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Sections

  • 1.2. PMGSY PROGRAMME
  • 1.3. NEED OF GIS IN PMGSY
  • 1.4. THE PRESENT STUDY
  • 1.5. ORGANISATION OF THESIS
  • 2.1. NEED FOR RURAL ROADS
  • 2.2.2. The Launch
  • 2.2.3. Governing Bodies
  • 2.2.4. Partnering World Bank and ADB
  • 2.2.5. Technical Base
  • 2.2.6. Quality Control System
  • 2.2.7. Achievements and Targets
  • 2.2.8. GIS for PMGSY
  • 2.3.2. Components of GIS
  • 2.3.3. Application of GIS to Road Development
  • 2.3.4. Software Packages
  • 2.4.2. ArcGIS Desktop
  • 2.5.2. Network Planning
  • 3.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2.2. HISTORY
  • 3.2.3. Geography
  • 3.2.4. Administrative Divisions
  • 3.2.5. Demography
  • 3.2.6. Transportation
  • 3.2.7. PMGSY Details
  • 3.3. DATA ACQUISITION
  • 3.4.2. Projection and Coordinate System
  • 3.4.3. Methodology
  • 4.1. INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2. KEY TERMINOLOGY
  • 4.3. PLANNING METHODOLOGY - PMGSY
  • 4.3.1. General
  • 4.3.2. Network Philosophy
  • 4.3.3. Methodology
  • 4.4. PLANNING TOOLSET DEVELOPMENT
  • 4.4.1. Introduction
  • 4.4.2. Need for a Planning tool
  • 4.4.3. Planning Toolset
  • 4.4.4. Process involved
  • 4.4.5. CN1 for C.HAB
  • 4.4.6. CN2 for C.HAB
  • 4.4.7. CN3 for C.HAB
  • 4.4.8. CN for U.HAB_FW
  • 4.5. PLANNING TOOLSET VALIDATION
  • 4.5.1. CN for C.HAB validation
  • 4.5.2. CN for U.HAB_FW Validation
  • 6.2. SPECIFIC INFERENCES
  • 6.3. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
  • ROAD NEWTWORK MAP - TIRUCHIRAPPALLI
  • BRRP MAP – THIRUVERUMBUR BLOCK
  • UNCONNECTED HABITATIONS
  • BACKWARD HABITATIONS
  • FACILITY STATUS OF BLOCKS
  • AADT TREND IN NATIONAL HIGHWAYS
  • HABITATIONS WITHIN 500m FROM PR
  • LENGTH OF ROADS
  • DENSITY OF ROADS
  • REFERENCES

DEVELOPMENT OF GIS BASED FRAMEWORK TO PLAN AND MONITOR PMGSY ROAD NETWORKS

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

Master of Technology

in Transportation Engineering and Management

by J. VIJAY ANAND

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI - 620 015 DECEMBER 2009

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Project titled “DEVELOPMENT OF GIS BASED FRAMEWORK TO PLAN AND MONITOR PMGSY ROAD NETWORKS” is a bonafide record of the work done by J. VIJAY ANAND (203108002) in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Technology in Transportation Engineering and Management of the NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, TIRUCHIRAPPALLI, during the year 2009-2010

(Dr. S. MOSES SANTHAKUMAR) Guide Professor of Civil Engineering

(Dr. S. MOSES SANTHAKUMAR) Head Department of Civil Engineering

Project viva-voce held on ………………………

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

ii

ABSTRACT
India lives in its villages. The development of rural areas is unthinkable without the provision of All-Weather Road access to all our villages and habitations. Realizing this Government of India decided to undertake the massive programme of rural connectivity under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) by December 2000, with the intention to provide not simply the rural paths but a well laid-out network of well engineered and durable roads throughout the country. Unlike the past road development plans, where though the conceptual plans and targets had been worked out, the absence of detailed work plans resulted in a non-integrated, functionally deficient and inefficient network, proper emphasis is given to planning by introducing the concept of District Rural Roads Plan (DRRP) and Core Network (CN).

As the programme is being implemented by preparing the DRRP and CN plans a huge database is being generated all over the country. Handling, managing and updating of the data by the traditional methods is not only tedious and time consuming but also difficult to sort and retrieve. Thus despite its huge success, PMGSY programme is currently facing a backdrop as it lacks a framework to store the information and thereby to plan and monitor activities. To obviate these difficulties, it is proposed to develop the database in Geographic Information System environment by the development agencies.

The present study aims at developing a database of PMGSY road network and framing a setup for planning, monitoring and decision-making using Geographic Information iii

GIS. road inventory. The complete database comprising habitation data. Keywords: PMGSY. Monitoring iv . ArcGIS. core network. Planning. The planning methodology to select a core network and roads for upgradation is developed then using network planning tools available in ArcGIS based on Utility Value.System (GIS) platform. Few helpful tools to monitor and analyse the road network while planning and after developmental stage is also developed. Tiruchirappalli District of state Tamilnadu is selected for the study. Database. Road Index and Accessibility Index as recommended by PMGSY. etc has been created for the district using GIS software package.

Chennai and TWAD Board. I wish to extend sincere thanks to Dr. I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to Dr. Director. Samson Mathew. National Institute of Technology. Tiruchirappalli. Chennai for their kind co-operation and contribution with the required data for the successful completion of this project. S. Associate Professor. Professor and Head. Department of Civil Engineering. M. for providing the necessary facilities to complete this project. I am grateful to all faculty members of the Civil Engineering Department. It is my privilege to express my thanks to Government Organizations like Directorate of Rural Development. - J. for his expert guidance throughout the duration of this thesis.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I sincerely acknowledge my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness to my guide Dr. my classmates and friends without whom the study would not have been successful. for his suggestions during the course of this thesis. Department of Civil Engineering. Chidambaram. VIJAY ANAND v . Moses Santhakumar.

..............................................................................................................................1 2............................2.......................2...2 2............2...3...................................................................4 2.................................TABLE OF CONTENTS Title Page No....................................................................... 6 Technical base ........................................................................................................................................................... iii v vi x xi ABSTRACT ......2 2................................................................. 4 PMGSY Programme ................... 1 Need of GIS in PMGSY ............... 4 The launch ...........................................3 2.............................7 2.......2......................................................................................................................................... LIST OF TABLES .......3................................................ CHAPTER 1 1........................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1 PMGSY Programme .................................. 8 What is GIS? ..... 4 The lead ........1 1.......................................................................... 8 GIS for PMGSY .......................................... 8 Components of GIS ....................... 2 STATE OF THE ART CHAPTER 2 2.........4 1............................. 8 Geographic Information System (GIS) ................................................................................................................2 Need for Rural Roads ......................6 2..............................................................2...................5 2................................................................................................... 2 Organisation of Thesis ................................................................1 2........................2............. 5 Partnering World Bank and ADB ...... 1 The Present Study .....3 1............................................................................1 2............................2 1................................... 9 vi .......2............................... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............. 7 Achievements and targets ................... 5 Governing bodies ..........................................5 INTRODUCTION General ....................3 2................................................................................................................ LIST OF FIGURES .............8 2................ TABLE OF CONTENTS .............. 6 Quality control system ....................2........

.............................................................. 16 Geography ................................3................................... 14 PREPARATION OF DATABASE CHAPTER 3 3.........................................................................................................................................................4...................................... 16 General ..............................3 3.................................. 18 Demography ..2 3....2 2................4.....1 2...................................................3 3.....................................3.............................................................................................................................................. 21 Methodology ...........6 3................. 16 History ....................................................................................... 12 Network planning .... 19 Data Acquisition .......................................... 10 Introduction ..4 3...............................................................................................7 3......... 18 Transportation ..........2...................................................... 26 vii ........................................ 16 Study Area ...................................2................... 25 CHAPTER 4 NETWORK PLANNING 4............................................. 20 Database Preparation ............................................................1 3................1 4..............................................................3 2...................................................................................................4 2.. 10 ArcGIS ......................................................................... 11 Review of Literature 12 GIS application for PMGSY ...2 3............1 3................. 20 GIS environment ......3 3....................................... 10 ArcGIS Desktop ........................4 2....5 2......................................2 Application of GIS to road development ............ 10 Software packages ................ 21 Summary ....4............................. 26 Key Terminology ......................................................................2...............................5.5 Introduction ................................................................2 Introduction ...........4.................................................5.........................2.............................................................................................................................................. 19 PMGSY details .............................. 17 Administrative divisions ........2...........................................................1 3.............................................................2................................................2................2 3...............................................4........................4 3.5 3.... 20 Projections and coordinate system .....................................................2.............................1 2......................

......................................................1 5............................................ 34 Road Density ........................... 29 Network philosophy ....... 35 viii ........HAB ...................................................................................................................................7 4..2 5.................................................3 4..............4.......2 4..4...............HAB ...1 5..................................4 5...................................... 32 Introduction .3....... 30 Unconnected HAB ..................................................4................................................6 5...................................................................2.................4 4.....................................................................................5........HAB_FW validation .........................5 5......................................................1 4................................................... 32 Planning toolset ......2................................................................... 29 General ........................................................................................................5 4.....................................................1 4........................................................... 37 CN for U..............................4.......................................................5.......................................................................................... 36 Planning Toolset Validation ........ 29 Monitoring Toolset Development .........................3 4................................................ 33 HAB within 500m from PR ....... 33 CN1 for C..... 30 BACK HAB .............................1 4.......................2.. 35 CN for U.5 4.......HAB validation .................HAB_FW ...... 31 HAB without FAC .................................. 32 Need for a planning tool .......................... 35 CN2 for C.................................2....2...............................................3........................................................................................4........................ 30 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 38 CHAPTER 5 NETWORK MONITORING 5...........................2 Planning Methodology – PMGSY ......6 4..................................7 Introduction .................HAB .........4.......................4 4............... 32 Road AADT ......... 35 CN3 for C.......................4........8 4....................4...... 30 Planning Toolset Development ........3 4. 33 Process involved .................... 29 Methodology ..........................................................2 5..3....3 5..................................................................................2........4..............................................2......2 4................. 36 CN for C...............................................................................................................

........................ 46 BRRP Map ............................2 6............................................ 58 Density Of Roads ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 60 REFERENCES ix ..............Tiruchirappalli ............................................... 45 APPENDICES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Road Network Map .................................................................................................... 54 AADT Trend In National Highways ............. 57 Length Of Roads ...................................................................... 44 Specific Inferences ............................... 47 Unconnected Habitations ......3 General ..........................................................................................1 6............................................................ 44 Scope for Future Work ................5............................................ 51 Facility Status Of Blocks ................................................................................... 37 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION 6...................................................................................Thiruverumbur Block ......................................3 Analysis ............................................................................................................... 56 Habitations within 500m from PR ........... 48 Backward Habitations ...........

........................ x .................................1 3....LIST OF TABLES Table No...... The Indicators and the Utility Value – An Illustrative Example ..... 22 28 Identified Spatial Layers .....2 Title Page No.. 3.......

......3 4.................................... Layout of BACK HAB tool .................... Validation of Tools to Plan Network for Unconnected Habitations .................................3 5.......................................................................... Layout of Road AADT tool ..... Page No................5 5................. 3.. Layout of HAB within 500m from PR tool ...............7 Title Tiruchirappalli District ...1 3............ Tiruchirappalli – Administrative Divisions ..............................6 5...........................................1 5..............3 4.... Methodology Behind Planning Toolset ........5 4...4 5...........2 4. Link and Through Routes ................................................................................................ Layout of Planning Tool ....... Layout of Unconnected HAB tool .LIST OF FIGURES Figure No...1 4.... Layout of HAB without FAC tool ....................6 5....................4 4...........2 3.....................................................................................................................................................2 5............................................ Validation of Tools to Plan Network for Connected Habitations ....... Layout of Road Density tool ...................................................................................... Model Builder Window and Planning Toolset .. 17 18 24 27 33 34 36 37 38 39 40 41 41 42 42 43 xi ................ Database Creation – Methodology ............................................ Monitoring Toolset ....................................................

The rural roads sector. Investing in rural roads was given low priority and viewed in isolation from the need for State and National Highways. 1. GENERAL In the year 2000.1. Nearly 74 per cent of India’s rural population. This constrained economic activities and access to essential services. constituting the majority of India’s poor. it is proposed to develop the 1 . with the primary objective to connect all the habitations of population above 500 (250 in case of hill states. Handling. functionally deficient and inefficient network.000 villages in India lacked allweather access roads. which is a State subject by then. 1. Government of India has decided to undertake the massive programme of rural connectivity under the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). tribal and desert areas). Unlike the past road development plans. proper emphasis is given to planning by introducing the concept of District Rural Roads Plan (DRRP) and Core Network (CN). the absence of detailed work plans resulted in a non-integrated. also lacked adequate planning and management due to poor coordination between multiple funding streams and agencies.3. were not fully integrated into the national economy. 2000. managing and updating of the data by the traditional methods is not only tedious and time consuming but also difficult to sort and retrieve.2. Realizing the critical issue of rural road sector. To obviate these difficulties. PMGSY PROGRAMME Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) is a hundred percent centrally sponsored project launched on 25th December. where though the conceptual plans and targets had been worked out. NEED OF GIS IN PMGSY As the programme is being implemented by preparing the DRRP and CN plans a huge database is being generated all over the country. The intention is not simply to provide the rural paths but a well laidout network of well engineered and durable roads throughout the country. around 40 per cent of the 825.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.

core network.4. location and provision of appropriate facilities. Tiruchirappalli District of state Tamilnadu has been considered for the study. The objectives of the study are: • To develop a Geo-database comprising habitation level data. monitoring and maintenance management of the assets created in rural areas. features of ArcGIS software package and review of literature. The second chapter comprises details about PMGSY programme. 2 . Thus GIS can be effective tool for village and road information system. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a collection of computer software. • To develop a planning methodology and tool set to select a core network and roads for upgradation using network planning tools available in ArcGIS based on Utility Value. 1. manipulate. general review of GIS. data and personnel used to store. THE PRESENT STUDY The present study aims at developing a database of PMGSY road network and framing a setup for planning. road inventory. ORGANISATION OF THESIS With this first chapter giving introduction to the study. hardware.database in Geographic Information System environment. The third chapter gives the characteristics of the study area and explains the process of development of database. 1. the thesis consists of six chapters.5. which will help the planners and administrators to identify the problems associated with rural road developmental activities. analyse and present geographically referenced information. a reputed GIS software package is made used for the purpose. ArcGIS. Road Index and Accessibility Index as recommended by PMGSY and IRC-SP 20. • To develop a suitable toolset having models to monitor and analyse the road network during and after planning stage. etc. monitoring and decision-making using Geographic Information System (GIS) platform.

3 . and the scope of future study. The fifth chapter briefs the minor tools developed using ArcGIS to assist planning and monitoring activities of PMGSY by making use of developed database. The sixth chapter concludes the report with the brief summary of work done. selecting a road for upgradation and toolset created for planning using ArcGIS.The fourth chapter explains about the methodology followed for planning road network including core network planning. the specific inferences obtained.

along with electricity. The Lead Though Rural road development has been a part of all our 20 year road development plans a major thrust to the development of Rural Roads was given at the beginning of the Fifth Five Year Plan in 1974. About 55 percent of villages achieved connectivity by March.2.000 villages in India lacked allweather access roads. Recognising the critical issue of the rural road sector. Funds continued to be provided by the States.1. NEED FOR RURAL ROADS India lives in its villages and road connectivity is a key component of its Rural Development. the Government of India (GOI) planned to give a boost to rural connectivity by launching a nationwide program. 2. alongside promoting access to economic and social services. Nearly 74 per cent of India’s rural population. 2000. which is a State subject by then. But the construction of rural roads has been 4 . PMGSY PROGRAMME 2. The BMS followed the 1991 census data. Funds were provided by the States. around 40 per cent of the 825. the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. In the year 2000. were not fully integrated into the national economy. This constrained economic activities and access to essential services. Investing in rural roads was given low priority and viewed in isolation from the need for State and National Highways. The development of rural areas is unthinkable without the provision of All-Weather Road access to all our villages and habitations. the MNP was merged with the Basic Minimum Services (BMS) programme. also lacked adequate planning and management due to poor coordination between multiple funding streams and agencies. Rural roads contribute significantly to generate increased agricultural incomes and productive employment opportunities. Rural Roads are the virtual lifelines for the vast multitude residing in rural areas. The rural roads sector. In 1996. primary school and dwelling unit with a view to bring the rural population into the mainstream of national development.2. when it was made a part of the Minimum Needs Programme (MNP). primary health centre.1.CHAPTER 2 STATE OF THE ART 2. constituting the majority of India’s poor.

000 habitations through the construction of about 372. 2. 2. The program envisages providing new connectivity to about 180.000 kms of roads.2. and upgrading about 370.the Prime Minister’s Rural Roads Program) under the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD). Governing Bodies Through the PMGSY. they may not be functional as means of connectivity. desert and tribal areas). They were also not maintained. roads were mostly left as earth tracks or gravel roads and did not conform to technical standards in terms of compaction. The total outlay for the program is 33 billion USD. which are implemented by Public Works Departments.000 kms of the existing core rural network to provide full farm-to market connectivity. particularly for rural road sector.2. planning. This enabled officers to develop ownership and become involved in the early stages of the program. Rural Development Department and similar agencies.2. PMGSY is being implemented as a 100 per cent centrally-funded program aimed at providing allweather connectivity to all habitations of above 500 population (250 in case of hills. These preparations were 5 .3. drainage and geometrics. The program has greatly enhanced the capacity of States to plan and manage rural roads by creation of State Rural Roads Development Agencies in each State. The Central Government has formulated detailed Policy and Operational Guidelines and set up the National Rural Road Development Agency (NRRDA) to provide management and technical support to the States. These agencies monitor PMGSY works. and design tools. In most cases all survey reports and detailed project reports were prepared by the staff of the Public Works Department (PWD). it is also helping to streamline the flow of funds through a sector wide approach for sustainable rural infrastructure development. GOI launched a nationwide program. Because of the employment focus. the GOI is endeavouring a radical departure from the past. As a result.undertaken as part of several employment creation and poverty-alleviation programmes of the central and state governments. The Launch Considering all this backlogs in the year 2000. (PMGSY. It is enforcing more rational and transparent decision making. the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana. A unique feature is the engagement of technical institutes with government agencies.

5. the World Bank has provided technical support to the Ministry of Rural Development in formulating the operational guidelines of the program. The PMGSY initiated a paradigm shift in the way rural roads are mapped. monitored. reporting systems. Orissa and West Bengal by providing loan of nearly US $ 1100 million under Rural Road Sector Project (RRSP). nationwide operational standards have been adopted in the area of institutional structures. to be uniformly applied throughout the country. adoption of Environmental and Social Management Framework (ESMF). Technical Base Prior to unveiling the PMGSY program.2. A highlight of the association has been the mandatory provision for peoples’ participation. the Central Government was responsible for only National Highways. is supporting the PMGSY program. construct and maintain rural roads. NRRDA prepared an operational manual to systematize the process of road building. It includes setting up the Core Road Network approach to prioritize the selection of habitations. It scrutinized the project proposals prepared by the State Public Works Department and were deputed for any technical project support the State government may periodically require. National Institute of Technology. alleviate poverty and improve rural livelihood. a partner with the Government of India to build rural infrastructure. financial and accounting systems. 2. fund. planning. It was for State Governments to plan. designed. procurement. manpower 6 . contract management. 2.supervised by chief engineers and independent professional bodies like the Indian Institute of Technology.2. There was no national level consensus or coordination on rural roads. Partnering World Bank and ADB The World Bank. developing maintenance management capacity of the States and exposure to global good practices through training. design. Through such interaction the engineering institutes were engaged in real-time projects while the government agency had access to professional technical assistance. Since the inception of the PMGSY.4. and built. At the initiative of the MoRD. Asian Development Bank (ADB) has also agreed to provide loans for building rural infrastructure mainly for the North Eastern States of Assam. For the first time.

cross-check the work and verify the entries in the register. The first tier is at the District Project Implementation Unit (PIU). led by a senior Executive Engineer. a separate Book of Specification and a Standard Data Book have been published in the IRC at NRRDA’s instance. added under the Rural Roads Project. Quality Control Registers have been prescribed for all the works under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana and these Registers will be maintained for each work under the Programme. This Manual provides a firm technical base for the road works that are being taken up under the PMGSY. The following publications were released by IRC regarding PMGSY: • The Rural Roads Manual has been approved and printed by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) as a Special Publication (IRC: SP-20:2002). where all aspects of operational monitoring are held.6. Guidelines on acceptable standards with desired specifications have also been put in place in order to cut down on subjective evaluations. 2. a three-tier quality control system has been put in place to ensure quality in road works. Contractors are also required to maintain field level laboratories for testing at each stage. where district wise quality monitors of the State government. Monitoring of the quality of works and materials by third parties has become mandatory. Retired Chief Engineers from neighbouring States are also taken on board for inspection of works alongside representatives of reputed engineering colleges and other specialized institutes. These replace the publications brought out by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. • In order to streamline the process of estimation and to standardise contracts. A Quality Control Handbook has been published for PMGSY. The PIU field engineers periodically conduct quality control tests at the site and record the results in a quality control register.skills and safety measures. Quality Control System Under the PMGSY. 7 .2. This will be applicable throughout the country. is of National Quality Monitors. It is mandatory for a reputed independent agency to be specifically contracted to carry out random tests on the quality of work. working independently of the PIU. The third tier. The second tier involves quality monitoring at the State level. and will be in consonance with the Rural Roads Manual.

A total of 377.1. The data changes of roads constructed under new connectivity or the surface condition of the roads upgraded have not been updated in order to get the latest picture of the new connectivity status or requirement and the updated surface condition of the existing roads. integrate information. 269.3.778 habitations. From this. rural India is rapidly transforming. 1. 2. serving about 45 million rural people. Achievements and Targets The PMGSY program.7.320.8.758 habitations. is running into the 9th year of implementation. hardware. data and personnel used to store. 1. Rs.2.290 million has been spent on building roads and the balance of Rs. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) 2. solve complicated problems. present powerful ideas 8 .3. 2637 crore was the total cost spent by then. GIS has the power to create maps.2.710 million will be used to connect the remaining unconnected habitations that are eligible under the program. analyse and present geographically referenced information.365 eligible habitations in addition to upgradation of connectivity to 31. Until the end of November 2009.000 kms of new roads have been constructed. habitations with a population of 500 by 2015 and habitations with a population above 250 by 2022. This target counts to a total of 290.500 kms of road work including 130. Connectivity and mobility is the key to reaching out and opening up new opportunities. Geo-Information Technology is preferred to overcome this backdrop by development agencies. Recent estimates by the MoRD (2007) suggest that the total investment required to meet the PMGSY targets was Rs. Wherever the roads network has come up the rural economy and quality of life has improved. GIS for PMGSY Despite its huge success.2.050. new connectivity has been provided to about 64.000 million. visualize scenarios. PMGSY programme is currently facing a backdrop as it lacks a framework to store the information and thereby to plan and monitor activities. now part of the Bharat Nirman Initiative. Habitations with a population above 1000 are targeted to be connected by year 2010. 2. With the construction of village roads. What is GIS? A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a collection of computer software. manipulate.

Typically a geographic database integrates two types of data: spatial and attribute data. and display geographic information.2. d) A graphical user interface (GUI) for easy access to tools. Key software components are a)Tools for the input and manipulation of geographic information. GIS is a computer system capable of assembling. and visualization. Geographic data and related tabular data can be collected in-house or purchased from a commercial data provider. • Data: Possibly the most important component of a GIS is the data. analyze. used by most organizations to organize and maintain their data. to manage spatial data. Attribute data relates to data qualifying the geographic features of an area usually tabular in nature and derived from knowledge about the application domain. GIS can be used to create and maintain geographic databases and are eminently suited for what-if-kind of analysis in any planning related activity. etc. governments and businesses seeking innovative ways to solve their problems. It is a tool used by individuals and organizations. analysis.3. manipulating and displaying geographically referenced information. Components of GIS A working GIS integrates five key components: • Hardware: It is the computer on which a GIS operates. • People: GIS technology is of limited value without the people who manage the system and develop plans for applying it to real-world problems. who design and maintain the system to those who use it to help them perform their everyday work. c) Tools that support geographic query. Spatial data represents a geographic feature such as point. line and polygons.and develop effective solutions like never before. 9 . from centralized computer servers to desktop computers used in Stand-alone or networked configurations. storing. 2. Typical examples being soil type of land parcel. schools. A GIS will integrate spatial data with the other data resources and can even use a DBMS. • Software: GIS software provides the functions and tools needed to store. GIS users range from technical specialists. i. Today. In the strictest sense. GIS software runs on a wide range of hardware types. data identified according to their location. name of a habitation and road length.e. b) A database management system (DBMS).

ArcGIS 2. GIS can be used to create a database. MapObjects. monitoring and maintenance management of the assets created in rural areas. and representing geographic information. for better planning and management of rural road programme at district/block level. But due to its user friendly environment and availability of variety of analysis tools ArcGIS remains the most preferred one. GRASS. etc. It is a set of tools for collecting. In addition. GIS can also be used to monitor the road conditions and developmental changes over the time period. The network planning tools available in various GIS software will be useful for finding out optimal road network based on accessibility criterion and socio-economic benefit criteria. managing.4. MapInfo. GeoMedia. special plans can be prepared to identify optimal route locations to provide new connectivity to the targeted habitations. 2.1. which are the models and operating practices unique to each organization. location and provision of appropriate facilities. Software Packages With the advent of computers many reputed GIS software packages are available like ArcGIS. managing and updating of the data is easy and less time consuming in GIS. retrieval. Application of GIS to Road Development The advantage of using GIS is its ability to access and analyse spatially distributed data. which will help the planners and administrators to identify the problems associated with rural road developmental activities. 2.4. Thus GIS can be effective tool for village and road information system. ArcGIS provides a scalable framework for implementing GIS 10 . Introduction ArcGIS is an integrated family of GIS software products for building a complete GIS.3. In addition to these packages many open resource GIS software’s are also available now. storing. by integrating the spatial data and the attribute data on roads as well as the habitations. ERDAS.• Methods: A successful GIS operates according to a well-designed plan and business rules. All software’s has its own advantages and disadvantages. analyzing. Handling.3.4.3. 2.

Java.for a single user or many users on desktops. ArcCatalog. 2. ArcGIS Desktop ArcGIS Desktop is the framework that provides the user interaction and experience for GIS professionals who use three ESRI software products: ArcView. It consists of four primary frameworks for deploying GIS: • ArcGIS Desktop . modular library of re-useable GIS software components.for example.Embeddable software components for developers to extend GIS desktops.An integrated suite of professional GIS applications. • ArcMap lets you make maps from multiple layers of geographic data.ArcIMS.for example. ranging from fine-grained objects . and for creating mobile solutions. and ArcGIS Image Server.4. These developer tools aggregate comprehensive GIS functionality for . ArcEditor. ArcGIS Desktop is made up of three components: ArcMap. They all appear the same and work in similar ways – the only difference is the tools available. a map control that allows you to quickly embed a map interface into your custom application for working with GIS map documents created in ArcGIS. • ESRI Developer Network (EDN) . ArcGIS Server.NET. over the Web. • Server GIS .ArcPad and ArcGIS Mobile for field computing. and in the field. • Mobile GIS . 11 . build custom GIS applications.2. each perform a distinct set of tasks. ArcInfo. a common. All four ArcGIS frameworks are based on ArcObjects. ArcEditor offers more tools than ArcView and ArcInfo offers more tools than ArcEditor. C++. Users can change between a publication view of the map (called Layout View). and ArcToolbox. in servers. add custom GIS services and web applications. to which legends and other map elements can be added and a working view in which you can manipulate your data (called Data View). and web developers. ArcObjects includes a wide variety of programmable components. individual geometry objects to coarse-grained controls and tools . The ArcMap interface presents a Table of Contents (TOC) with currently available data layers as well as the current map and symbology.

ArcCatalog is also the subsystem that provides access to metadata and allows you to update and edit information associated with the spatial data you are using. number of roads and habitations benefited in a year (phase) in a district and comparison of the same with different districts. Through the tools associated with ArcCatalog you can access data on your computer and other systems to which your computer is connected and add it to your map. which can be used for rural road planning and management. Thenpandithamizh P (2005). Nayyar.5. and survey integration. link routes. connectivity. The works which found to be useful for the study are briefed here. 12 . 2. The analysis includes proximity study of habitations from road network. etc.Ganesh Raja (2008). A number of optional extensions are available for ArcGIS Desktop that provides additional GIS functionality.Shaik (2006). three-dimensional analysis. A.• ArcCatalog supports your connection to and browsing of spatial data. Praveen Babu CH. population served directly and indirectly. type of surface. etc.1. • ArcToolbox contains an extensive menu of tools for manipulating your spatial data. is developed to help in network planning and provision of various services in rural areas. at the ArcInfo level you will access to advanced spatial analytic tools as well. (2009) used GIS to develop a database and to perform various analyses on PMGSY road network for 15 districts of Tamilnadu. GIS applications for PMGSY Lot of research works are coming up in the field of application of GIS for rural road development. Extensions allow you to perform tasks such as raster geo-processing. study of connected length of road works. R (2003) has developed a database for Tiruchirappalli district for providing connectivity under PMGSY using GIS. identification of through routes. Sayad Bilal (2007). Bhuvaneswari Devi. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2. The information system giving details of type of road. and market centers.5.

G. B. The developed system acts as a decision support tool for Public Works Department and Government of Maharashtra. Karandikar. Jain. Amit Prakash. preventive maintenance and preservation programmes. M. This includes dedicated funds for maintenance. Kangadurai. B. Anjaneyulu. Keerthi. A. Rathanakara Reddy (2006) have made a study on Asset Management of Rural Roads – need for a policy frame work in India.B. Veeraraghavan.Prasada Rao.R. which often remain unutilized in most of the planning processes. K. Pavement Design.Mohan Rao. preparation proposal for pavement layers and Cross Drainage work. P. Lal (2006) has conducted study on Computer Aided Design of Rural Roads (PMGSY). Dr. (2007) developed a methodology to plan the rural roads based on secondary data sources. Bindu.S. Prashant Nayak (2003) developed a GIS based Road Information and Management System for Maharashtra. Steps to prepare maps from the developed database are also explained. B. B. K. in GIS environment.Jain and P. A Software is developed. Chandrasekar. Sikdar (2004) developed a methodology in GIS to prepare District Rural Road Plan and Core Network Plan for Simdega Block in Jharkhand state. A.K. cost estimation of Roads and Cross Drainage work. preparation of summary sheet of the proposals. Geometric Design. Analysis of rates. which is useful for performing various tasks of a Rural Road development project under PMGSY including Preparation of database for core network identification. P.L. The rural roads are planned based on the functional dependence of settlements and the potential interactions resulting from 13 . GIS is used to store village level data and road inventory data of the block. P.V. The attempt is to highlight the various issues that need special attention to preserve the PMGSY rural road infrastructure assets created.S. Praveen kumar & M.K. creation of a data base for pavement management and training. Balabhaskara Reddy & K. P. Various preventive maintenance treatment technologies and performance based maintenance contract technologies have been presented along with related issues and concerns. V. M. Kanaga Durai. Neelam Jain (2003) developed an Information system for rural road network planning for Rupauli Block in Purnia District of Bihar.

Manish Sardana (2007) developed various thematic views which can be useful for Rural Road Network planning such as villages with various population ranges. etc. Prof. Lakshmana Rao. I.M. Jayasree. An index derived from set of demographic. A. Network Planning Swaminathan.2. Gaurav Bhandari. Kumar and Tilloston (1985) proposed the rural road network planning methodology which minimizes the road construction and travel cost. Various link options for connectivity were analysed by considering the flow circuit. The villages were considered as “unconnected nodes” which were to be connected to “root nodes”. situated either 14 . K. Vandana Tare. GIS is used as a supporting tool to identify the final road network by the coordination of existing and proposed road networks.K. Villages which are not connected by any road. villages having Panchayat Headquarters. Dr. The upgradation is planned based on two steps – strengthening of road or widening and alternate route. Praveen kumar and Anukul Saxena (2008) developed a planning model for upgradation of rural road by keeping PMGSY programme as the base.them. infrastructural development and policy attributes is developed to prioritize the settlements. An accessibility indicator has been developed and based on this the network has been generated. source villages which can provide connectivity to the unconnected villages.K. Singh developed a methodology to plan a new alignment for a Rural Road Network based on Accessibility Approach. P. Market centers and existing roads were considered as high intensity concentrated electric charges. K. The road network connecting the market centers is proposed using shortest spanning trees. socioeconomic. Rama Chandra Reddy (2008) derived a mathematical model for identification of market centers which acts as a proxy to travel demand. 2.5. Accessibility and construction cost are considered as phenomenon’s for network alignment. Sikdar. (1981) used the concept of minimum spanning tree for connecting the villages to existing nearby roads or to the market center. Cluster Analysis is used to obtain Hierarchy of the settlement.

So the unconnected villages were connected to the market center or the main road and proceeding towards interior by connecting the nearest unconnected village with the already connected ones. Alternative networks were generated from a set of predetermined road links using different link options.on market centers or on the existing main roads interconnecting the market centers. The minimum construction cost network was generated first by using minimum spanning tree concept. The optimum network was obtained from minimum construction cost. Gravity hypothesis was used to qualify inter settlement interaction using level of socio-economic development. Kumar (1997) suggested the facility-based approach to rural road planning. a network. Integrated area development approach was considered to arrive at a road network. The existing correlation between accessibility and education level was considered as the guiding tool to arrive at the maximum permissible distance of the village from an educational institute in planning the rural road network. From the survey results it was suggested that. Education level was taken as the proportion of population studying or studied at a particular level whereas the accessibility measure was taken as the distance of education institutions from the village. population and spatial in terms of centrality scores and the interaction between two settlements was considered proportional to the difference in their centrality scores. analyse and evaluate alternative rural road linkage patterns. 15 . One of the important contributions of the study is its findings about the rural travel characteristic. link efficiency. Mahendru (1985) used the concept of settlement interaction. which provided connectivity to market center and educational institutions is correlated with their accessibility from different road types. route efficiency and network efficiency to generate. which were derived from an extensive survey data obtained from rural areas. which serves the area in a balanced way.

2. by Karnataka state on the northwest. Tiruchirappalli. General Tiruchirappalli district in Tamilnadu State have been selected as the study area for the application of GIS on road network. INTRODUCTION The present study consists of three stages – Preparation of Database in GIS environment. 3.2.D. Tamil Nadu is a state in southern India. onwards. 880. which influence the travel. Lets see about the study area characteristics. according to the inscriptions. 3. Till A. Tamil Nadu has an area of 130. development of toolset plan the Core Network and development of minor tools to assist planning and monitoring through various useful analysis. data acquisition process. which in turn are further bifurcated into smaller divisions and subdivisions including a total of 17.272 villages. HISTORY Woraiyur. Woraiyur along with the present day Tiruchirappalli and its neighbouring areas came under the control of Mahendra Varma Pallava I. bordered by Andhra Pradesh state on the north. this region was under the hegemony of either the Pallvas or the Pandyas. 590. and finally preparation of database in this chapter. All transportation planning exercises requires large amount of data on many factors. 16 . STUDY AREA 3. lying at a distance of about 320 km from Chennai and 133 km from Madurai. by the Bay of Bengal on the east and by the Indian Ocean on the south.2.2.058 sq km.1. who ascended the throne in A. Later. is situated on the banks of the Cauvery River in the southern state of Tamil Nadu. Occupying the extreme south of the Indian peninsula. In order to prepare a scientific plan for rural roads it is necessary to build a comprehensive database. by Kerala state on the west.1.CHAPTER 3 PREPARATION OF DATABASE 3.C. a part of present day Tiruchirappalli. The state of Tamil Nadu is divided into 32 Administrative Districts. was the capital city of Cholas from 300 B. popularly known as Trichy.D.

the Governors of Vijayanagar Empire. 1736.3.404 square kilometers. The district has an area of about 4. colleges and missions dating back to the 1760s.2. it came under the rule of later Pandyas till the advent of Mughal Rule. Finally the English brought Tiruchirappalli and other areas under their control. For some years. 3. Apart from the fort there are several churches. The district was then under the hegemony of British for about 150 years till the independence of India. With its excellent infrastructural facilities Trichy serves as a good base to see central Tamilnadu.It was in 880 AD. The Nayak dynasty came to an end during the days of Meenakshi. The Muslims ruled this region again with the aid of either the French or the English armies.1). It was Viswanatha Nayaka who built the present day Teppakulam and the Fort. In 1225 A. Geography Tiruchirapalli district (Fig. Tiruchirappalli was under the rule of Chanda Sahib and Mohamed Ali. Aditya Chola brought a downfall to the Pallava dynasty. built around the Rock Fort. Trichy flourished and prospered in its own. ruled this area till A.1 . which was put to an end by the Vijayanagar rulers. Afterwards.Tiruchirappalli District 17 . lies at the heart of Tamil Nadu. 3. It is geographically positioned between 10° and 11°30’ of the northern latitude and 77°45’ to 78°50’ of the Eastern longitude. Tiruchirappalli was for some time under the Mughal rule.D the area was occupied by the Hoysulas. 3. Fig.D. From that time onwards Tiruchirappalli and its region became a part of Greater Cholas. The Nayaks.

Demography The population of the district was 10. 72.Abishekapuram.4. Manikandam. Thiruverumbur. 3.Musuri. Lalgudi. Srirangam. It is 47. and to the northwest by Namakkal District. • 408 Village Panchayats and 1926 Habitations. Ariyamangalam. 15 wards to each zone. Administrative Divisions BLOCKS TALUKS REVENUE DIVISIONS Fig.2 . • 14 Blocks .2): • 3 Revenue Divisions – Tiruchirappalli. to the northeast by Perambalur District. Srirangam. Manapparai. 3. Manapparai and Marungapuri. Thuraiyur. Tattayangarpettai. Musiri. Manachanallur. to the south by Sivaganga and Madurai districts.366 persons in 2001 with the density of 549 person per sq.2. to the west by Karur District. Uppiliyapuram. Thottiyam. Ponmalai and K. • a City Corporation with 60 wards of 4 zones. Manachanallur. to the southwest by Dindigul District. namely. Musiri and Lalgudi.Tiruchirapalli is bounded to the north by Namakkal District. to the east by Thanjavur District. • 8 Taluks .756 in 1951.Lalgudi. to the southeast by Pudukkottai District. Thottiam. Tiruchirappalli .5. Andanallur.2. Thuraiyur. Vaiyampatty.10% 18 . 3. 3. which has increased to 2. Pullambadi.km.418.Tiruchirappalli – Administrative Divisions Tiruchirappalli district comprises following administrative divisions (Fig.

249 – 0. 2816.3Km length of state highways.212.2.urbanised. Rockfort Temple. Grand Anaicut (Kallanai Dam). higher than the state's average. PMGSY Details Despite many administrative levels available over the country. Habitations are further considered into four classes based on total population as 1000 +. that runs flights to Indian cities. Jambukeswara Temple. 499 – 250. three State Highways and six major district roads form the major road network of the region. Transportation Tiruchirappalli district is an important urban centre in the state and well connected by Roads and Railways. The district has 202. The average decadal growth rate of population is 21. and various parts of India. Three National Highways (NH 45.6km of Town Panchayat roads. Tiruchirappalli district has 1926 habitations in total. Hazrath Nathervali. are few places of interests for Tourists in Tiruchirappalli district. Tiruchirappalli is the hub of Southern Railway's operations to connect central Tamilnadu. 986.0 % over the last four decades. Hindus formed the majority of the population at 84. Tamil is the principal language spoken and Tamils are the predominant linguistic group in the district.4km of Corporation and Municipality Roads and 884. Out of 1926 Habitations.46% and others at 0. St.16%. NH 67 and NH 210). Total number of households in Tiruchirappalli City Corporation according to 2001 census is 175. PMGSY deals only with the levels – State. For monitoring the target achievement.12% 3. Lourdu's Church.7. Mukkombu. Tiruchirappalli has an airport about 7-8 Km from the city. etc.6km of National Highway.39% of the population followed by Christians at 9. territories and neighbouring countries Srilanka and Singapore. 210. District. under the administration of 14 blocks.9km length of Major and Other District Roads.02%. The district comprises of 195 PMGSY roads till the year 19 .2. 999 – 500. 76 habitations were connected by the year 2000. Block and Habitations. Muslims at 6. As far as on December 2009. 3.6. The district has a literacy of 79. about 112 habitations were provided with new connectivity and connectivity is being upgraded for about 184 habitations.

Chennai. category of road. Block and Village Data. details of Road Network. Connectivity details. running for a length of about 386.8 km. road surface type.2 is used to prepare database. soil type and other details are collected from DRDA and PMGSY official website. GIS Environment GIS software ArcGIS Desktop 8. Habitation Data. • Block level map data – The map at block level at 1:50. Demographic data.000. Education facilities. 3. • Village Data – the names of blocks and villages with census codes and population from Block/ District level Statistical Handbook. DATABASE PREPARATION 3. ArcMap component is used to deal with spatial and non spatial 20 . • Habitation Data – the block level data having information about each habitation like: Name and Reference Code.1. Their source and other details are as follows: • Topo Sheets covering Tiruchirappalli district has been obtained from Survey of India. DATA ACQUISITION For this work Topo sheet.4. Block level map data. Primary and Secondary road network (PR) like National Highways (NH). Boundaries and Road Network.4.000 scales were collected from the relevant DRDAs in the form of AutoCAD files. The map data contains the following items: Location of habitation/settlements. 3. Market facility.2008. Health facilities. when compared with other GIS software’s. • Details of Road Network – the data regarding name of the road. • Connectivity Details – details regarding connectivity available for each habitation like All Weather Road (AWR). About 27 crore Rupees have been spent for the district alone under PMGSY. Administrative Detail like Head Quarter. etc is obtained from District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). in scale 1:50. State Highways (SH) and Major District Roads (MDR). editing and attribute linking can be done with less effort in this software.3. Digitising. Fair Weather Road (FWR) or no connectivity. etc have been collected.

data manipulation like digitization. The database preparation is carried out at three steps – spatial layers preparation.4. etc.4.GCS_WGS_1984. etc. Here for our purpose the following predefined coordinate systems are used: • Geographic coordinate system .spatial data preparation and integration of non-spatial data to respective spatial layers. There are two common types of coordinate systems used in GIS: • A global or spherical coordinate system such as latitude-longitude often referred to as geographic coordinate systems. 21 . Albers equal area. ArcCatalog is used to access and manage the data on your system.WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_44N. Projected coordinate systems are sometimes referred to as map projections.3. and observations. Various complex and advanced operations are carried out using tools available in ArcToolbox.2. Methodology The database is prepared at block level as prescribed by PMGSY Operations Manual and then combined together to form district database. for digitization and database preparation. 3. • Projected coordinate system name . editing. imagery. Example: transverse Mercator. • A projected coordinate system based on a map projection which provide various mechanisms to project maps of the earth's spherical surface onto a twodimensional Cartesian coordinate plane. for analysis and planning purpose. 3. A coordinate system is a reference system used to represent the locations of such map features like geographic features. It forms the main working environment. non. Projection and Coordinate System The features on a map reference the actual locations of the objects they represent in the real world.

Table 3. District boundary and Block boundary is obtained from Tamilnadu Water supply And Drainage Board (TWAD Board). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 FILE/LAYER NAME HABITATIONS STATE BOUNDARY DISTRICT BOUNDARY BLOCK BOUNDARY RES_FOREST NH SH_MDR ODR_VR PMGSY RAIL LAKE RIVER HQ MARKET HEALTH EDUCATION TOURIST RELIGIOUS QUARRY MAP LAYERS Habitations State Boundary District Boundary Block Boundary Forest Boundary Primary Road Secondary Road Rural Road PMGSY Road Railway Line Lakes Rivers and Channels Administrative HQ Market Centre Health Service Educational Service Tourist Place Religious place Quarry (Stone & Sand) TYPE Point Polygon Polygon Polygon Polygon Line Line Line Line Line Polygon Line Point Point Point Point Point Point Point • Obtaining Boundary Layers: The exact spatially referenced boundary map layers including State boundary. • Identification of spatial layers: As a first step the various spatial layers that are going to be a part of database is identified and created using ArcCatalog as Shape files. • Importing AutoCAD map data to GIS environment : The AutoCAD map data obtained from DRDA is then imported into the GIS workspace using conversion tool available in ArcGIS. The identified spatial layers are given in Table 3.1 – Identified Spatial Layers NO.1) Spatial Layer’s Preparation: The following tasks are involved in preparation of spatial layers. 22 .1. The imported data lacks any spatial reference and so it will not match its exact location.

• Spatial Adjustment of imported AutoCAD map data: The imported data is thus spatially adjusted and referenced to the available referenced boundary layers by making use of five adjustment methods available in ArcGIS, like rubber sheeting, edge snapping. • Extracting features from AutoCAD map data: The various features present in imported AutoCAD map is extracted and stored in their respective spatial layers, like National Highways to NH layer, Habitation Locations to HABITATIONS layer, etc. • Checking Topology: Prepared Spatial layers are checked for topological rules like block boundary should be within district boundary, lines should not have any dangles, etc. The errors if any are corrected.

2) Non- Spatial Data Preparation: The attributes that are to be integrated with developed spatial layers is compiled in the required format and stored as Excel file (xls) format. The non spatial data is prepared for each spatial layer. For example, a table having information’s like Habitation Code, Habitation Name, Block and District address, Total Population, SC/ST Population, availability of facilities like Primary School, Colleges, Medical Centres, Market Places, Connecting Road details, etc for HABITATIONS layer. 3) Spatial Layer and Non - Spatial Data Integration: The non spatial data developed as xls sheets is then appended with their respective spatial layers. For example, NH sheet to NH layer, Habitation sheet to HABITATIONS layer. The only requirement for integration of spatial and non spatial data is the presence of minimum one common field say id or name. The merging can be done easily using tool available in ArcGIS. Thus the database preparation is done.

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The pictorial chart Fig. 3.3 gives the brief about the steps involved in database preparation.

Spatial layers identification

Obtaining boundary layer

Spatial adjustment of map data

Importing AutoCAD map data

Extracting features of spatial layers

Non spatial data creation

+

=

Integration of spatial and non-spatial data to database

Fig. 3.3 – Database Creation - Methodology
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3.5. SUMMARY The database comprising habitation data, primary and secondary road information, rural road network inventory, rail network, water bodies, characteristics of important places like market centres, Head Quarters, Tourist places, details of available facilities, etc has been prepared for all the 14 blocks present in Tiruchirappalli district. The block level information’s are then integrated to obtain a complete database at district level. The developed database can be made used for preparing various thematic maps right from political maps to thematic maps like AADT maps, CBR maps, Terrain map, DRRP map, CN map, etc, which can be used for any analysis and transportation planning. Above all it can be used for planning and monitoring PMGSY Road Network. A sample map showing Primary and Rural Network of entire Tiruchirappalli District and BRRP of Thiruverumbur Block are attached as Appendices 1 and 2 respectively.

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which provide access to services and also opportunities for the rural population to increase their income. the effort under the PMGSY is to provide single all-weather road connectivity to each eligible Habitation by way of connecting it to another 26 . Basic access . Connecting rural habitations through good quality all weather roads.CHAPTER 4 NETWORK PLANNING 4. 4. Desam. is an important part of the socio-economic development process. INTRODUCTION Rural roads are part of the total road network system and it needs to be developed in such a way that the travel needs of the people in an area are met to the maximum extent by a hierarchically integrated network. As already indicated. it is necessary that a proper Master Plan is prepared in order that all activities relating to rural roads such as Construction. Let’s discuss the present schema and methodology of planning as suggested by PMGSY guidelines. Dhanis. For sustainable development through rural roads.2.is a cluster of population. living in an area. A Revenue village/ Gram Panchayat may comprise of several Habitations. Tolas. KEY TERMINOLOGY Before proceeding ahead. Majras. and the cost of development of network is also lowest.is defined as single all-weather road connectivity to each Habitation. as defined for the purpose of PMGSY programme. details of study conducted on various options available for planning in order to develop a standard planning tool using GIS. with Uppilliyapuram block as example.1.is one with a population of more than 500 persons and located at a distance of at least 500 metres or more from an All-weather road or a connected village/Habitation. Upgradation and Maintenance can be taken up systematically within the frame work of this Master Plan. the location of which does not change over time. it would be better to have a clear understanding of the terms commonly used. Unconnected Habitation . are commonly used terminology to describe the Habitations. hamlets etc. Habitation .

however. while Through Routes arise from the confluence of two or more Link Routes and emerge on to a major Road or to a Market Centre.habitation having all-weather connectivity or to an all-weather road.Link Routes are the roads connecting a single Habitation or a group of Habitations to Through Routes or District Roads leading to Market Centres. Link routes generally have dead ends terminating on a Habitation. Fig. Interruptions to traffic as per permitted frequency and duration are. Fig. Upgradation .1 – Link and Through Routes 27 .implies construction of roads on the existing alignments from earth-work stage. allowed. Link Route and Through Route . 4. The pavement should be negotiable during all-weathers. minor bridges and causeways. inter alia.e.1 explains the same. All-weather road . but this does not necessarily imply that it should be paved or surfaced or black-topped. This implies that the road-bed is drained effectively by adequate cross-drainage structures such as culverts.. 4.implies improvement of the unsurfaced roads to surfaced roads. This does not include repair or renewal of existing surfaced roads. New Connectivity . except at major river crossings. Through Routes are the roads which collect traffic from several link roads or a long chain of Habitations and lead it to Marketing centres either directly or through the higher category roads i. in such a way that there is access to. Market Centres. the District Roads or the State or National Highway.is one which is negotiable during all weathers.

suggested structure to obtain Utility Value.1 provides a Educational Facility Health Facility Market Facility Administrative Centre Primary school Dispensary Middle school Sub Centre High school Maternity and Child Welfare Centres More than One day Block HQ Intermediate Primary Health Centres College Hospital Daily Market + Shops - One day Panchayat HQ Sub-Division HQ District HQ However the indicators and the weights assigned to variables in the above Table is only indicative and so the indicators and their weightage should be framed before the Planning Exercise is initiated. one all-weather road connectivity to each habitation. to a set of socio-economic/ infrastructure facilities (Health. The variables which best suited for the District should be selected.1 . can be made use of for arriving utility value in case no appropriate weightage method is found out. However. Table 4. 28 .is a compendium of the existing and proposed road network system in the District which clearly identifies the proposed roads for connecting the yet Unconnected Habitations to already connected Habitations/ Allweather roads. and administrative centres. Utility Value (UV) – is a Value for a Habitation calculated by giving appropriate weightages. Core Network (CN) . A Core Network is extracted out of the total Network mentioned in the DRRP and consists of existing roads as well as the roads required to be constructed to the as yet unconnected Habitations.. categorised and then relative weightages should be accorded to them.The Indicators and the Utility Value – An Illustrative Example Indicators of the Habitation Rating of Indicators (Weightages) 2 4 6 8 10 The Table 4. inter alia.is the network of all the Rural Roads that are necessary to provide basic access to all the Habitations. in an economic and efficient way. Education. IRC SP: 20 – 2002. it will not consist of all the existing roads of the DRRP since the objective is to establish ‘basic access’ i. Markets).e.District Rural Roads Plan (DRRP) .

PLANNING METHODOLOGY .Road Index – is an index for a road calculated by taking the Utility Value (UV) of the Habitation providing the requisite services to the target Habitation and dividing it by the length of the road link.1. Thus. of a district. In rural areas. therefore.3. The Core Network plan is the plan comprising network of all the Rural Roads that are necessary to provide basic access to all the Habitations and it is extracted out of the total Network mentioned in the DRRP. No individual road link can serve the same purpose when developed in isolation. Network Philosophy A road. District Rural Roads Plan is the one comprising network of all the identified road networks. While attempting to optimise the road network. facilitates the essential movements of persons and goods in an area. The road link which has the highest Road Index should be preferred. 4. including primary and secondary roads.3. major part of their travel needs is comprised of travel to market place. It differs from DRRP as it comprises of only optimal route links connecting all the habitations both connected and unconnected in the block/district. needs to be developed in such 29 . General The network planning for PMGSY two plans . which becomes links of a network.District Rural Roads Plan and Core Network plan. education centre and health centre (almost 95%). creation of an optimal road network is to be aimed to serve the habitations for access to such needs through a master plan. each unconnected habitation has to be connected to the all-weather road network or already connected habitations in an efficient way (in terms of cost and its utility). A road network.3. WͿͷX ͫ;XXY = ͱYXͼXYY ͲͷͼYX ͮX;XYX ͿX ΀΂Ϳ΀Ϳ΃XX ͼX;ͻ The choice of road link to a Connected Habitation or All-weather road (which ensures access to a Habitation which serves the needs of the residents of Unconnected Habitation) is determined by the Road Index of the respective Road links. 4.2.PMGSY 4.

A Habitation with higher population will rank higher in the list. should be prepared in descending order of their population. (IRC SP: 20-2002) 4. Higher Education and Health care facilities.3. Banking and telecommunication facilities. Calculating Utility Value for vicinity Habitations: Then the Utility Values of Habitations should be calculated by considering the variables which best suited for the District and assigning relative weightages according to them. Methodology Based on the above quoted network philosophy prescribed by IRC a methodology with following steps has been suggested in PMGSY’s Operations Manual: Map preparation: The block level digital map with habitation and road inventory data incorporated in it at prescribed format showing latitudes and longitudes at 1:50.3.000 scale. not even by a fair-weather road.a way that the travel needs of the people of the community in an area are met to the maximum in a collective way at the lowest cost of development. they function as Rural Business Hubs and generally have facilities for marketing of agricultural surpluses. Consequently they are likely to have developed public transport. 30 . Identification of Market Centres (MC): An analysis of the transport patterns in the rural areas reveals that most of the travel is to the Market centres. Facilities like agricultural equipment repair shops may also exist. large stores for agricultural inputs as well as consumer items (durables and consumables). These are generally located either on bigger roads or at the confluence of roads leading from a number of Habitations. Because they are easily accessible from the rural hinterland and are linked to the main road network. two separate lists of Unconnected Habitations: • those which are connected only by a fair weather road which needs to be upgraded to the prescribed specifications and • those which have no connection at all. Preparation of the list of unconnected habitations: By making use of the available data and information from the Map.

as the intention is to provide basic access. having all-weather roads. (iii) those which are connected only by a fair-weather road. Finding available options of connectivity: The next task is to find the list of all the available connectivity for habitations guided by the following assumptions: • The population of unconnected habitation shall have to travel to nearby habitations or market centers to fulfil their locally unsatisfied needs. In such a case. that road may be chosen. The views of the Village Panchayat or the Gram Sabha. in any case. • The choice of link may be based on network philosophy and at a minimum cost. market centres need to be identified to the extent that the local villagers should be able to go to the Market centre and come back within the same day. In some areas.For purposes of inclusion in the network. for any reason. • The unconnected habitations may be presently connected through Fair-Weather Road links which may have to be upgraded to All-Weather connectivity. The maximum distance between a village and a Market centre would thus normally not be more than 15-20 km. but. In the case of first two types of Habitations. the proposals of the MPs and MLAs should also be given due considerations while selecting the link. one road should be selected using Socio. It is the most efficient and economic route.Economic infrastructural parameter criteria. The link having the highest Road Index should be preferred. or by a new link from unconnected habitation to an all-weather link or a connected habitation. 31 . it is possible that there are more than one road connections. only one road should be selected for the Core Network. in terms of cost and utility. the Market centres may not be fully developed. an alternative road is the preferred choice of the local people. If. Road Index is made used for selecting a optimal route. (ii) those which are not connected at all. Selection of optimal road links: There are three types of habitations in the Block – (i) those which are connected. In such cases the big villages having potential for developing into suitable Market Centres because of road connectivity etc should be identified.

is developed it will be easy for planners to plan by just giving the required input data. But it requires pre knowledge about the software.4.1. Need for a Planning tool The planning process can be carried out effectively using various tools available in GIS software’s. by making use of developed road database and framed guidelines available for planning. 32 . It will not only reduce complexity but also save time for the planners. 4.2. which making the process complex. But one should keep in mind that the planning parameters will vary from place to place. Thus once if a model comprising all the required queries and processes. Thus there is an opportunity to develop a tool to perform the network planning process in an automated way. It should be checked that all the Habitations are connected or will be connected to the nearby Market Centres. in sequence. Then it will be just click.4.4. The model builder. in GIS environment. give input and get network plan. it is not easy for the planning engineers to carry out planning without having expertise with the GIS software’s. Introduction As now all the data has been incorporated in GIS. large number of queries and processes has to be carried out in series for planning a network or connectivity to even a single habitation. It is not necessary that each Habitation is directly connected to the Market centre. Network Analyst tool and various other tools have been made use of for creating the planning tool. PLANNING TOOLSET DEVELOPMENT 4. With the scope of carrying out the same. Even then. 4.In case of unconnected habitations without any road access a new optimal alignment is planned in such a way that the connectivity is provided either to already connected habitation or market place as similar to the above case. either directly or indirectly through other all-weather roads. the following attempt has been made to develop a planning tool in ArcGIS.

The toolset comprises tools: • CN1 for C. Process involved In order to build an efficient planning model.to plan optimum network for connected habitations (case 3) • CN for U. 4.HAB .HAB . Planning Toolset A toolset has been developed to plan core network for connected and unconnected habitations. has to be planned for a new alignment which requires more data like satellite imagery.3.4.4. the basic assumptions suggested by IRC SP: 20 – 2002 and PMGSY operation’s manual has been considered.4.4. The unconnected habitations having no fair weather road access even. land use.to plan optimum network road proposal for unconnected habitations having fair weather road connectivity.2 shows the model builder window through which the models have been created along and developed toolset. 4.HAB_FW .to plan optimum network for connected habitations (case 1) • CN2 for C. As the required data are not available by now the development of tool for the same is dropped.HAB .to plan optimum network for connected habitations (case 2) • CN3 for C. Fig. The Fig.2 – Model Builder Window and Planning Toolset 4. a methodology by which the planning processes should be accomplished has been derived. The derived planning 33 . etc. Based on those suggestions and network philosophy described.

3. which depends on block under study No If UV >= X Yes Identification of all available AW routes leading to Habitation having UV >= X Route Utility Route Length Identification of all available AW routes leading to MC or PR or Networked Habitation Selecting optimal Add route to No All habitations networked Yes Final Core Network Fig. 4. Connected habitations Identification of Market Centres (MC) and primary road networks Sort based on Utility Value (UV) Select high ranked unnetworked Habitation Within 500 m reach to MC or PR? Yes No link required No X = selected UV.methodology for finding optimal core network for connected habitations is charted in Fig.3 – Methodology Behind Planning Toolset 34 Declare . 4.

6. • Network for all the habitations having utility value greater than or equal to 50 is obtained by taking them to the nearby primary roads or market centres through an optimal link.HAB This is a developed to plan core network for connected habitations with following considerations. • Then all the remaining connected habitations are networked with either primary roads or market centres.5. It differs from above two tools by following considerations: • Network for all the habitations having utility value greater than or equal to 50 is obtained either by taking them to the nearby primary roads or market centres. • Network for all the habitations having utility value greater than or equal to 50 is obtained by taking them to the nearby primary roads or market centres through an optimal link. whichever is optimum. 4.HAB CN2 for C.The methodology is same for the unconnected habitations with fair weather road access.7.4. CN1 for C. or 35 . 4. or networked habitations having utility value >= 50. the difference being all the available fair weather roads are identified to get to optimal link and the one selected out of those is added to the core network and proposed for upgradation to all-weather road. • All the remaining connected habitations are networked with those networked habitations having utility value >= 50.4.HAB CN3 for C.HAB is a second tool of toolset to plan core network for connected habitations with considerations.4. CN2 for C. CN3 for C.HAB is another tool to plan core network for connected habitations considerations. 4.

• All the remaining connected habitations are then networked with either primary roads or market centres. CN for U. The FWR which best connects the habitation to the nearest networked habitations available is found out and added to the core network already developed for connected habitations. road layer a layer containing identified market centers and important junctions. This becomes the proposed route in the plan. 4.5. Fig.8. PLANNING TOOLSET VALIDATION The developed tools are validated by comparing results obtained through it with the core network plans of Uppiliyapuram block developed by DRDA in the AutoCAD format. The inputs for the tool being the habitation layer. The habitations having only fair weathered roads within 500m reach are considered here. All the planning tools though having different processes involved behind will look alike in the layout as in Fig. 4.4. 36 .4.by interconnecting routes available between the considered habitations. Utility values of all habitations are computed as given in IRC SP: 20 – 2002.4 –Layout of Planning Tool 4.HAB_FW This is a tool to plan optimum network road proposal for unconnected habitations having FWR connectivity. by choosing the optimum one. whichever is optimum. 4. or networked habitations having utility value >= 50.

1.4. CN2 for C.5 shows the core networks planned by DRDA.5 – Validation of Tools to Plan Network for Connected Habitations The deviation is observed between the networks developed by tools and that by DRDA. CN for C.HAB By CN3 for C.5. And it can be noticed that the variation in core network is very less when 37 . 4.HAB and CN3 for C.HAB tools.HAB.HAB By CN2 for C.HAB Fig. CN1 for C. 4.HAB validation The Fig. By DRDA By CN1 for C.

6 – Validation of Tool to Plan Network for Unconnected Habitations The routes obtained by the tool are same as that proposed by DRDA. CN for U. 38 . This is expected as the considerations are increasing from CN1 to CN3. recommendations from MP’s. Few reasons were identified for deviation of network developed from that prepared by DRDA: • The non consideration of inter connectivity between the habitations of same level.6 shows the routes proposed for unconnected habitations obtained from tool developed on the right and of that of DRDA on the left. Panchayat.HAB_FW Fig.5. By DRDA By CN for U. in which further manual modifications can be done. 4. MLA’s. i.moving from CN1 to CN3. • The influence and changes in manual network selection because of local people preference.HAB_FW Validation The Fig. 4. the network developed can be used to get a rough draft of the network plan. • The ignorance of interactions between habitations of different blocks. thus validating the tool. Though there is a deviation. 4. habitation in one block with habitation in another block.e. • The ignorance of effect of elevation profile and other accessibility options.2.

This chapter deals with the monitoring tools developed to assist planning and management. Introduction A toolset has been developed to assist the planners and engineers to effectively carry out planning and managing activities. • BACK. easy retrieval.1 shows the developed monitoring toolset. having only SC/ST population) 39 .CHAPTER 5 NETWORK MONITORING 5. This toolset contains six basic tools which are identified as useful ones.1 – Monitoring Toolset The monitoring toolset comprise: • Unconnected HAB .HAB – a tool to find most backward habitations by caste (i. 5.2. In addition to above. Fig. Fig.a tool to find the unconnected habitations in an area. 5. INTRODUCTION Not only proper planning but also monitoring the implementation of plan. certain other thematic views.1. 5.2. Computerisation of data has the advantage of reliable storage.1. MONITORING TOOLSET DEVELOPMENT 5. which can be useful for planning and management activities can also be developed. immediate processing and complicated calculation ability useful in generating high level abstracted information for use in management.e. maintenance and management is also of equal importance. ArcGIS provides us with various tools for carrying out such analysis and monitoring activities.

3.3. else unconnected. The process carried out here is to search for the availability of all weather roads within reach of certain distance as per norms (500m by default) from a habitation. health service. 5. Fig. The habitation layer and road network layer are the inputs to be given. • Road AADT – a tool to find roads having AADT greater than given value. 5. The process behind the tool is selecting the habitations having total population equal to that of SC/ST population and listing separately. BACK HAB BACK HAB is a tool to find the habitations which are most backward by caste. The habitation layer becomes the only input for the tool. knowledge about habitations having only SC/ST population becomes significant. 40 .2 – Layout of Unconnected HAB Tool 5. 5.2. • HAB within 500m from PR – a tool to list habitations within 500m reach from primary roads.2.2. • Road Density – a tool to find density of road in an area. Unconnected HAB This tool is to classify the habitations into connected and unconnected. 5. As the PMGSY programme uses the SC/ST population as one of the criteria while planning. etc.2.• HAB without FAC – a tool to list the habitations which lack facilities like bus service. electricity. primary school education. The tool has the layout as in Fig. If minimum one all weather road is available then it is declared connected. The layout of the tool is shown in Fig.

4. educational facilities like primary schools. The Fig. telephone connection.4 shows the layout of the tool. more the people served.5.Fig. Thus knowing about the facilities which are not available for a particular habitation is very important. 5. etc. rail service. 5.4 – Layout of HAB without FAC Tool 5. Road AADT The preference of the particular road by people can be indirectly determined by AADT flowing through it. The selection can be made out facilities like bus service. postal service. In that way the tool also becomes important. Fig.2. health services like dispensaries. The travel need arises in rural areas (about 95 %) mainly to attain the unavailable facilities. 5.2. Higher the AADT. HAB without FAC It is a tool to find out the habitations which are not having a particular selected facility. Road AADT 41 . electricity.3 – Layout of BACK HAB Tool 5.

5. 5. Fig. HAB within 500m from PR The habitations which are within 500m from primary road network requires no separate connectivity as the primary roads are also a part of the core network. The user can also mention the location to store the results as an option. 5.6 – Layout of HAB within 500m from PR Tool 42 . HAB within 500m from PR is one tool to list the habitations which are within a reach of 500m from primary roads.5. Fig.6. The tool has the layout as in Fig. This also helps in learning the ribbon development pattern along the road. Fig.6 gives the layout of the tool. The process involved is the tool will select the roads satisfying expression of AADT given by user and return the result as a shape file. The layer comprising road network and the AADT value are the inputs required by the tool.is a tool to get knowledge about roads having AADT greater than or lesser than the value mentioned. 5.2.5 – Layout of Road AADT Tool 5.

km. ANALYSIS Using the tools developed above analyses has been performed for the Tiruchirappalli district.7. Road Density is one such tool to find the road network present within the given area. The user also has to mention the location to store output list. etc. The tool will find the length of the roads running in the selected region and divide it by the surface area of that region. thus giving the density of road per sq. Road Density Density of roads in an area indirectly tells how much developed the area is. The results of the analysis are presented as Appendices numbering from Appendix 3 to Appendix 8. 5. The layout of the tool is shown in Fig.3. say block. giving priority. The 500m distance is a default value and it can be changed.7 – Layout of Road Density Tool 5. The road network and boundary layers becomes the input.2. 5. Fig.7. 5.The habitation layer and road network layer are the inputs for the tool. 43 . It is also used for some management activities like fund allotment. The results obtained are compared with already available results if any.

It includes 4 planning tools and 6 monitoring tools. Out of 14 blocks Thiruverumbur is found to be the most facilitated block and Manapparai being the worst facilitated block. 6. It can be used for administrative as well as research purpose by governing agencies like PWD. 2 % has no electricity.2. • About 2. • Around 56 % of the habitations (1086 in number) are found to be located within 500m reach from the primary roads.8 km. GENERAL A well developed database has been created for Tiruchirappalli district in GIS environment.6 km and Connectivity to 38 habitations has been upgraded through 36 roads of length 54. The GIS database reduces time. certain models have been developed as tools in ArcGIS for both planning and monitoring. SPECIFIC INFERENCES • Under PMGSY.000 vehicles flowing daily on an average. with around 2. The developed database and tools can be helpful for problem identification. Once the database preparation is being done. More importantly. 50. • From the analysis it is found that. But of those only 4 habitations were unconnected by all weather road by 2000.1. cost and man power spent for data feeding and record keeping. planning. • NH 45 and NH 67 are found to be the roads having maximum traffic. location of various facilities for an integral rural development. Technical agencies and educational institutions like IIT’s and NIT’s.5 % of habitations (49 in number) comprise only SC/ST population. i. any of the changes in the information can be updated with ease and comfort. monitoring and maintenance operations.e. DRDA. etc. 48 % has not even primary educational facilities and 90 % has no primary health service. performing analysis. National and State Highways and Major District Roads. • Thus it is inferred that electricity is the most availed facility and health service is the most unavailable facility. out of 1930 habitations nearly 22 % has no bus service. new connectivity has been given to 112 habitations through 88 roads of length 146.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS 6. 44 .

Tiruchirappalli comprises 195 roads of length 386. • From the results obtained from planning tools it is inferred that.5 km of roads of which about 89 % being Rural Roads comprising Other District Roads. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK The database can be extended with more information data like satellite imagery. • Till 2008. apart from well framed methodology to obtain an optimal route.14 km length of rural road including .• Tiruchirappalli district has around 5640.07 kms of PMGSY per sq. which calculates to 1. 45 . land use data. political influence and preference of the local public has the upper hand on deciding the final network. elevation data.km area on an average. 6. More planning and monitoring tools can be added according to the need. photos.3. etc to make it not only useful for PMGSY programme.28 km length of road per sq.8 km. • It is inferred that Tiruchirappalli has 1.km area. Village Roads and PMGSY roads. the local conditions.

APPENDIX 1 ROAD NEWTWORK MAP .TIRUCHIRAPPALLI TIRUCHIRAPPALLI as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 46 .

APPENDIX 2 BRRP MAP – THIRUVERUMBUR BLOCK 47 .

APPENDIX 3 UNCONNECTED HABITATIONS TIRUCHIRAPPALLI as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 48 .

TIRUCHIRAPPALLI Population Habitation Name Village Name Blockname Total SC/ ST Chathirapatti Gandhipuram Osarapalli Anampatty Kattapalli Edaiyapatti Keelakottam Puthurpatti North Devarpuram Verupurangkottam Chettiapatti Kombaiputhur Thoppur Chinna Anaikkarappatti Therkupallam Nallamanaickanpatti Edatheru Vadakkipatty Vadakattampatty Kodayagoundampatty Vaiyamalaipalayam Puthakudi Chellampatti Seelnaikanpatti Alangampatti Adirampatti Chinnakonekalatupati Chittukuruvinaikanpatti Palathupatti Kalathupatti Sukkampatti Pasari Kombai Ariyagoundampatty Moorampatty Marukalampatty Ponnusinggampatti Kannudiyanpatty Venkadachalapuram Osarapalli Sampatty Sirunavalur Perur Thirutha-Laiyur Komangalam Vengaimandalam Komangalam Kanjanaickanpatti Keerambur Thavalaveeram Patti Mugavanur(S) Peramangalam Tirunellipatti Vengaimandalam Karuppur Usilampatty F.Keeliyur Pannapatty West Kannanur Karuppur 49 Manapparai Uppiliyapuram Uppiliyapuram Manapparai Uppiliyapuram Musiri Musiri Musiri Musiri Musiri Marungapuri Thuraiyur Vaiyampatti Vaiyampatti Musiri Marungapuri Musiri Manapparai Manapparai Manapparai Vaiyampatti Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Vaiyampatti Vaiyampatti Uppiliyapuram Manapparai Manapparai Thuraiyur Manapparai 1250 790 768 690 595 526 517 507 505 502 492 488 476 462 440 419 405 390 366 363 350 350 347 322 320 312 310 295 281 270 267 256 243 243 240 235 199 5 283 82 427 47 287 0 0 0 0 488 65 56 99 177 0 25 0 107 100 249 159 145 140 233 65 155 39 0 0 253 0 104 49 0 .Keeliyur Vaiyamalai Palayam Puthakudi Tirunellipatti Tirunellipatti Tirunellipatti Kappakudi Tirunellipatti Tirunellipatti Kodumbapatti Mugavanur (S) Mugavanur (N) Pasari Kombai F.Id 59 13 14 68 17 29 28 33 32 34 52 26 5 7 31 41 30 75 60 65 0 55 43 46 42 53 44 45 37 8 6 12 63 70 27 73 UNCONNECTED HABITATIONS (2000) .

Keeliyur F.Keeliyur Thathanur Vannadu Vannadu Thenpuranadu Sempulichanpatty Paluvanji East Vannadu Sempulichanpatty Karuppur Aniyapur Paluvanji East Tirunellipatti Kappakudi F.35 71 9 47 58 72 38 66 57 21 56 62 20 23 3 36 49 39 48 16 1 4 11 67 61 69 19 18 15 24 51 22 25 74 2 50 40 54 64 Ayyathur Melaeachampatty Kosavapatti Purasangkadu Poosaripatty Mettupatty Podiakonepatti Sangipatty Pachudaiyampatty shiliyur Kavinaripatti Poola Ooranipatty Nasakulam Melur Ponnagoundampatti Koviladaiyanpatti Akkulampatti Madhikonepatti Pudupatti Perumparappu Chinna Reddiyapatti Thagarakkalam Kattakkampatti Sangipatty Sangiyagoundampatty Karuvarathampatty Valaiyur Thallar Sithur Muthigramam Malugapatti Vallam Erumipatty Vairagoundampatti Tharakkipatti Pallakondapatti Tirunellipatti Kappakudi Nerijikalapatty Kodunthurai Pannapatty West Sekkanam Muthalvarpatti Kannudiyanpatty Pannapatty East Thottiapatti F.Keeliyur Naduppatti Musiri Manapparai Vaiyampatti Marungapuri Manapparai Manapparai Marungapuri Manapparai Manapparai Thuraiyur Marungapuri Manapparai Thuraiyur Thuraiyur Vaiyampatti Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Uppiliyapuram Vaiyampatti Vaiyampatti Vaiyampatti Manapparai Manapparai Manapparai Thuraiyur Thuraiyur Uppiliyapuram Thuraiyur Marungapuri Thuraiyur Thuraiyur Manapparai Vaiyampatti Marungapuri Marungapuri Marungapuri Manapparai Vaiyampatti 230 222 210 210 200 200 193 187 186 185 182 181 176 176 167 167 167 164 160 156 150 150 150 150 147 146 138 137 135 128 123 121 121 120 118 117 113 110 108 107 0 0 0 94 88 0 0 10 0 185 128 0 176 176 40 0 0 0 0 156 0 20 0 0 0 0 138 137 135 121 0 121 121 0 95 0 105 0 0 0 10 Kalpatti Chatram 50 .Keeliyur Kannudiyanpatty Vannadu Kavinaripatti Poigaipatty Vannadu Sempulichanpatty Thavalaveeram Patti Kannukuli Paluvanji East Thottiapatti Muthalvarpatti Thenpuranadu Vellalapatti Thavalaveeram Patti Pudukkottai F.

APPENDIX 4 BACKWARD HABITATIONS TIRUCHIRAPPALLI as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 51 .

Id 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 BACKWARD HABITATIONS .Vellalapatti Thalugai Uppiliyapuram 1620 Kanjerimalai Pudur Sobanapuram Uppiliyapuram 347 Kottapalayam Valayapatti (East) Uppiliyapuram 1620 Kanapady Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 180 Boothakal Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 160 Karuvankadu Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 190 Kundakadi Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 192 Solamathi Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 112 Keelakarai Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 140 Kambur Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 128 Sithur Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 135 Perumparappu Thenpuranadu Uppiliyapuram 156 Thallar Vannadu Thuraiyur 137 Valaiyur Vannadu Thuraiyur 138 pallyam Vannadu Thuraiyur 250 Nagoor Vannadu Thuraiyur 154 Puthur Vannadu Thuraiyur 210 parthal Vannadu Thuraiyur 150 Sikkadu Vannadu Thuraiyur 154 Periya Ellupur Vannadu Thuraiyur 118 Pudhur Vannadu Thuraiyur 157 Kuruchi Vannadu Thuraiyur 250 Nasakulam Vannadu Thuraiyur 176 shiliyur Vannadu Thuraiyur 185 Vallam Vannadu Thuraiyur 121 kinathur Vannadu Thuraiyur 199 Thonur Vannadu Thuraiyur 203 Thannerpallam Vannadu Thuraiyur 118 Ramanathapuram Vannadu Thuraiyur 123 Poonachi Sempulichanpatty Thuraiyur 138 Chinna Eluppur Vannadu Thuraiyur 265 Manalodai Vannadu Thuraiyur 267 Sempulichanpatty Sempulichanpatty Thuraiyur 386 Maruthai Sempulichanpatty Thuraiyur 196 ponthai Sempulichanpatty Thuraiyur 250 Melur Sempulichanpatty Thuraiyur 176 Erumipatty Sempulichanpatty Thuraiyur 121 Kombaiputhur Keerambur Thuraiyur 488 Moolakkadu Sempulichanpatty Thuraiyur 121 52 Connected Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes .TIRUCHIRAPPALLI Habitation Name Village Name Block Name Population T.

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Thalur Kolakudi colony Melakottam Harijana theru Therkku suravali patty K.Periyapatty K.Periyapatty H Therkuserpatty Malaimadaiyatty Thavittypatty Ad Colony Sempulichanpatty Kannakudi Thirutha-Laiyur Thayanur Sethurapatty K.Periyapatty K.Periyapatty Usilampatty Allur Thuraiyur Pullambadi Musiri Manikandam Manikandam Manapparai Manapparai Manapparai Manapparai Andanallur 203 174 230 214 158 150 175 147 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 150 Yes 591 Yes 48 Keelapachery 53 .

APPENDIX 5 FACILITY STATUS OF BLOCKS TIRUCHIRAPPALLI as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 54 .

FACILITY STATUS . Of Habitations Not Having Total Educational Health Block Name Habitations Bus Service Electricity Facility Facility Andanallur 108 12 2 61 101 Lalgudi 98 11 0 34 88 Manachanallur 156 2 1 67 155 Manapparai 241 138 16 174 236 Manikandam 129 44 11 81 125 Marungapuri 259 118 0 99 213 Musiri 156 15 0 78 134 Pullampady 69 10 0 21 57 T.TIRUCHIRAPPALLI No.Pet 106 0 0 48 59 Thiruverambur 99 3 0 43 90 Thottiam 133 57 0 55 126 Thuraiyur 128 2 0 46 121 Uppiliyapuram 64 8 0 14 44 Vaiyampatty 184 1 1 109 181 TOTAL 1930 421 31 930 1730 PERCENTAGE 22 2 48 90 55 .

APPENDIX 6 AADT TREND IN NATIONAL HIGHWAYS TIRUCHIRAPPALLI as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 56 .

APPENDIX 7 HABITATIONS WITHIN 500m FROM PR TIRUCHIRAPPALLI TOTAL = 1086 as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 57 .

APPENDIX 8 LENGTH OF ROADS TIRUCHIRAPPALLI LENGTH SUMMARY: NH = 212.5 km as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 58 .1 km VR = 3743.2 km SH & MDR = 396.2 km TOTAL = 5640.0 km ODR = 1289.

293 km VR = 0.048 km SH & MDR = 0 .APPENDIX 9 DENSITY OF ROADS TIRUCHIRAPPALLI DENSITY SUMMARY: (per sq.090 km ODR = 0.284 km as per DRRP (2007) prepared by DRDA 59 .852 km TOTAL = 1. Km) NH = 0.

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