortress.

zet in

very

but

impression could be obtained, perhaps

Avould

129.

The group
is

of four bars in this, as in Nos.

be explained as
210.

Amenti, or otherAvise.

shown in seal they are distinguished in two forms.


122, 143,
better

142,

where

The impressions of this seal are perhaps the commonest of all they are entirely on flat
;

32

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


The name of" the royal mother occurs on the tomb of Amten,
offerings in

1st

DYNASTY.
will

caps of black clay.

that

sealings

be

preserved

in

less

dry
this
all

Hapenmaat " who made daily

localities,

such as the temple area.

Hence

the lea-house, or
ii.

collection of

216 sealings

will

be practically

funerary chapel, of this queen (see L. Denk.

6).

that

we

shall have for the restoration of the


first

This has been quoted as evidence that she "

was

bureaucracy and organization of the


Dynasties.

two

queen of one of the


Dynasty," but
it

last

kings of

the

Illrd

only proves that her worship

29. Pl.
with
pis. v.

XXV.

1,

2 have been already noticed


6,

was continued
It

to the

end of the Illrd Dynasty.


is

13 and va.

411.

On

the bases

seems not improbable that Khasekhemui


list

of stone bowls are occasionally very delicately-

the same as Zaza of the


of the

of Sety, last king


sect. 6)
;

Ilnd Dynasty (see


well be
called

his

queen
"

might

the

" king-bearer

drawn signs, which are not hieroglyphic in some Such signs are here shown on enlarged cases.
scale.

of
so

12 will be noticed with

pl. liv.

Nebka, the founder of the Illrd Dynasty, and


Illrd Dynasty, as
rated in the

13

she might be venerated as the foundress of the

27.

Many

stone vases bear signs written

in ink with a brush.

These can scarcely be

Aahmes

Nefertari was vene-

XVII Ith Dynasty.


title

photographed, owing to the slightness of the


ink-stain on dark slate

The change
of the Illrd

and such
pl.

stones.

Some

from Thinis to Memphis in the

Dynasty shows a
then.

fresh start to have taken place

The greater part

of the
clay,

sealings

of

Kha-

Of these 1 = drawing 17, 2 = drawing 21, 3 = drawing 19, 5 = drawing 26, 6 and 7 4 is sufficiently clear Only two of these are are sufficiently clear.
are

shown

in

B.

T.,

x.

sekhemui are on yellow


a small part of the whole

and very frag-

a king's name, the Setui


slate dishes in figs. 17, 18.

brushed broadly on

mentary, as the area of each originally was only


seal.

Hence

it is

only

by comparing dozens of fragments


of each seal that
it
is

of impressions

possible to

reconstruct

even the broken views here given.

30. Pl. XXVI. The steles drawn here are all shown in photograph in pis. xxviii.,xxix.,xxixA., xxixB. The numbers are continuous from
those published last year, so that
ful to
it is

From

the character of the sealings above,

it

only need-

would be clear that Perabsen was intermediate between the 1st Dynasty and Khasekhemui,
and
this accords

quote the number in order to define any


discovered in 1900-1.

of the 146 steles

The

with the general features of the

forty steles or so, published

by M. Amelineau,

tombs.
It is also clear that these

have no numbers except those added in

my out-

two kings cannot


seal of

lines of

them, B.

T., pl.

xxxii.

It is to

be hoped

long precede King Neterkhet

Zeser of the Illrd


Perabsen

that
their

whenever those are properly published

Dynasty, as

an impression of a
his

numbers

will begin 147,

and

so avoid

any

was found in
I

tomb.
all

ambiguity in quotation.
the figures of seals that

have drawn now

The

pieces of the stele of

King Zer

will be

can possibly be obtained from the thousands of


sealings found in our

published

next
it

year,

as
lost.

unfortunately

the

work

in the

Royal Tombs
I

photographs of

were

and, after going over the collection made in past


years,

The

steles

from around the tomb of Zer are


it is difficult

now

in the Cairo

Museum,

found that

mostly so deeply weathered that


trace the original relief; see

to

only the completion of a few signs could be


obtained from that material.
likely that other sealings will

fig.

50, pl. xxviii.


still

Hence
it

it

is

un-

In order to draw the outline, or

more, to

add any serious


is

photograph

it,

the only

method

is

to

fill

up

all

amount

to this corpus,

and also

unlikely

the weathered hollows with sand.

Accordingly,

THE SEALINGS AND STELES.


handfuls of sand were thrown over each stone,
rainstorm, and
so could not

33

be preserved or

and then the raised


clear.

figures

and

signs

wiped

photographed.
Besides the Zer steles
finishing the excavations

This was done twice, once for drawing

many were found

in

and once for photographing, and hence the drawing is quite an independent interpretation
apart from the preparation for photographing.

around the tomb of

Den.
pl.

These are drawn in the lower half of xxvii., and photographed in pis. xxx., xxxa.
interesting
titles,

How much is gained


is

in clearness
49,

by

this sanding

The most

of

these
to

are

the

six

Of course the photographs were taken looking almost vertically downward, the stone being only inclined enough to
obtain a shadow to the
relief.

by comparing figs. the same stone, unsanded.


seen

sanded, and 50,

with uniform
occur on No.

120

125, which also


It
is

21,

published last year.


is

notable that the king

always named Setui, and

never Den, in this


carefully erased
;

title.

Two

steles

had been

The drawn

outlines

but by examination in sun-

were made to

scale

by using a frame

of threads

shine each sign could be tolerably restored (see

over the stone, and a card ruled in squares

Nos. 131, 132).


It

beneath the thin drawing-paper.


are ignored, the object being to

The damages show the best

may

be noted that Nos. 128, 129 seem to


title,

contain only a

as

the

same

occurs on

material that can be obtained for reading, while

No. 96 with the addition of a name, Ketka.


Pl.

the photograph

shows

the

actual condition.

XXXI. Two steles of king


They seem
therefore

Perabsen were

No

comparison has yet been made between the

found lying in the sand to the south of his


tomb.
to

photographs and the drawings, which are entirely independent.


It will

have

been

placed near the entrance to the tomb, which

signs

be noticed that out of 70 stones with from around Zer, 16 have names com-

was at the south corner, and not on the east of the tomb, as seems to have been the case in
the 1st Dynasty.

pounded
(No.

with Neit

one

may name Horus


is

They

are cut in very com-

100), but no other

deity

mentioned.

This

strongly shows that


of

the

domestics and
to

harem

the

king

belonged
rather

the
to

Neit
the

worshipping
dynastic race

Libyans,

than

which specially adored Hathor.


59
is

by sand wear, It was there, so that no sharp edges are left; fore not satisfactory to photograph them in front, by the shadows and the best result was from the side, by reflections. This makes a
pact syenite, and
polished
;

much

The

relief inscription

duplicated by the

rather askew view, which reduces the largest of

inscription 102, written on less than half the


size of the other,

the two steles to an equality with the

lesser.

with red paint on a smooth

The

plate here

is

an enlargement of a ^-plate
it

stone.

The

differences

between the two forms

snapshot with a hand camera, as

was

difficult

of the signs are instructive.

to fix a stand at the exact angle for the reflections r

Pl. XXVII.

Several of the steles last found

and

doubt

if

any better result could

were not photographed owing to lack of time caused by illness, but all were drawn, and the
drawings of these, together with some of the steles which were too much damaged to be

have been got by using a stand.


about 5 feet high
;

The

steles are

cut from natural long water;

worn masses of grey syenite


hammer-dressed down to a
the hieroglyphs
left

with one face


surface,

flat

and

worth photographing, are given in the upper Some had entirely crumbled half of this plate.
to flakes since being drawn, owing to the great

in

relief.

The

figure of

Set above the


in later times.

name has been hammered away

34

EOYAL TOMBS OP THE

1st

DYNASTY.

CHAPTER

V.

THE INVENTORY PLATES.


Pls.

XXXII. XLV.
conventional,
design.

31

In examining a period so

little

known,

and

remote

from

its

original

and so important, as that of the development


of the

Changes can be seen in the historic

kingdom, nothing should be slighted

time.

The use

of this form disappears in the

and in even the smallest matters of decoration


every fragment should be recorded and added to

reign of Qa, last of the 1st Dynasty, and no

such

decoration

is

seen

in

the

tombs
one

of

our knowledge.

To

describe objects in detail

is

Perabsen and Khasekhemui except


different

very

useless without figures,

and therefore a written


archaeology

fragment in wood
it is

(xlv.

6).

Yet the

inventory
useless
efficient

is

merely a tedious legal formality,


practical
is
:

idea revived, as
legs
xiii.,

the constant type of the

for

and

the

of seats in the Old

Kingdom

(see

Medum
;

record

such an outline of every


it

L. Denlc.

ii.

10, 84, 85,

86,

109)

the

intelligible fragment, that

can be identified
as joining pieces as a whole,

lion's legs,

however, began to supplant the older

in future, can be recognized

form
90,

in the latter part of this

time (L. Denlc.


in

ii.

already known, and can be studied

110),

and

became
ii.

usual

the Xllth
in the

comparing

one tomb with

another.

This

I
;

Dynasty
the

(L. Denlc.

128,

129),

and on

have given on the fourteen plates named above


graphs)
outlined, or sufficient

XVIIIth Dynasty (throne


till

of Hatshepsut),

and

there every object (not given already in photois

Roman

time.

samples
class,

are

Unfortunately most of the perfect examples

shown of any large and uniform


the arrow points.
It will

such as

have been removed to Paris, and their history


lost
;

so

it is

only from the remains here that


the
changes.

be best to notice

first

such changes as
class
;

we can glean
and continues
which
it

The wavy
(xxxix. 2),

line
9),

can be traced from tomb to tomb in each

around the leg appears under Mena (xxxii.


to

and then
separately.

to

make some

notes

on the plates

Merneit

after

ceases.

The number of
feet decreased as

discs

or

The
time
;

bull's-leg

supports begin in

prehistoric

divisions

under the

time went

one grave at Naqada (No. 3) had a couch


bull's legs
;

on

the

maximum

in each reign

is

29 under
from

supported on

carved in wood about

they had been entirely eaten 1 5 inches high by white ants, but yet the form could be traced. The date of this is about s.d. 66 (see Diospolis

Mena, 19 under Zer, 18 under Merneit, and 14 under Den and Mersekha. The general size
diminished, as the
(xxxii. 5),

largest

leg

is

Sma
fit

and the

later ones

seem only
seats.

to

Parva
there

for this

mode

of dating), or perhaps five

support caskets and not actual

or six centuries before the 1st Dynasty.


is

Hence
highly

The arrow points of ivory are


earlier part of the 1st

common in
They are

the

a long past in the history of this form,


it

Dynasty
later.

but none were


often

and the use of

in the royal

tombs

is

found in the tomb of Qa or

THE INVENTORY PLATES.


tipped with red ochre, which has been supposed
to be a poisoned tip,

35

origin of this pattern

is

quite

unknown
it

but

it

though iron oxide would

mainly appears in representations of the hollows


of panelled

be the worst substance to maintain a poison


probably the red colour was put on with the
idea of sympathetic magic, in order to

woodwork.
lines

Possibly

represents a

plaited cord used to close shutters high

up

in the

draw
all

panelling,

and the

below are copied from

the arrow to the blood of the animal at which


it

the surplus of the cord resting on the ground.

was

shot.

The ivory

tips

were probably

The pattern
Zer
(xxxiv.

of diagonal lines begins under

inserted in reeds, like those from a grave near

53

55),
;

always as a
this

row

of

the tomb

of

Den

(pi.

viiA. 7)

but the ivory

squares set diagonally


style

becomes cheaper in
46)
;

has better survived the destruction by

man and
all

under Zet (xxxvii.


style is

and
(xl.

though
56
;

by

insects,

so the

tips

are

separate.

In the tombs of the


flint

now Mena

nearly

under Den the old


42

kept

xli.

period and
(pis.

earlier only
iv.,

arrow-heads are found

43), yet very rough imitations occur 69 4 6). Such are continued
;

(xl.

57

xli.

under

vi.)

excepting one specimen of Mena's

Azab
(xliii.

(xlii.

10,

11, 26, 27,

reign (xxxii. 37).


tip

Under
full

Zer the ivory arrow;

54, 55),

Qa

(xliv.

34

6165), Mersekha 37), and even till

sprang

into

use
;

hundreds

were
reign.

gathered from his tomb

and the variety of


in

forms

is

greater

than

any other
tips),

Khasekhemui (xlv. 29, 32). Bibbed and mat-work patterns, imitating rush mats and trays, are elaborately wrought in the
early

Beside the plain circular points (xxxiv. 27

41,

work, such

as

the reed tray of

Sma
(62).

many

of

them with reddened


tips

there are the

(xxxii. 54),

and the mat of bound rushes


is

quadrangular barbed

(42), the pentagonal

The mat pattern


92).

on a

flat slip of

Zer (xxxiv.

tips (43), the square tips (44), the oval tips, (45,

Plain ribbing occurs under Zet (xxxvii.

46), and the flanged tips (47, 48), beside others

56, 62

66). A

mat

of

bound rushes under


Plain ribbing
(xl.

of ebony (50, 51).

Only the plain circular


reigns,

tips

Merneit (xxxix. 58
;

61).

appear in the

succeeding

down

to

Mersekha, except an example of the oval form

under Den

(xli. 41).

The inlay patterns are scarcely known in the Mena period, the strips with a diagonal cross
beginning then (xxxii. 19), and continuing in 99), after which the time of Zer (xxxiv. 94

8590, 105106 xli. 4850) and bound matwork (xli. 5254, 65, 69) under Den. The The woven flat mat under Azab (xlii. 68 69). mat of rushes carved in wood under Mersekha

(xliii.

27,

28),

and plain ribbing

Plain ribbed ivory inlay,

(2933). probably from a woven

rush mat pattern, under

Qa
this

(xliv.

27

31).

they cease.

The twisted cord border begins


;

But

in the Ilnd

Dynasty

seems to have

under Mena (xxxii. 35 ; iiiA. 1 iv. does not recur till Merneit (xxxix.

16,

17),

disappeared.

37), nor

Fluted patterns are important as being pro-

become common
(xxxii.
(iiiA. 1
;

till

Den
xli.

(xl.

4548).
at

The
first

bably derived from the fluted columns;


earliest is a

the

lines beneath the twist

are

straight

35

xl.

46

30), or curved

down

flutings

model column of Zer with sixteen (xxxiv. 73), and a flatter fragment (72).
is

iv. 17),

but begin to curve up under


are

The next

of

Den
is

(xl. 107).

Under Khase-

Den
(xlii.
(xliii.

(xli.

72),

41).

xxvii.), the

straight under Azab under Mersekha down and curve In the Vth Dynasty (Deshasheh, Vlth Dynasty (Dendereh, iii.), and in

32,

35),

khemui, an ivory model column with eight lobes,


or colonnettes,

seen (xlv. 23), probably also

of architectural origin.

Bracelets or bangles are found in most reigns,

the Xllth Dynasty (L. Denlc.

ii.

130, et seqq.),

sometimes
bangles,

abundantly.

The

flint

or

chert

the lines are curved upward at the ends.

The

made

in prehistoric times, continued in

v 2

36

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE

1st

DYNASTY.
it

use under

Mena
The

(xxxii. 42), Zer (xxxv. 60


45),

65),

gold with a socket and pin-hole to attach

(88)

Zet

(xxxviii.

and

even

till

Perabsen
is

another

copper

rod plated

with
is

gold,

and

(xlv. 14).

greatest variety of material

wrought with
Silver
is is

joints like a reed,

not yet drawn.


time, and

under Zer

(see pi.

xxxv), and after that bracelets

rare in the prehistoric

are very rare, until

many

large marble bangles


(xlv.).

not found in the Royal Tombs.

appear in the Ilnd Dynasty


cord-pattern last until the
the only surprising variety
circles

Copper wire and


the tombs (xxxii.
xliii. 12, 16).

nails are usual in

many
75,

of

Cylinder jars of ivory with a

wavy line or time of Den (xl. 39)


is

65

xxxviii.

74,

91

Needles, which

we know

in early

that with a

row

of

prehistoric use, appear


89),

under Zer (xxxv. 84

(xxxiv. 71) under Zer, otherwise they

Zet

(xxxviii. 76),
(xliii.

closely follow the forms in stone.

Mersekha
(xlv. 18),

13, 14),

Den (93, xli. 86), Qa (xliv. 49), Perabsen


(xlv. 70).

Draughtsmen

of ivory resemble those figured


(pi. xiii.

and Khasekhemui

Harpoons,
prehistoric
92),

on the men sign


xxxii. 34;

93),

and are usually


(see

with

the second fang,

unknown
well
as

in

about the thickness of a finger or larger

copper, were found under

Zer (xxxv.

and

73; xli. 74; xlv. 46). Parts of an alabaster draught-board were found
5,
6,

xxxv.

Mersekha

(xliv. 12), as

models under

Khasekhemui

(ixA. 5).

widely scattered in
32.

(xxxii.. 71).

Small chisels continued to be


early prehistoric time, as

made from the

Glazed pottery

is

first

known

in

the

Den

(xxxviii.
(xlv.

94;

xli.

by Zer (xxxv. 91), 90 93), and Khase-

form of beads, very early in the prehistoric time.


It occurs here as a bead of Zer (xxxv. 75)
;

khemui

6975).

as

Pins like those of the prehistoric age are

inlay of Zet (xxxvii. 42)


13,

as beads (xxxviii. 11,

found under Zer (xxxv. 93


92),

95), Den (xxxviii(48).


(xliii. 15),

20, 21, 25,


;

28, 29,

33)

as tile (52),

and

Mersekha

(xliv. 11),

and Qa

vases (55, 58)


xli. 73,

as vases of
;

Den

(xxxvii. 78

84,
(xlii.

The unusual objects

are the tweezers

79, 81)
;

as decoration of

Azab

75

77)
50

as a vase of Mersekha (xliii. 24, as beads of

25

which are admirably made with a wide hinge and stiff points; the rymer (xliii. 17), the bowl
(xliii.

xliv. 10)

Qa (41

43)

and as a tall
(xlv.

18), the fish-hooks (xlv. 19, 20),


76).

and the

stand, inlays,
35,

and beads of Khasekhemui


After such

axe

(xlv.

For the great mass of copper


pi. ixA.

62).

examples and

the

models see the account of


33.
plates

glaze

tile

found at Hierakonpolis there can be no


Illrd

hesitation in accepting the date of the

We

will

now

note the objects on these


classes,

Dynasty

for the

doorway of glazed

tiles

from

the step pyramid of Saqqara.

which are outside of the above which need some explanation.


Pl.

and

Of metals we
in the 1st
from. that.

find gold, silver, copper,

and

XXXII.

10, a scratch

comb

of obsidian,

lead in the prehistoric time, and their uses here

of the type of later prehistoric times.

26
43,

28,
bone

Dynasty are naturally continuous

model cylinder
needles.
legs.

seals.

38,

40,

42,

The gold bar

of

Mena

(iiiA. 7),

the

51, 63, portions of the tops of chair 60,

gold bracelets of Zer

(pi.

i.),

the gold pin of


(viA.

59,

parts

of ivory

gaming

sticks,

Zer (va.
the

7),

the gold frame of Zer


vases,

19),

carved in imitation of

slips of reed.

66, dried

gold-topped

gold

bangles, of

gold-

sycomore

figs

strung on a thread.

67, 68, a slate

mounted sceptre, and gold pins


(ix.)

Khasekhemui have been already described. Of minor


xli.

palette for grinding eye-paint, with ivory lid to

keep dust from


xxxiv. 23
Pl.
;

it

such were usual (see ii. 11-

objects there are here on pi.

a copper rod

xxxviii. 2, 50, 51).

plated thickly with gold (83), and a knob of thin

XXXIII.

An

undisturbed

tomb was

;;

THE INVENTORY PLATES.


found by accident in the Osiris temenos last year. The soil was so wet that the bones were mostly
gether, so
it is

37

probable that there were several

such rods.

12, 13. Portions of ivory

boxes

13
it

and only fragments of the skull, crushed under an inverted slate bowl, were predissolved;
served.

has a long division

down

the middle of

for the inscription see pl. v. 4.

18. Parts of a

The head had been laid upon a sandstone corn grinder. The beautiful ivory duck dish found by the head was figured last year
(B. T.
i.,

thin division, such as that in

box

13.

20.

A
40.

hollowed-out base of ivory, drawn on the under


side to

show the cutting and


of

holes.

24

xxxvii.

1,

and

see pp. 27, 28, for

list

of

Fragments
section,

ivory
it

bracelets,

showing

the

the pottery).

Around

the sides of the

were over two dozen jars of pottery,


large.

tomb most of them

and below

the curvature of the frag-

ment. 41
of ivory. of ivory.

48.

Fragments of decorated bracelets


52.

And

near the body were sixteen stone

49

Fragments of thin bangles


Fragments
;

vases and bowls,

drawn

in this pi. xxxiii.


7,. 8,

Some
The
151).
scarcely
1.

53

72.
A
is

of

bangles

of

of the forms, such as 3,

are

new to
is

us.

various stones, &c.


is

the cloudy chalcedony (58)


of these,

strange three-sided pottery bowl, 22,

the most striking


77.

being highly

known

elsewhere, except in stone (see

pi.

polished.

piece of the clear green ser-

few beads lay by the neck (16


(23),

21), with

pentine which

frequent in prehistoric work.

bit of a shell bangle

and a piece of

shell

78

79.
A

Pieces of malachite cut for ornament.

scraper (24).

A few flint flakes

were scattered

80.

serpent head of lazuli highly polished

As there is no museum in 35 ) England where such a complete tomb can be placed, it was sent to Philadelphia, in order that the whole series should be arranged as originally
in the grave (26
.

this is

one of the very few things that might be


;

of uncertain age
(pl. vi.
its
it

and though the snake head


this

2) shows that
is

might occur then, yet


Osiris.

work

so

much

like that of later times that

found.

The age
B.

of
as

it is

is

certainly close to the

may

belong to some offering to

There

reign of Mena,

seen on
i.,

comparing the
xl.,
xli.,
is

were a few distinctly late objects found, due to


the Osiris worship here, which
in this

pottery forms
xlii.,

T.

pis.

xxxix.,
this

we do

not notice
is

on which everything from


M.I.
19,
;

tomb

volume

but scarcely anything found


81.

marked
Pl.

of doubtful
20.

age.

lazuli

plaque
i.

shows

XXXIV.

Carved ivory hands


pl.

that other jewellery like that of pl.


here.
83.

1 existed

from statuettes

compare
is is

xxxviii. 54.

21.
22.

This portion of a dog This forepart of a dog

also in pl. viA. 9. like

one found by
56

De
61.

The overlaying of wood with thin sheet copper was a favourite manufacture the sheet is usually attached by a close row of very
;

Morgan

in the

Naqada Mena-tomb.

small nails.

Rods of ivory with flat ends, but longer than these, were found in prehistoric tombs {Naqada 74. The carving of a bundle of reeds vii., lxi.). bound together is also in xxxix. 47, and xliii. 3537. 81. An ivory spoon of the same form
as the later prehistoric spoons.
82, 83.
vi.

Pl.
sticks

XXXVI.
and

Many
all

pieces of

were found,

of

wooden throwwhich I compared toconnections

gether,

any

possible

were

observed.
figs.
1,

It is

not certain that the pieces in


3

2,

14,

are really connected, but they

An

ear
84,

serve to
pieces of

explain one another.

13.
;

Many
in

of corn, also photographed in pl.

17.

wooden wands were found carved

86, 91. Pieces of small bowls of ivory.

the form of shoots of a reed or rush


all

nearly

Pl.
7,

XXXV.
10,

2,3,4. Portions of boxes of ivory.

have been burnt, and broken into small


23, 24, 25. Pieces of

9,

15.

Parts of the heads of staves or


11. Pieces

pieces.

chair legs.

of long

conical

ivory

carved in wood. 27

30.

unknown objects Pieces of thin wood with


from feathers

rod

many such were

found, but none fitted to-

incised pattern, probably copied

38

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE


31

Tst

DYNASTY.
57.

like pi. xliv. 26.

34. Pieces of small boxes.

pl.

xxxiv. 19, 20.

A strange piece of inlay,


;

35. 36.

Middle plug, of a bow made of two horns. Tip of a born bow.


39.

apparently of green glass, partly decomposed,

A curious piece of
lid

with a dark strip

let into it

the form

is

like

a wooden cup, which has had a

dropping

in,

that of the piece on

pl. xli. 82.

and secured by twisting


should catch in a
slot.

it

round

so that a stud

44. Part of a large conical

The lower division of plate should have been marked as being from the tomb of Den Setui.

cup of wood.

85. Part of a mace-head of quartz covered with

green glaze, like the glazed quartz of Hiera-

34.

Pl.

carved as a

XXXVII. 19. A wand of wood human arm, with bracelet the


;

konpolis.

86,

87. Pieces of fluted

mace-heads

of dolomite marble, as on pl. xli. 95.

There
this

is

underside

is

almost

flat.

18, 22.

Small studs

a repeated order of the objects from

tomb,

from boxes.

32. Part of a fluted octagonal 33. Part of an ivory carving

as pis. xxxviii., xxxix. belong to the first season,

column of

ivory.

and
90.

pis. xl., xli. to

the second season of work.

of a growing plant.

39, 40.

Two

fragments of

delicate ivory carving of feathers, probably

from
42.

royal

hawk

in

ivory of

large

size.

The dried sycomore figs strung together (as on pl. xxxii. 66) were found in great quantities such strings of figs are commonly
;

Pieces of glaze for inlaying, of two different

sold in

Egypt

at present.

designs alike in outline.

57. Piece

of

wood

Pl.

XXXIX.

2125.
(see
it,

Pieces
94),

of

a large

carved to represent a growing shoot.


Pieces of ivory tusk pierced with
the
pl.

59

61.

serpentine vase

xli.

with

cordage
of Zer,

many

holes,

pattern
pl. vi.

carved on
27.

like

the vase

purpose of which
xxxix. 55

is

unknown.

See also

26. Pieces

of a

cylinder vase

of

57.
each.
1.

ivory, aparently

copied

from a bucket made


together.
32.

XXXVIII. The numbers of the tombs in cemetery W, where the objects were found, are
Pl.

of separate staves

bound

Small

thin slips of ivory have been found, with a slot

placed

below

Part

of

vase

of

running rather more than half through.

34.

smooth
pattern.
8.

light red pottery,


2.

marked with cordage


lid of a

Fragments of decoration of uas and


the bracelet
pl.
vi.
1.

anleh, like

Part of an ivory

kohl

slate.

50.

thisk piece of

Ivory hair pin, with degraded form of bird


:

ebony with notched edge, perhaps part of an


adjustable rack work.
still

on the top
pl.

the bird top

is

common
47

in all the
;

51. Bull's leg in

ebony

prehistoric periods, see Diospolis Parva, p. 21


viB.

attached to the side of a stool or casket.

878

Naqada,

lxiii.

50

lxiv.

54.

Wooden
XL.

tablet

with

ink

writing

still

75
of

84
it,

and

this is

probably the latest example


9
this

partly legible.
Pl.
1, 2.

at the close of the archaic period.

29.

Plates of ivory,
;

warped by the
is

Examples of the various beads of


grouped according to the graves
were found.
has
it,

age,

burning of the tomb

their

purpose

un-

in

which they
staff

known.
21.

10. Parts of a large

bodkin of ivory.

34. Tip of a

wooden
foil

which

still

some of the copper


nails

covering upon
34.
after
pl.
ii.

fragment of a bone comb, like the prehistoric form (see Diospolis, ix. 22, or Naqada,
lxiv. 70)
;

and the

at

the

side.

Piece of

as this type entirely died out in the


it

inscription

on pottery, incised

baking
15 and

later

prehistoric age,
is

seems most probable


22.

apparently the same signs as on


pl.

that this

an older object strayed here.

xv. 113.

48, 49. Portions of ivory carving

Part of a

flat 'stand of

ivory with rope border,

of reeds.

50, 51, 53.


is

Small

slate palettes for

kohl

50

much hollowed by

use.

54. Finely

and part of the name of Den on the edge. 23. Piece of ivory with the bee from the royal
titles.

carved ivory hand from a statuette, see also

24. Piece

of

ivory

with

part

of

THE INVENTOKY PLATES.


rekjiyt

39

deeply incised.

26.

The mouth

of a

those from Zet, Den, and Mersekha

they

may

leopard in ivory, front and side view,


drilled holes to

with

have been scattered from one tomb.

78.

be

filled

with inlay.
(?).

28, 29.

piece of an ivory bracelet with a royal name.


83.

Pieces of the haunch of a lioness Pieces of ivory

30

36.

Block

of

quartzite

sandstone,

use

un-

boxes,

&c.

38. Piece

of an

known.
Pl. XLIII. 10. Apparently the two legs of an

ivory thistle or corn flower

87. Part of a (?). square of ivory inlay with dovetail on the back,

animal in ivory, from the support of some small


object.

see xliv. 29.


figure,

92. Piece of the

wig

of a life-size

21.

highly finished piece of wood


22. Finely-carved

which must have been


is

built
93.

material, as this piece


96.

thin.

up of varied Top of a staff.

carving, of unknown purport.

mat- work in wood.

23. Piece of
it.

wood with
probably
fig.

Horn cut

to imitate poles lashed together.

three finger- signs engraved on

26. Pieces of

99. Probably part of a rope pattern inlay of


different woods.

wood

for inlaying in coarse patterns,

the middle pieces of the twist pattern,

40,

Pl. XLI.

52.

A piece

of mat-pattern ivory,

on a large

scale.

27, 28. Pieces of a large bier


;

with signs cut on the edges of the back, to mark


the fitting of the next piece.
55. Part of a

carved with mat pattern


traces of linen

upon such

pieces are

and of
bier.

silver

ornaments which

cylinder of ivory, probably a small case, with


recess for fitting in the bottom.
56. Part of a

have lain on the

Pl.XLIV.
of reed.
2.

1.

Wood carving of a growing shoot


24. Piece

thick cylinder of ivory.

57. Part of an ivory


61. Piece

Part of wooden thro wstick. 22. Part


23. Piece of horn bracelet.

box, with holes for lashing together.


of carbonized
pattern.

of another. of

wood carved with

plaited

mat

62. Piece of carbonized

wood with
with weights

wood carved with net pattern. wood carved with a pattern which
dark colour.
26. Piece

25. Piece of
is

inlaid with

relief pattern, apparently of a net

of elaborately-carved

hung on

it.
;

70.
it

Piece of

wood carved with

feathering from a large figure of a bird in

wood

spiral pattern

seems to have been coated


secured at the row of nail
73, 81.

compare the
39, 40.

finer ivory carving

on

pl.

xxxvii.

with copper

foil,

holes along the side.

The blue glazed


flat

ware
pl.

is

like that found in the previous year,

The above objects were found in the earth which had been thrown over from the tomb of Qa and mixed with that of Mersekha,
so

xxxviii. 82, 83.

76.

The

ribbed bead,

their original place

is

uncertain.

27

31.

pierced to serve as a spacer in a necklace or


bracelet,
use.

Pieces of
dovetails

ivory inlay showing the system of

shows that such a form was already in

on the

slant,

by which each piece

77.

Fragment

of a lioness, like the pieces

could be keyed into a wooden base, without


sliding
it

on

pl. xl. 28, 29.

82. Inlay of

banded limestone,
of a
87.

in a long groove.

see pl. xxxviii. 57.

84.

Fragment

model

Pl. the

XLV.

Scarcely anything was found in

cylinder seal, with ink inscription.


ently a weight, with a loop top
;

Appar-

tomb

of Perabsen,

and

all

these objects have

now broken as this pattern is well known in the off XlXth Dynasty and onward, this may well be
than the tomb.
Pl. XLTI. Great quantities of ivory inlay from

been noted under their

classes.

The same may

be said of the objects from Khasekhemui. While

later

Amelineau was going on I bought a copper axe of the same form as fig. 76, but with the numerals " 43 " upon it.
the
of M.

work

a box were found in the grave X 62. 37. Handle 41. Piece of adze, the only early one yet found.
of ink- written tablet of wood. 75-77. of

35.

Some

analyses of the metals were

made

by Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S., who has kindly communicated to

Some pieces

me

the following results.

narrow ribbed

violet glazed

ware resemble

The

alloy of the gold

was always with

silver,

40

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


The samples
Qa.
84-0

1st

DYNASTY.

and in about the same proportions.


contained
:

on the surface, which was seen with the microscope.

There was no copper or


as the source of the metal.

iron.

This

Zet.

Mersekha.
84-2
13'5

proportion suggests the native electrum of Asia

Gold
Silver

79-7
13-4
93-1

Minor

12-95

The
copper,

copper

bands

were

practically
I

pure

but containing about

per cent, of
tin.

Percent.

97'7

9695

manganese.

There was no trace of

The

loss is

probably due to chloride of silver

41

CHAPTEE

VI.

THE VASES.
36
of
.

"When we began to accumulate thousands


stone vases

only course
I

now

is

to publish the forms

which

fragments of

from the royal

have restored.
37.

tombs, some practical method of dealing with


so great a

How

to separate

and identify the varied


place all the pieces

mass of material became urgent.


study.

To
first

forms from each cart-load of broken scraps, was


the problem.

merely photograph the fragments in front view


is

In the

first

absolutely useless for

In the

from any one tomb were kept together, and such were treated without reference to any other

place

we had

to

abandon any hope of re-uniting


In
classes,

the pieces of broken slate and alabaster.

tomb

until

worked up.

They were

sorted into

some of the most promising


brims of
jars,

such as the

about two dozen different classes of materials,


such as quartz crystal, basalt, porphyry, syenite,
granite, volcanic ash, metamorphic, serpentine,
slate,

slate bowls, or the alabaster cylinder

we searched
it

exhaustively for possible join-

ings of the pieces from one tomb, but found so

dolomite marble, alabaster, various coloured

very few that


with the
less

was

clearly hopeless to deal

marbles and limestones, saccharine marble, grey


limestone,
classes

distinctive

fragments of bowls

and coarse white limestone.

The

without bottom or edge.

Hence the

slate

and

were made as small as was compatible with

alabaster fragments were only searched for such


pieces as gave in themselves some distinct form

no piece being of uncertain class.


All the pieces of one class from one

tomb

and the great bulk was


wanted

left

behind on the top

were then laid out, often numbering


hundreds
;

many

surface of our excavations (so as to be accessible


if

such as were of any peculiar stone

in future) or in heaps at our huts.

were put together, and the rest were laid with


all

But every fragment


was exhaustively

of

all

other kinds of stone


:

the brims together in lines along the top of


all

collected

and these tens of


been exhaustively
could be

the table,

the middle pieces laid with the

thousands of pieces have


ing: and nearly

all

axis vertical, and all bases together along the

compared, so as to secure every possible joinall

the forms that

restored have been


pis.

now drawn, and are


Most

given on
for

brim was then compared with every other piece, and any of the same radius of curvature and profile
lower edge of the table.
piece of

xlvi.

to

liiic

unfortunately

science
Paris,

much had been

already carried away to

were put together. The same was done with the bases. The brims and bases thus sorted were then compared with the middle
especially
pieces,

and

has lain there since, entirely useless

and unstudied. Whenever that mass of fragments is open to research it is obvious that most
of

noting

the

angle of

the line
gives

of

fracture

with the vertical, which

the

them

will fall into place along with the other

quickest

means

of identification.

Sometimes

pieces

which I have already


is

classified

into

several different bowls

were so nearly alike that


trial of fitting

hundreds of separate bowls.


such re-union of fragments

At

present any

only a complete and exhaustive

declined.

So the

each piece to every other would suffice to settle

42

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


Such work
it
is

1st

DYNASTY.
;

their real connection.

tedious

the piece of brim

and

if

the pieces extend to

and exhausts the


full

attention, so that
;

cannot be

the same radius of the bowl, they are merely

usefully continued for long

and

difficult tables-

adjusted to bring the outer surfaces into one


line
;

would sometimes remain

for

many

days,

or if there

is

an interval, yet

it

can be

being attacked by different sorters whenever


other

easily seen, within a very small

amount, what

is

work allowed. The final condition of all these fragments now that there are some eight hundred paper

the height must be to render their outlines into

one curve.

For the drawings the following measurements


were taken: Height; radius, maximum; radius
of lip
;

packets each containing the fragments of some

one vase, each labelled with the name of the


material, the tomb,

radius

of base

height

of
;

maximum
if

and the number of the form.

radius

angle of rise from base


;

needful,

Whenever
it is

fresh

fragments

may

be

available,

angle

of side with brim

sometimes also the

only needful to look over the forms drawn,

angle at some intermediate point of the curve, or the height and radius of points along the
curve, especially for pieces of large bowls.

for

any that correspond,


is

in order to at once
if

turn up the parcels of those forms, and see


joining
possible.

After

In this way, after I had done

marking
scale,

all

these dimensions and angles on half

the greater part of our material, I frequently


identified the rest of a vase

a freehand outline was drawn, looking

from

a single frag-

closely at the character of the form.

Then the

ment

in a

minute or two.

thickness of the bowl was measured at two or

The restoration of the forms from the fragments was another question. Any piece of brim, or of base edge, gives two facts, (1) the
38.
radius of curvature, or distance from the axis of

three points, and the inside curve was drawn.

Lastly the drawings were all inked in

by Miss

Orme, blacking the whole of the ground, and


drawing the inner curve.
this

For dark materials

the vase, and (2) the angle that the side makes

drawing

is

then photographically reversed,

with the

horizontal.

Hence

it

is

possible to

so as to give a dark figure with a white line.

place a piece of brim and a piece of base into

The numbers and


all classified

references

were written in

approximate position without any intermediate


parts or joining.

with white on the black ground.

The forms are

The mode of doing this may be


of pi. viiiA.

from the most open to the most

seen at the base

frame, like
it

closed.

three sides of a cube, has on the floor of

card ruled into


piece of brim
is

circles, half

an inch apart.

39. Pis. xlvi., xlvii. Quartz Crystal. These vases were mostly of smaller size than those in

set

on

this,

mouth down, rocked


by a
to
leg of

until the edge rests fairly on the card all along,

The colour varies a good deal, and serves to distinguish the vases into several
other materials.
classes.

and,

if

needful, held at that angle


it.

The chatoyant
is

quartz, often with opal


for thick

wax

stuck on to

Then
fits

it is slid

and from

tints in the sunshine,

was used mainly


to

the centre until


circles.

it

parallel to the nearest

forms, and

restricted

Den.

The

clear

Thus

it is

put at the right angle, and

yellowish or
size,

centred on the card.


its

Next the

piece of base has

and used by Qa.

smoky quartz was mainly of small The very thin, clear


in three

curvature measured by a celluloid film ruled


circles.

quartz, like a watch-glass, belongs to Mersekha.

with

And

it is

then stuck with

wax on

The fragments of No. 22 were scattered


tombs
it
;

to the foot of a sliding rod centred to the axis,

but they probably belong together, as

the rod moving in grooves exactly above the


centre of the card.

is

a peculiar oval bowl, of which the two

be

slid

Thus the piece of base can up and down on the same axis as that of

sections are shown, one inside the other.

piece of base

is

The intermediate between the two

THE YASES.
axes.

43

Where an

inner curve

is

not continuous

The large

jars,

Nos. .122 127, are only found


;

in these restorations, it

means that there are no


outline,

otherwise in serpentine

they descend from the

fragments completing the whole


that
it
is

but

types which were usual throughout the latter


half of the prehistoric age.

carried out

by

projection from the

The

flattened ovoid

pieces at top and base.

Where

either top or

forms, Nos. 129-132, also have as long a history

base

is

entirely missing, then a broken outline


as in Nos.
3,'

of

descent from the prehistoric.


is

The

fluted

is left,

5, 6, 10, 13, 14,

4c.

46

is

form, 129,

of the

same

class as the fluted bowl,


it is

probably the neck of a small

bottle.

88, from the pattern of the base

evidently

The thick

salt-cellar forms, Nos.

48

50, are

only found in crystal.


Pis. xlvi. a, b.
is

Basalt.

The brown

basalt

The same type was in the Naqada Mena-tomb (De Morgan, Bechemhes, ii. fig. 684). The very large porphyry
copied from basket work.

of the same quality as that used in the fourth

with a dark grey base, like 133, seems to have been only worked in the age of Mena, as the

dynasty for building, coming from El Khankah near Bubastis. It is too soft to bear working:
very thin in general, and most of the vases are
thick and heavy.

examples
others
fig.

all

in

came from group B, and are like the Naqada Mena-tomb (Bech. ii.
1a.,
Ii.

The

tall

cylinder vases, with

603).
xlix a.,
1.,

wavy

or rope lines (Nos. 76

83)
three

are seldom

Pis.

Volcanic.
is

The

found except in basalt and alabaster.


limestone

Most of
materials

variety of the volcanic material


to classify.
I

very

difficult

the other basalt forms also are akin to those in

have distinguished in the draw-

and

alabaster,

all
;

ings between vole, which includes all material


of varying grain such as volcanic ash, crystalline
lavas,

belonging to the Nile valley

while the forms

of the materials from the igneous rocks of the

&c.

and

met.

(metamorphic), which

eastern desert, are of a different


Pis. xlviii. a, b, xlix.

class.

includes

all

materials which have a uniform fine or


is

Porphyry and Syenite. There are here classed together some very different materials, but they vary so imperceptibly one

grain of recrystallization
altered.

clearly

much
was

As

all

metamorphic rocks are included


be in this
class.

here, gneiss has to

It

from another that

it

is

impossible to
of

needful to wet most of the pieces and examine

make
felspar

a clear division.
is

The general nature


sy. for syenite,
;

with a magnifier before even this rough


cation could be made.

classifi-

each vase

shown by

where the
por.
for

The three -lobed bowl,


;

surrounds the darker base

No. 151,
in

is

very unusual
of

the same idea occurs

porphyry, where the darker base surrounds the


felspar
crystals,

pottery

the

age of

Mena

(pi.

xxxiii.

large

for.

for large

grained
felspar,

22).

porphyry, with detached big crystals of

PL Ha.

Serpentine.
;

The colour
other

of

this

and

di. for

diorite,

meaning the rather soapytranslucent,


sub-crystalline

varies greatly

some

is

of the green translucent


;

looking,

speckled,

kind usual in the prehistoric age with red veins


jars
:

is

green

Probably a petrologist would replace rock. each of these names by much longer, less known, but my object is to and more exact terms
;

other

is

brown

and the large

are coarse yellow with black veins

much
of

decomposed.

by the obvious appearances which the ancients probably recognized. The fluted bowl of red porphyry, No. 88, is like some pieces found at Naqada, which were probably of the same age. The pink granite, No.
distinguish the rocks

40.
slate

PI.

Kb.

Slate.
all of

The

hundreds

bowls are nearly


is

the types 222

227.

One bowl, 214,

oval, the

drawing showing

the narrow view, and the wide view being

about half as wide again.


vases occur, 228, 229.

102, was published last year in B. T.

i.

vi.

8.

Two curious necked And besides the cylinder

44

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE


is

1st

DYNASTY.
This type had begun early in the
iii.)
;

vase, 230, there


pi.

another in the photographs,


This ma-

later time.

vik. 16.
Pis. lie, d, e.

prehistoric (Diospolis,

it

lasted on to the

Dolomite Marble.
class.

terial varies

much, but cannot be confounded


It
is

Vlth Dynasty, widened much to the top with in the Xth Dynasty it flat brim (Dios. xxviii.)
;

with any other

hard, opaque, white,


is

became more

cylindrical again (Dios. xxviii.)


it
;

with veins

sometimes the veining

of clearer

and in the Xllth Dynasty

again widened
after

white, but usually of grey, and sometimes of

much
Pis.

to the top (Dios. xxix.)

which

it

quartz

almost black.
is

dolomite

left

The magnesia of the on the surface as a powdery


it

seems to have become extinct.


liiiB.,

c,

d.

Coloured Limestone.

white

incrustation, if

has been exposed to

great variety of marbles, limestones, and breccias


are all grouped together here, as being similar
in nature, to

solution

by weathering.
is

like those of the volcanic

The forms are much vases. The spout in

and none of them numerous enough


class.

No. 265
other

also

sites.

met with in volcanic ash from The type No. 281 is a favourite
tombs
;

form a separate

They

are

more usual
first.

in the later reigns, as soft stone supplanted the

in the earlier

it

is

often of a pinky
all

hard igneous rocks that were most used at

white colour, and scarcely at

veined.

The

The forms are not

distinctive

but some unusual end

form 288
armlet.

is

a plain ring of stone, perhaps an

types occur, such as 403-6, 412, 454, and the


old prehistoric form 455,

which comes to

its

Pis. Hf., g, h, Hi.,


is

liii., liiiA.

Alabaster.
all,

This

in this dynasty.
differs

The pendant form


so
far

of this type

the commonest material of

and

is

mainly

much from

the spheroidal type given in


as
I

used for cylinder jars, which are of


to nine inches
also
across.

all sizes

up

Nos.

129

131

have seen the

The bowls, which are

examples, both from the royal tombs and else-

very common, are not fully represented

where, the pendant form was only


breccia,

made

in

here, as illness during the last

week

at

Abydos

and

in a late period
earlier,

the spheroidal

prevented

The
age

flat

working over a large quantity. saucers, Nos. 295 298, are like what

my

form was the


for the

and was preferred always

hard rocks.

were found at Hierakonpolis, probably of the


of

Pis. liiiE., e.

Grey Limestone.
;

There are
the
;

Narmer

(Hierakon.

pi.

xxxiv.).

The

some

varieties in this class

the grey and white


;

cylinder jars are divided into those without a

saccharine marble, often with green tints

band (336344), with wavy band (345355), with rope band (356 392), and with plain band (393 398) and in each of these classes

brown-grey limestone taking


earthy limestone
polish.

a soapy polish
;

the grey and white shelly limestone


;

the dull

and

soft

grey taking a high


;

the examples are put in historical order.

The

The forms are mostly usual types


ribbed saucer, 462,
is

but

wavy band belongs


age,

to the earlier part of this

the

little

unique

and the
all

the 1st Dynasty.


of the rope

and disappears altogether half-way through The most important example

oval jar with

wavy

handle, 483, differs from

other examples.
PI. liiiG.

band

is

the great vase of Narmer,


is

Rough Limestone.
in

This class
forms,

is

No. 359.

The rope pattern


double

often

made with
is

always coarse and thick

the

the

wide cuts across the ridge at all periods of this


age.

material being unsuited to the finer

work

and

The

band

(368,

369)

very

most of

it is

of the later period.


directly

unusual.

Some examples

are

only given in
;

half view (381

388), to save space

but paired

thus they give the general

effect of the size.

drawn here there were many examples which were so closely like others already drawn that it was
needless to repeat them.

41. Beside the vase forms

The very narrow

forms, 379, 392, belong to the

They need, however,

THE VASES.
to be recorded in order to be able to identify

45

any fragments that may be elsewhere, and to show what are the forms known in each material.
Also the statistics of the use
different reigns,

of materials in
of the different

and the history

types, will require a complete record such as


this,

whenever they are worked


lists

out.

In the

following

the materials are classed as in the


is

plates, the

given,

number of the form duplicated the tomb letter, and any needful detail
size.

of

the material, or note of different

Crystal.

46

ROYAL TOMBS OP THE


42.
Last year

1st

DYNASTY.

many
the

pieces

of

pottery
to

closely resembling
light in the

Aegean ware came

that

of

tomb of Mersekha, and a few in Den these are shown on pi. liv.
:

The marks on the pottery are not Egyptian another example of such found this year is shown on pi. xxv. 12. The external evidence for the decorated
common.
;

Before publishing
ascertain whether

these

thought

best

to

pottery

is

that the

fragments are nearly


of one

all

such pottery

was
if

already
it

found

in
;

the

ruins

tomb

that

of

known

in

any other connection, and

were

Mersekha
of the

and no

later

offerings

were placed
little

possibly due to any later offerings than those of

there beyond a small sprinkle of

saucers

the 1st Dynasty.

wangler and Prof.

The opinion of Prof. FurtWolters was that the ware


earliest Island pottery
;

XXIInd
Osiris

Dynasty.
is

Whereas, in contrast,
tons
of

not a single piece

found on the tomb of Zer,

most resembled the

but

the
that
ings.
it

shrine

where

pottery

that the exact fabric


soil.
it

was yet unfixed on Greek

offerings were placed from the XVIIIth to the

Mr. Arthur Evans, however, claims that

XXVIth

Dynasties.

The evidence

is

strong

resembles some of the pottery of tbe Ilnd


I

Dynasty from El Kab, which


so, it

have not yet


it.

was not then brought with later offerAgain, the few bits found in the earlier

had the opportunity of comparing with

If

would only show that such pottery continued to come from the same source, wherever
that might have been.

We

will

now

look at

the internal and external evidences.

tomb of Den (the first three pieces on the plate and others this year) are of a ruder and less complete fabric, and might well precede the rest by a few generations. The evidence about the second class, the
unpainted pottery,
small
is

The body of the ware is identical with that of the same later Aegean or Mykenaean pottery
;

now
the

absolute.

In

the

N.-W.

cell

of

tomb

of

Zer

some
in the

soft,

light-brown clay, decomposing in


is

flakes.

offerings

remained unmoved, owing to the later

Such
in

quite

unknown

in Egypt.

finished with a finer clay, in

The face is a manner unknown

brick stair having been built over

them

XVIIIth Dynasty,
tomb.

after

the burning of the


of

Egypt until the Greek influence of the XVIIIth Dynasty. The colouring is the iron
the

In

this cell

was an important group

pottery, caked

together by resins -and burnt

oxide, burnt either red or black, exactly as on

linen in the burning of the tomb.


is

This pottery

known

Mykenaean pottery a colouring unEgypt until the Greek influence, and then very unusual. The patterns are those common on the Mykenaean pottery, such as
all
;

of the
in

European

class,

of forms quite un-

in

known
the

Egypt, and clearly the same fabric as


base of
pi.
liv.

pottery at the

Unfor-

tunately

my

illness at

the last prevented


it

my
;

< < < <, spot patterns, and zigzag lines all of these are unknown in Egyptian work, and
:

drawing or photographing
so
it

for this

volume

will

be published next year.

Suffice to

indeed no patterned Egyptian pottery


until the

is

known

say here that pottery of a fabric and of forms


entirely foreign to

XVIIIth Dynasty.
these
is

Egypt, and of

European
B.C.

With

also another class

of pottery

character,

is

now

absolutely dated to the second

(at the base of the plate)

which

is

entirely un-

king of the

1st

Dynasty, about 4700

Egyptian in the forms, the


paste.

colour,

and the

What

difficulty is there in accepting the

good

The

outlines of

it

are clearly of the

evidence here given for the beginning of such

European

family,

and never occur in Egypt

Aegean pottery ?
2000
b.c.

We now know
was

that in Crete

until copied in a late time.

The three small

a grand civilization
;

in full course before

handles only appear in the

XlXth Dynasty,
pottery

and was in

communication with

when

Greek

influence

and

became

Egypt, as shown by the diorite statue of the

THE VASES.
Xllth Dynasty and the jar lid of King Khyan. That such a civilization had a long past and
growth, cannot
stages of
it

47

ha-

the

palaces

of the end of the 1st

and beginning of the Ilnd Dynasty.


27

be

doubted.

Many
;

earlier

48

give the

Ka

arms,

often

connected

town below town exists beneath the palace of Knossos and that men
are found,

with other signs.

49
as

66 show some animal, probably the same


stele.

were

beginning

to

make
on

the

characteristic
B.C. is

on
67

64

(pi. xxix.),

which

may

be the

painted pottery in the Aegean at 4700


perfectly

jerboa.

open question

the

Greek

side.

77 are

birds,

but cannot be distinguished,

When
to the

the only evidences of age in Crete pledge


full

as the

different forms

were not well fixed by


the

us to go back from classical times

half-way

this time.

Egyptian

date,

and then show that we


it

78

94

are

serpents

group

of

two

are very far from the beginning,

seems that

serpents being usuaL

we should be

led in

any

case

by the Greek
is

95

evidence to within some few centuries of the

103

102 are 135 show a form which may be intended


fishes.

age here indicated.

And

there

absolutely
earliest

for the

winged

disc

neter

lea is

often placed

nothing to cut short the scale of the


ages in Greece.
until

with

it,

and

also the

yoke

sign.

The only conclusion


clear evidence

possible,

136 154
hills.

153

are all

the neter sign in various

some equally
is

may
to

appear to

combinations.

contradict this,

to accept the dating of the rise

163 are the


is
is

hill signs,

both three and two

of decorated pottery in the

Aegean

4700

B.C.

43.
year.

The Marks on
It is only

pottery, pis.

lv.,

abcd,

165 166 168

the hieroglyph

th.

are of the same classes as those described last

the hieroglyph mer, the hoe.

by completely collecting these, and publishing them year by year, that it will be possible at last to build up a history of the
use of such signs, and to disentangle the hiero-

171 show the hieroglyph hotep.


the sa hieroglyph.

172174 176178
179
1 88

give

the so-called yoke


pi. xvi.

sign, for

which see sealings 115, 116, on


sign, res,

glyphic from the linear signs.

That the
is

latter

go back to early prehistoric time

certain ;

and

that they continued in use until the alphabets


of the Mediterranean were selected from them,
is

187 the plant "southern." 195 the star and crescent,or star in a 198 204 the divided square, perhaps the mat
circle.

hieroglyph p.

shown by the tables published in the last volume (Royal Tombs, i. p. 32). In the last volume the part of a name, No. 1
(on
pi. xliv.),

206 the group sennu in hieroglyphs.

228230 233240
242
the

the double vase.

231, 232 the spout vase.

which

is

the

tail of

now

place as belonging

to

we can Narmer, since we


a
fish,

the anlch sign.


tep sign
;

293 thedagger

combined with

find the fish alone in the square

on his

sealings.

Ka

arms, a bird, the neter sign, a spotted

The names of king Ka, which are the most important of the incised marks, are given on
pi. xiii. in this

disc, &c.

The groups of
glyphs,

signs after this,

294
the

491, are
system of

volume, for comparison with his


probably
Nos.
dis-

not such as can be identified with any hiero-

seal.

but mostly belong to

The groups,
all

pi.

lv.,

6 to 13,
of

are

linear signs

which

is

already classified in the


lvi.,

blundered

examples

Mersekha.

previous volume.

Plates

IviA.,

and

lvii.

16

26 are the sa-ha palace

name; not

have been noticed in


of the tombs.

detail in the descriptions

tinguished between sa-ha-neb, sa-ha-ka, and sa-

48

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE

1st

DYNASTY.

CHAPTER
By
F.
la,.

VII.

THE INSCRIPTIONS.
Griffith, M.A.,

F.SA.

44,

The second campaign

at

Abydos has
inscriptions

the abundant remains of later times offering no


parallels to the tablet inscriptions

again doubled the mass of

known

and

sealings.

belonging to the period of the earliest dynasties.


This time there are few inscriptions on vases,

Professor Petrie's second instalment of material


follows so quickly on the first that

no criticism
I.

but in other

classes

more material has been

of the

readings proposed in Part


its

has yet
is

recovered than was the case even last year.


Besides objects dating from the compact group
of First Dynasty kings following Mena, which

found

way

into

print.

Such

criticism

certain to be forthcoming before long,


fail

and cannot

to be

beneficial.

Meanwhile, in

my

brief

formed the bulk of the

finds

in

1899-1900,

examination of the plates of inscriptions, I have


the advantage of perusing Mr. Petrie's descriptions,

there are this year others, both earlier and later.

General progress and development

is

observable

with notes of parallel inscriptions and

from the kings before Mena, through the First

conjectures as to the

meaning of the legends


found on

Dynasty and the Second Dynasty, towards the


methods,

as also a conspectus of the titles, etc.,

mannerisms, expressions, and


not

titles

the jar-sealings.

The

current in the Fourth and later Dynasties.


in the

But

new

finds there

is

much

that strikes

up at Mr. Petrie's Thompson, who has annotated


to
titles
it

was quickly drawn request by Mr. Herbert


latter
it

with references

one as wholly novel and unrepresented in those


of last year,
is

of the
to

later

Old Kingdom and has


use of in this chapter.

and

it is

disappointing that there

handed
I

me

to

make

no

single inscription so extensive

even as the

fine stele of
.

Sabef

a series of such

monuments

have drawn largely from both, and in most cases without special acknowledgment. There is
doubtless

would have cleared up a multitude

of difficulties.

much more

In the matter of inscription, therefore, this year's

of these inscriptions,

on the subject but there is no time for


to be said

work

is

rather calculated to solidify the results

research and verification.

of last year than to start fresh lines of discovery.

45.

Notwithstanding the large

quantity of

new
The

U
J

see

PL ii. PL xiii.
The

1.

1,

Apparently a Horus-name where the Horus-stand seems

material, progress in the reading of these very

clear,

and the hands are turned downwards


11.

archaic inscriptions
titles

is

likely to be slow.
titles

8
s ra

n.

principal sign here


T).

is

probably

T
is

of the kings

and some

of officials

or sm'

(hardly

can be recognized easily by analogous groups


used later with the same meaning
;

The group ^^J^"

some proper

paralleled

by "^J" and
xxxii. 32.

^^

in

B.

T.,

I,
is

names

also are fairly obvious


is

but the interpre-

PL

iv. 3,

According to these 8 ma
:

tation of the rest

almost without exception so


is

probably a royal name

otherwise one would be

impossible or so hazardous, that one


to

unwilling

inclined to translate 8m\'t) Nb'ty, "consort of the

venture

a guess as to the meaning.

The
indi;

Double Dominion," especially in No.


the

11,

where
14

legends, besides being excessively concise, are in

name Neithotep
1.

is

added, compare

v. 13,

many

cases very ill-engraved,

and the

and xxv.
13,

No. 10

is

fractured above the


r

V.
the

vidual signs composing them are uncertain


their general sense

to

14 seem to read

M^fe*, suggesting

we have but vague

clues,

name of

the goddess Bast (more precisely written

THE INSCRIPTIONS.
Ubastet,
as
;

49

Prof.

Spiegelberg
T.,
i.,

has

recently
5,

which face in opposite ways, exactly as in later


times.

pointed out)

but in B,

PI. iv.

and

looks like a city-name.

Possibly

below

v.a, figs. 6, 22, 23, xxv. 2

we have

~ww\ is suppressed, as

These names
" Soul of

may

very plausibly be rendered


(or horns) of Isis "
;

sometimes, in
or

may be expected to happen which case we should have

Isis "

and " brow

Mendes

but as yet no firm ground can be

but they are of course open to other interpretations.

reached in regard to geographical names of this


period.

The animal might be a goat or a


is

15 offers a very clear instance of the group


Jf|* JQ-*

tragelaphus sheep (as at Mendes), but

much

JQ^

Rekhyt, preceded perhaps by the

more
its

like a cow,

with an ostrich feather between

horns.

) PL
(1

of PI. xv., No. 113, and PI. xxxviii. 35.


iii.

JIJIJL

The sign below is TtTtT rather than Compare with this PL vi.A 2.

1.

The palm-tree ^p
;

is

a rare sign in

2. 3.

The enclosure contains ?S$^-

ordinary hieroglyphic

as Mr.

Thompson has
i.,

Compare
xvii. 28.

remarked

to me, the

group here (no doubt a

proper name) probably corresponds to the later

PL

^^
(?)

ht s

Hrw

(?)

in B. T.,

O
2.

y^m-yb " Grace of heart."

13, 14. ^=7^=7

also

Note H without projections at the top, in 4 and iii. a 5, 6 = x. 2 and xi. 2, B. T., i.,
Note ^fc in what seems
to be its usual for the

ing of

ers the hand of the Double Lord," reminds


T.,
8.
i.,

which Mr. Petrie reads "wash-

one of B.

PL

xxxii.,

fig.

32,

and above

PI. xiv. 12.

4, 6.

PL ii., fig. PL v.a.


enclosure
captives.
6,

13.

Compare

PL

vii.A

2.

form in the Old Kingdom, and the signs


South and North countries.
jecture that
it

contains

apparently

three

The bound

One might con-

means " Receiving the princes


North and South."
Behind B, and beyond is
and

22, 23.

Compare above PL
4.
.

ii.,

fig.

13.

of the

North and South," or " receiving the


of the

PLvLa.
24.
|l

l^f.

Kingdom
is

-a

A connection between the word


is

it

.the palace gate-tower

and the jackal 47. PL


seal
vii.

shown by the hieroglyph

3?

(fi

above

of -u8.

%J
i
i

^
'

or

jk Horus

(?),

the symbol

5, 6.

The

signs on this important


to

seem from the photograph


(?)

be

Anubis the embalmer

(?).

%%%%,

Mr. Petrie reads behind the ibex-head

n ni

PI. iii.A 5, 6

= x.

2, xi. 2.

46.

PI.

v.

The

variations

of

the

sign

With regard
Miiller,

to the royal

name ^s^, W. Max


Khasty (H J s'ty), has

forming the king's name are considerable, but they point very clearly to its identity with
the printed B' zer, a bundle of stems (?) tied For forms of B* dating from the Vth together.

who would
in

read

it

ingeniously suggested that, being in hieratic,

and especially
glyphic,

late

times in linear hieroit

written

^,

was then misread


in
this

Dynasty
(two
ties)

see Ptahhetep,

I.,

PI.

xiv. 314, 321.

Qnqn, producing Manetho's Kenkenes.


7.

The best examples here are


;

in PI. v., figs. 4, 7

Prof. Sayce has suggested that

on the seals in PI. xv. there is only one tie, as in the normal forms. inscription is remarkable for the 1. This
vertical division-line

remarkable inscription
of writing
interesting.

is

only another
is

way
very

q^d.
It
is

The

figure in front

a very fine example of the


divinity

between two inscriptions

symbol of the rare

Mafdet.

It

is

50

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


T., L,

1st

DYNASTY.
is

found again B.
in
fig.

PL

xxxii. 39, apparently

tombs of the kings, in which a human head


depicted dangling from the hooked staff of

connection with hunting, and by uniting

10 on the present plate


T.,
i.,

with

fig.

4 of

This points to the same interpretation.

Further

B.

PL
1}

vii.,

we
The

obtain a figure of the


j

we may note
feline

that in B.

T.,

i.,

PL

xxxii. 39, the

animal apparently holding


written
.

and with the name


Mafdet in the
is

spelling
<=^>
.

symbol of Mafdet and the jackal symbol of Anubis or of Upuat (Ophois) are seen
associated.
I think that it

Pyramid Texts shows that


its full

here to have
of the

may

be affirmed

word-sign value
d't,

The form
is

that the jackal was the servant messenger and

name M*-f

with the masculine


divinity
is

suffix /,

attendant of the gods


likewise accompanied

and probably Mafdet


as the fierce

suggests that the

male

but the

them

hunter

composition of the name

not certain, and the

and executioner in their employ.

animal resembles a

lioness,
is

and could hardly be

no indication of spots. Probably, therefore, Mafdet is a goddess. In


a leopard, as there

Note that the shrine surmounted by a bucranium, as here shown, forms the hiero8.

glyphic

name

of Crocodilopolis, the capital of


<

the Book of the

Dead
the

(see Hieroglyphs, p. 62,

the Faiyum, and


10. See note
11.

is

read
7.

*=

^,^, Shedet.

where references are given),

in texts of the

on
4

New Kingdom,
cat.
;

name

is

determined by a
it
is

Compare the

closely

similar
It

fragment

In the Pyramid Texts


fig. 7, etc.,

followed by
stone, the

B.

T., L,

PL

xi.

xv. 18.

shows that the


(ib.

in

as

on the Palermo
as
if
it

explanation suggested for that

p.

41)

is

lioness

is

figured
n.

were walking up

impossible, the groups not forming a continuous


sentence, but giving short phrases

the sign
Ptahhetep,

The

latter (see Hieroglyphs

and

I.) is difficult

to explain, but in the


fine

which can be arranged in a very variable order. An examination of the original


12. See

present instance

we have a very
it

example.

may

help to fix the reading.

From

this

we

see that

consists of a taper-

Mr. Petrie's ingenious explanation of

ing rod or

stick,

curved over into a rather


the rod

the signs on p. 25.


13.

broad hook at the top, and a handled knifeblade,

The

inscription

is

[W]

c=>
^

("northern
sign.

which

is

strongly lashed to

corn

" ?)

followed
it

by a peculiar
to be the "

Mr.
"

beneath the hook, and points outwards and


slightly

Petrie supposes
|

measuring cord
staff

upwards on the same

side.

It scarcely

of the king, from the


it is

form of the

on

seems to be an instrument for use, but rather


a ceremonial combination of the instruments
for catching

which

engraved.
1.

PL
PL

vii. a.

From

a hunting

scene.

The

(hooked

stick), for

binding (thongs

jackal standard appears thus also in B. T.,i.,


xxxii.
fig.

or cords), and for killing (knife), whether in

39.

regard to malefactors or to animals.

It

would

2.

Note

thus be very appropriate as a symbol of " attendants " armed to follow their lord in
the

^ jj^

o,
"J

etc., as

on B. T.,l, xv.

16 (see p. 41), xvii. 28.


3.

execution of justice, in
;

war,

or in the
4.
5.

Cf. Cf.

B.
B.

T., L, xi. 5

chase

and of the
vengeance
:

feline

goddess of hunting
the fasces
of

T., L, xi.

= xiv. 12. L4 = xv. 16


PL

left.

and
the
1

of

compare

Cf. B. T., L, xi. 6.

the lictors.

M. Capart has quoted some of


symbolic
representations
in

13.

Note the emblems S passed through


as in Hierakonpolis,
viii.
ii.

highly

the

much PL
I
(,
(?)

2.

Note the name of the king written

Mr. Petrie informs me that the provenance of this fragment is not certain. The other fragment was apparently from the tomb of Semer-khet (U).

/wwvs

with the det. of the nose, as a variant of


in B. T., L, xii. 2.

A/WW\

THE INSCRIPTIONS.
5. 6.

51

Cf.

R.

T., I, xii. 1

= xvii.

26.

For another boat


R.
T.,
is

inscription of this king

the bull and net (see Mr. Petrie's note), probably the ibis of Thoth on a shrine compare Eiera;

see

L,

viii.

9.

The p^q

sign

under
in

konpolis,

I.,
i

xxvi.B.

The legend

in the last line

Horus

compared by Mr. Petrie with that


T.,
i.

__^

s=

^L
by

"

who
,

takes the throne of Horus,"


is

PL

xxvi. 59, xxvii. 102, and B.

x.

followed

~^
iii. iii.

with variations

found in

which he thinks may be a

fishing-net.

R.

T.,

i.,

xv., etc.

7 joins the fragment R. T., L, ix. 10.


8.

The forked
L, xiii.
later.
2,

sign like i

is

not

uncommon
but
dis-

PL PL
PL

xi. 1
xi. 2
xii.

2.
6,

see x. 2.

at this period in inscriptions of the earlier kings,

1, 3, 4.

The

colours, red

and black,

R.

T.,

xix.

9,

21, 22, 27,

used in the hieroglyphs on these tablets, are not


altogether arbitrary.

appears
27, 50)

The occurrence

of I If (sealings

and

(sealings 75, 78, etc.) suggests

appropriately red, as

and O are The <=>, With the first group later.

that the

forked sign and 8 are


it

only variants

must be admitted that the differences are striking, and that there seems some distinction between the two in their
of each other, but

("washing of the king's hand," Petrie) compare v. 13, 14, viii. 12, also the note on
on
1
ii.

8.

3
it

contains the

common group
V A ^> a^ so f
-

'^^
(?)

(unless

be

n^

mi2 )> c ^-

LI

employment however, ^- | The early engravers translate.


:
,

"

is

difficult to

contains the

name

of the

palace

(?)

<\

=6=

certainly
e.g.

show

Qed-hotep of Zer, occurring also in an inscription of Merpaba, R. T., L, vi. 8.

a tendency to incomplete outline,


xii.

in D,

[l^

(hardly
seal-

3,

i,

though possibly not without some


it

u
^j

p\

ma)

is

found in

v. a 16,

and on the

warrant for
It

in

the nature of the object.


a
a

ings 20
[l

(?),
(?)

40, 41, 118, while the whole


closely

group

seems very probable that


is

Hetep-Sekhe-

muy

^^
5.

LJ

resembles

those

on the

the correct reading.


sealings 5

Note the erased inscription mentioning the palace s'-h* of the Horus Ra-neb with the
12.

and 129.

The

sign beneath
ft

Anubis
ys.

in

the

third

subsequent

inscription

of

king
|

~"wvn

See

instance appears to be
6.

Mr. Petrie's interpretation,


is

p. 26.

The

last sign

viii. 3.

| 13. Mr.

ys.

Sealings.
Petrie suggests that the boat in(cf. viii. 6,

48. PL
instances

xiii.

No.

89

ii.

1.
l~~\

The other
figured
in

scribed

upon bowls
that

R.
to

T., L, viii. 9)

of the

Horus name
the

indicates

they belonged

the

king's

travelling outfit, just as others belonged to the


palace,

the plate are from jars.


91,

92.

Note

separation
;

of

Nar
signs

and others again to the tomb. PL viii.A. 4 fits R. T., I, viii. 3. part of a bird. 6. The standard shows the upper
7. 8.

(?)

Mer on the sealings awkward to arrange together


from
compartment, see the
slate Hierakoivpolis,
3,
I.,

the

are

in a rectangular

= seal
Neit,
x. 1

artistic

grouping on the

164,

PL

xxi.

PL

xxix.,

and above

ii.

Apparently Upuat.

9.

R.
93.

T,, L, iv. 2.

and
ii.

PL PL

df|.
5, 6.

Here tmh alternates with the .Ka-name

4.

x. 2, xi.

= iii.A

Here at the top

Nar-mer, suggesting that the latter


Menes, in the same
give
the
is

way

that No.

2,
;

may be 109, may


such

we
the

have, beside the Horus


-[)-

name

of Menes,

|
?),

names

of Zet

and Zer

but

%Z

symbol, a divine boat (of Sokaris


etc.

evidence
wise
it

very far from trustworthy, otheralso

a temple of Neit,

In the second row, behind

would prove that Aha was

named

e 2

52

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE

1st

DYNASTY.
128. Cf. B. T., L,
8, 9.
cf.

both | ^ (No. 99) and


fig.

%j%?^ P e Morgan,
Naqada
i"""""!

PL
etc.,

xvii.

558), whereas the tablet of

clearly

129.

For the group of four bars


1

122, 143,

gives his

name with royal title, name with


seal

viz.

(Menes),
Instances

and better

42.
.

or at least some very similar sign.


of the
of
(pi.

134. Cf. 17, 24, 25.

is

probably a

personal

the Horus
those
T,,
i.,

king

on one

are

name of Den
59),

private name.

PL

xviii.

vii. 5, 6),

and of Azab (B.


(seal 72).

seal 57)

49, 50,

and the indirect cases of Azab and Semerkhet

(seals 58,

139.

Beyond is nubis hnt-sh-ntr. For the town name cf. 45 47, 149, 153, 159, 16163. The city- name occurs on Nos. 23 52,
136.

4^

title

The absence of the before the names of Ta and Ath (in


is

53, 55, 56, 1.39, 150, 154, 155,

156

(?).

141. S"
83,

=&= occurs on Nos.


(?),

47, 48, 54,

6365,

contrast to Az-ab, No. 57)


ficant,

not in

itself signi-

84,

118

141,
ii.,

149,

163,

179, 199,
is

De

as that title never appears

before the

Morgan,

Bech.,

fig.

784.

There
of No. 48

every

reign of Den.
PI.

degree between the short


98,

-^

and the

xiv.

99 were

found also in

the

tall straight

of No. 199.

The

variations

Naqada tomb (De Morgan, Becherches, ii., figs. For the group 8 ^ cf. No. 116 and 556, 557).

are

made
was

to suit the requirements of the space

to be filled, for the


seal

decorative quality of the

^[l~
B.
T.,

y-t

"tomb"
111.
xx.,
/*

(?)
cf.

in No. 53 (B. T.,

i.).

clearly a matter of the first importance

PI. xv.
i.,

the sealings of Mer-neit,


stelae

compare

Hemaka on

Nos.

53,

56.

Mr.

and the
(j
(?)

of the time of

Den and
112. " 113.

later.

5?5?

may

Thompson would read it as & htp in every case. The sign | which occurs on 201 has a
narrower base; in 47, 54, 163, and

be

" keeper

of

the rams (or goats)."

784 the "offerings" are defined


?
ii.

Keeper of the pools "


15.

De Morgan as OS: in
increased

Compare PL
of
I.,

We

47, 48, 141, 149, 163 the

group

is

by

have

here

the

group

the

three

plovers

"^

^ "^
The

yyy

f foe governors, once (149)


title is

by S8S

^=<;

In every instance the

associated with a

(Ptahhdep,

20) alternating with ) R which


(j

city-name, sometimes alone (Nos. 47, 83, 179,

may
the

also

be followed by

or by

s
'

199) and sometimes with


149,
163).

fl .

^^

(Nos. 54, 64, 84,


corre-

plovers occur very frequently on objects from

In

178

^g

takes a place
in 179.
6,

Naqada tomb (De Morgan, Bech., ii., figs. Mr. 517, 525, 598601, 661, 662, 667, 673. Thompson considers it a proper name. Note
the.

sponding to that of

PL

xix.

146.

fl

^ a

occurs in Nos.

18

21, 46, 67, 69, 81,

remarkable

symbolism
o. 1,

13132, 14648,

150, some-

of

the
its

bird

in

Hieralconpolis, L, xxvi.

and

occtirrence

on

stelae B. T.,

i.,

xxxi.

times accompanied only by the royal name, in others in association with other titles, most

1 (?), 3.

commonly with
office of
is

PL

xvi.

115, 116. Note the lion or leopard

^.

As

it is it

found under

five

kings of the 1st Dynasty,

with bent bars on his back as on the tablets of


Hesy, also

clearly denoted

an

^
Cf.

some permanence.

sh and a shrine, which in

116

The swimming

sio-n

seems shaped to recall ^^\.


signs

In 116 also the

found in the Pyramids (N. 652) exactly as

A East and

<

W North
?),

in these, including the arch of drops over the

are in juxtaposition

swimmer.
to

From
nb't

Siut,

tomb
is

v.,

1.

22,

we gather

(making North-east

as in No. 37.

that the royal children were regularly taught


in 124

12124.
seem

1015 and 1820;


c=3,

we

swim
149.

the sign

also

used to express

to have J'

in the enclosure, in

20

nb-t, to

smelt or melt metals.


"
J;

takes the place of

but

cf.

136

occurs on 27, 44, 45, 50, 55, 66,

THE INSCRIPTIONS.
70, 75, 78, 138 (?), 140, 149, 153, 158, 161, 173
;

53

the

and, except in the last three cases, always

is

in

LQ

Horus name, we ~~'


,

have

a southern seal

probably to be read

Mm
of

nb Qmf,

immediate connection with the Horus name of


a king, six of
therefore be a

" seal

of

every

document

whom
title,

(?)

the

South

are thus named.

It

must

country" (or for "seal ".read "chancellor");


but Set wears the crown of Upper Egypt in
179.
165.

and probably one implying


office of

royal favour rather than an


tion
;

administra'

perhaps
cf.
c

'

ruling in the king's heart

is

meant,
"

later

1f

<ww

=^,

etc."

H. T.
'

"\ ^
ii.,

tp hr stn,
p.

'next after the king'

(Erman, Aegypten,
Etudes Eg.,

82, otherwise

Maspeeo,
in the Old

d-mr, according to Brugsch, inspector

266), very

common

of canals'; according to Maspero, a high fiscal


official.

Kingdom."
|

H. T.
" office of the
fatlings (?)."
this appella-

frequent

title in

the Old Kingdom,

and

^1

in these early sealings at least always in

ys zf'"w,

connection with the


fifteen times, viz.

name

of a city.

It occurs

According to our present evidence


tion or title

on 24, 49, 56, 6467, 84, 149,


H. T.

commences
is

in the

Hnd
it
is

Dynasty.
usually in

153, 154, 158, 161, 163, 178."


153. "

Where

the sealing

complete
(201),

4 The group LJ

is

probably a proper
this sealing

connection with
or

name,

as will be seen

by comparing
B.
T.,
i.,

rl,

(167, 174, 183),

(192).

Once we have

|^fi

166 )-

with No. 161, where we have the name of the


chancellor

Hemaka

(see

p. 41) occu-

The same combination as here recurs in 195. 176. The first group here should be the title
of priest

pying a corresponding

position.

The

name
reign
:

of the
Isis,

goddess figured below,

i.e.,

occurs also on No. 29 (B.


of Merneit), and No. 149

T., L, PI. xxi.,

possibly
r
-i

according to the second group

( omitted)

nos.

though her headdress seems to be that

149 and 153 belonging to the reign of Den."

of a Nile-goddess.

Her name

in fact,

jj

seems

H. T.
PI. xx.

to occur again at her feet.

158.

From

a comparison with No.


,
(

In 178, 179, 199, 200 (De Morgan, Bech.,


figs.

ii.,

161

it

seems evident that


J
.

is

a proper name,

816, 819),
is

we have a group Vk(


in 178

?)

the

For the reading, see Sethe, A. Z., Mezr-k 52." xxx. H. T. 49. PI. xxi. 164. Mr. Petrie quotes a seal in his own collection with the Horus name
(?)

bird in which
deities,

very variable, attached to male


Osiris (?), in

in 179 Set,

199

n
"^T*

Shu (?). PL xxii.


seems to be

178
|

80.
|pp

The name of the place


" the ships of the king."

(Hist,

i.,

believes

2nd ed., p. 24). This he to combine the two royal


-0"

ra

(?)

names

R 6

/WW\a( ? )

II

and

WVNAAA

It will

be

184. " Chancellor of Northern tribute (?)."


190.
last

observed that on the Abydos

seals

and

else-

fragmentary specimen was published

tomb Horus a of Shera) the former is invariably name (for Lower Egypt?), the latter a Set name On Mr. Petrie's seal we (for Upper Egypt ?). may at any rate recognise the Horus name
where (except the
later cartouches in the

year as 87.

(Ij^,in201
[1

Jo^>-<:,
R
|

in
R

De Morgan,
|

Bech.,

ii.,

fig.

820,

q ^_^.

is

a word
:

for sealing.

" Sealing

(?)

of everything "

in

In the next series (Kha-Sekhemui) the deities are-associated over the single Horus-

201

must mean "in good condition."


I

Mr.

Sekhem-ab.

Thompson would make

" sz^wty, " sealer

Set name, which

name

also itself signifies the

(=

^) A.

Z., 1894, p. 65, 1898, p. 145, 1899,


title

union in a remarkable manner.

Here, with

p. 86),

and perhaps the

of

an

official is

54

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


office

1st

DYNASTY.
I.,

more appropriate than the name of an


act of administration or of the seal
PI. xxiii.

or

(Ptahhetep,

p.

26), a

common
later.
t3

title

in the

itself.

Old Kingdom and continued


198.
"<3,"t"

191.

The name

of the king has

Pr

hr nd and ^Z^_
to

hrp

^d

^h are

been interpreted very appropriately by Maspero.


In detail one might suggest that
j)

two

titles

analogous

titles

also

closely

SeWiemui

associated in the early


(?)

tomb of Ph-nfr described


ii.,

may be

intended for Shm'ty, the


:

name

of the

by Maspero

(Et.

Eg.,

259, 260).
'

There
of

Pshenty or double crown xf

we should then

they appear as
the mill
(?),'
'

]k

"f"
|

superintendent
c

read " the double crown Pshenty, in which the


deities unite (or are satisfied)."

and
H. T.

A n >71
Note

which Maspero
in the

translates,
viz.

directeur de la maison des graisses


also

Vine

trellis

IW occurs in

seven sealings,

de

boeuf.' "

same

Nos. 68,

19193,

196, 202,

204
it

In five of
for

seal.

these cases with the sign

U before U "^^
(?)

U 0,
ii.
.

199. Cf.

found before groups of vines or


61,

trees, L. D.,

200. Cf. 201. Cf.


PI.

Duem., Res.,

ii.

(Tomb

of Ty), "garden,"
jv

De Morgan, De Morgan, De Morgan,


207.
(j

819.

816. 820, and No. 190 above.


is

"orchard," later

written
is

ct^i

In

xxiv.

probably a

proper
(note

some instances
group,
191,

it

combined with a further

name.

The group

[TJ

%^
fig.

" plough "

variously

written J^g
dsr, k
J

68,

jf

^.
"royal
In

the full spelling) occurs also on Nos. 208, 213,

217a

(?),

and further on a cylinder

(F. P. Coll.).

k^nw stn pr

nw pr

dsr

pr

stn

210. Cf.
Naville,

De Morgan,

821,

orchards of the king's house, red house."

and Sethe

(A. Z., xxxvi. 142).

Borchardt, " Mother

192 and 196 we have the " orchard of the


r-K-i

of the king's children


;

(mwt

msiv-stn),

Hepen-

or

house."

@, Ichent- garden of the king, red In Maspero, Et. Eg., ii. 269, there is
r-n-i

the

title

|WWW.
wine

maat if she say anything, it is done for her, Hepenmaat chancellor (?) of the carpentry (or
;

In 29, 33, we
cellars
;

may

ship-building, whrt),

Hepenmaat."

have mention of the royal


77, of the beer or

in 73, 74,

PL

xxvii., xxviii. Stelae.


legible.

Many of the names

jars.
(?),

on these are easily

occurs in Nos. 68, 191, 192, 196, 204

women.
i.,

The

cross

They are mostly of x probably stands for the


cf.

crossed arrows of Neith,

Nos.

9,

11 in B.

T.,

206, almost exclusively in the

Ilnd Dynasty.
"

xxxi.

Mr. Thompson suggests that the " white house

In 96 and 129 there would seem to


title

be the

and the " red house " refer to the administration of the South and the North respectively, comparing the colours of the Q and the \J
192. Mr.

ufrfrw,

so

common
title

in

the

Middle Kingdom, but the personages are women.

The most remarkable phrase


the
series

or

occurs on

120

Thompson renders

this " superinten-

125,

with 21
n

in

the former

(?)[W)

dent

(?)

of live-stock tribute of the

Red House,

volume
case

viz.

y^^\

followed in each

and of the gardens and vineyards of the king Note the rare form of the North and South."
of the royal title \

*=s-

j^, which occurs


1.

also

in

196, and on the Palermo stone B.

3.

193

= De Morgan, = De

818.

The nome

of

Mem-

by the person's name. I do not see any clue to the meaning beyond the name of Den contained in it. Here are very clear examples of the use of determinatives in v& and J) for

phis seems here to be named.

man and woman


embankment (?),"

respectively.

Possibly these

197

Morgan, 817.
of

are the earliest determinative signs used in the

" superintendent <fg

hieroglyphic system.

55

INDEX.
Aahmes
II.

56

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


*

1st

DYNASTY.

Clothing, label for

INDEX.

57

Ha fort
Hand

sign
.

28
38 38
32

Hair-pin with bird

carved in ivory

37,
6,

Hapenmaat, queen-mother
,,

seals of
.

13, 32,
.

54
36 22
18

Harpoons of copper Hathor of Buto

28,

Hawk,

different types of

Heb, plough
Het, with

54
52
13

Aha name
masonry
seal of

Hewing
,,

of earliest

Hippopotamus on
,,

Den
.

25

tablet

20
21, 22
25,

Homage

of subjects

Horn bows
Horn, carved
Horus,
.

38
39

Mena

born of

20 47
5,

Hotep sign
Hotep-ahaui, position of
,,

inscriptions of

26
51
19

name
tablets

of

Hour-glass beads

Huts on

Ibex on tablet
Ibis

on shrine

Identification of

Ink-written inscriptions

Inlay patterns

........ ...... ........


tomb-names with throne-names
.

20,

49 51
3

32 35
2,

Inventory sheets for registering tomb-contents


Isis

34

49, 53

Ivory, strips of

fish

rods

....
.

....21
.

21 21

Jackal, messenger of gods

58

ROYAL TOMBS OF THE


at

1st

DYNASTY.

Menite tomb

Naqada, probably

of

his

queen

60

EOYAL TOMBS OF THE


as

1st

DYNASTY.

Up

on vases

4:3.

INSCRIPTIONS OF KINGS

KA,

NARMER, AND SAM.

PL.

II.

13.

POTTERY.

14.

ALABASTER.

B.

10.

15.

SERPENTINE.

B.

10.

4:3.

IVORY AND EBONY TABLETS OF

AHA MENA.

PL.

III.

4:3.

INSCRIPTIONS AND OBJECTS OF

MENA AND

EARLIER.

PL. IV.

FROM

B6

18, 19.

B10;

1.

B15; 16.

Bl7; 4, 6, 9, 11, 12, 13, 17.

B18; 14.

4:3.

TOMB OF

KING

ZER TA. IVORY CARVING,

&c.

PL.

V.

15.

CARVED MARBLE.

CHARCOAL.

17.

CLAY SEALING.

18.

ON STONE BOWL.

3.

TOMB OF

KING

ZER TA.

IVORIES,

&c.

PL.

VI.

1.

PIECE OF BRACELET.

2.

SERPENT HEAD.

3, 4.

IVORY LIONS, GAMING

PIECES

(1

1).

4:3.

TOMBS OF ZET ATH

(1-4)

AND OF DEN SETUI

(5-13).

PL.

VI!

4 :3.

TOMBS OF QA SEN AND SEKHEMAB PERABSEN.

PL. VIII.

at&
4, 5,

IVORY

LABELS, and

6,

7,

STONE BOWLS OF KING QA SEN.

811.

STONE BOWLS OF KING HOTEP-AHAUI (TOMB OF PERABSEN).

12.

BOWL OF KING RANEB, RE-INSCRIBED

BY

(13)

KING

NETEREN (TOMB OF PERABSEN).

4:3.

TOMB OF

KING

KHASEKHEMUI

PL- IX.

5.

GOLD-CAPPED VASES OF WHITE MARBLE.

CARVED
PIECE OF

IVORY.

MENDED BOWL WITH GOLD

PINS.

2:1

ABYDOS.

TABLETS OF KINGS NARMER AND MEN.

A'Z:

XXXIV.

|fco

0r> bac~k of
re.dL

Nil, paint.

18

^^
J

2:1

ABYDOS.

TABLETS OF KING AHA-MEN.

XI.

2:1

ABYDOS.

PAINTED INSCRIPTIONS,

&C.

XII.

,iiiift}

|BIIIIIIIIIWI||||

'if

dLif'f

% X

Piece of Wooden Figure,

painted on breast nith Necklaces.


C.

wESSi
Wooden cylinder inscribed
in ink.

Ivory Tablet

2:3

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KINGS KA AND NARMER

(B).

PL. XIII.

89

B7

ll

90

15

B7
92

91

bODDlU
V

vvvvvvv
fi^DC?

isc

iQDDDLir

B 9.17

94
93

eh eqi nil eddoiii 111


yiith

NARIAE.R

B6

B 18?

96
95

16

2:3

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING AHA-MEN

(B).

PL. XIV.

98

LB
DDDD DDDD DDDD

^g

DDDD DDDD DDDD

99

100

101

102

Sfefg^v^;
Hff

103

104

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING ZER-TA

(O).

PL.

XV,

105
"jonon

DDDn noDDn

^SSC

noon

nooorr

DOf
ifumnl innru

Lnaru innnl

Innn

uwu

106

2:3

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING ZER-TA

(O).

PL. XVI.

114

115

116

117

bK

12-1

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

2:3

ABYDOS. SEALINGS OF KING ZET-ATH

(Z)

125-130 and KING

DEN-MERNEIT

(Y) 131-135.

PL. XVII.

125

uu

u
010

^
:^

126

127

.\^

128

129

130

131

132

133

134

-M

135

=3iifc=

#1

^1

T<2

Ip^l

==ait=

no o

2:3

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING DEN-SETUI


136

(T).

PL. XVIII.

137

hii
138 139

140

141

142

143

ID
II

||

ft

0000

00

sif^ iif k mm
AAAfr

MM>

& wit A
A^#W

flOODO"
&
DDD0

01

<&J^\

fr
'

144

hrifi

2:3

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING DEN-SETUI

(T).

PL. XIX.

146
=s=

147

<s%

nam

fflOQ

5.

^
DDDD

DDDD

DDDD

ma

wm

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

irinnnnfifinnr

'

nnnnnnnnnr lOODDDDDDC

2:3

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING DEN-SETUI

(T).

PL.

XX.

156

157

158

159

<?\;j^
u=n

*1

4:3

160

MW
/Vo 5"^ comfalt.Ce.ol

161

162

163

1:1

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING SEKHEM-AB-PERABSEN

(P).

PL. XXI.

164

165

JfW&

166

1:1

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING SEKHEM-AB-PERABSEN


No- 88
CornJoLe-Ce-d

(P).

PL. XXII.

179

178

180

181

W
III
DDDDni

^Sffltv^
f=n?

182
Ell

183

184

185

186

187

188

190

189

G\

11 ^
^
ft^ft

/p^

1:1

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING KHASEKHEMUI

(V)

191

193

194

195

196

197

(LEh

n
J
198

ta

MJm
?!
.+'

5C 02

^4S

13
199

200

201

1:1

ABYDOS.

SEALINGS OF KING KHASEKHEMUI

(V)

202

204

205

206

207
fkil

208

DJ

7r3

flflfl-^Df/fl
209
210

"^^
^0>
/7

==

&==^
C^
211
212

<^

^
213

A/.enci.

214

215

216

III

ABYDOS.
r.3>

SIGNS ON VASES.

PL.

XXV.

217

218

St.cull-n.qs

of

Kh-a.se.khe.rrL

ul'l

O.pot

0. a.Lkt>

10

J J
* Wfc^ w
475-

H
sLcu-te.
t/Q. ct ySta-L
-

scL^h?
a.t

shtJUf

Urn*
4.2.0
(5.-

Asn mo
vn. e^toLm

ibo

4:3

MARKS
12

/44

IS

INCISED ON BASES OF STONE VASES. INK INSCRIPTIONS ON STONE VASES.


13

14

15
it

16

\^
Incus
e.tL

o-n

fovei-gn

ja-r

O-

n
000

Itf

5I.ft.te.

on 60 ut

of

ihin

ito^Ot.

3..

1:6

STELES FROM AROUND THE TOMB OF ZER-TA.


N4-J

KEY TO

Pls.

XXVIII-XXIX

b.

XXVI.

72.

-ss^-

78

"25

79

80

82.

|7Uj7

1:6

STELES FROM AROUND THE TOMB OF ZER-TA

(NOT PHOTOGRAPHED).

XXVII.

STELES FROM AROUND THE TOMB OF DEN-SETUI,


112
3

Pls.XXX.

XXX a.

3.

STELES AROUND TOMB OF ZER TA.

PL. XXVIII.

3.

STELES AROUND TOMB OF ZER TA.

PL. XXIX.

if-'

3*
J..
j
.

jf. .;*.%$&';** J**

Vfi
4

r
i"A

*PP
,'y

-y

fi?

9pL&
"

3k"
'ill
'i

Wfgwm* '

ff mt-J if-

v*

'-'-'

*;

1 :3.

STELES AROUND TOMB OF DEN SETUI.

PL.

XXX.

STELES OF KING PERABSEN.

PL. XXXI.

4!

<

ft

*&

1:2

TOMBS OF MENA PERIOD

(B).

XXXII.

aJ-cL&custtr

:4

ABYDOS.

TOMB

M.

I.

EARLY

1st

DYNASTY.

XXXIII.

:2

TOMB OF ZER-TA.

IVORY CARVINGS.

XXXIV.

1:2

TOMB OF ZER-TA.

CARVED

IVORY, &c.

XXXV.

PINK LIMESTONE

CHERT

1:2

TOMB OF

ZER-TA.

CARVINGS

IN

WOOD.

XXXVI.

HORN

1:2

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF ZET-ATH.

IVORY AND

WOOD

(W).

XXXVII.

1:2

ABYDOS.

CEMETERY W.

AGE OF ZET.

IVORY, &C.

XXXVIII.

"001 u a
* Cahnelian
'

Lazuli

Blue

~q GLAZE

CAANELIAN BLUEGLAXE GotD


16
1

18
/
\

Cas_^|j) Malachite

^-/

ffl

jffi* aA/lNCT^-*? Stu * 'Haematite

""Shell'
fi *-"*

23
24,

/^

m
G

25

Vi
HaemAll.
J

Beads
<r=

Car/n- Si.u

Glaze ahe 36 OC
Ameth-

36

-r? 37

Cam- Blue Glaze

Bii/jT

Glaze.
3j

Copper

Fait.

OM STAFF. 3J

45

48

Rro Paint Ok tiA*

Clay.

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF MERNEIT.

IVORY, EBONY.

AND SERPENTINE.

XXXIX.

1:2

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF

DEN-SETUI.

IVORY AND

WOOD

(W).

XL.

1:2

TOMB OF DEN-SETUI.

CARVED

IVORY, &C.

XLI.

1:2

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF AZAB-MERPABA.

IVORY, &C.

XLII.

'Wood

1:2

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF MERSEKHA-SEMEMPSES.

IVORY, &C.

XLIII.

Vee*

:2

ABYDOS.

TOMBS OF MERSEKHA AND

QA.

IVORY.

WOOD,

&C.

XLIV.

14

15

16

^xx/
25 26

Jfli

BllP Sill

Wood Wood
29

MSRSJKHA on

Q_a.

Qa.

c^
42
/1

^rf

m ^SX^
47
46

48

43

Biui Glaze

Co

PzH

11:2

TOMB OF PERABSEN.

IVORY. &C.

XLV.

19
I?

666

COPPER

63-60

1:3

ABYDOS.

QUARTZ CRYSTAL VASES

1-26.

XLVI.

A8YDOS.

QUARTZ CRYSTAL VASES 27-50.

XLVII.

1:3

ABYDOS.

PORPHYRY AND SYENITE VASES

84-106.

XLVIII.

b-rown cju-arfzltc

OJ

pot.

obsldlaTi

T-d.

ho-c

largo. Ikjt.

HA

'

fcnnk an.

.01

W 33

obsid-ian
bk- |>or.

jq

1:3

ABYDOS.

PORPHYRY AND SYENITE VASES

129-136.

XLIX.

:3

ABYDOS.

VOLCANIC VASES

151-160.

me.t.
-m.e^t

:3

ABYDOS.

VOLCANIC VASES 176-190.

\/olc

vole.

>vve.t.

183

volc.O 90

1:3

ABYDOS.

ALABASTER VASES 345-360.

Lll.

ABYDOS.

ALABASTER VASES

361-377.

LI

II.

:2

ABYDOS.

AEGEAN POTTERY,

1st

DYNASTY.

LIV.

1:3

ABYDOS.

MARKS ON POTTERY.

1st

DYNASTY.

I_V.

-01^
35

AJ^
y>
o
u

-^ok
/

o
f

7,
T

^^
Uft
.

o
^

aa

o| ^v

/fp^

V\|/
58

P A58

TOMBS OF MENA,

ZER,

AND DEN.

PL. LVI.

1.

TOMB

B.IO

PERIOD OF MENA.

2.

TOMB

B.15

PERIOD OF MENA.

'''i ,'

4*>

i&i.a..Vv<:a**w

-" .;

^'; -l.-^
>

3.

ZER.

STAIRS OF

XVIII.

DYN.

5.

DEN.

TOMB AND

STAIRWAY.

LOOKING

E.

6.

DEN.

STAIRS AND REBUILT JAMB.

TOMBS OF PERABSEN AND KHASEKHEMUI


I

PL. LVII.

2.

PERABSEN.

CHAMBER, LOOKING

N.

1.

PERABSEN.

PASSAGE AROUND TOMB.

3.

KHASEKHEMUI.

STORE CHAMBERS

4.

KHASEKHEMUI.

STONE CHAMBER. TO

N.

5.

KHASEKHEMUI. STONE CHAMBER,

N.W.

CORNER.

1000

ABYDOS.

ROYAL TOMBS, GENERAL PLAN.

LVIII.

MERN

PERABSEN
P

g^ZESER? <$> KA

^\X!? BENERAB

THREE HUNDRED FEET

200

ABYDOS.

TOMBS DOWN TO THE AGE OF MENA.

LIX.

-i

F/FTY FEET

1:200

TOMB OF KING ZER-TA

(O).

LX.

1:200

TOMBS OF KING PERABSEN

(P)

AND DOMESTICS OF KING ZER-TA

(O).

LXI.

-i

FIFTY FEET.

:200

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF KING DEN-SETUI

(T).

LXII.

200

ABYDOS.

TOMB OF KING KHASEKHEMUI.

LXIII.

riFT y

THE

PUBLICATIONS OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND.


STORE CITY OF P1THOM AND THE ROUTE OF THE EXODUS. Memoir
13 Plates,

for 1883-84.

By

il- TANK.
iilIV.-

Fourth and Revised Edition, fin Preparation.) Parti. Memoir for 184-S.j. By W. M. Flinders Petrie. 16 Plates and 2 Plans. Second Edition. 25s. NAUKRATIS. Part I. Memoir For 1885-86: By W. M. Flinders Petrie. With Chapters by Cecil Smith, Ernest A. Gardnek, and Bak. r ay \ Uead. 4 i Plates and 7 Plans. Second Edition. 25s.
;'l),n.
.

Edouard Naville.

Map and

GOSHEN, AND THE SB


1j Piutes

itlNE

OF SAF1 EL HENNEH.

Memoir
1

for 1886-87.

By Edouard

Naville.

Second hjiliuon. 25s. (the Bib| V.- -TANIS. including TELL Memoir for 1887-88. By W. M. Flinders Petrie, F. Ll. Griffith, VX- NAUKRATIS. Part II. Memoir f >r 1888-89. By Ernest A.'
and Plans. Part II.,

DEFENNEH

'Cahpanhes ") and TELL NEBESHEH. Murra.. 51 Plates and Plans. 25s er and F. Ll. Griffith. 24 Plates and

Plans.
;

25s.

rr._

HE CITY OF ONIAS AND THE MOUND OF THE JTW.


E.<rfra

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of Tell-el-Yahudiyeh.

Volirnc for 18i 8-89.


;

f.

Edouard Naville and


I

>ili.~ rv,

BUPASTJS.

Memoir
T

for 1889-90.

X.-

TWO UIE^OGLYr Tn PAPYRI An extra Volume. (Oi-t P T'E FESTIVAL II > LJ OF OSOii
>

SO Plates and Plans. 25s. Grifm r By Edouard Naville. 54 Plates aad Plans. 25s. -n and W. M. Flinders Petrie. TANIS. By F R
F. Ll.
<i.

':':

\.t.)

ft 1890-91.

By Edouard Naville.

Tith 3

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25s.

A'iNAS
FA,
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KV

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''DrNEH.
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1

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',V

By

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Inti
(

\
.vl

>

.-

..-

DEIR EL BAHARI. DE T R EL BAHARI.


wit.

description,
>soriptijn.

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vith
(

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