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.6 HAFHAIA J=JE B JDA .. -)574- - 6 .6 HAIK J EI = I A A CJD fa T  = @ IAGKA ?A B JDA I= 6DEI HAIK J ? J=E I = IAHEAI B @EI?HAJA BHAGKA ?O >E I K EB H  0 fnM easured − fs fs < fnT rue < fnM easured + 2 2 fs fs < nf1T rue < fnM easured + 2 2 fs 2 # JHE>KJA@ >AJMAA @A J IE fa 6DA ME@JD >E I EI JDA BHAGKA ?O HAI F O HA =JA@ J JDA KJE fs MDE?D EI E @AFA A B JDA BHAGKA ?O IAJJE C A=IKHA B JDA = = O AH = @ EI A J JE fnM easured − T >O fs = fa 1 = fa T T   fnM easured − n < f1T rue < fnM easured + n fs 2 $ .6 AJD @ = BHAGKA ?O HAI fs E@A JEBOE C JDA BHAGKA ?O f1  LE= JDA .EHIJ 2A= O CELAI KI JDA ?AHJ=E JO JD=J ! ! 1 F HJ= ?A @KH=JE 6DA IEJE K >AH B I= F AI ? 6DA =JKH= BHAGKA ?O B A=IKHA A J !  + E =JE B JDA B JDA =E 1B MA ? JDA HA =JE GKA ?O f1F P − fs fs < f1T rue < f1F P + 2 2 C K JEF A D=H K JEF A KIA D=H E? J JDA IE@AHE E?I E?I KIA =JKH= BHA " A?JA@ @KHE C @=J= =?GKE =JKH= BHAGKA ?O = @ D=H MDE?D FH LE@AI JDA B = JE A @ F A@ =J H=JA = @EI?HAJA O @EI B JDAIA AJD @I JD=J ? IE@AH EI ?HEJE?= B H JDA FHA?EIA @AJAH E?I =HA @AJAH E A@ >O B A=?D n JD D=H @E C JDA FA= I fn = nf1 IE@AH KH ?AHJ=E JO B E@A JE ?=JE . H = @EI?HAJA JE A IAHEAI I= n JD D=H E? MA D=LA JDA ?AHJ=E JO JD=J fa B H @KH=JE T JDA .KHJDAH = JAH =JELA AJD @I AJAHI =HA CA AH= O GKEJA JH= IF HJ=> A = >A MDAA A@ >O =I =??A AH A JA?D E?E= E =H I AJAH IOIJA KCC=CA = @ FH LE@A IE E@A JE ?=JE MDAHA JDA /ELA =JKH= HIJ AJD @ =JKH= EI JDA .6 = = @ JDA IEJA = @ 6DA ? IJ  JE =HA ? F=HA@ E @KHE C IAJKF ? CH= JD= @K?JE C = A ANFA @EJKHAI B H A=?D 6=> A  *A?=KIA JDA JE A J ?=JE A=IKHA LE>H=JE OIEI A=@ J E E JDA IA?JE BH A JI >AO A I=LE CI HAGKEHA@ JE ANJA @ JDA JE JE B A=?D ?=> A DECDAH ? IJI B H JDA ? EA J E A @=J= =?GKEIEJE > A?JELA EI J E@A JEBOE C 6DEI E ?HA=IA BHAGKA ?O 6DAIA A J= @=J= A=IKHA A J KJMAECD JDA ANJH= JE A KIE C = MEJD =??A AH ? A IFA J @KHE C AJAH EI A=IKHA A MDE IJ IJE A=IKHA =JKH= BHAGKA ?O MEJD =@AGK=JA FHA?EIE FHAIA JI JDHAA = = OJE?= E@A JEBOE C JDA A JI ? B ID HJAH A=IKHA AJD @I J =JKH= @KH=JE =IAH LE>H AJAHI K?D GKE? AH JDA =??KH=?O E AJAH IOIJA = I HAGKEHA E AJAH =IAH 6DA 2A= HA=@ BH B IE F AIJ AJD @ AJD @I =HA JDA H@AH J A CJD @AJAH LAH= A ?EA J J=?J AII =IAH LE>H A J = @ AII JE J EBJ ?= JH=@EJE F=HA@ KIE C ANFAHE E A = =FFH FHE=JA AII AGKEF >=IA@ LE>H = @ A = @ =HA JDAHAB HA = ? IJ =??A AH HA .=IJ .! 1 2 46) +- .EHIJ KJE A JEHA IOIJA A=IKHA BHAGKA ?O EI = @ ?DA? A@ =I =EH E A A J FHA?EIE JDA ..74)61 ! ??KHI A=IKHA @=J= ? LAH= B ?D = @ = FH + A?JE LAHIA O = =IAH LE>H A AI = AJAH ?= =HCA F=HJ O B JDA I )I JDA @KH=JE BHAGKA ?O HAI BHAGKA ?O ?= E JAHL= 1 IK E ?EA J 0 MALAH A ME KJE B JDA A=IKHA E FH LAI E A@ J A J E ?HA=IAI = @ JDA MEJDE = I JDA = AH A F E J =J = JE FD=IA >A? 5A?JE ! =FFH FHE=JA A J= LAHE ?=JE A?J = @ JDAHAB HA JDA F E?=JE A@ AJD @ CHA=J O A J FH A J fs =JKH= >A @AJAH KJ E AI JDA E A=IKHA EI FAHB H IE C = ANFAHE A J @KH=JE A=IKHA A J @KH=JE KJE A 6DA I ME HAIK J E E K =O E =@AGK=JA BHAGKA ?O HAI A=IKHA B JDA .. KHEAH 6H= IB H BHAGKA ?O @ BK ?JE =E .

=J= =?GKEIEJE 4=FE@ C + LAHIE H=FE@ B C=KCA B H?A -=?D F E J IAFAH=JA O ?D E?A A=IKHA @KH=JE E A J F HJ= J B EJJ A FA = JO B H A=IKHA @KH=JE .=J= FH ?AIIE C = @ E JAHFHAJ=JE FHAIIKHA J =JKH= BHAGKA ?O E@A JE ?=JE I=C ANJA IE>E EJO = @ >A @E C IJE ? HHA?JE I @AH=JA AII .HAGKA ?O >=IA@ AJD @I )??A AH AJAHI =IAH 8E>H AJAH @AH=JA -NJA IELA 3KE? 3KE?  ! E KJAI FAH ?=JE I A J  -NJA IELA 5AJ KF JA=H@ M A=?D ?=> A -NJA IELA   $ 5E E KJAI FAH ?=JE  KI =J ?=JE K J=A K JEF A .74)61 " 6=> A  + F=HEI B ? IJ = @ JE A ANFA @EJKHAI B H A=IKHA A J AJD @I 6=I >E E =JE @A J >E E =JE BH IEJA B H  EBJ AJD @ . fnM easured + n )2 f2 = s2 12n fs 2 ) f1SA = MEJD JDA L=HE= ?A N 1 ∑ fn N n=1 n ' ( @AB 8)4 (f1T rue ) 1J EI IAA EI FH F HJE I 1B =HA ? = 2 σn = fs n ! % 1 JDA 8=HE= ?A 9AECDJA@ )LAH=CA 8=HE= ?A 9AECDJA@ EI J= A J E J )LAH=CA = J AJD @ AJD @ A=?D 12 JD=J JDA L=HE= ?A B A=?D A=IKHA A J = J 1/n2 I DECDAH FA= I ME D=LA = E@A JE A@ FA= JE IGK=HA H =?? K J MEJD = MAECDJE C EJI IJ= @=H@ @ALE= JD=J EI E LAHIA O FH F HJE = AH L=HE= ?A = O A=IKHA >A A JI A=?D MEJD L=HE= ?A B L=HE= ?A 2 σn f1V W = MDAHA N ∑ n=1 wn fn  >E A@ = @ =LAH=CA@ JDA JDA L=HE= ?A B JDEI =LAH=CA ME ∑N 8)4 (f1M P ) *O JDEI L=HE= ?A = 2 n=1 σn n AJD @I E E ∑N wn = ∑N wn = n=1 n=1 σn ∑N = & B FA= E A JDA JDA =KJD HI FH F IA JM JD=J KIA √ σn 2 fs 12n2 E@A JE ?=JE K JEF A FA= I J √ 2 fs 12n2 1 n=1 n 1 n .KJDAH >A K EB H I HA A=?D A=IKHA A J ?= >A ? IE@AHA@ J > K @I !   5E F A )LAH=CA 6DA 5E E?I E F A )LAH=CA = IE F A =LAH=CA AJD @ K JEF A D=H O @EIJHE>KJA@ >AJMAA JDAIA JM AJD @ KJE E AI ( f1T rue ∼ 7 1 fnM easured − n fs 2 . -)574- - 6 .! 1 2 46) +- .

ECKHA ! )BJAH KIE C JDA JDHAA E@A JE ?=JE IEN JE ) = JE + A IAHEAI A JDA HAIK JI MAHA F " 5=C ANJA IE>E EJO = @ >A @E C IJE AII ? HHA?JE I 1 JDA FHA?AA@E C IA?JE JA IE I JDA HA =JE B =JKH= BHAGKA ?O J B H?A M=I >=IA@ >A @E C IJE @EJE I D AII 1 JDA 6=KJ =?JK= EJO B 5JHE C 6DA HO MDE?D =IIK I=C = @ D=I AEJDAH >HE@CAI B JDAIA ? AI JDA ?=> A ANFAHEA ?AI @ = @ B H ?=> A IJ=OA@ 6DA ?=KIAI  E E AJ = ?EA J = @ ME@A O KIA@ + = O ? HA AJD @ B H ?= ?K =JE C JDA MDE?D M H I MEJD AH JDA KIAH .6 s A J @KH= B =??KH=?O JDA FA= I =HA K?D AII @A =FFH FHE=JA ?D E?A JD=J FH LE@AI = C ?EA ?O A=IKHA A JI E ?HA=IE C JDA F IIE>E EJO @ >= = ?A !  + ? KIE I B -NFAHE A J= 5JK@O AJD @I JJA@ E JDA ." 5)/ -:6- 51*1 16.6 >A O AH HK I =J = DECDAH BHAGKA ?O J O HAJKH A@ JDA F HJE A J BHAGKA ?O IA A?JA@ . *- .6 = = O AHI = ?D E?A A IAHEAI A CJDI JD=J ? LA JDA HAGKEHA JDA A J JD=J JDA KIAH >A =M=HA = O ? B JDA A A?JI B = E=IE C = @ FH FAH O ?D OGKEIJ H=JA F E C BHAGKA ?O JD=J EI GKA ?O DECDAH JD= = = O AHI D=LA = I= F =OA@ BHAGKA ?O BHAGKA ?O >=IA@ EI JDA ?=> A EI = I E ? E A@ JDAIA A A?JI =HA @AJ=E A@ MA 6DAHAB HA JDA KIAH IA A?JI = JDA DECDAIJ ANFA?JA@ BHAGKA ?O JDA = = =L E@ = E=IE C = @ JDA KIAH M JDA A=IKHA B JDA ..ECKHA + B LAHIA O EIE@A 25.6 B H A=?D @KH=JE J MA ?= B H JDA A=IKHA JE ?=JE CAH @KH=JE EI FHAIA JA@ E A=IKHA A JI IAA JDA FA= I =HA ID=HFAH A@ B H ID HJAH @KH=JE • 1J EI IAA IJ=> A CAH EI = JE = @ A B H = @ JDAHAB HA EJ EI ? 25.H JDEI F F=HE C JDA . -55 + 44-+61 5 # n wn = ∑N n=1 n  1 JDEI CKHA JDA HAIK JI B JDA .2 s F A =LAH=CA A J LAH JDA AJD @ FH LE@AI = HIJ FA= AJD @ AJD @ FH LE@AI F A =LAH=CA I A J @KH=JE =H A@ B JDA JDHAA E@A JE ?=JE @E AHA J @KH=JE M=I = I ! ? ?A 6DAIA @KH=JE JHK ?=JA@ J AIAHEAI A IAHEAI I 6=> A = O • • 6DA IE E FH LA B KH ID HJAH @KH=JE =J?D JD IA =L=E => A E AH?E= ....ECKHA  @AFE?JI JDA JE A J 1 B JDA =JKH= BHAGKA ?O =I ? JDEI L= KA KIE C )I = = ID HJAH @KH=JE • 6DA JD= HIJ FA= E@A JE ?=JE A=IKHA AJD @ EI LAHO AH A J @KH=JE I  AII H=JE? B H ID HJAH H@AH J F=HA JDA FAHB H AJD @I " IA? JE @ JE = ?A B 51.6 EI JDA H=@EN A IAHEAI IAGKA J O B JE J A J ) I AO 6K AO = C HEJD F AI MDAHA N I= B 2 N EI = F IJELA E JACAH F O MEJD JDEI HAGKEHA IA = I= #$ JE F E C BHA AH?E= .6 AI JDA @EI A=IKHA A J AH?E= ..1 / 561.6 = = O AHI =C=E KIE C JDA AN= HIJ F A A=IKHA = F J ? A J B JDA 6DA L=HE= ?A MAECDJA@ =LAH=CA = E FH LA A J IJE AJD @ AIFA?E= O B H AII JD= A=IKHA LAH JDA IE -=IJ +=> A =I = ..6 s = @ 25.6 s JD=J JDA A=IKHA =JJAH JM A J AJD @I =HA LAHO I H A@ JD=J @KH=JE B ..EHIJ 2A= HA@ A@ >O -GK=JE AJD @ JDAHA>O ! =HA FHAIA JA@ =I = AHH H >=H E ID ME C JDA ?AHJ=E JO H= CA @A ! -NFAHE A J= 8= E@=JE C @KH=JE B JM A=IKHA IE@A >O IE@A AJAHI 6DEI 6DA B ME C HA =H I =HA =@A B JDA JHKA =JKH= AJD @I E@A JEBO 6DA =KJD HI ? A JI  @K?JA@ JDHAA @I A=?D " IA? = @ JDAHAB HA E@A JE?=  ?=> AI B JDAIA ?=> AI =HA FHAIA JA@ E F=H= B H 6DA F=H= 6=> A • 6DA >AIJ E @E?=J H MA D=LA BHAGKA ?O EI JDA A=IKHA ME JDA >A ? A J HIJ FA= B JDA CAIJ @KH=JE 6DAHAB HA JDA =JJAH JM IA J AJAH J=> A E ? K@AI JDA HAIK JI K =I FHAIA JA@ E B JDA -=IJ +=> A L= E@=JA = @ ? I I A=?D  5A?JE A IAHEAI " B = ? HHA?JE AII KIE C JDA AN= F A HIJ A=IKHA IE@AHA@ A A?JELA EB JDAO ?= JE A IAHEAI B H I=C ANJA IE>E EJO = @ >A @E C IJE . ) .

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233 m  %# %$   &  %  AJAH IJ @A J >IAHLA@   8 JD @A BHAGKA ?O @AFA @A J FHAIA JA@ F=H= AJAH M=I ?= ?K =JA@ KIE C JDA =LAH=CA BHAGKA ?O =JE C @E= † -IJE =JA@ BH B >HE@CA IJ=O ?=> AI >O E JAHF 6=> A ! + A=IKHA A J ..HAGKA ?O 5= F AI =BJAH 4AI KJE 0 . *- .6 " & $ !  $" 6=>=J=>=E AJ = J H ''& =FF EA@ FHAIA J = ? HHA?JE J JDA A=IKHA@ B=? =JKH= γ JD=J EI BHAGKA ?O 5= F AI "& fs  " "'$ &' $!&"  #$  %&  !'      γ= α B EI JDA ? HHA?JE µ ωn = αβn − 0.039µ 2 4 + n 2π βn = 1 + + ξ ξ2 MEJD 1 '%" 1HLE A = @ +=KCDAO ? B I=C E = D HE J= ?=> A AJAH A J= ?=> A F=H= IE@AHA@ JDA FH > A 6DAO E JH @K?A@ = B # BK @= √ ξ=L  2  λ µ= 0   0 ( wL )2 λ = 6DA JOFA ? @K KI 2 H HLe EA L cos θ 2 H EI F = A F = A B F = A  E  KJ $   B H B H B H =  E B A =IJE?EJO B H IJAA ?=> AI @AFA @I CKH=JE )FFH NE =JA L= KAI B H A=?D =HA CELA E 6=> A " % JDA H FA ? FE A@ >O 1HLE A '& [ Le = L 1 + ( wL cos θ )2 ] H 8 & . ) .1 / 561.233 m 0.236 kN/m 1620 kN 236 × 103 kN† 94 kN/m2 † 69.=IJE?EJO B H IJAA ?=> A E /2= " % * JD JE α = @ βn 0A E?= IJH= @ 5JHK?JKH= IJH= @ 2=H= A MEHA IJH= @ = C A B JDA ?=> A = @ =JAHE= I FH FAHJEAI " 2 2 ' J  α = 1 + 0. -55 + 44-+61 5 & 6=> A 2=H= +=> A 6A IE AJAH A CJD 5K =HO B F=H= AJAHI B H ? 5O > IE@AHA@ ?=> A 8= KA +=> A 7 EJ 9AECDJ .KH=JE I $ "  #  " & # $ IE@AHA@ A=IKHA A J @KH=JE I ." 5)/ -:6- 51*1 16. H?A LE= 6=KJ 5JHE C -NJA IE>E EJO *A @E C 5JE 5=C ANJA IE>E EJO F=H= *A @E C IJE + HHA?JE + HHA?JE AII F=H= AII &   $ " # AJAH 5AA -G AJAH 5AA -G A CJD =BJAH I=C 5AA -G AJD @ B=?J H B H I=C ANJA IE>E EJO 5AA -G B=?J H B H >A @E C IJE J=>K =JA@ L= KAI AII 5AA -G L w H EA EI Le λ2 ξ α βn 69.24 ωns ξ JDA HIJ B H @A JDA E ! B=?J H =?? K JE C B H JDA A A?J F = A B E A@ >O JDA J=KJ IJHE C AGK=JE I=C ANJA IE>E EJO B=?J H AII BHAGKA ?O @AJAH + HHA?JE >A @E C IJE βn JDA =HA =?? K JI A A?J =JKH= BHAGKA ?O @AFA @A J JDA E ? E = 6=> A " @K KI +=> A B ..

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