Chapter 1

Wednesday, February 18, 2009 6:25 PM

Psychology
I: Psychology is the science of mental process and behavior.
A: Science Using objective evidence go answer questions. B: mental process What your brain is doing when thinking and feeling. C: Behavior Outwardly observable acts of person Pychology= Study of behavior and cognitive (thinking), understanding how we think, feel, learn and understand ourselves.

II: 3 Levels of Analysis
Each builds on each other. A: Level of the Brain (mechanism) including the activity and structure
B: Level of the Person, (content), ideas, desires, and feelings

C: Level of the Group, physical environment.

III: Evolution of Science
A: Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud
Unconscious or unaccessabe part of mind, SF said that all basis for behavior drived by sex and aggression. CONS: bad science, he couldn't prove true, ex; invisible apple. PROS: first to say parental influence affects how kids develop their personality. B: Neo-Freudians Object Relation Theorist

Psychodynamic Theory= Theory of how thoughts and feelings affect behavior; refers to the continual push-n-pull interaction among conscious and unconscious forces.

Abandoned sex and aggression theory, believed the parent + child theory, Kids at the age of 2 had developed personality.

C: Behavioralist Watson, Skinner and Pavlov

Observable behavior > direct counter to Freud. Observed the reward-punishment influcen on behavior. "Give me control of the world the kid grows in, I'll give you a Dr., thief or artist" -Watson

D: Cognitive Psyc. Beck

Beck's Model
Situation >>+>> Belief >>> Actions

2 broad areas of study: How thoughts influence behavior? How the brain/senses operate?

Situations don't trigger actions, actions are dictated by beliefs.

E: Humanistic Theory Focus on person conscious experience and importance of free-will and obtainment of selfactualization.

F: Bio-psychological Bio. Aspect of behavior, genetics, brain or hormones.

G: Evolutionary

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G: Evolutionary How human behavior helps to adapt to environmental pressure.

****AS

science of Psychology progressed, the "black and white" dissipates, and a combination of NATURE AND NURTURE are found.
Nature (biological make-up) + Nurture (environment) = Human Behavior

IV: Fields of Specialization

A: Clinical/counseling = assessment & treatment of mental and emotional behaviors

Clinical = treat people with disorders and trained to administer and interpret psyc. Test Counseling = trained to help people with issues that naturally arise in the course of life. B: Psychiatrist = MD, prescribe drugs C: Social Worker = uses psychotherapy to help families and individuals D: Psychiatric Nurse = MSN and CS, provides psychotherapy and may prescribe RX E: Experimental = conducts and analysis research F: Educational = help students learn more affectively. G: Developmental = psychological changes with age. Psychotherapy Process of helping clients learn to change so they can cope with troublesome thoughts, feelings and behaviors.

Methodology
Core characteristics of Science VERIFIABLE need for replication, people are fucking liars. PUBLIC PEER REVIEW the so-called "jury" for research CUMALITIVE ability to be built upon Process of Research A: Identify the problem B: Define the Problem Operational Definition or how do I measure what I’m going to study C: Formulate Hypothesis
D: Construct a method to test hypothesis

Criteria for Evaluating Theories.
A: Fit the known facts B: Predicts new observations C: Falsifiable - a way to design a study false D: Law of Parsimony- scientist prefer the theory that explains matters in the simplest possible terms and makes the simplest assumptions.

Data Collection

A: Case Study - intensive study of a single individual or event
P: Highly detailed info about that individual including historical -cultural context

C: Can't generalize the findings or apply it to others. Cant' determine cause and effect. B: multiple-baseline Design - study one variable over time, periodically introducing change into the system, typical done with a single person ****By withdrawing and reintroducing the administration of the SOURCE of CHANGE, you can reduce the probability that a 3rd variable is causing effects.

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CHANGE, you can reduce the probability that a 3rd variable is causing effects.
C: some variables have lasting effects so you can' obtain a 2nd baseline, cant generalize or determine cause and effect. C: Naturalistic Observation - Observations of real life situations, in homes or classrooms.

P: see behavior in natural setting C: your presence influencies clients behavior, can't generalize findings, no cause and effect
D: Surveys and Questionares

P: Ease of administration, ease to score and analyze D: Sampling problem (may not be able to generalize results beyond that sample you took), wording effects/influence, descrepencies between real life and test responses
E: Correlation Research - info on how 2 variables are related to one another Range + (-1) to (+1) the number indicating the strength of the relationship while the sign ONLY depicts the direction.

Positive (+) = 1 variable increases, so does the other = (+1) Negative (-) = 1 variable increases, the other decreases = ( -1)

Correlation does not equal causation
Correlation give a mathematical value from (-1) to (+1) From Right to left, if both variables increase the number will be positive "" "", if one variable increases & the other is moving opposite, # will be neg.

How to Provoke CAUSATION
An experiment, controlled investigation that studies the cause and effect relationships thru manipulation of variables. A: Define variables

1: Independent Variables: what the researcher manipulates 2: Dependent variables: what the examiner studies Operational Definition: how to measure
B: Create 2 groups

Internal Validity Are the problems with the study that make it difficult to draw a conclusion

1: Experimental Group: exposed to treatment 2: Control Group: no exposure **RANDOM ASSIGNMENT: Every subject has an equal chance to be in experimental OR control group. This ensures the 2 groups are equal and removes unwanted variables. Potential Problems: non-random assignments, experimenter bias, and demand characteristics (subjects act in the way they think the Experimenter wants') Solution: Double-Blind Procedure, both the data collector and the research participants are UNAWARE of the studies hypothesis. External Validity To what extent can we generalize the findings to other groups

Types of Long term Studies

Longitudinal-Problem is it takes too long and too much money Cross-Sectional- group of people from different age's and measure the variables Adoption Studies- allows for researchers to control for effects of genetics

Cohort Effect Differences between age groups may be caused by different experiences growing up and are not due to age itself

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Biology of Psychology
Sunday, February 22, 2009 6:59 PM

Neurons: 3 Types 1) Motor 2) Sensory 3) Interneuron's ****FUNCTION OF NERVE CELL IS TO MOVE INFORMATION, THIS INFO TRAVELS IN 1 DIRECTION

NERVE TRANSMITTION IS ELECTRICAL PROCESS

Dendrite Node of The Ranvier

Axon Terminal

Axon nucleus Myelin

Dendrites (Post synaptic neuron) RECIEVES message. Axon (Pre synaptic neuron) SENDS message

TRANSFER FROM ONE CELL TO ANOTHER IS A CHEMICAL PROCESS

Myelin Fatty substance that transmits impulses more effectively.

Receptor and Neurotransmitter match each other by shape.

Neurotransmitters or Neuromodulators "bind" to the receptor. 2 possible outcomes: I> Excitatory - more likely to fire action potential II> Inhibitory - less likely to fire action potential Neurons receive thousands of differing inputs, Excitatory and Inhibitory cancel each other out, which ever one has more is the outcome.

Action Potential Shifting change in the charge (-or+) of the axon

Reuptake Surplus NT is re-absorbed back into the sending neuron so that the neuron can fire again.

Drugs that affect NT Agonists = mimic NT by activating a select type of rec'v Antagonist = blocks select receptors. EXAMPLE: Opioids mimic endorphins' > block pain by activating receptors. If you overdose, Narkan is administered, Narkan blocks receptors and is a Antagonist.

Blood-Brain Barrier Filter that keeps drugs from the brain.

Nervous System
Peripheral NS (info sys/messenger)
Links the CNS to the organs in the body

Somatic

Autonomic

Conscious movement Unlearned functions

Sympathetic

Parasympathetic

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Peripheral NS (info sys/messenger)
Links the CNS to the organs in the body

Somatic

Autonomic

Conscious movement Unlearned functions

Sympathetic
Arousal, fight or flight

Parasympathetic
Calming, opposite

Central Nervous System Spinal Cord Info HWY Afferent (Sensory) info TO Brain Efferent (motor) Info to the Body

Brain

Parts of the Brain.

Medulla Vital functions, controls "the switch" left hemisphere controls right side of body. Hanging destroys medulla Opiods affect it Pons: Facial muscles Cerebellum Coordinated muscle movement Alcohol Hypothalemus Appitite, ultimate contol for fight or flight Pleasure seeking behavior Thalamus Sensory relay (except smell) "Distribution Center" Hippocampus Memory formation Reticular Formation Power generator for the brain Responsible for consciousness Amygdala Anxiety , fear and anger Basil Ganglia Layers ontop of everything Responsible for initiation and maintenanvce of movement

Cerebral Cortex
Most memories are stored Occipital Lobe Sight "visual cortex" Temporal Lobe Hearing "auditory cortex"

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Hearing "auditory cortex" Pariental Lobe Touch and body position Contains the somatosensory strip = impulse control Personality, and planning, Mapped out Senses from the body Frontal cortex Conscious movement, "motor cortex", impulse control "Association cortex" Injured causes personality shift Right Hemisphere Spacial relationships Emotional processing Corpus Callosum Left Hemisphere *Broca's Area=lang. Production *Werinke's Area=Lang Prod. Spoken

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Section II, Chapter 4, 7 and 10
Saturday, March 28, 2009 11:33 AM

Emotions: 4 components 1. Pos or neg subjective experience 2. Bodily arousal 3. Activation of specific mental process and stored info 4. Characteristic overt behavior

The root of "emotion" and "motivation" come from the Latin word "movere"

Basic Emotions : innate emo that's shared by all humans, psychological usually accompanied by physiological reaction. 5 Core Emotions: Happiness or joy - fear or anxiety - Anger - sadness or grief - disgust

Expressions of Emotions Display rules - when appropriate to display emotions, culturally based Cross-Cultural Similarities in Facial Expression - accuracy in recognizing expressions in differing cultures, ie a pigmy understanding a look of happiness on westerner face.

Theory's of Emotion ○ James-Lange Event > physical change(arousal) > Emotion Problems: ex. Spinal cord injuries, can't feel heart pacing but still reports emotions Physio manipulation doesn't induce emotions ○ Cannon-Bard Theory
Event > Physiological Change (arousal) ○ Cognitive Theory Event > Physiological change (arousal) > Interpretation as a function of the context > EMOTION <same time as > Emotion

Core Effect: Simplest raw feelings

○ Schacter and Singer *most comprehensive Emotions need physiological arousal + cognitive label that explains arousal = emotion ***Manipulate the Cognitive label and you can manipulate emotions.

Emerging Synthesis Brain and Body Reactions

Event

Emotion

Mood congruity effectMood influences what you remember.

Memories & Interpretation

Motivation
Theory's of Motivation Instinct Theory = inborn biological factors that must be inherited, species specific, and stereotyped * *** Can't be applied to humans
Motivation Impulse or desire that activates behavior

Arousal Theory = optimal level of arousal Yerkes-Dodson Law = There's an inverted "U" relationship b/t efficiency of performance and levels of arousal.

HIGH Performance midrange Hard task Easy task

LOW

LOW

Arousal

HIGH

When Arousal is mid-range = performance is at it's peak Differences in "easy" & "difficult" task

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Intrinsic motivators = rewards that come from w/in the individual Extrinsic motivators = rewards from the outside the individual

Extrinsic can undermine intrinsic

Self Efficacy = person's belief in their ability to master their environment and reach goals.

Low self efficacy "I don't think I can do it"

Lower effort

"I knew I couldn't do it"

Greater chance of failure

Achievement Motivation = striving for accomplishment and excellence Attribution Theory = How we explain our own and other behaviors People who differ w/ achievement motivation differ in the way they explain success. EX> People high need to achieve attribute success to internal factors like ability or effort.
Internal explanations= "Hard work" High achievement motivation External Explanations= "Luck" Low achievement motivation

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
I) Basic Needs Physiological (food) and Safety (shelter) II) Psychological Needs Belongingness (social interaction) and Esteem needs (feeling of competency) III) Self-Actualization Achieving one's full potential, includes creative activities Problems: No one knows what self actualization really is Some people have high esteem/belongingness but are homeless

Face validity = makes sense

Hunger
CNS involvement: Lateral Hypothalamus = damage results in loss of weight - reports no hunger and some starve ON SWITCH Ventromedial Hypothalamus = damage results in gaining weight, but continued to eat OFF SWITCH

Obesity = over 30 BMI (weight in Kg/height in meters2) 1:20 severely obese BMI over 40 5:20 obese 7:10 overweight "active obese" - drastically reduced health risk All fat stores aren't equal, fat on torso is worse for health than stored on thighs/hips
Weight loss and Set point theory: Keesley proposed that weight is regulated by a physiological mechanism that establishes a set point for the individual weight Physical activity dampens obesity health issues, as effective as anti -depressants lessen delusions, chronic pain, etc Weight cycling (healthy amount to lose = 1 to 2 lbs. per wk) Caused by frequent dieting following periods of normal or more caloric intake. 10 to 50 lb fluctuations, cycling leads to the replacement of muscle with fat.

Eating Disorders
Anorexia 10 x's more likely in women than men

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○ ○ ○ ○

10 x's more likely in women than men Mean age of onset > 17 Development peaks @ 14 and 19 Rare in age 40 and up 10% die
Cultural impact > wast majority of cases come from industrialized countries where thin is equated with beauty Obsessive-Compulsive features > obsessed w/ food but won't eat Diagnostic Criteria >  Inability to maintain an acceptable body weight, 85% and down of optimal body weight  Intense fear of gaining weight  Disturbance in the way one's body is perceived  In females, amenorrhea (stoppage of menstrual cycle)

Bulimia ○ 10 x's more likely in women (possibility of misdiagnosis of men due to purging via exercise) ○ Mean age 17 ○ Rare in age 40 and up Most appear to be of healthy weight but loss of dental enamel, calluses on knuckles and cardiac problems are prevalent Diagnostic Criteria >  Re-occupant binge eating □ Eating huge amounts of food □ Severe lack of control over eating  Recurrent use of inappropriate strategies ot prevent weight gain, purging  Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight ◊ Weight goes up = self image goes down

Causes of eating Disorders CNS - low levels of serotonin - meds are same as anti-depressants, hypothalamus "runs" on serotonin Psychological Factors:  Cultural factors/prejudice  Family relationships □ Girls w/anorexia > enmeshed and overprotective families □ Girls w/bulimia > more angry and rejecting  Self control motivations> control weight = increase self-esteem  Fearful of sexual maturation (Freud)- fear of sexual maturity  Sexual abuse- this is a FALLISY rates of disorder are the same in abused vs. un-abused. Treatment of Eating Disorders ○ Medication - anti depressants ○ Behavioral approach ○ Cognitive therapy ○ Most effective = combination

Sexual Motivation
Physiologically of Sex i. Excitement - increased in muscle tension, heart rate, and blood pressure, penis and clitoris become enlarged ii. Platuea, "cresendo" iii. Orgasm, contraction of muscles iv. Resolution (First difference in men and women) 1) Refractory period: males can't become sexually aroused again for a period of time Coolidge Effect = if you introduce a male w/a different female to mate with the refractory period is lost.

Polygraphs and Lie Detectors
- Measure breathing, HR, GSR, BP = ASSUMING that when people lie their physical arousal goes up Problems: Correctly ID's 77-87% of liars Falsely ID's 30-40% of people as liars Guilty Knowledge Test: instead of asking direct questions, ask questions about the details of the crime that only the perpetrator would know. Correctly ID's 46-100% of liars Falsely ID's 19-0% of people as liars Individuals can use counter-measures to hike up the base line so that spikes of arousal are miniscule. GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) Measures the electric conductivity of the skin, stress = sweat = increase in conductivity

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Anger Management
Frustration/Aggression Hypothesis Anger is a product of frustration, PROBLEM> too simplistic, no explanation to how a situation is interpreted. Problems in maintaining Anger:  Individual doesn’t pay attention to internal cues - report "exploding" w/o warning □ Solution: pay attentions to physical arousal  Interpretation of ambiguous events as hostile □ Solution: think of alternative explanations  Misapplying the count to 10 rule □ Remove yourself from the situation physically.

Classical Conditioning

> Involuntary Example using Pavlov and his Dogs.  UCS - Unconditioned Stimulus - stimulus elicits unconditioned response w/o prior learning □ Ex. > meat  UCR - Unconditioned Response - unlearned response that is automatically paired with stimulus □ Ex. > Salivate  CS - Conditioned Stimulus - previously neutral stimulus that has been paired with UCS □ Ex. > Bell  CR - Conditioned Response - Learned response associated w/ the CS □ Ex.> ring bell = salivate

****KNOW:
Unconditioned - unlearned/reflexive Conditioned - learned Stimulus - Physical event

UCS
Meat

UCR
salivate You only know if the response is UCR or CR if you know what caused it.

Acquisition Pairing of UCS and CS, meat and bell

CS
Bell Timing of UCS - CS

CR
salivate

Forward Conditioning - CS (bell) before UCS (meat) **Best for producing results Simultaneous Conditioning - CS and UCS @ same time Backward Conditioning - UCS (meat) before CS (bell) *Exception = taste aversion

Optimal interval b/t CS and USC = .2 to 2 seconds

Extinction - gradual weakening and disappearance of conditioned response Spontaneous Recovery - temporary return of the conditioned response after extinction occurs, usually a weaker response that doesn't last as long Stimulus Generalization - tendency for stimuli other than the original to produce CS, buzzer not bell = salivate Stimulus Discrimination - ability to differentiate b/t different types of stimuli

Operant Conditioning

voluntary Learns to make a response because it produces a reward or punishment

○ Positive Reinforcement > Goal to increase behavior by awarding desired behavior ○ Negative Reinforcement > Goal to increase behavior by taking away something unpleasant when the behavior is preformed ○ Punishment > goal is to DECREASE the occurrence of a behavior by following it with a negative stimulus at the occurrence of behavior  Punishment (severe) and child raising not effective  Decreases behavior BUT doesn't teach the correct response  Increases aggression  Punishment is attention & for some any attention is good. ○ Omission Training > Goal to decrease behavior by removal of positive stimulus ○ Premack Principle > use a more preferred activity to reinforce a less preferred one. ○ Shaping > establishing a new response by reinforcing successive approximations to it. Take behavior and break it down into steps. ○ Discriminative Stimulus > a stimulus that acts as a signal for when a response will be reinforced Primary and Secondary Reinforces -Primary > fills a biological need, food -Secondary> not immediately satisfying, but rewarding due to association w/primary, money to get food.

Extinction Behavior decreases and eventually disappears if it's not reinforced

Schedules of Reinforcement:

Continuous> Best for results, very vulnerable to extinction

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Best for results, very vulnerable to extinction

○ Continuous > every correct behavior receives reward Based on number of response ○ Fixed ratio > reinforcement is given after a fixed no. of responses ○ Variable Ratio > reinforcement is given after a varying no. of responses Based on Time ○ Fixed Interval > reinforcement given for the first correct response after a fixed period of time ○ Variable Interval > reinforcement given for the correct response after varying period of time.

Fixed ratio and Interval > High rate of behavior, vulnerable to extinction Variable ratio and Interval > Lower response, very resistant to extinction

Learned Helplessness - passive behavior caused by the belief that there is no way to escape a painful stimulus.

Health Psychology
The study of the interaction b/t psychological process and physical health. Primary goal : promote health & health enhancing behavior. Causes of death : trend is moving away from infectious disease to chronic disease Relationship b/t health behaviors and mortality (correlation) Sleep 7-8 hrs Eating Breakfast Rarely eating between meals Weight No Smoking Alcohol in moderation Exercising regularly

Models of Health

Biomedical > base on the notion of pathogens (disease carrying agents), eliminate the pathogen and you eliminate the disease. Biological Factor. Bio-psychosocial > Physical, social and Psychological factors.

Stress
-Physiological mechanism of stress, The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), 3 phases i. Alarm Phase > body aroused, sympathetic NS, HR - BP up ii. Resistance > balance the alarm phase, parasympathetic NS kick in, attempt to reduce HR and BP, etc iii. Exhaustion > if the stress isn't removed, body's reserves are exhausted, no longer able to repair damaged tissues and the body becomes susceptible to infections.

You can't just "deal with" long term stress

Theory of Stress Lazarus - Folkman > a situation that someone is in and interpretations of events Personally threatening Out of one's control. People use Appraisals: Primary: "Does it affect me?" Secondary: "What can I do about it?" Stress Modulators Sense of Control Predictability Social Support, 4 types Emotional - concern, empathy and caring Instrumental aid - money, rides Information - what Dr.'s to see, advise Feedback - info about the person's self concept.

How Social Support Works: The Main Effect Hypothesis > "people w/high social support just don't see as many things as stressful." The Buffering Hypotheses > Social support provides a buffer against high stress, base line is the same, but doesn't "spike" as much

Styles of Coping Problem Focused > tackles the problem itself Emotion Focused > involves handling your own emotions to the problem

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Stress >>> Effects on the Immune System
Stress - Depression

Behavioral

Biological

Smoke-eat-drink-lose sleep

Nor-Epinephrine up Cortisol up

Immune Sys Drops

Increase in Disease Susceptibility

Special Topics
Type "A" Personality " ○ High competitively ○ Sense of urgency ○ Tendency to become hostile ○ Difficulty in relaxing More susceptible to heart attacks, researchers believe Hostility is the reason Responds better to rehabilitation.

Depression and Health
Rates of depression are nearly doubled w/ diabetes, but only a 1.37 % increase of diabetes. Depression DOUBLES the risk for heart attack (smoking and obesity only 1.5) Depression post MI increases risk of second heart attack/death

Adherence to Medical Advice ( approx. 50% ) Factors that predict adherence:  Severity of illness does NOT predict adherence  Activities for prevention less adhered to than active treatment  Length of treatment - longer the treatment the less adhered too  Side effects - no adherence if sexual or weight gain  Social support INCREASES adherence  Personal responsibility for health care improves adherence  Poor doctor-patient communication/poor perception of doctor decreases adherence  Time spent in the waiting room increases = adherence decreasing

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Sec III Ch. 5 & 13
Saturday, April 18, 2009 4:35 PM

Memory
Recall = produce information from memory WITHOUT cues, from LTM to STM
Recognition = identify correct information from a list of alternatives Explicit Memory = individual consciously acts to recall information. Implicit Memory = recognized information without being consciously aware of it, "meaning of particular words"

Mechanisms of Memory
○ Encoding = transfers physical sensory into a kind of representation that can be put in memory ○ Storage = how we retain info, different storage for different memories ○ Retrieval = gaining access to memory store

Three types of Memories
1) Sensory i. Capacity = Large ii. Storage duration = less than 2 sec. iii. Encoding = stores exact replication of the sensations it encounters, 3 types 1) Iconic = Visual 2) Echoic = Auditory 3) Tactile = Touch iv. Retrieval = storage time varies as a function of limited storage duration.
2) Short Term Memory (working memory) i. Capacity = 7 items + or - 2, Based on acoustic store ii. Encoding = info in the STM is typically encoded according to it's acoustic code, R. Conrad (1964) visually presented subject w/a series of letters, BETOFH, upon reciting them, mistakes were consisting of 2 letters that sound the same, F for S, T for C, B for V iii. Retrieval = 2 different effects 1) Primacy Effect = improved recall at the beginning 2) Recancy Effect = improved recall of the end 3) ****Primacy is weaker then Recancy****** 3) Long Term Memory i. Encoding = stored according to semantic code, meaning of the words. 3 kinds of memory storage, 1) Procedural = memory of how to perform something, difficult to recall or consciously describe 2) Semantic = general knowledge, facts 3) Episodic = memory of personal experience ii. Organization = info in the LTM stored in Association Networks iii. Retrieval = Influenced by 2 things 1) Context Effect = remember more material while in same environment as learned it in. 2) State Dependant Memory = remember best when in the same phys/emo state as when the material was initially learned.

Chunking: Grouping letters, numbers into meaningful groups

Association Network
Pet Dog Bark Cat meow Fish float

Alternative Theory's of Memory
The depth at which we process (rehearse) information determines how well it's placed into memory 1) Maintenance Rehearsal = mere repetition of info, based on visual features or sound
2) Elaboration Rehearsal = rehearsal in which the meaning of the info is considered and the info is related to other knowledge that you already know.

Memory = Attention ; Attention = Memory

Forgetting and the Causes
Encoding Theory = don't pay attention to the stimulus or you don't process the info enough to move it to the LTM Decay Theory = memory naturally fade over time, particularly if not used for a long period of time Interference Theory = particular memories interfere with the retrieval of others 1) Proactive Interference = old memories interfere with acquiring new memories. 2) Retroactive Interference = new memories interfere with the retrieval of old memories. Von Restorff Effect: More likely to remember an item that doesn't conceptually belong on the list, ie, the "night, pillow, turn" in class MEMORY IS A CONSTRUCTIVE PROCESS, NOT A SNAP-SHOT OF PARTICULAR LIFE EVENTS.

Influences on Schemas
Schemas are cognitive frameworks representing our knowledge about aspects of the world. These

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Schemas are cognitive frameworks representing our knowledge about aspects of the world. These frameworks affect how we recall things and what we actually recall. Ie, what books do you see the art student dropping, what about a history student, the books have no labels in the clip.

Flash-bulb Memories Vivid memories of what we were doing at the time of a highly emotional event. In order to produce the flashbulb memory effect, 3 requirements must be meet: 1) The event must be surprising 2) High personal interest 3) Evoked a high level of arousal It's likely that the "flashbulb" effect has more impact on our confidence in the memories that the accuracy.

Amnesia
Typically affects semantic memory (knowledge about factual info) but not procedural memory (how to ride a horse) Types of Amnesia 1) Retrograde = loss of memory prior to event 2) Anterograde = inability to form new LTM

Retrograde TIME LINE Before event

Head Injury

Anterograde After event

**Korsakoff's Syndrome = shrinkage and destruction of the frontal lobe neurons caused by prolonged deficiency of vitamin B1. Alcohol induced.

Infantile Amnesia
Inability to recall events that happened when we were very young, before age 5 = little to nothing, memories before age 3 are rare Reasons: - Young people fail to organize their memories as adults do - Slow maturation of the hippocampus - People who do remember have been told the "story"

Confabulations = Attempts to fill in the gaps in their memories with old, confused, or fabricated info. Typically not on purpose.

Repression
Take an unpleasant/traumatic memory and force it out of your consciousness and into the unconsciousness - NO lab evidence to support - Recovered memory Syndrome or Implanted memory

Study Notes:
Required Reading Ch. 5, pg 198-202

Explicit vs. Implicit Memories
Explicit (declarative) memory: verbal and visual memories are "explicit" if you can call them to mind in words or images. 2 types: 1) Semantic > memories of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the world. 2) Episodic > Memories of events that are associated with particular context, a time, place and circumstance.

Implicit (nondeclarative) memory: memories that cannot voluntarily be called to mind, but still influence behavior or thinking. 5 major types: 1) Classically conditioned responses 2) Memories formed through nonassociative learning 3) Habits 4) Skills 5) Priming

Social Psychology
How the present of others affect a persons thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

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-Attitudes = are learned, stable, and relatively enduring evaluations of a person or object that can affect an individual.
Attitude Formation = a) Classical Conditioning = pairing relationships with (+) or (-) words b) Operant conditioning = ie father pays attention to son when he says he loves the chiefs c) Vicarious learning = ie a kid 6 yrs old decked out in KKK garb

Changing Attitudes > persuasion
Character of the Recipient = Central route persuasion- (logos), high process, critical thinking = attitude change based on info contained in the message

Peripheral route persuasion- (ethos/pathos) topic not important, low elaboration, no thoughtful consideration= attractiveness of speaker, perceived credibility

Relationships b/t attitudes and behavior
-Cognitive Consistency - match b/t attitudes and behavior -Cognitive Dissonance - discomfort or confusion about behavior when it doesn't match belief. Greatest when: -Behavior is a free choice -You can't change the behavior -Behavior has important consequences for others Self-Perception Theory = theory that we often draw conclusions about our own attitudes after observing our own behavior. **Only works when attitude is vague or uncertain ie>Frat Hazing

Prejudice
Unfavorable attitudes directed toward another group Causes: Social Categorization > sorting based on perceived common attributes. In/Out Group Effect > less likely to over generalize from stereotypes when considering own group.

Realistic Conflict Theory > "only so much 'resources' to go around" Social Learning > experience as a child from observing parents Scape-Goating > blaming.

Consequence of Prejudice. In Group Bias = people favor their own groups Self-fulfilling prophecy = people believe in a certain way, so you act as you're expected to. Techniques for reducing Prejudice Contact- direct contact b/t groups alone will not reduce prejudice attitudes, need the following conditions: 2 groups must be of = status Contact must involve personal interactions Groups must engage in cooperative activities Social norms must favor reduction of prejudice

Attribution Theory > How people explain behaviors
1) Dispositional = internal causes - I did well cause I'm smart 2) Situational = sit. Based, "I did well cause the teacher is an idiot" Factors that influence Attribution 1) Fundamental Attribution Error = over-emphazing internal causes for others, ie boss is screaming because he is an ass. 2) Actor-Observer Effect = attributes actions of others to internal BUT our own actions to situational factors, ie I'm screaming at you cause my boss is an ass 3) Social desirability = high weight to socially undesirable behavior as dispositional, ie theft? Or family starving? 4) Self-Serving bias = generous to ourselves when interpreting our own behaviors, Success = internal Failure = situational 5) Self-Handicapping = taking actions to sabotage their own performance so they can use situational effect as an excuse, usually to protect ego.

People w/depression are opposite, but more accurate >> Depression Realism

Group Influence.
Social Facilitation - performance (learned task) increase in front of others

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Social Loafing = performance decreases when in a group
Bystander Effect = less likely to help a person when others are present 1) Diffusion of Responsibility = person feels less responsible personally of dealing with a crisis 2) De-individualization = loss of individual identity 3) Conformity = modifies their behavior to make it consistent with the norms of the group. Asch's conformity experiment. Factors influencing Conformity: Group size = increases until 4, levels off, then drops @ really high numbers

Cohesiveness = enhances conformity Gender = ie,,,none.
Compliance Modification of behavior in response to a request by another person. 1) Foot-in-door = ask for a smaller amount (money for example) then ask for a larger one after a period of time has lapsed. 2) Door-in-the-face = ask for huge amount, well over target, and let it come down

Obedience Modify behavior in response to a command of an actual authority Factors that influence obedience:

□ If you see someone else disobey □ Authority figure wasn't seen as legitimate. □ Victim seen as more human - obedience reduced if "learner" was in the room.

Sec. III Ch. 5 & 13 Page 4

Sec. IV Ch. 11 and 12
Sunday, May 10, 2009 2:52 PM

Chapter 11 Abnormal Psychology
3 things to consider when answering "What is mental illness" 1) Deviance = behavior that is markedly different, culture plays a part 2) Maladaptiveness = behavior impairs the persons ability to effectively deal w/the environment, reach goals, or to interact w/people. Problem is that a lot of things are maladaptive, but do we label it a psych. Disorder. 3) Distress = feeling of discomfort/suffering. Distress isn't a good indicator of MI by itself. ***the determinations of abnormal behavior needs to include a consideration of all three components.

AB = Abnormal Behavior

Theoretical Aspects on Abnormal Behavior
A) Psychodynamic = AB result of intrapsycic conflict. According to Freud, MI is when the superego or ID overruns the Ego. SuperEgo Rules Ego Mediator ID Pleasure seeking.

Etiology The cause of a disease

B) Behavioral = AB is a result of classical or operant conditioning gone wrong. "generates fears/phobia's thru life experiences. C) Cognitive = AB is produced as a result of distorted thinking. This can be divided into two content of thought a. People who are phobic of snakes may think all snakes are poisonous b. Depressed people often selectively minimize their accomplishments and maximize their failures
D) Psycho-physiological = AB is due to underlying physiological abnormalities in the NS. Depression and 5-HT (serotonin) a. Diathesis Stress Model > Biological/genetic pre-disposition + Environmental Stress = Mental Illness

Diagnosis of Abnormal Behaviors
The Diagnostic & Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV), gives basic information on disorders (prevalence) and provides list of symptoms that clinicians use to diagnose AB. 5 categories:

Axis I = major psychological disorders like schizo, depression & childhood disorders,
tourette's or autism. Axis II = personality disorders, may co-exist with Axis I diagnosis Axis III = physical disorders and conditions, both CNS and other physiological, ie. Depression and hypothyroidism Axis IV = Severity of psycho-social stressors, ie. Divorce, living conditions

Axis V = global assessment of person's level of functioning. Range from 100 (best functioning) to 1 (danger of hurting oneself)

Phobia's and Anxiety
A) Anxiety vs. Phobias = distinction here is that clinical anxiety is more non -specific than phobias. Eamples of common Phobias: Agoraphobia = fear of public places where escape may be difficult, public places Social Phobia = fear of social or performance situations, public interaction Specific Phobias = snakes, spiders - caused by classical conditioning, kept going by person's avoidance (operant)

B) Anxiety i. 3 things to consider to determine if anxiety is a disorder 1) Level of anxiety 2) Justification of anxiety 3) Consequences of anxiety
ii. 60% also suffer from Depression iii. Panic-Attacks = over powering sensation that one is about to die/going crazy. Often confused with heart attacks 1) Causes- more physiological, over sensitive respiratory control center in the medulla, runs off of serotonin, the control center is inhibited by 5-HT (serotonin) 2) Treatment = anti-depressants 3) Cognitions plays a part in the durations, if you panic the attack will intensify.

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3) Cognitions plays a part in the durations, if you panic the attack will intensify.

C) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) 2.5% of population i. Obsessions = unwanted images, thoughts, or impulses that an individual is unable to suppress. Worries about contamination ii. Compulsions = repetitive behavior that a person feels driven to perform in response to the obsessions. Typically aimed at reducing or preventing some dreaded event, but the behavior isn't connected to the event in a realistic way or are in excess. iii. Related Findings = 1) Person typically recognizes that obsessions and compulsions are unreasonable - but feels driven to do them anyway 2) O - C's need to cause distress or are significantly time consuming, taking up more than one hour a day. iv. Causes of OCD 1) Physiological = lower level of 5-HT 2) Learning/Cognitive Components = the person believes that rituals will protect them. Rituals themselves have been reinforced because they reduce anxiety v. Treatment of OCD 1) Physiological = use of antidepressants (only dampen) 2) Cognitive Behavior using the "response prevention", person is triggered by obsession and is helped to avoid performing compulsion

Depression
Lifetime risk of experiencing major depression, 10-25% of women and 5-12% of men RATIO of 2:1 A) Needs at least 5 of the following to diagnose Depression: i. Depressed for nearly all day for 2 weeks ii. Diminished interest or pleasure in nearly all activities or anhedonia iii. Significant weight change (+) or (-) iv. Disturbance of sleep, insomnia or hypersomnia v. Psychomotor agitation (+) or retardation (-) vi. Fatigue or loss of energy vii. Worthlessness or guilt viii. Difficulty w/thinking or concentration ix. Recurrent thoughts of suicide or death B) Suicide i. 15% w/mood disorders commit suicide ii. For every successful suicide there are 8-10 attempts iii. Women are 3X's more likely to try, Men are 3X's more likely to succeed. C) Depressions relationship with Suicide Happy Risk Factors Male Warning Signs Sever depression followed by calm

Dysthymia = Milder form of depression

Anhedonia Inability to experience pleasure

Over 65 yrs old
Prior attempts

Hopelessness/helplessness
Discussion of a plan

Mood

More likely to kill themself

Living alone or chronic ASK!!! Take threats seriously!!! Health problems Depressed Time On the upswing of a depression.

Bipolar Disorder (manic depression) more rare than major depression 1%
A) To diagnose Bipolar must exhibit 3 of the following for 1 week i. Inflated self esteem ii. Decreased need for sleep iii. Pressured speech (increase in rate of speech) iv. Flight of Ideas v. Distractibility vi. Increased goal-directed activity vii. Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for (-) consequences

Cyclothymia = Milder form of Bipolar

B)

Causes of Mood Disorders
1) Psycho-physiological 2) Cognitive, The Attribution Model of Helplessness (how people explain things) 1) Negative Attribution Styles = when person fails they explain behavior in terms of Internal causes, ie. "I failed the exam cause I'm a moron" Stable Causes, ie, "I am always going to be a moron" Global Causes, ie, "I am going to fail all my other classes too"

Sec. IV Ch. 11 & 12 Page 2

Schizophrenia

1% of population but uses 75% of mental health cost.

A) Diagnostic Criteria, symptoms can be broke down into 2 categories i. Positive Symptoms = called positive because they are characteristics not present in normal individuals. 1) Hallucinations - auditory or vision, no basis in reality. 2) Delusions - false beliefs that have no basis in reality, classified as bizarre (one's that are impossible) and non-bizarre (one's that are possible but not likely) 3) Disturbed thought process - loosening of associations that cause the person to frequently spin-off into irrelevant thoughts. This process is called a flight of ideas. ii. Negative Symptoms = called negative because it is the reduction or loss of normal behavior 1) Anhedonia 2) Alogia, poverty of speech iii. Phases, people w/schizo go through 3 stages 1) Prodromal Phase - person's interpersonal and intellectual functioning begins to deteriorate, perceptual problems or inappropriate emotions. Duration=few days to years. 2) Active Phase - symptoms worsen to full blown hallucinations, delusions, and problems w/thought and language 3) Residual Phase - similar to prodromal phase, lessening of symptoms iv. Course 2 types 1) Process - insidious development, slow/gradual development. Typically socially isolated w/ negative symptoms, POORER OUTCOME 2) Reactive - a sudden development, usually a precipitating event. Usually women, later onset, Positive symptoms, BETTER OUTCOME v. Subtypes of Schizo 1) Disorganized = frequently incoherent, socially withdrawn 2) Catatonic = mute & waxy flexibility, or polar opposite extreme 3) Paranoid = delusions of persecution and/or grandiosity 4) Undifferentiated - catch all for those who don't fit into any group 5) Residual = one major episode & are w/o prominent psychotic features, no hallucinations or delusions 6) Problems w/diagnostic types, provides good description but doesn’t say anything about the process of the disease or outcome. vi. Causes of schizophrenia 1) Cognitive = people w/schizo have different sensory experiences. Many report COGNITIVE FLOODING - where there is an excessive broadening of attention that leads to stimulus overload. 2) Physiological = a) Dopamine hypothesis, schizo caused by hypersensitivity to Dopamine. b) Structural abnormality found in brain i) Hypofrontalilty - lower levels of activity in the frontal lobes ii) Enlarged ventricles - brain atrophy, schizo's show reductions in other areas of CNS iii) Season of Birth Effect - mothers in the 2nd trimester w/flu had kids w/increased change of schizo. Facts: Onset: late20-mid30 10% commit suicide

Psychotherapy
I) Psychoanalytical Assumes that person's problems are due to intrapsycic conflicts & repressed anxieties/impulses. A) Goals > bring repressed feelings or conflicts into the conscious awareness to be dealt with B) Components > 1) Catharsis - letting out of pent-up emotions associated w/unconscious conflicts 2) Free-association > saying 1st thing that comes to mind when talking about subject enabling the therapist to find the connection 3) Resistance > unconscious attempts to avoid threatening topics 4) Transference >client uses therapist as a "stand-in" for significant person, transferring powerful emotions, allowing them to become aware of past conflicts 5) Counter-Transference > therapist starts to transfer their feelings onto the client C) Criticisms 1) Limited applicability, suits only small group of individuals, clients must be smart and articulate 2) Costly and time consuming

II) Behavioral Derived from classical and operant conditioning A) Counter Conditioning > a particular behavior is replaced w/and alternative behavior 1) Aversion Therapy - therapist pairs inappropriate attraction w/negative consequence, pics of kids w/shock

Sec. IV Ch. 11 & 12 Page 3

B)

C)

D) E)

pics of kids w/shock 2) Typically used in combination w/other approaches to provide client w/more socially acceptable responses. Systematic Desensitization > tries to help client learn not to experience negative feeling toward stimulus, primarily used for phobias 1) Client taught how to relax 2) " constructs an anxiety list, starts easy and progresses 3) Client relaxes and starts to work through the list, anytime they become anxious they concentrate on the relaxation 4) After this procedure, the client starts to apply these techniques to real life situations Flooding > client is immediately exposed to anxiety producing stimulus, no relaxation, no slow approach, forced to remain in situation eventually realizing that nothing bad is going to happen Implosion > uses visualization of anxiety, provoking scene, anxiety undergoes extinction Operant Conditioning > "token economy" receive tokens they can trade in on something they want for showing adaptive behavior. Important to define the exchange rate/penalties Criticisms: Generalizablity - can improvement be seen outside the therapy setting Ethics - some procedures are iffy.

III)

Cognitive
Maladaptive/abnormal behavior is caused by distortions in the way that people think.

A) Beck's Cognitive Therapy, 2 components 1) Cognitive Triad - people have automatic thoughts concerning 3 different areas: a) Themselves b) Their world/environment c) Their future 2) Distortions - errors in thinking a) Selective Abstraction - picking out the insignificant detail while ignoring the rest, ex, written feedback on a job b) Overgeneralization - drawing global conclusions from scanty evidence ex, missed payment = incompetence in financial matters c) Maximization/Minimization d) Absolutist thinking - "black and white", ex, one small mistake and everything is ruined
3) Cognitive Restructuring = make client aware of these distortions and substitute more accurate thinking. Reality testing, testing irrational beliefs 4) Cognitive Model a) A = activating event Failed test b) B = Belief I should be great at everything c) Emo. Consequence Feel Depressed/angry CRITICISMS: Ignores unconsciousness Ethical, has been criticized for imposing his own standards on other people.

IV)

Humanistic
A) Client-Centered = Carl Rogers, w/the focus being on client point of view instead of therapist interpretation. Based on "people are good", Client-Centered Therapy does 3 things 1) Genuine - Therapist needs to be totally honest and open providing and effective rolemodel 2) Unconditional Positive Regard = Therapist has positive, non-judgmental attitude towards client, gives client a chance to develop unconditional self-worth 3) Empathetic Understanding = Therapist has an accurate feeling of the clients emotion, seeing the world the way the client does

Criticisms: Unscientific - can't measure technique or success Knowing yourself doesn't guarantee change. V)

Biomedical
A) Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) - for sever, un remitting depression, used as a last alternative B) Lobotomies - destruction of portions of the CNS, usually the frontal lobes are severed, 1935-1955, creator was killed by lobotomized patient

VI)

Drugs
A) Anti Psychotics = alleviate symptoms of schizo i. First Generation - Typical Neurolyptics - caused sever side effect, Tardive Dyskensia muscle tremors that DON"T go away ii. Second Generation - Atypical Neurolyptics - side effect called agranulocytosis, which can cause death B) Anxiolytics = valium/benzodiazepines - muscle relaxants/sedatives C) Anti-Depressants i. MOA-Is - reduce metabolism, avoid food containing tyrosine, hypotensive crisis

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i. MOA-Is - reduce metabolism, avoid food containing tyrosine, hypotensive crisis ii. Tricyclinics - reduce re-uptake of 5-HT/NE iii. SSRI - Prozac and Zoloft VII)

Evaluation of Psychotherapies
A) A meta-analysis combining the results of 475 studies concluded that people who are treated are 80% better off than those that weren't B) No difference between therapy's, WHY? i. Treatment/Problem match hasn't been explored, ex behavior therapy for phobia vs. personality disorder ii. Common core - interaction w/empathetic therapist who is providing insight iii. Treatment of severe psychological distress w/drugs first to reduce stress, then talking therapy.

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