The Union Legislature

Parliament House, New Delhi

Our Constitution Government






Provides for harmonious blend of Legislative and Executive Organs of State Functions of Parliament a) b) c) d) e) f) Providing the Cabinet Control of the Cabinet Criticism of Cabinet and of Individual Members An organ of Information Legislation Financial Control

Constitution of Parliament  Parliament consists of:  President (as per Legislative Duties) 1) 2) 3) Addresses Assent to Bills Ordinances

Two Houses

House of People – Lok Sabha

Council of States – Rajya Sabha

Constitution of House of People    530 members from different states 20 members from union territories

Reflects Federal Character

2 members from Anglo Indian Community

Composition of Council of States

12 nominated by ‘President’ – Literature, Science, Art and Social Service 238 representatives of State and Union territories

Territorial Constituencies for Election of House of People    Election direct Territorial constituencies Each state allotted number of seats based on population

Proportional representation for Council of States

Elected members of Legislative Assembly of each State

b) c) d) e) f)

Municipalities District boards Local Authorities Graduates Teachers

Why Proportional Representation not adopted for House of People   Requires literacy Will lead to fragmentation

Duration of Houses of Parliament  Council of States 

Permanent Body 1/3 Members retire every 2nd year

House of People 

5 years Maybe dissolved every 2nd year

Sessions of Parliament  Twice a year – Gap of 6 months

Qualification of Members of Parliament a) b) Citizen of India Age   Council of State – 30 years House of People – 25 years

Disqualifications for Membership (Article 84) a) b) c)

Holds office of profit under Government of India Declared unsound by Competent Court Is an undischarged insolvent Ceased to be citizen of India  Acquired citizenship of Foreign State


Disqualified by or under any Law of Parliament  Sex not a disqualification

Vacation of Seats by Members a) Dual membership

Both Houses State and Union

 b) c) d)

Acquires any of the disqualifications Resignation Absence without permission

Salaries and Allowances of Members of Parliament  As per salaries, allowances and pension of members of Parliament Act, 1954

Officers of Parliament A. SPEAKER


A Speaker to preside over House of People And a Deputy Speaker Elected by members of House Hold office during period of house Termination of office

  

Ceasing to be Member By resignation in writing to Deputy Speaker


iii) Removal 

Majority 14 day prior Notice Speaker to be heard

Powers of Speaker i) ii) Preside over the House Shall not vote in the first instance but will give Casting Vote in case of equality

iii) Maintain order iv) Interpret Rules of Procedure

Absence of quorum - Adjourn House

Speaker’s conduct in questioned in Courts





Additional powers not available to Chairman of Council of States i) ii) To preside over Joint sitting of Both Houses Endorse money bill stating it to be so



To preside when office of Speaker falls vacant unless there is resolution for his removal



‘Vice President’ – Ex Officio Shall preside when not officiating as President In his place Deputy Chairman Can be removed only if removed from Office of Vice President Emoluments as under Salaries and Allowances of Officers of Parliament Act, 1953 Functions similar to that of Speaker

  

Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members   

Article 105 – Freedom of Speech Article 194 – Right of Publication Privilege as enjoyed by House of Commons Conflict between privileges and Fundamental Rights, former to prevail


Individual Privileges i) Freedom from Arrest


Freedom of Attendance as Witness

iii) Freedom of Speech


Parliamentary Privileges i) ii) Publication of proceedings and exclude publication Right to exclude strangers

iii) Right to regulate its own Constitution iv) Right to regulate its proceedings v) Right to punish for contempt

Legislative Procedure I. Ordinary Bills 1) 2) Introduction Motions after introduction     3) 4) 5) 6) Considered Referred to select Committee Referred to Joint Committee Circulated

Report by Select Committee Passing of Bill in the House where it was introduced Passage in the other House President’s Assent

II. Money Bills  Bill deemed to be Money Bill when it deals with any of the following matters: 1) Tax


Consolidated Fund or Contingency Fund – Custody Appropriation of moneys out of Consolidated Fund Regulation of borrowing money by Government Expenditure charged on Consolidated Fund Receipt of money into Consolidated Fund Matters incidental thereon

3) 4)

6) 7)

Speaker to endorse Money Bill – Decision Final

Procedure 1)

Not to be introduced in Council of States Passed by House of People with endorsement of Speaker then Council of States to pass it and back to House of People If recommendations of Council of States accepted by House of People – Bill passed by both If recommendations not accepted passed by both Houses in format of House of People If not returned within 14 days – passed by both in format of House of People

3) 4) 5)

III. Financial Bill (Article 117)  

Does not require Speaker’s Certificate When it deals with other matters along with above matters – Generally Revenue or Expenditure Ordinarily containing Expenditure from Consolidated Fund

Removal of Deadlock in the Course of Passing Bills

1) 2)

Money Bills – House of People overrides Other Bills – Joint sitting of Both Houses

Financial Legislation in Parliament (Article 112)

Beginning of every financial year statement of estimated expenditure and receipts to be laid before both houses States economic policy Votable of non votable -> Expenditure on Consolidated Fund Discussed by both houses – Beyond this Council of States has no power Grants voted by House of People

 


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