This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
Executive Summary
The basis of this essay is to algebraically combine Pulley and Fan Laws into single
equations. (Note: Pulley pitch diameter and pulley diameter are used interchangeably,
sheave and pulley will also be used interchangeably.)
Main
Except for direct drives, fans and blower sets have a driver pulley on the motor shaft
and a driven pulley on the fan shaft with belt or belts to convey power to the fan. The
mathematical relationships between motor and fan speeds, driver and driven pulley diameters,
horsepower and fan static pressures will be investigated in this report. Also equations will
be developed for fan operation when dealing with changing capacity requirements. Fan laws
will be substituted and rearranged against pulley laws to predict fan performance in relation
to modifying characteristic variables.
Pulley Equation:
( )
( )
DPM MPR
RFP1 equation1
DPF
where :
RFP1 Existing RPM of fan pulley
DPM Diameter of motor pulley
DPF Diameter of fan pulley
MPR RPM of motor pulley
=
=
=
=
=
A change in pulley sizes will affect the performance of the fan rpm which in turn will
influence characteristics of all the other variables of the fans operation.
Fan Laws
The Fan Laws are the basic proportional analogy between fan RPM, CFM, Total Pressure developed by
the fan, and required Brake Horsepower. They are most useful for calculating
the impact of extrapolating from an existing fan performance to a new fan performance.
Fan Horsepower with respect to RPM
( )
( )
( )
3
HP1 RFP1
equation2
HP2 RFP2
where:
HP1 exisitng brake horsepower
HP2 new brake horse power
RFP1 RPM of fan with HP1 exisitng brake horsepower
RFP2 RPM of fan with HP2 new brake horsepower
 
=

\ .
=
=
=
=
HVAC Pulley Math Page 2 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
Solving for RFP1
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3
3
3
3
3
3
RFP1 HP2
3 3
3
RFP2 HP1
3 3
DIVIDE BOTH
SIDES BY HP2
CUBE ROOT OF
BOTH
RFP1 HP1
RFP2 HP2
RFP1 HP1
HP2 RFP2
RFP1 HP1
cross multiply HP2 RFP1 HP1 RFP2
HP2 RFP2
HP2 RFP1 HP1 RFP2
HP2 HP2
 
=

\ .
 
=

\ .
 
÷÷÷÷÷÷
÷ =
÷÷÷÷÷÷ 
\ .
÷÷÷÷÷÷ =
( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
3
3 3
3
SIDES
3
3
3
1 1
n
3 n
1
3
1
3
1
3
HP1 RFP2
HP1 RFP2
RFP1 RFP1
HP2
HP2
HP1 RFP2
RFP1
HP2
B AB RFP2
A A and A RFP1 HP1
C C
HP2
RFP2
RFP1 HP1 (equation3)
HP2
÷÷÷÷÷÷ = = ÷ =
=
 
 

= = =


\ .
\ .
 

=

\ .
RFP1 from equation1 = RFP1 from equation3
Solving for HP2:
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1 1
HP1 RFP2 DPF
3 3
HP2 DPM MPR
1 1
3 3
divide by
DPM MPR
1
3
HP1 RFP2 DPM MPR B AB
A
C C DPF
HP2
HP2 DPM MPR HP1 RFP2 DPF
HP2 DPM MPR HP1 RFP2 DPF
DPM MPR DPM MPR
HP1 RFP2 DPF
HP2
DPM MP
CROSS
MULTIPLY
n n
a b a b
 
= =

\ .
÷÷÷÷÷ ÷÷÷÷÷÷÷ =
÷÷÷÷÷÷ =
= ÷ = ÷ =
( ) ( )
( )
3
equation4
R
HVAC Pulley Math Page 3 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
1
3
HP1 RFP2 DPF
HP2 equation4
DPM MPR
=
Equation4 must now be modified to conform with the physical relationships of
existing pulley diameters versus modified new pulley diameters. The RFP2 variable which
indicates the new RPM of the fan must have a substitution of DPF2, DPM2 and MPR2.
DPF becomes DPF1, DPM becomes DPM1 and MPR becomes MPR1.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
1
3
DPM2 MPR2
HP1 DPF1
DPF2
HP2 equation5
DPM1 MPR1
 

\ .
=
where:
HP2 = New brake horsepower
HP1 = Existing brake horsepower
DPM1 = Existing diameter of motor pulley
DPF1 = Existing diameter of fan pulley
MPR1 = RPM of motor pulley
DPM2 = New or existing diameter of motor pulley
DPF2 = New or existing diameter of fan pulley
MPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved the existing
motor rpm will not equal the new motor rpm)
Example1: (Pulley Change motor speed constant Find New Horsepower)
An existing fan has a motor pulley with an 8 inch diameter, a fan pulley of 6 inch diameter,
and is operating at 3.7 brake horsepower. The motor is running at 1,740 RPM and is not on
a variable frequency drive. The fan pulley is being replaced with a 5 inch diameter pulley, the
new brake horsepower can be calculated using equation5.
( ) ( )
new fan
rpm
The existing fan rpm with the 6" pulley is:
8 1740 8 1740
2,340 rpm 2,784 rpm
6 5
= ÷÷÷÷÷ =
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
1
3
8 1740
3.7 6
5
HP2 6.4 Brake Horsepower
8 1740
 

\ .
= =
The new brake horsepower is now 6.4 due to the increase in fan rpm.
HVAC Pulley Math Page 4 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
Example1: (continued)
Also note that if you plug the original 6 inch pulley back into the equation:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
1
3
8 1740
3.7 6
6
HP2 3.7 Brake Horsepower
8 1740
 

\ .
= =
The calculation can be worked out using the pulley equation1 in the first step then
applying the fan laws as step 2, however equation5 allows a one step calculation.
VFD calculations can also be worked out using equation5.
Example2: (VFD speed change)
A fan set has a fan pulley that is 6.75 inches in diameter and a 7.5 inch motor pulley,
the motor is on a variable frequency drive and can be operated at 30% to 110% of
the motors rated 1,750 rpm. The VFD is presently controlling the motor to run at
1,250 rpm (71.4% of rating) and the brake horsepower has been worked out to be 8.6
at the 71.4% rating.
If the VFD speed is required to be increased to 90% of the 1750 rpm rating what will the new
brake horsepower be ? (0.90 x 1750 = 1,575 rpm)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
1
3
3
1
3
7.5 1250
8.6 6.75
6.75
HP2 8.6 Brake Horsepower @ 71.4%
7.5 1250
7.5 1575
8.6 6.75
6.75
HP2 17.2 Brake Horsepower @ 90%
7.5 1250
 

\ .
= =
 

\ .
= =
The brake horsepower went from 8.6 BHP to 17.2 BHP (50% increase in brake horsepower) with only a
20% increase in motor speed.
HVAC Pulley Math Page 5 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
Example3: (VFD Change in motor speed and pulley modificationFind New Horsepower)
A fan set has a fan pulley that is 6.5 inches in diameter and a 5.5 inch motor pulley,
the motor is on a variable frequency drive and can be operated at 35% to 115% of
the motors rated 1,750 rpm. The VFD is presently controlling the motor to run at
1,050 rpm (60% of rating) and the brake horsepower has been worked out to be 19.3
at the 60% rating.
If the VFD speed is decreased to 55% of the 1750 rpm rating and the motor pulley is changed from 5.5 to
5.25 inch diameter what will the new brake horsepower be ?
(0.55 x 1750 = 997.5 rpm)
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
1
3
3
1
3
5.5 1050
19.3 6.5
6.5
HP2 19.3 Brake Horsepower @ 60% of rating
5.5 1050
5.25 997.5
19.3 6.5
6.5
HP2 14.392 Brake Horsepower @ 55% of rating
5.5 1050
 

\ .
= =
 

\ .
= =
The equation for fan brake horsepower can be substituted for the HP1 variable in equation5.
( )( )
( )( )
The fan brake horsepower equation:
CFM SP_inwg Gas_spec_grav
BHP (equation6)
6356 Fan_eff
where:
BHP = Brake horsepower
CFM = Cubic feet (of specified gas) per minute
SP_inwg Static Pressure developed
=
= by the fan (inches water gage)
6356 = a constant (see "Derivation of the Nine Major HVAC Constants")
By Bill Greco  21607
Fan_eff=combined efficiency of fan and motor drive
Gas_spec_grav Specific Gravity of gas being transported by fan =
HVAC Pulley Math Page 6 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
Substituting the Fan Horsepower equation6 for the HP1 variable into equation5.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
1
3
3
1
3
DPM2 MPR2
HP1 DPF1
DPF2
HP2 equation5
DPM1 MPR1
becomes:
CFM SP_inwg Gas_spec_grav DPM2 MPR2
DPF1
6356 Fan_eff DPF2
HP2 equation7
DPM1 MPR1
 

\ .
=
 

\ .
=
where:
HP2 = New brake horsepower
DPM1 = Existing diameter of motor pulley
DPF1 = Existing diameter of fan pulley
MPR1 = RPM of motor pulley
DPM2 = New or existing diameter of motor pulley
DPF2 = New or existing diameter of fan pulley
MPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved the existing
CFM = Existing Cubic Feet (of specified gas) per minute
Gas_spec_grav = Specific Gravity of gas being transported by fan
Fan_eff = Existing Efficiency of the fan (1 <)
SP_inwg = Existing Static pressure developed by the fan
6356 = A constant
HVAC Pulley Math Page 7 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
Example4: (Existing Horsepower Variables are all known Find New Horsepower)
An existing belt driven fan is moving 9,980 cfm and producing 4.1 inches water gage (inwg) of
pressure. The fan is on a variable frequency drive (VFD) and is running at 1,150 rpm
which is 65.7 % rating of the 1,750 rpm motor. Specific gravity of the air being moved by the
fan is taken at unity (1). The fan sets efficiency is 78% (0.78). The existing fan pulley diameter is 8.1” and
the existing motor pulley diameter is 7.5”.
The VFD is to be adjusted to 73% of the motor 1,750 rpm (0.73 x 1,750 = 1,278 rpm) the
motor pulley is to be changed to a 8” diameter and the existing fan pulley is to be changed out for a 7.625”
diameter pulley. Applying equation7 what will the new brake horsepower be ?
DPM1 = 7.5
DPF1 = 8.1
MPR1 = 1,150
MPR2 = 1,278
DPF2 = 7.625
DPM2 = 8
CFM = 9,980
SP_inwg = 4.1
Gas_spec_grav = 1 for air
Fan_eff = 0.78 (78%)
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )( )
3
1
3
1
3
9,980 4.1 1
8.25 existing BHP by equation6
6356 0.78
9,980 4.1 1 7.5 1,150
8.1
6356 0.78 8.1
HP2 8.25 existing BHP by equation7
7.5 1,150
9,980 4.1 1 8 1, 27
6356 0.78
HP2
=
 

\ .
= =
=
( )
( )
( ) ( )
3
8
8.1
7.625
16.48 new BHP by equation7
7.5 1,150
 

\ .
=
The modified operating parameters of the fan set call for the motor to produce
16.48 brake horsepower.
HVAC Pulley Math Page 8 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
Equation7 can be modified by substituting the brake horsepower variables for HP2, then
solving for CFM or inwg. To simplify the calculation assume that air is the only gas being transported and
Gas_spec_grav = 1. The number 2 will be used after the CFM, SP_inwg and Fan_eff to identify the HP2
variables.
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
CFM2 SP_inwg2 1
2 Thus :
6356 Fan_eff2
CFM SP_inwg 1 DPM2 MPR2
DPF1
6356 Fan_eff DPF2 CFM2 SP_inwg2 1
6356 Fan_eff2 DPM1 MPR1
HP
=
 

\ .
=
Solving for CFM2: For algebraic manipulation simplicity the following substitutions were made :
C1 for CFM (existing condition) C2 for CFM2 (new condition)
D1 for DPM1 (existing condition) D2 for DPM2 (new condition)
E1 for Fan_eff (existing condition) E2 for Fan_eff2 (new condition)
F1 for DPF1 (existing condition) F2 for DPF2 (new condition)
M1 for MPR1 (existing condition) M2 for MPR2 (new condition)
S1 for SP_inwg (existing condition) S2 for SP_inwg2 (new condition)
First simplify the right hand side of the equation:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
3
1
3
3
1
3
C1 S1 1 D2 M2
F1
6356 E1 F2
D1 M1
C1 S1
a
D2 F1 M2
c
6356 E1
ac
b
numerator is a fraction, compound fraction can be eliminated =
d bd D1 F2 M1
 


\ .
 


\ .
÷ ÷
HVAC Pulley Math Page 9 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
3
1
3
1
n
3
n n
C1 S1
D2 F1 M2
6356 E1
a
move exponent into the numerator and denominator =a b
b D1 F2 M1
 



  \ .
÷

\ .
( ) ( )
( )( )( )
3
1
3
1
3
a
c
D2 F1 M2 1 S1
ac
b
numerator is a fraction, compound fraction can be eliminated =
d bd
D1 F2 M1 6356 E1
C
÷ ÷
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
3
1
3
n
n n
1 1
3 3
D2 F1 M2 1 S1
power of a product, move exponent out ab =a b
D1 F2 M1 6356 E1
C
÷ ÷
( )
3
1
3
1 1
3 3
D2 F1 M2 1 S1
reorder factors
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
C
 

÷


\ .
( )
3
1 1
3 3
n
n n
1 1
3 3
D2 F1 M2 C1 S1
power of a product, move exponent out ab =a b
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
 

÷ ÷


\ .
3
1 1
3 3
1 1
3 3
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
reorder terms
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
 

÷


\ .
( )
3
1 1
3 3
n
n
n 3
1 1
3 3
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
a
numerator and denominator terms moved out ab =
b
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
 


\ .
÷ ¬
 


\ .
HVAC Pulley Math Page 10 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
( )
3 3
1 1
3 3 3
3 3
n
n n
3 3
1 1
3 3 3
3 3
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
terms moved out of brackets ab =a b
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
   
 
 
\ . \ .
÷ ¬
   
 
 
\ . \ .
( )
1 1
3 3 3
3 3
1 1 3 3 3
3 3
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2
remove braket from left hand side of equation
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
6356 E2
C
¬ =
( )
3 3
1 1
3 3 3
3 3
3 3
1 1
3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
1
multiply and cancel exponents 3x 1
3
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
right hand side of equation simplified
6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
   
 
 
\ . \ .
= ¬
   
 
 
\ . \ .
¬
( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2
(equation8)
6356 E2 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
C  
=

\ .
solving for C2 (New CFM) from equation8 :
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
SUBTRACT 6356 3 3 3
FROM BOTH SIDES
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2
cross multiply
6356 E2 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
2 S2 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1 6356 E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2 6356 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1 6356
C
C
C
 

\ .
=
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷ ÷ =
( ) ( )( )
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
divide S2 D1 E1 F2 M1
from both sides
6356 E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2 D1 E1 F2 M1 E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2 D1 E1 F2 M1
C
C
÷
=
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
3 3 3
S2 D1 E1 F2 M1
3 3 3
3 3 3
E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
S2 D1 E1 F2 M1
=
HVAC Pulley Math Page 11 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
reapplying the original variable names =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
Fan_eff2 CFM DPM2 DPF1 MPR2 SP_inwg
CFM2 (equation9)
SP_inwg2 DPM1 Fan_eff DPF2 MPR1
=
where:
CFM = Existing CFM
CFM2 = New CFM
DPF1 = Existing diameter of fan pulley
DPF2 = New or existing diameter of fan pulley
DPM1 = Existing diameter of motor pulley
DPM2 = New or existing diameter of motor pulley
Fan_eff = Existing Fan Set Efficiency (1 <)
Fan_eff2 = New Fan Set Efficiency (1 <)
MPR1 = Existing RPM of motor pulley
MPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved the existing
SP_inwg = Existing Static pressure developed by the fan
SP_inwg2 = New Static pressure developed by the fan
Example5 (Existing and New Variables are Known to find New CFM)
An existing fan set is producing 10,500 cfm @ 4.3 inches water gage, the motor is on a
variable frequency drive (VFD) and is running at 70% of it’s 1,750 rpm rating or 1,225 rpm.
The motor pulley’s have a pitch diameter of 10 inches and the fan pulley’s diameter’s are 9.3 inches.
Fan set efficiency is 79%. The VFD speed is to be increased to 75% of it’s capacity or
1,750 x 0.75 = 1,312 rpm, the fan pulley diameter’s are to be increased from 9.3 inches to
10.25 inches and the motor pulley’s (sheaves) are to be increased from 10 inch diameter
to 10.5 inches in diameter.
The new static pressure produced by the fan is assumed to be 4 inches water gage (inwg).
Fan set efficiency is assumed to remain at 79%.
Find the new CFM.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
0.79 10, 500 10.5 9.3 1, 312 4.3
CFM2 11, 990 CFM
4 10 0.79 10.25 1225
= =
HVAC Pulley Math Page 12 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/09
An equation to determine the static pressure developed by the fan can be worked out using
Equation8 and solving for S2 (SP_inwg2):
( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2
(equation8)
6356 E2 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
C  
=

\ .
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
SUBTRACT 6356 3 3 3
FROM BOTH SIDES
C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2
cross multiply
6356 E2 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1
2 S2 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1 6356 E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2 6356 6356 D1 E1 F2 M1 6356
C
C
C
 

\ .
=
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷ ÷ =
( ) ( )( )
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
divide C2 D1 E1 F2 M1
from both sides
6356 E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
2 S2 D1 E1 F2 M1 E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
S2 C2 D1 E1 F2 M1
C
÷
=
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
3 3 3
C2 D1 E1 F2 M1
3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
C2 D1 E1 F2 M1
E2 C1 D2 F1 M2 S1
S2 (equation10)
C2 D1 E1 F2 M1
=
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
Fan_eff2 CFM2 DPM2 DPF1 MPR2 SP_inwg
SP_inwg2 (equation10)
CFM DPM1 Fan_eff DPF2 MPR1
=
Example6:
An existing fan set is producing 11,500 cfm and producing 3.5 inches water gage, the motor is not on a
variable frequency drive (VFD) and is running at 1,750 rpm.
The motor pulley’s have a pitch diameter of 11.5 inches and the fan pulley’s diameter’s are 10 inches.
Fan set efficiency is 80%. The fan pulley diameter’s are to be decreased from 10 inches to
9.25 inches and the motor pulley’s (sheaves) are to remain at the existing 11.5 inch diameter.
The CFM is being reduced to 9,500 cfm. Fan set efficiency is assumed to remain at 80%.
Find the new static pressure developed by the fan.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
0.80 11, 500 11.5 10 1750 3.5
SP_inwg2 5.35 inches water gage
9, 500 11.5 0.80 9.25 1, 750
= =
HVAC Pulley Math Page 13 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/2009
Pulley Size Changes
Utilizing the following fan law which relates CFM to Fan RPM the driving and driven
Pulley diameters can be determined.
Capacity varies as the speed:
( )
( )
DPM1 MPR1
DPF1
CFM1 RPM1 CFM1
(equation11)
CFM2 RPM2 CFM2 DPM2 MPR2
DPF2
 

\ .
= ÷ =
 

\ .
where:
CFM1 = Existing CFM, CFM2 = New CFM, DPF1 = Existing diameter of fan pulley
DPF2 = New or existing diameter of fan pulley DPM1 = Existing diameter of motor pulley
DPM2 = New or existing diameter of motor pulley, MPR1 = Existing RPM of motor pulley
MPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved)
Simplifying the right hand side of the equation:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
multiply 1 over
the factor
DPM1 MPR1
DPF1 DPM1 MPR1
a 1 1
a
DPM2 MPR2 b b DPF1 DPM2 MPR2
DPF2 DPF2
DPM1 MPR1
multiply multiply by the reciprocal of the fraction
DPM2 MPR2
DPF1
DPF2
 
 


\ .
 = ÷÷÷÷÷÷
  


\ .
\ .
÷
( )
( )
( )
( )
DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
DPF1 MPR2 DPM2
DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
CFM1
(equation11a)
CFM2 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2
=
solving for DPM2:
cross multiply CFM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2 CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1 (equation11b)
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2
divide both sides by CFM1 DPF1 MPR2
÷ =
÷
DPM2
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2
CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2
CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
DPM2 (equation12)
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2
=
=
HVAC Pulley Math Page 14 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/2009
Example7: Find Motor Pulley Size based on CFM changes
The CFM being moved by a fan set with a motor not controlled by a VFD
must be increased from 11,000 cfm to 12,100 cfm, the existing fan pulley pitch diameter
is 6 inches and the diameter of the motor pulley is 10 inches, the motor rpm is
1,750. Find the size of a new motor pulley to achieve the 12,100 cfm.
( ) ( )
( )
12,100 10 6 1,750
11 change to an 11 inch diameter motor pulley
11,000 6 1,750
=
Example8: Find Motor Pulley Size based on CFM, Fan Pulley, and VFD changes
The CFM being moved by a fan set with a motor controlled by a VFD
must be increased from 10,600 cfm to 12,144 cfm, the existing fan pulley pitch diameter
is 6 inches and will be changed to 7.125 inches, the existing diameter of the motor
pulley is 10 inches, the motor rpm will be increased from 1,312 rpm to 1,400 rpm.
Find the size of a new motor pulley to achieve the 14,100 cfm.
( ) ( )
( )
12,144 10 7.125 1, 312
12.75 inch diameter motor pulley is required
10, 600 6 1, 400
=
With the use of equation 11b, equations for CFM2 = New CFM, DPF2 = New or existing diameter of
fan pulley and MPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved) can be easily
found.
To find CFM2 :
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2 CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1 (equation11b)
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2 CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
divide both sides by DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
=
÷ =
DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2
CFM2 (equation13)
DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
=
Example9: Find new CFM based on Fan Pulley, and VFD speed changes
The CFM being moved by a fan set with a motor controlled by a VFD
will change from 9,100 cfm. The existing fan pulley pitch diameter
is 7.5 inches and will be changed to 8 inches, the existing diameter of the motor
pulley is 10 inches, the motor rpm will be increased from 1,260 rpm to 1,390 rpm.
Find the new CFM.
( ) ( )
( )
9,100 10 7.5 1, 390
9, 411 cfm
10 8 1, 260
=
HVAC Pulley Math Page 15 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/2009
To find MPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved):
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2 CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1 (equation11b)
CFM1 DPF1
divide both sides by CFM1 DPF1 DPM2
=
÷
MPR2 DPM2
CFM1 DPF1 DPM2
CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
CFM1 DPF1 DPM2
CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1
MPR2 (equation14)
CFM1 DPF1 DPM2
=
=
Example10: Find new VFD motor controlled rpm based on cfm and motor pulley change
The CFM being moved by a fan set with a motor controlled by a VFD
needs to change from 8,750 cfm to 10,000 cfm. The existing fan pulley pitch diameter
is 7.5 inches, the existing diameter of the motor pulley is 10 inches and will be revised
to 10.5 inches the existing motor rpm is 1,290 rpm.
Find the new required (MPR2) motor rpm.
( ) ( )
( )
10, 000 10 7.5 1, 290
by equation 14 1, 404 rpm
8750 7.5 10.5
= =
Example11: Find new VFD motor controlled rpm based on cfm change
The CFM being moved by a fan set with a motor controlled by a VFD
needs to change from 12,700 cfm to 16,100 cfm. The existing fan pulley pitch diameter
is 6 inches and the existing diameter of the motor pulley is 10 inches. The existing
motor rpm is 1,195 rpm.
Find the new required (MPR2) motor rpm by equation14..
( ) ( )
( )
16,100 10 7.5 1,195
(new) required rpm 1, 514 rpm
12, 700 7.5 10
=
To find DPF2 = New or existing diameter of fan pulley:
FM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2 CFM2 DPM1 DPF2 MPR1 (equation11b)
CFM2 DPM1
divide both sides by CFM2 DPM1 MPR1
=
÷
DPF2 MPR1
CFM2 DPM1 MPR1
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2
CFM2 DPM1 MPR1
CFM1 DPF1 MPR2 DPM2
DPF2 (equation15)
CFM2 DPM1 MPR1
=
=
HVAC Pulley Math Page 16 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/2009
Example12: Find new fan pulley pitch diameter based on CFM and motor pulley change
The CFM being moved by a fan set without a VFD needs to change from 8,300 cfm to 9,965 cfm.
The existing fan pulley pitch diameter is 5.625 inches, the existing diameter of the motor pulley is 8
inches and will be revised to 10.25 inches, the existing motor rpm is 1,750 rpm.
Find the new required DPF2 = New diameter of fan pulley.
By equation15:
( ) ( )
( )
8, 300 10.25 5.625 1, 750
6 inch pitch diameter for new fan pulley
9, 965 8 1, 750
=
Utilizing the following fan law which relates Amps to Fan RPM the driving and driven
sheave (pulley) diameters can be determined along with Amperage.
Substituting equation1 for RPM into the speed varies as the amperage yields equation16:
( )
( )
( )
( )
3
3
DPM1 MPR1
DPF1 1
Amps1 Amps1
(equation16)
Amps2 2 Amps2 DPM2 MPR2
DPF2
RPM
RPM
   
 
 \ .
= ÷ =

 



\ . \ .
Simplifying the right hand side of the equation:
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
3 3 3
DPM1 MPR1 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
DPF2
invert and multiply
DPF1 DPM2 MPR2 DPF1 DPM2 MPR2
     
=
  
 
\ . \ . \ .
( )
n
n 3 3 3
n
n n
n 3 3 3
a a DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
and ab a b (equation16a)
b
b DPF1 DPM2 MPR2
 
= = ÷

\ .
3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
Amps1 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
Amps2
DPF1 DPM2 MPR2
cross multiply Amps1 DPF1 DPM2 MPR2 Amps2 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2 (equation16b)
=
÷ =
HVAC Pulley Math Page 17 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/2009
3 3 3 3 3 3
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2 MPR2 Amps2 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2 (equation16b) =
Solving for Amps2:
3 3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
divide both sides by
3 3 3
DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2 MPR2 Amps2 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷ =
3 3 3
DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
3 3 3
3 3 3
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2 MPR2
Amps2 (equation17)
DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
=
where:
Amps1 = Existing Amperage, Amps2 = Revised Amperage, DPF1 = Existing diameter of fan pulley
DPF2 = New or existing diameter of fan pulley DPM1 = Existing diameter of motor pulley
DPM2 = New or existing diameter of motor pulley, MPR1 = Existing RPM of motor pulley
MPR2 = New RPM of motor pulley (in cases where a VFD is involved)
Example13: Find new amperage based on VFD speed change
A fan set with a motor controlled by a VFD is ramped up from 1,150 rpm to 1,360 rpm.
The existing fan sheave pitch diameter is 6 inches and the existing diameter of the motor sheave
is 8 inches. The existing motor is pulling 13 amps Using equation17 find the new amperage
(Amps2).
( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
13 6 8 1360
21.5 Amps
8 1150 6
=
Example14: Find new amperage based on VFD speed and motor pulley change
A fan set with a motor controlled by a VFD is ramped down from 1,450 rpm to 1,325 rpm.
The existing fan sheave pitch diameter is 6 inches and the diameter of the motor sheave
is to be decreased from 10 inches to 9.5 inches. The existing motor is pulling 19.6 amps
Using equation17 find the new amperage (Amps2).
( ) ( )
( )
3 3 3
3 3 3
19.6 6 9.5 1325
12.8 Amps
10 1450 6
=
HVAC Pulley Math Page 18 of 18
By William Greco
w2gre@verizon.net
Warrington, Pa.
8/20/2009
Solving for MPR2:
3 3 3 3 3 3
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2 MPR2 Amps2 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2 (equation16b) =
3 3
3 3
divide both sides by
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2
÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
3 3
MPR2
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2
1
3
3
3 3 3
3 3
1
3 3 3
3
3
3 3
Amps2 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2
Amps2 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
MPR2
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2
a b a b
=
 
= ÷ = ÷ =


\ .
( )
1
3
1
3
1 Amps2 DPM1 MPR1 DPF2
3 1 MPR2 (equation18)
3
Amps1 DPF1 DPM2
= ÷ =
Example15: VFD controlled Motor RPM to achieve required amperage
A fan set with a motor controlled by a VFD is running at 1,375 rpm.
The existing fan sheave pitch diameter is 8 inches and the diameter of the motor sheave
is 9.875 inches. The existing motor is pulling 19.5 amps
Using equation18 determine the VFD RPM setting to achieve 24.7 amps.
( ) ( )
( )
1
3
1
3
24.7 9.875 1,375 8
1,487.7 Rpm 1,488 RPM
19.5 8 8.875
= ÷
By William Greco
2404 Greensward N.
Warrington, Pa. 18976
Reference: Air Conditioning Testing/Adjusting/Balancing –A Field Practice Manual
John Gladstone 1981 pg. 11
Carrier System Design Manual
Chapter 6, Air Handling Equipment
1968 5
th
Printing pg. 68
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.