1 Atomic structure

Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
ATOMIC STRUCTURE
INTRODUCTION
Atom:- The smallest particle which can take part in a chemical reaction with out losing its identity is known
as atom.
Subatomic particles: Electrons, protons and neutrons are known as subatomic particles.
Electron:- The negatively charged fundamental particle present in an atom with negligible mass is called
electron.
The mass of an electron is 1/1836 of mass of proton or hydrogen atom. In atomic mass units it is equal
to 0.000548 amu or 9.1095 X 10
-31
kg. Its charge is 1.6022 X 10
-19
coulomb.
Discovery of Electron : -
Sir William Crookes designed a cathode ray discharge tube in which cathode rays are observed only
at very low pressures and very high voltages. These rays consist of negatively charged particles called
electrons.
+ -
To vacuum pump
Cathode Anode
High voltage
Characteristics of cathode rays : -
1) Cathode rays are not visible but their behavior can be observed with the help of a fluorescent or a
phosphorescent.
2) These rays travel from cathode to anode.
3) These rays travel in straight lines in the absence of electric and magnetic fields.
4) But these rays deflect like negatively charged particles in electric and magnetic fields. Hence the rays
constitute negatively charged particles and are known as electrons.
5) These rays are independent of the nature of the cathode material and nature of the gas present in the
cathode ray tube.
These facts conclude that electrons are the negatively charged fundamental particles present in all the
substances.
Charge to mass ratio of Electron (e/m
e
) : - Charge to mass ratio of electron is calculated by J.J.
Thomson as follows.
11 1
1.75882x 10
e
e
Ckg
m
÷
=
Charge on the Electron :- The charge on the electron was calculated by Millikan in oil drop experiment
as 1.60 x 10
-19
coulombs.
The mass of the electron can be derived as follows.
-31
9.1094 x 10
/
e
e
e
m kg
e m
= =
2 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
Proton:- The positively charged fundamental particle present in the atom is called proton.
The mass of a proton is 1.007277 amu or 1.67252 X 10
-27
kg. Its charge is same as that of electron.
Discovery of proton : -
Protons are discovered in canal ray experiment. These rays are produced in modified cathode ray
tube.
Characteristics of canal rays :
1) Canal rays constitute positively charged particles. The characteristics of these rays depend on the nature
of gas present in the cathode ray tube
2. The e/m ratio of the particles depend on the nature of gas taken.
3. Some of the positively charged particles carry a multiple of the fundamental unit of electrical charge.
4. The behavior of these particles in the magnetic or electric field is opposite to that observed for electron.
5. When hydrogen gas is used in the discharge tube, the positively charged particles emitted are found to
possess mass of 1 amu and these are called protons.
Neutron:- The neutral fundamental particle present in the atom is called neutron.
The mass of a neutron is 1.00898 amu or 1.67495 X 10
-27
kg. It has no charge.
Discovery of neutrons: Chadwick discovered neutrons by bombarding a thin layer of Be with  par-
ticles.
Particle Charge
Relative
charge
Mass in amu Mass in kg
Electron -1.602 x 10
-19
-1 0.000542 amu 9.1 x 10
-31
kg
Proton +1.602 x 10
-19
+1 1.00727 amu 1.672 x 10
-27
kg
Neutron 0 0 1.00867 amu 1.674 x 10
-27
kg

Atomic number (Z):-The number of protons or the number of electrons in an atom is called atomic
number. It is represented by 'Z'.
Moseley discovered a simple relation between the frequencies of the characteristic X-rays of an
element and its atomic number.
v
= a(Z-b)
 = frequency of X-rays
Z = atomic number
a,b are constants which are characteristic of elements
Mass number(A):- The total number of protons and neutrons in an atom is called mass number. It is
denoted by 'A'.
A = no. of protons + no. of neutrons
A = Z + no. of neutrons
no. of neutrons = A - Z
Isotope:- Isotopes are the atoms of an element with same atomic number but differ in their mass numbers
i.e., The isotopes of an element have same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons.
eg., Hydrogen has three isotopes - Hydrogen(
1
H
1
), Deuterium (
1
H
2
) and Tritium (
1
H
3
). They have same
number of protons (one) but the numbers of neutrons are 1,2 and 3 respectively.
Isobars :- The atoms of different elements with same mass number but different atomic numbers are called
“Isobars”.
Eg.,
6
C
14
,
7
N
14
3 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
Atomic weight:- The atomic weight of an element is the average weight of all the isotopes of that element.
Note:- Atomic number is a whole number but Atomic weight may be a fractional number.
ATOMIC MODELS
J.J.Thomson’s model:
According to this model, an atom has a spherical shape in which the positive charge is uniformly
distributed. The electrons are embedded into it in such a manner as to give the most stable electrostatic
arrangement.
Rutherford’s planetary model :
Experiment:
A narrow beam of  - particles is passed through a thin gold foil which is surrounded by circular
screen made up of fluorescent zinc sulphide. Whenever  - particles strike the screen, a tiny flash of
light was produced at that point.
Source of alpha particles
Lead plate
Photographic plate
Gold foil
Ruther ford's scattering experiment
Observations:
1) Most of the  - particles pass through the foil undeflected.
2) A small fraction of the  - particles were deflected by small angles.
3) A very few  - particles bounced back i.e. were deflected by 180
o
.
Conclusions:
1. Most of the space in the atom is empty.
2. The positive charge in the atom is concentrated in the small dense portion called the nucleus.
3. Electrons revolve around the nucleus in circular paths called orbits. It resembles the solar
system.
4. Electrons and the nucleus are held together by electrostatic forces of attraction.
Drawbacks:
1) Rutherford’s model could not explain the stability of atom. According to electromagnetic theory,
the charged particle under acceleration should continuously emit radiation. Hence the electron moving in
the orbits must lose energy and fall into the nucleus. But this is not happening.
2) This model could not explain the electronic structure and energy of electrons.
3) It could not explain the atomic spectra.
4 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
NATURE OF LIGHT
Light is considered as an electromagnetic radiation. An electromagnetic radiation consists of two
components i.e., Electric component and Magnetic component which are perpendicular to each other as
well as to the direction of path of radiation. The electromagnetic radiations are produced by the vibrations
of a charged particle.
wavelength
E amplitudeof electric field
M amplitude of magnetic field
 =
=
=
The properties of light can be explained by considering it as either wave or particle as follows.
WAVE NATURE OF LIGHT
By considering light as wave, following properties can be defined for it.
Wavelength: The distance between two successive similar points on a wave is called as wavelength. It is
denoted by

.
Units: cm, Angstroms(A
o
), nano meters(nm), milli microns(mµ) etc.,
1 A
o
= 10
-8
cm.
1 nm= 10
-9
m = 10
-7
cm
Frequency: The number of vibrations done by a particle in unit time is called frequency. It is denoted by
' '.
Units: cycles per second = Hertzs = sec
-1
.
Velocity: Velocity is defined as the distance covered by the wave in unit time. It is denoted by 'c'.
Velocity of light = c = 3.0 x 10
8
m.sec
-1
= 3.0 x 10
10
cm.sec
-1
Note: For all types of electromagnetic radiations, velocity is a constant value.
The relation between velocity, wavelength and frequency can be given by following equation.
velocity = frequency x wavelength
c  =
Wave number: The number of waves spread in a length of one centimeter is called wave number. It is
denoted by

1


=
units: cm
-1
, m
-1
Amplitude: The distance from the midline to the peak or the trough is called amplitude of the wave. It is
usually denoted by 'A' (a variable).
Amplitude is a measure of the intensity or brightness of light radiation.
Problems
1) The wave length of a radiation emitted by a sodium lamp is 300 nm. Find its frequency.
2) The frequency of an electromagnetic radiation is 300 Hz. Calculate its wave length.
3) The wave number of a radiation is 9000 cm
-1
. Calculate its frequency.
4) Calculate the wave number of the yellow light of wave length 600 m emitted from sodium lamp.
5 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT
Though most of the properties of light can be understood by considering it as a wave, some of the
properties of light can only be explained by using particle (corpuscular) nature of it. Newton considered
light to possess particle nature. In the year 1900, in order to explain black body radiations, Max Planck
proposed Quantum theory by considering light to possess particle nature.
PLANCK'S QUANTUM THEORY
Black body:- The object which absorbs and emits the radiation of energy completely is called a black
body.
Practically it is not possible to construct a perfect black body. But a hollow metallic sphere coated
inside with platinum black with a small aperture in its wall can act as a near black body.
When the black body is heated to high temperatures, it emits radiations of different wavelengths.
Following curves are obtained when the intensity of radiations are plotted against the wavelengths, at
different temperatures.
i
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
wavelength
classical theory
5000 K
7000 K
Following conclusions can be drawn from above graphs.
1. At a given temperature, the intensity of radiation increases with wavelength and reaches a maximum
value and then starts decreasing.
2. With increase in temperature, the wavelength of maximum intensity (
max
 ) shifts towards lower wave-
lengths.
According to classical physics, energy should be emitted continuously and the intensity should in-
crease with increase in temperature. The curves should be as shown by dotted line.
In order to explain above experimental observations Max Planck proposed following theory.
1. Energy is emitted due to vibrations of charged particles in the black body.
2. The radiation of energy is emitted or absorbed discontinuously in the form of small discrete energy
packets called quanta.
3. Each quantum is associated with definite amount of energy which is given by the equation E=h
Where
h = planck's constant
= 6.625 x 10
-34
J.sec
= 6.625 x10
-27
erg.sec
 = frequency of radiation
6 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
4. The total energy of radiation is quantized i.e., the total energy is an integral multiple of h . It can only
have the values of 1 h or 2 h or 3 h . It cannot be the fractional multiple of h .
5. Energy is emitted and absorbed in the form of quanta but propagated in the form of waves.
EINSTEIN'S GENERALIZATION OF QUANTUM THEORY
Einstein generalized the quantum theory by applying it to all types of electromagnetic radiations. He
explained photoelectric effect using this theory.
Photoelectric Effect:- The ejection of electrons from the surface of a metal, when the metal is exposed to
light of certain minimum frequency, is called photoelectric effect.
The frequency of light should be equal or greater than a certain minimum value characteristic of the
metal. This is called threshold frequency.
Photoelectric effect cannot be explained by considering the light as wave.
Einstein explained photoelectric effect by applying quantum theory as follows,
1. All electromagnetic radiations consists of small discrete energy packets called photons. These photons
are associated with definite amount of energy given by the equation E=h .
2. Energy is emitted, absorbed as well as propagated in the form of photons only.
3. The electron is ejected from the metal, when a photon of sufficient energy strikes the electron.
When a photon strikes the electron, some part of the energy of photon is used to free the electron
from the attractive forces in the metal and the remaining part is converted into kinetic energy.
h = W + K.E
where
W = energy required to overcome the attractions
K.E = kinetic energy of the electron
Problems
1) Calculate the energy of one photon of radiation whose frequency is 3x10
12
Hz.
2) The energy of a electro magnetic radiation is 6.625x10
-19
J Calculate The Wavelength of radiation.
SPECTRA
When electromagnetic radiation is passed through a prism or grating it is splitted and forms a collec-
tion of lines representing different wavelengths. This is called spectrum.
Spectra can be divided into two types viz., emission and absorption spectra as given below.
Emission Spectra Absorption Spectra
1) These are obtained due to emission of radiation
from the substances.
These are obtained when substance absorb the
radiation.
2) White lines are formed on the black back ground. Black lines are formed on the white back ground.
3)These are formed when atoms or molecules are de-
excited from higher energy level to lower energy
level.
These are formed when atoms or molecules are
excited from lower energy level to higher energy
levels.
Spectra can also be divided into line and band spectra as given below.
Line Spectra Band Spectra
1) It consists of sharp and well defined
lines.
It consists of closely spaced lines
called bands.
2) Characteristic of atoms Characteristic of molecules.
3) Formed due to the excitation and de-
excitation of electrons in the atoms.
Formed due to the vibrations and
rotations of atoms in molecules.
4) It is also known as atomic spectra It is also known as molecular spectra
7 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
HYDROGEN ATOMIC SPECTRUM
A bright light is emitted when a high potential is applied to hydrogen gas at low pressure in a discharge
tube. This bright light is dispersed and forms a spectrum upon passing through a prism or grating. The
spectrum consists of separate lines corresponding to different wavelengths. This is called Hydrogen atomic
spectrum.
The spectral lines are formed due to electronic transitions from one energy level to another. These
lines are divided into five series according to the range of wavelengths as follows.
Spectral series Spectral region n
1
n
2
1. Lyman series Ultra-violet 1 2,3,4,5,6,7,_ _ _ _
2. Balmer series Visible 2 3,4,5,6,7,_ _ _ _
3. Paschen series near infra-red 3 4,5,6,7,_ _ _ _
4. Brackett series infra-red 4 5,6,7,_ _ _ _
5. Pfund series far infra-red 5 6,7,_ _ _ _

n
1
and n
2
are the principal quantum numbers of the energy levels.
The wave numbers of spectral lines in each series can be calculated using Rydberg's equation as follows.
2
2 2
1 2
1 1
-
H
R Z
n n


=


where
n
1
and n
2
are the principal quantum numbers of orbits corresponding to electronic transition.
R
H
= Rydberg's constant = 1,09,677 cm
-1
Z = atomic number
Lyman
Balmer
Paschen
Brackette
Pfund
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5
n=6
n=7
Note: Every element has its own characteristic line spectrum. There is regularity in the line spectrum of each
element. Hydrogen has the simplest line spectrum among all the elements. The line spectra become com-
8 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
plex with increase in atomic number of the element.
Problems
1) An electronic transition from n=3 to n=1 shell takes place in a hydrogen atom. Find the wave number
and the wave length of radiation emitted. [Given R=1,09,677 cm
-1
]
BOHR'S ATOMIC MODEL
In order to explain the Hydrogen atomic spectrum, Bohr proposed following atomic model based on
quantum theory.
MAIN POSTULATES OF BOHR'S ATOMIC THEORY
1. The electrons in an atom revolve around the nucleus in definite closed circular paths called orbits (energy
levels or states or shells).
2. The orbits are represented by principal quantum number 'n'. These are numbered 1,2,3,4 _ _ _ (or
K,L,M,N,_ _ _) from the nucleus.
3. The energy of an electron in a particular orbit is constant and the electron neither emits nor absorbs
energy as long as it revolves in the orbits. Hence these orbits are called stationary orbits.
n=1
n=2
n=3
Nucleus
4. The angular momentum of electron is quantized.
nh
angular momentum = mvr =
2
Where
m = mass of an electron
v = velocity of an electron
r = radius of orbit
h = Planck's constant
= 6.625 X 10
-34
J.sec
= 6.625 X 10
-27
erg.sec
n = principal quantum number which can have only positive integer values(1,2,3,4 _ _ _).
The electron revolves only in those orbitals where the angular momentum of it is the integral multiple
of
h
2
i.e, 1
h
2
or 2
h
2
or 3
h
2
_ _ _
5. Each orbit is associated with definite amount of energy and radius. The energy of the orbit (and of
electron in it) increases with increase in the radius of the orbit. Thus farther the orbit from nucleus greater is
the energy.
6. The energy of an electron changes when it moves from one energy level to another.
Energy is absorbed when the electron jumps from lower orbit to higher orbit. Whereas energy is
emitted when the electron jumps from higher orbit to lower orbit.
The energy absorbed or emitted during electronic transitions between two orbits is equal to the
9 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
energy difference between these orbits. It is given by
A
E = E
2
- E
1
The energy released in the form of radiation will appear as a spectral line in the atomic spectrum.
DERIVATION OF EXPRESSIONS FOR RADIUS OF ORBIT AND ENERGY OF ELECTRON
Radius of Orbit
In hydrogen atom, there is one proton in the nucleus, and an electron revolving around the nucleus in
a circular orbit of radius 'r'. Let
the charge on proton = +e
the charge on electron = -e.
Centrifugal force
+e
-e
r
The attraction between the nucleus and electron acts centripetally towards the nucleus. As per
Coulomb's law,
force of attraction =
2
2
e
r
÷
There is also centrifugal force acting away from the nucleus due to the revolving of electron in the
orbit.
centrifugal force =
2
mv
r
÷
where
m = mass of electron,
v = velocity of electron
During the orbiting of electron in a stationary orbit, these two forces must be equal.
i.e.,
2
2
e
r
÷
=
2
mv
r
÷
or
2
2
e
mv
r
= --------- 1
According to Bohr's theory, Angular momentum of electron in an orbit is given by
2
nh
mvr

=
or
2
nh
v
mr 
=
or
2 2
2
2 2 2
4
n h
v
m r 
=
By substituting the value of v
2
in equation-1
10 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
2 2 2
2 2 2
4
e mn h
r m r 
=
or
2 2
2 2
4
n h
r
me 
= ------------- 2
By substituting the values of
planck's constant = h = 6.625 x 10
-27
erg.sec
mass of electron = m = 9.1 x 10
-28
g
charge on electron = e = 4.802 x 10
-10
e.s.u
radius of n
th
orbit = r = 0.529 x 10
-8
x n
2
cm
Energy of Electron
The total energy of electron is equal to the sum of Kinetic and Potential energies.
i.e., Total Energy (T.E) = Kinetic Energy (K.E) + Potential Energy (P.E)
where
2
1
K.E=
2
mv

2
1
2
e
r
= (since
2
2
e
mv
r
= from equation 1)
and
2
P.E=
e
r
÷
Hence
2 2
.
2
e e
T E
r r
= ÷

2
.
2
e
T E
r

Upon substituting the value of 'r' from equation-2
2 4
2 2
2
.
me
T E
n h


By substituting the values of constants, the energy of electron (E
n
) in the n
th
orbit can be written as
-12
n 2
21.7 x10
E
n
=÷ erg per atom
-19
2
21.7 x10
n
=÷ Joule per atom
-22
2
21.7 x10
n
=÷ kJ per atom
EXPLANATION OF HYDROGEN ATOMIC SPECTRUM
Bohr could successfully explain the hydrogen atomic spectrum using his postulates as given below.
The energy of an electron in hydrogen atom is given by
2 4
2 2
2 1
. (1)
n
me
E
h n

=÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
Therefore
2 4
1 2 2
1
2 1
.
me
E
h n


11 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
2 4
2 2 2
2
2 1
.
me
E
h n


And
2 4 2 4
2 1 2 2 2 2
2 1
2 1 2 1
. .
me me
E E
h n h n
 
÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷


Therefore
2 4
2 1 2 2 2
1 2
2 1 1
(2)
me
E E
h n n

÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷÷ ÷


According to Bohr’s postulates,
2 1
E E h ÷ =
But
c   =
Therefore
2 1
E E hc ÷ =
Hence
2 4
2 2 2
1 2
2 1 1 me
hc
h n n



÷ =


or
2 4
3 2 2
1 2
1 2 1 1
(3)
me
ch n n




= = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷


This equation is similar to Rydberg’s equation
2 2
1 2
1 1 1
H
R
n n



= = ÷


Where R
H
is equal to
2 4
3
2π me
ch
and its value can be determined by substituting the following values.
-28 -10
m=9.1 x 10 g, e = 4.8 x 10 e.s.u.
10 -27
= 3.14, c = 3 x 10 cm, h = 6.626 x 10 erg. sec 
2 4
1
H 3
2π me
R = 1,09,681cm
ch
÷
=
Above value is almost equal to Rydberg’s constant (R
H
= 1,09,677 cm
-1
). The frequencies of spectral
lines in hydrogen atomic spectrum can also be determined by using Bohr’s theory.
MERITS AND DEMERITS OF BOHR'S ATOMIC THEORY
Merits
1. This theory successfully explained the spectra of mono-electronic species like Hydrogen, He
+
, Li
2+
, Be
3+
etc., .
2. Bohr successfully calculated the frequencies of spectral lines, radii and energies of orbits which are in
excellent agreement with experimental results.
Demerits (defects)
1. Bohr's atomic model is a flat model. But atoms are spherical.
2. This theory could not explain the spectra of atoms containing multi-electrons.
3. It was shown later on that the each spectral line in hydrogen atomic spectrum was actually closely
spaced group of fine lines. These fine lines were revealed when the spectrum was taken on high resolution
spectrometer in later years. Bohr could not explain this fine spectrum.
12 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
4. Splitting of spectral lines when the atoms are placed in strong magnetic field is called Zeeman effect.
Splitting of spectral lines when the atoms are placed in strong electric field is called Stark effect.
Bohr could not account for these effects.
5. According to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, it is not possible to calculate the velocity and position of
an electron accurately and simultaneously. But Bohr calculated them. This is a contradiction.
6. According to De Broglie's wave concept, electron has wave nature. But Bohr's theory considered
electron as a particle.
QUANTUM NUMBERS
Quantum numbers are the numbers used to describe the position and energy of an electron in an
atom. There are four types of quantum numbers.
i) Principal quantum number
ii) Azimuthal quantum number
iii) Magnetic quantum number
iv) Spin quantum number
Principal quantum number (n)
1. Principal quantum number was proposed by Bohr to explain the hydrogen atomic spectrum
2. It denotes the main energy level (or shell or orbit).
3. It is denoted by 'n'. It can have positive integral values from 1,2,3,4,_ _ _ (or K,L,M,N_ _ _ ).
4. It also describes the energy and size of the orbit. The energy and the size of orbit increases with increase
in 'n' value.
5. The maximum number of electrons that can be accommodated in a given shell is equal to 2n
2
.
Azimuthal quantum number (l)
1. Azimuthal quantum number was proposed by Sommerfield in order to explain the fine hydrogen atomic
spectrum.
2. It denotes the sub-levels (or sub-shells) in the atom. It is denoted by 'l'
3. The number of sub-levels in a given main energy level is equal to the principal quantum number 'n'. These
sub-levels are indicated by azimuthal quantum number 'l' which can have values from 0 to n-1.
For ex: In an orbit of principal quantum number n=3, there are three sublevels denoted by l =0,1 and 2.
4. Azimuthal quantum number also describes the angular momentum of electron and shape of orbitals
present in that sublevel.
For ex:
l = 0 (s)--- spherical
l = 1 (p)--- dumbbell
l = 2 (d)--- double dumbbell
Magnetic quantum number (m)
1. Magnetic quantum number was proposed by Lande in order to explain the Zeeman and Stark effects.
The splitting of spectral lines in strong magnetic field is called Zeeman effect and splitting in strong
electric field is called Stark effect.
2. It is denoted by 'm'. It describes the orientation of orbitals.
3. The number of orientations possible for orbitals in a given sublevel 'l' is equal to the (2l+1) and can have
values from -l_ _ _ 0 _ _ _+l.
For ex: The number of orientations (m values) possible for a sublevel l=2 is (2X2)+1 = 5 and the values of
m = -2,-1,0,+1 and +2.
13 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
Prinicipal quantum number
(n)
Azimuthal quantum number
(l)
Magnetic quantum number
(m)
n = 1 l = 0 m = 0
n = 2 l = 0,1 m = -1,0,+1
n = 3 l = 0,1,2 m = -2,-1,0,+1,+2

Spin quantum number (s)
1. It was proposed by Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck to explain the double line structure of alkali metal spectra.
2. Spin quantum number denotes the spin of the electron on its own axis. It is denoted by 's'. It can have
only two values(+½ and -½).
3. The clockwise spin is indicated by +½ or upwards arrow(
|
) and anti-clockwise spin by -½ or down-
wards arrow(
|
).
Quantum number Possible values Significance
1. Prinicipal quantum number (n) 1,2,3,4_ _ _ _ _ Denotes the size and energy
of orbit.
2. Azimuthal quantum number (l) 0 to n-1 Denotes the sub-level and
shapes of orbitals in that sub-
level. It indicates the angular
momentum of electron.
3. Magnetic quantum number (m) -l _ _ _0_ _ _+l Indicates the spatial
orientation of orbital.
4. Spin quantum bumber (s) +1/2 or -1/2 Denotes the spin of electron.

Problems
1) What is the shape of orbital if the quantum numbers for the electron in it are n = 3, l = 2, m = -1, and
s = +1/2
2) Which of the following set of quantum numbers is not possible?
a) n = 3, l = 2, m = -2, s = +1/2
b) n = 2, l = 2, m = -1, s = +1/2
c) n = 4, l = 3, m = 0, s = +1/2
d) n = 3, l = 1, m = -2, s = +1/2
3) How many electrons in an atom may have the quantum numbers, n = 3 and m
s
= -1/2 ?
4) How many sub-shells, orbitals and electrons are present in n = 3 main shell?
DE BROGLIE'S WAVE CONCEPT
According to de Broglie, every particle in motion is associated with wave nature. The wavelength
(

) of every particle wave can be expressed by the following equation.
h
p
 =
(or)
v
h
m
where
h = Planck's constant
m = mass of the particle
v = velocity of the particle
p = mv = momentum of the particle
14 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
Derivation
According to Einstein, mass and energy equivalence can be expressed as
E = mc
2
According to Planck's quantum theory,
E h =
Hence
2
mc h =
------------ 1
But
c  =
or
c


=
By substituting the  value in the 1st equation
2
hc
mc

=
or
h
mc
 =
(or)
h
p
where
p = momentum of a photon
de Broglie proposed that above equation is applicable to every particle in motion and above equation
can be written as
v
h h
m p
 = =
The wavelengths of macro bodies like cricket ball or stones are very small as their masses are large
and hence can be ignored. But for micro particles like electrons, the wavelengths are considerable.
JUSTIFICATION OF BOHR'S CONCEPT
According to de Broglie, electron in an atom is considered as a standing or stationary wave, which
revolve around the nucleus in a circular orbit. In order to behave as a stationary and non-energy radiating
wave, the electron wave must be in phase i.e., the two ends of the wave must meet at one place and there
should be constructive interference of crests and troughs.
Wave in phase - constructive
inter ference
Wave out of phase
destructive inter ference
To satisfy this condition, the circumference(2 r) of the orbit must be equal to the integral multiple of
the wavelength(

) of the electron wave.
i.e., 2 n r   =
15 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
or
2 r
n

 =
where 'n' is an integer
But according to de Broglie's theory
h
mv
 =
Hence
2 r h
n mv

=
or
2
nh
mvr

=
This is Bohr's equation. According to Bohr's theory, the angular momentum (mvr) of electron revolv-
ing in a stationary orbit is an integral multiple of
2
h

i.e., angular momentum is quantized.
But when the 'n' is not an integer, there is destructive interference and the wave will go out of phase.
This results in loss of energy by the electron wave.
Problems
8) What will be the wavelength of a ball of mass 0.1 Kg moving with a velocity of 10 m/sec.
9) The mass of an electron is 9x10
-31
kg and its velocity is 930 m/sec.Calculate its wave length.
10) Calculate the momentum of particle whose de Broglie wavelength is 2A
0
.
HEISENBERG'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE
According to Heisenberg, it is impossible to calculate the position and momentum of micro particles
like electrons accurately and simultaneously.
Mathematically, the product of uncertainties in position(
A
x) and momentum(
A
p) is always equal to
or greater than
h
n
x.
h
p
n
A A >
where
Δx
= uncertainty in position
Δp = mΔv = uncertainty in momentum
m = mass of the particle
Δv
= uncertainty in velocity
h = planck's constant
n = 1,2,3,4,......
For an electron n
~
4
Hence we can write
x.
4
h
p

A A >
for an electron
or
Δx.Δv
4
h
m 
>
(

Δp = mΔv )
16 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
Explanation
Case-1
When the position is calculated accurately,
Δx = 0
then Δp becomes infinity
i.e., it is not possible to calculate the momentum accurately
Case-2
When the momentum is calculated accurately, Δp=0
then Δx becomes infinity
i.e., it is not possible to calculate the position accurately.
Problems
11) Calculate the uncertainty in the position if the uncertainty in its velocity is 5x10
5
m/sec for an electron.
12) Calculate the uncertainty in the velocity if the uncertainties in its position is 1A
0
for an electron.
13) The uncertainties in the position and velocity of a particle are respectively 1x10
-12
m and 3x10
-24
m/sec.
Calculate the mass of the particle.
QUANTUM MECHANICAL MODEL OF ATOM
SCHRODINGER'S WAVE EQUATION
The important consequence of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is - it is not possible to determine
the exact position of an electron in an atom. But it is possible to predict the probability of finding an electron
in space around the nucleus. To determine the probability of finding an electron, Erwin Schrodinger pro-
posed wave mechanical model for the motion of electron. He considered electron as a three dimensional
wave moving in the electric field of a positively charged nucleus. He derived an equation which describes
the motion of an electron wave along the three axes x, y and z as follows
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
8
0
m
E V
x y z h
   

c c c
+ + + ÷ =
c c c
In the above equation,
m = mass of electron
E = total energy of electron
V = potential energy of electron
 = wave function
Meaning and significance of  and 
2
 :- It is called wave function. It denotes the amplitude or intensity of the electron wave.

2
:- It is called probability function. It denotes the probability of finding an electron in space at a given
point.
When Schrodinger’s wave equation is solved for hydrogen atom, the solutions give possible energy
levels and corresponding  values for the electrons. But the accepted solutions to wave functions, which
are called eigen wave functions, are obtained by applying following boundary conditions.
Boundary conditions
1)  must be continuous.
2)  must be finite.
3)  must be single valued at any point.
4) The probability of finding the electron over the space from +
·
to -
·
must be equal to one.
17 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
Important features of quantum mechanical model of atom
1) The energy of an electrons in an atom is quantized.
2) The quantized energy levels of electrons are derived from the accepted solutions of Schrodinger’s wave
equation by considering electron as a wave.
3. All the information about electron in an atom is contained in its orbital wave function  .
4. The path of the electron can never be determined accurately. Therefore we find only the probability of
the electron at different points in space around an atom.
5. The probability of finding an electron at a point within an atom is proportional to the square of the orbital
wave function (
2
 ) at that point.
2
 is known as probability density and is always positive.
It is possible to predict the region around the nucleus in this region
2
 has maximum values. Which is
called atomic orbital, from the
2
 values.
SHAPES OF ATOMIC ORBITALS
Atomic orbital:-The space around the nucleus where the probability of finding electron is maximum
(
2
> 95%) is known as atomic orbital.
The shapes of atomic orbitals can be known by solving the Shrodinger's wave equation for 
2
values
at different points in the space around the nucleus.
Radial Probability Function (D-function):- The function which denotes the probability of finding an
electron in small volume at a radial distance from the nucleus, without any reference to its direction, is
known as radial probability function or D-function.
2 2
4 . D r dr   =
Nodal Plane:- The plane where the probability of finding the electron is zero (
2
= 0) is known as nodal
plane.
The nodal plane passes through the nucleus and hence is also known as angular node.
The number of nodal planes for a given orbital = l (azimuthal quantum number)
The number of nodal planes for different orbitals are as follows,
Orbital 'l' no. of nodal planes
s 0 0
p 1 1
d 2 2
f 3 3

Nodal region:- The region around the nucleus where the probability of finding the electron is zero
(
2
= 0) is known as nodal region.
The nodal region does not pass through the nucleus and hence known as radial node.
The number of nodal regions for a given orbital = n - l - 1
For example, the number of nodal regions
for 1s orbital = 1-0-1 = 0
for 2s orbital = 2-0-1 = 1
for 2p orbital = 2-1-1 = 0
Note:-The total of no. of nodal planes and regions for a given orbital = n - l
Radial Probability Distribution curves:- The graphs plotted between the D-function and the radial
18 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
distance from the nucleus are known as radial probability distribution curves. These curves give an idea
about the variation of electron density with radial distance around the nucleus for a given orbital.
s-orbital
s-orbitals are spherical in shape with spherical symmetry.
There are no nodal planes for s-orbitals.
The nodal regions for s-orbitals are given as follows
orbital no. of nodal regions
1s 0
2s 1
3s 2
The radial probability curves and shapes of 1s and 2s orbitals are given as follows.
radial distance
Radial probability distribution curve and shape of 1s orbital
radial distance
Radial probability distribution curve and shape of 2s orbital
radial node
p-orbitals
The p-orbitals are double dumbbell in shape.
Each p-orbital contains a nodal plane.
The shapes and orientations of p-orbitals in a given sub level along with the nodal planes are shown as
follows.
radial distance
x-axis
y-axis
z-axis
x-axis
y-axis
z-axis
x-axis
y-axis
z-axis
p
x
p
y
p
z
Radial probability distribution curve for 2p orbitals
19 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
d-orbitals
The d-orbitals are double dumbbell in shape.
There are two nodal planes for every d-orbital
In a given sub level, there are five degenerate d-orbitals. These are divided into two groups based on
their orientation i.e.,
2g
t group and e
g
group.
The lobes of d-orbitals in
2
g
t
group are oriented in between the axes by making 45
0
of angle with
them. There are three
2g
t orbitals i.e., d
xy
, d
xz
and d
yz
.
Where as the lobes of d-orbitals in e
g
group are oriented along the axes. There are two such e
g
orbitals i.e., 2 2
x
d
y ÷
and 2
d
z
.
In case of 2
d
z
orbital, there are only two lobes oriented along the z axis and there is a concentric ring
called torus along the xy axes.
x-axis
y-axis
z-axis
2 2
x y
d
÷
x-axis
y-axis
d
xy
2
z
d
ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION IN MULTI-ELECTRON ATOMS
Representation of electronic configuration
The electronic configurations of atoms are represented by two methods i.e., nlx method and box
method
nl
x
method
'n' is principal quantum number
'l' is azimuthal quantum number, indicated by letters s,p,d,f....
'x' is the number of electrons in the orbital
For example, the electronic configuration of 'He' atom can be represented as 1s
2
.
Here, 'l' is principal quantum number, 's' represents azimuthal quantum number, l = 0 and the super-
script 2 represents the number of electrons present.
Box method
In this method, the orbitals are represented by boxes and the electrons are denoted by upward and
downward arrows in the boxes.
For example, the electronic configuration of 'He' can be represented as follows.
1s
2
Principles and rules: The following principles and rules are used in writing the electronic configurations.
20 Atomic structure
Prepared by V. Aditya vardhan
adichemadi @ gmail.com
P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

b
y
V
.

A
D
I
T
Y
A

V
A
R
D
H
A
N
V
A
A
G
D
E
V
I

J
U
N
I
O
R

C
O
L
L
E
G
E
W
A
R
A
N
G
A
L
Pauli's Exclusion Principle: No two electrons in an atom can have same set of quantum numbers.
For example, the electronic configuration of 'He' is 1s
2
The set of quantum numbers of two electrons in 'He' atom are
For first electron, n = 1, l = 0, m = 0, s = +1/2
For second electron, n = 1, l = 0, m = 0, s = -1/2
Aufbau Rules
The electrons in an atom are arranged according to aufbau rules. According to these rules, the differ-
entiating electron in an atom enters into the orbital with lowest energy. The relative energy of an orbital can
be decided from following rules.
1. The orbital with least (n + l) value possesses lowest energy.
For example, the (n + l) values of 1s and 2s orbitals are
for 1s, n + l = 1 + 0 = 1
for 2s, n + l = 2 + 0 = 2
Hence 1s orbital has lower energy than 2s, as it has low n + l value, and the electron will first enter into
1s orbital.
2. If two are more orbitals possess same (n + l) value, the orbital with lower 'n' value has low energy.
For example, the (n + l) values of 2p and 3s orbitals are same
for 2p, n + l = 2 + 1 = 3
for 3s, n + l = 3 + 0 = 3
But 2p orbital with lower 'n' value (=2) possesses lower energy and hence the electron enters first into
this orbital.
Hund's Rule of Maximum Multiplicity: No pairing of electrons occur until all the degenerate orbitals in
an atom are filled with one electron each.
For example, the electronic configuration of carbon is 1s
2
2s
2
2p
x
1
2p
y
1
1s
2
2s
2
2p
x
1
2p
y
1
In above case, the differentiating electron is entering into the 2p
y
orbital instead of 2p
x
because both 2p
x
and
2p
y
orbitals are degenerate orbitals. Hence no pairing occured.
Anomalous electronic configuration
Chromium and copper exhibit anomalous electronic configurations as the atoms with half filled or full-
filled d-orbitals are more stable.
Cr (Z =24) has [Ar] 3d
5
4s
1
configuration instead of [Ar] 3d
4
4s
2
as the half filled d-sub level is more
stable.
Cu (Z =29) has [Ar] 3d
10
4s
1
configuration instead of [Ar] 3d
9
4s
2
as the full filled d-sub level is more
stable.
Problems
1) Arrange the electrons, for which the quantum numbers are given below, in their increasing order of
energy.
a) n = 3, l = 1, m = -1, s = +1/2
b) n = 4, l = 0, m = 0, s = -1/2
c) n = 3, l = 2, m = -2, s = -1/2
d) n = 5, l = 3, m = +2, s = +1/2

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful