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UMTS RF Optimization Guideline

Issue 3.1 November 2006

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary This document contains proprietary information of Lucent Technologies and is not to be disclosed or used except in accordance with applicable agreements Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved

The copyright laws of the United States and other countries protect this guideline. It may not be reproduced, distributed, or altered in any fashion by any entity (either internal or external to Lucent Technologies), except in accordance with applicable agreements, contracts, or licensing, without the express written consent of the Author.

For any information or permission to reproduce or distribute, please contact: Lucent Technologies Network Systems GmbH Thurn und Taxis Strasse 10 90411 Nuremberg, Germany Contact: Andreas Conradi (aconradi@lucent.com)

Notice Every effort was made to ensure that the information provided in this document was accurate at the time of printing, but this information is subject to change.

Lucent Technologies - Proprietary This document contains proprietary information of Lucent Technologies and is not to be disclosed or used except in accordance with applicable agreements Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved

Table of Contents
1. Introduction...............................................................................................................5 2. Pre-Requisites............................................................................................................6 3. RF Optimization Process..........................................................................................9 4. RF Optimization Too s ...........................................................................................35 5. !pp ication Tests "or #et$or% Per"ormance &eri"ication ....................................44 6. '(T) Per"ormance (etrics..................................................................................49 *. '(T) RF Parameters............................................................................................52 +. RF Optimization !spects........................................................................................59 9. ,e"initions o" Terms...............................................................................................*1 1-. ,e"initions .quations...........................................................................................+11. !//re0iations.........................................................................................................+4

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Version History
Version 0.1 0.9 1.0 2.0 3.0 3.1 Changes First draft version Preliminary Version ready for review Preliminary Released Version Review Version Revised Version ready for review Major Change Rewrite entire do!"ment# "$date a!!ording mar%et e&$erien!es Review Version

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The focus of the RF optimization guideline is primary on describing procedures for the optimization execution. the described optimization methods and procedures shall be applicable for any vendor’s UTRAN networks (multi Vendor). It is also a continuous process as there are network configuration changes due to the addition of a new cells and/or increased traffic load or introduction of new features. This applies to the individual RF optimization procedures. Insights into RF Optimization aspects are given and relevant RF Parameters and Performance Metrics will be addressed. This document is also intended to assist the local technical staff during maintenance and operation of the system as well as the post deployment teams delivering services to the customer. Details for specifics such as RF parameters. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 5 of 89 . RF Optimization is primarily used during new UMTS deployments prior to a commercial launch. It should be noted that the RF optimization guideline is coordinated with the UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline. The user of this guideline will gain a fundamental understanding of all major tasks performed during RF Optimization.1 1. Other target documents are Lucent’s UMTS Translation Application Notes or the RF Engineering Guideline. RF Optimization consists of assessing and improving the network performance so that it meets contractual and technical objectives. references to proper documents will be included. In order to avoid duplicated documentation and outdated information. This section provides the overall structure of the guideline in order to best apply optimization methods. It is strongly recommended to read Section 2 on ‘Pre-Requisites’ before attempting to use this document. The focus of this guideline is on optimization of networks deployed with Lucent Technologies equipment. The primary target audience for this document is the Lucent RF personnel responsible for preparation and execution of the RF Optimization tasks. network failures as well as individual troubleshooting methods are found in the complementary <UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline>. With this guideline the users will be able to perform all necessary steps to improve the RF performance of the network. for which detailed information is provided by Lucent’s Method and Procedure (M&P) documents. performance metrics. However. Introduction This document presents a set of procedures and guidelines for RF Optimization of a UMTS network independent of the equipment vendor.

The UMTS RF Optimization Guideline should be used in conjunction with the <UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline> [Available on Global RF Methods and Procedures / Tool Support -> RF Guidelines].including inputs/outputs/quality records. UMTS link budget. This document should be seen as a reference book guiding the RF engineers through each of the individual work assignments. classification and resolution of problems.g. and E. its straight application is rarely found in the markets due to different planning strategies or contractual obligations (Scope of Work). Iur and Iub interface tracing) PM KPI analysis Failure investigation For optimization procedures concerning the general RF topics such as UMTS network design. failures and performance degradations. Iu. D. The document structure is divided into the Layer C. how-to and forms. neighbor lists. Pre-Requisites Although this document describes the optimization process. and scrambling code planning refer to the RF Engineering Guideline. These activities comprise of the following items: • • • • Drive test data (Uu trace files and 2G/3G scanner measurements) Network Interface tracing (e. The scope of this guideline is listed below: • • Covers the basic principles of UMTS RF engineering design and optimization Provide guidelines on design and optimization of UMTS RF networks Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 6 of 89 . This guideline is based on the UMTS optimization process and is used for the identification. Layer C documents are high-level processes and refer to an associated Layer D document that describes the process in more detail . Layer E documents include reference information.2 2. References to complementary documentation such as Lucent’ Methods & Procedures or optimization tool descriptions are provided throughout this document. The Global RF Methods and Procedures / Tool Support web portal provides Lucent’ personnel with an extensive knowledge base that is stored in technical method and procedure documents. This Guide is written to provide engineers with the necessary methods and procedures for optimizing a UMTS network.

and rate matching Transport channels Logical channels • Mobility and Call Management: location updates. multiplexing. • UMTS system architecture and components o o o o • Access network UTRAN Core network GSM and UMTS Interworking UMTS radio link and radio resource management o o o o o o o o o Spreading Orthogonal variable spreading factor Scrambling codes Multi-path signals Definitions of channel types Physical channels Channel coding. call processing o o Power Control Handover • UMTS system services o o UTRAN Signaling (Call Flow) Interworking between UMTS and GSM The UMTS Introduction Course UM1001W covers the aforementioned items. These documents address the RF parameters and algorithm (Lucent specific) in detail and cover the following topics: • • • • • • • Cell Selection and Reselection Access Procedures Handover Inter-RAT Handover UMTS-GSM Power Control Load Control Algorithms High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 7 of 89 . The list below provides an overview of the required UMTS knowledge. This course can be accessed at Lucent Technologies Wireless University via UMTS Product Training.Pre-requisites for understanding the content of this Guide include knowledge of the UMTS network architecture and UMTS principal functionalities. Pre-requisites for RF optimization are also listed in Lucent’s Translation and Application Notes.

• • • • Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator (OCNS) RF Call Trace Radio Link Control (RLC) High Level Protocol Stack Parameter The Figure 1 below provides the overall structure of this guideline in order to best apply optimization methods (yellow = guideline topics. Figure 1 – Overall Guideline Structure Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 8 of 89 . green = references): Pre" Optimization Site Readiness M&P Documents Optimization Planning Optimization #$ecution M&P Documents RF Tools Lab Global RF Core Support Homepage 'avigator Portal RF !ools % ! S RF Op tim izat ion !est Applications Scope of Work / Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) Performance etric RF Parameters UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline Translation and Application Notes Optimization Aspects UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline Translation and Application Notes % !S &no'ledge UM1001W UMTS Product Training.

Pre-Optimization is an optional phase and might be required especially for new network deployment or network extensions. creation of initial neighbor lists.1. The overall UMTS RF Optimization process can be divided into the following three phases: Pre-Optimization. An overview of the different optimization tasks and references to detailed M&P documentation is provided so the RF optimization engineer can assemble a process according to the market situation. Pre-Optimization (optional) RF Optimization Start Drive Test Based Optimization Figure ( – Overall Optimization Process Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 9 of 89 . RF Optimization Process Overview 3 Service Measurement Based Optimization This Chapter shall provide the RF optimization engineer with a general RF optimization methodology. network deployment type and eventually also on the contractual obligations (Scope of Work). This phase might incorporate tasks such as hardware functionality checks (proper integration). coverage verification. Other optional tasks in this phase may include initial scanner drive test for coverage and neighbor list verifications. The entire process is dependent on the market situation. and RF parameter declaration. RF Optimization Process 3. Drive Test Based Optimization and Service Measurement Based Optimization. As indicated by Figure 2 below. adjustments for initial antenna tilts.3.

Network performance counters play a more and more significant rule for the network optimization. Assessing the UTRAN air interface by performing field drive tests will remain one of the major tasks during UMTS RF Optimization. The focus during the Service Measurement Based Optimization is in assessing the network performance and quality using appropriate network performance counters (PM) together with dedicated tools. PM counters are available per logical network element such as RNC. comprehensive and detailed performance evaluation is ensured. but can be performed in the same phase depending on market situation and contractual obligation. lur.The objectives of the Service Measurement Based Optimization and the Drive Test Based Optimization are to assess and improve network performance and quality. PM counter and Key Performance Indicators (KPI) reflect the network viewpoint whereas drive test data the subscriber viewpoint. NodeB. The RF Drive Test Based Optimization is the primary optimization phase and is the focus of this document. as well several troubleshooting techniques. coverage & capacity Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 10 of 89 . Together with powerful tools such as Lucent’s SPAT3G/LUNAR. It is recommended to perform the service measurement based optimization prior to drive test based optimization because major network issues can be eliminated during this optimization phase. Although there is the consideration of other network assessments and optimization techniques. the performance of the network is still verified and reported based on drive tests (“end user experience”). DCH and PCH. thus reducing costs. Network performance counters. However. It allows a comprehensive analysis from network to the individual UMTS cell or call. cell operation or core network. are in detail described by the <UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline>. Both optimization phases are independent of each other. This allows the drive test based optimization to focus on the RF optimization or performance. The primary RF Optimization objectives are: • • • • • • • • • Minimize Call Setup Failures Minimize Drop Calls Maximize Voice Quality Maximize Data Throughput Minimize Packet Data Latency Maximize System Capacity Ensure defined system service coverage Maximize reliability of ISHO handover Strike a balance between reliability. Specific optimization techniques allow intensive and effective network troubleshooting and hence network issues can be resolved without performing extensive drive tests. the Service Measurement Based Optimization is primary performed during commercial network operation with live traffic. or per network channel such as RACH. with conclusions on the performance of network elements such as air interface.

As mentioned previously. an appropriate optimization package is defined assembling all the necessary tasks. Prior to starting optimization. Pre-Optimization usin# Ocelot® RF Desi#n $eri"ication New ell Deplo!ment Optimization Process PreOptimization RF Parameter De"inition Nei#&%or +ist De"initions Scram%lin# ode *ssi#nments Service Measurement Based Optimization Re"er to RF Trou%les&ootin# 'uideline Drive Test Based Optimization Spectrum learance *ntenna *udit Baseline ()istin# S!stem Sector $eri"ication Site Readiness Optimization Plannin# luster De"inition Drive Route Plannin# RF Parameter *udit Scram%lin# ode Plan *udit Nei#&%or +ist Plan *udit *ntenna *udit luster Optimization S!stem $eri"ication Optimization ()ecution Figure ) – Optimization Process Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 11 of 89 . the actual process used in the field is dependent on the scope of work (contractual obligations) as well as on the market situation.Figure 3 provides an overview of the optimization process including the individual tasks.

One of the challenges during RF optimization will be to ensure seamless UMTS coverage for the defined service area. with minor changes to the tasks. where new UMTS cell sites are deployed in addition to an existing UMTS network (or UMTS overlay) to enhance coverage and capacity. Network Deployment Scenarios Each of the aforementioned optimization phases is found in various network deployment scenarios.g. antenna heights. • Network Expansion. where a new UMTS network is built over an existing system of a different air interface technology (e. Since in major regions. where a new UMTS network is replacing an existing system of the same air interface technology. where additional carriers are integrated to an existing UMTS network. cell site locations. For example the RF network design at the Overlay scenario is usually given by the underlying network. In this scenario additional cell sites are integrated in order to improve or extend the UMTS service coverage. assumed no Inter System Handover (ISHO) capabilities are given. such as in Europe or northern America. 3G-2G neighbors). Another reason for integrating new cell sites is due capacity expansions. the most common scenario is the Network Expansion scenario. Specific RF Optimization scenarios. such as the Additional Carrier. GSM and/or DCS network(s). Overlay scenario. The Swapout scenario describes equipment replacement by a new UTRAN system.e. Therefore one of the major focuses is to ensure the seamless service coverage (ISHO parameters. • Swapout scenario. scrambling code and neighbor plans that need to be set up prior to any cell site operation. In general the same RF optimization procedures are applicable. Hierarchical Cell Structure or Micro Cell implementation are individual addressed. analyzed and documented prior to the swapout.g. antenna audits or cell verification tests should be considered as primary tasks prior to the RF optimization.2. 2G GSM). Both Service-Based Optimization and RF Drive Test Based Optimization are especially applicable for any existing commercial network. The Overlay scenario differs from the Greenfield scenario only by having the existing underlay 2G PCS. The main network deployment scenarios are listed below: • Greenfield scenario. spectrum clearance tests. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 12 of 89 . e. Tasks like RF service coverage examinations. where a brand new network is deployed with no history of 2G wireless systems. mechanical tilts (for dual/tri band antennas). to base line (i. RF network performance measurements must be collected. but the difference is that it is essential prior to any integration or optimization activity.3. This scenarios is similar to the Greenfield and Overlay scenario. record the performance of) the existing system. UMTS networks are already deployed as well are overlay networks on GSM 900/1800/1900. • Additional Carrier scenario. The major focus is to ensure faultless and smooth integration of the new cell site(s) into to operating system that is serving already a high amount of customers. UMTS coverage holes are more or less inevitable and should not affect the overall designated service coverage area due to the Inter System Handovers (ISHO). • Each new deployment require RF parameter model(s) assignments. The second focus is verification of the target coverage area as well as seamless service coverage within the vicinity of the new cell site(s).

3.g. Since the local RF engineering department mainly performs these tasks. If there are alarms or not acceptable performance caused by the new cell site. only significant aspects are addressed here. 2. The RF design of new deployed cell sites need to be verified. preferably using a RF planning / prediction tool (e. The set of new cell sites as well as surrounding cell sites (1st tier) require the verification of the electrical antenna tilts. Pre-optimization is particularly important when integrating new sites in an area where UMTS coverage is already provided. Lack of coverage or coverage holes close to the new cell site should be addressed to the customer When new cell sites are deployed. The negative impact that could be caused by the integration of new sites must be minimized. The definition of the overage levels is required. Ensure adequate cell overlapping 3. Pre-Optimization Overview The Pre-Optimization process starts with the plan for a new cell sites ready to be integrated. Ec and Ec/Io for Voice and PS 384kbps (indoor/outdoor etc. scrambling codes and RF translations need to be assigned.3.3. the RF parameters such as neighbor lists.g. as a less extensive drive tests are needed. Effort should be taken to Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 13 of 89 . The footprints of the surrounding cell sites might become excessive and thus need to be limited. Ensure efficient service coverage for the designated area. antennas are mounted with tilts derived from the latest RF design. During this phase also network counters need to be observed (if live network).2. The following sections will address each of the above-mentioned pre-optimization tasks. the best serving cell and pilot pollution plots will be analyzed. an adequate UMTS network design is necessary. e. Minimize possible cell overshooting 4. Proper pre-optimization ensures less costly RF optimization. In addition. After completion. the RF coverage would need to be verified especially concerning the antenna tilts of the new and surrounding commercial cell sites. Below a summary of important steps during this RF design verification: 1. the cell site must be switched off and further investigations are required. the new cell site(s) can become operational ready to be drive tested. Often mechanical tilts of 0° are implemented to avoid strong antenna back lobes and there is no permission for modifying. Lucent Airpro). the mechanical antenna tilts are often fixed to the underlying technology.).3. The installed antenna tilts might not be the optimized. Assess pilot pollution and dominant server plots 5. Pre-Optimization 3. Once they are integrated (hardware is installed). If not done by the RF department. The goal is to ensure efficient coverage for the target area. usually called a ‘market area’.1.3. The optimum antenna tilts can be achieved by examining the terrain and clutter profile as well as the coverage footprints. Assess coverage footprints of new cell site(s) and 1st cell tier. If cell sites are colocated and multiple band antennas are used (common). RF Design Verification Prior to any successful RF Optimization.

Performance counters are discussed in detail in the <UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline>. This method should also be applied for the Greenfield and New Deployment scenario. The integration of new cell sites within the same vicinity at different times would create different neighbor lists each time and will double drive test time. Those models might be dedicated to the network release. neighbor lists). immediate investigations are required (e. urban / rural). MACRO DEFAULT or MACRO DENSE consists of a set of default RF parameters. In case of network alarms. Performing repeated RF Optimization should be avoided to minimize expense and labour. Under common circumstances in commercial networks.ensure proper tilt planning since its implementation is usually very costly. 3.g. Each model e.3. RF Parameter Definition The RF parameter assignment must be completed prior to the operational stage of the new cell site(s) (unlocked in OMC-U).3. cell sites should be integrated cluster by cluster.4. Tilt modifications should be considered prior to RF optimization and hence drive tests.g. This will ensure the entire cell sites are integrated within the same timeframe. During this stage. For any unclear situations during the design verification.g. UL interference) indicate measurements high above targets. the network maintenance tool (OMC-U) as well as the RF database should be updated accordingly. cell type or network area (e. During the pre-optimization phase the RF parameter assignment should be a minor task as parameter models are usually already defined. Default parameter sets as well as the parameter catalogue (PARKAT) are available on this portal. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 14 of 89 .3. For new cell sites just the appropriate parameter model needs to be assigned and done using the appropriate network maintenance tools (OMC-U). RRC connection failure. pre-optimized cell sites will be turned on before completing the RF optimization. current tilts should be used and the area must first be driven in order to prevent multiple antenna tilt modifications. RAB setup failure. Any recommendation for modifications of the RF design (antenna tilts) must be documented and addressed to customer. (faulty hardware). MICRO. The network operator usually provides these parameter models / parameter sets or access to appropriate network tools. its definitions and recommendations are provided by the Translation and Application Notes. 3. A plan is required when deploying several cell sites that are connected to each other. network alarms must be watched as faults can be expected. Details about RF parameter. After any modification is implemented. For Lucent deployed markets the parameter sets for new the cell sites can either be assigned on the NDP Web Portal project database or directly in the network maintenance tool OMC-U. If specific counters (e. relevant cell sites must switched off and further investigations are required. When deploying a cluster cell sites for a new area. Performance counter verification is a possibility for performance testing after the preoptimization phase and before the RF optimization phase. New Cell Deployment A common scenario is the deployment of single cell sites into an existing commercial cell site cluster as well as the deployment of “island” cell sites in rural areas.g.

Signal level plots (e. The 3G-2G neighbor relations must be declared for overlay networks (refer to UMTS IRAT Optimization Guidelines) If the neighbor planning is a task of the RF optimization team.5. Ec%No & -9 d' YES 3G UMTS Cell Site 3G UMTS Cell Site 3G UMTS Cell Site !a*le 1 " +andover Relation Scenarios Neighbor planning requires planning tools but for network expansion individual neighbor planning might be performed manually. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 15 of 89 .'--.g.g. Also called InterRAT handover (IRAT) Neighbor relations are usually being declared bi-directionally. the following handover types between source cell site and target cell need to be considered: • • • Intra frequency handover [3G source cell towards a target cell 3G of the same frequency] Inter frequency handover [3G source cell towards a target cell 3G of a different frequency] Inter system handover [3G source cell towards a target cell of different RAT (e. e.3. for 2G GSM900. for voice in-car) and best server plots of each deployed RAT network will help to discover the required handover relations. planning strategies and rules of the market must be followed.g.'--. The neighbor assignments include the neighbor list verification of the 1 st. GSM). Ec%No & -9 d' Onl i! "G cell #ite i# in#ide 3G co$erage of e. The strategy here is to use the DCS 1800 cell sites only as capacity expansion for GSM 900.' Declaration YES YES Onl i! "G cell #ite i# in#ide 3G co$erage of e.g. Table 1 below presents one possible strategy for a UMTS / GSM900 / DCS1800 network.3. Neighbor list assignment during pre-optimization is required for network expansions since new cell sites will be integrated into commercials networks. Ec%No & -9 d' Onl i! "G cell #ite i# in#ide 3G co$erage of e. Neighbor lists are assigned in the network maintenance tool (OMC-U).' Declaration YES YES NO NO NO YES .g. UMTS overlay networks are common in the markets and usually customer guarantee >=95% coverage probably of the underlying network. 2nd and 3rd tier cell sites. Proper neighbor list planning ensures smooth optimization drive tests by avoiding simple RF failures due to missing neighbor relations and minimizes the amount of drive testing. Neighbor List Definition The neighbor list assignment must be completed prior to the operational stage of the new cell site(s) (unlocked in OMC-U). Sector ell Source Tar#et Sector ell Co-located GSM 900 Cell Site Neighbor located GSM 900 Cell Site Co-located DCS 1800 Cell Site Neighbor located DCS 1800 Cell Site "G Micro Cell Site (Ca)acit * "G Micro Cell Site (Co$erage* . When declaring the neighbor lists.g. therefore the 3G / DCS1800 handover is declared one way.

Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 16 of 89 . Facing toward cells of 2nd tier cell sites (blue) 5. Hereby following basic rules can be applied. a visualization tool such as MapInfo (preferably in combination with Google Earth) can be used for neighbor planning. Co-located cells (red) 2. 1st tier cells within the horizontal antenna azimuth 3. " General -eigh*or Relation Rules Antennas heights. Depending on antenna height and terrain condition. Facing toward cells of 1st tier cell sites (yellow) 4.If prediction tools are not available. The neighbor list for cell <green> shall include neighbor relation to: 1. refer to Figure 4. terrain conditions as well cell site distances are essential during neighbor planning and must be considered for verifications of neighbor relations. facing toward cell sectors of 3rd tier cells (purple) Figure .

Neighbor lists are declared on a per cell basis at the OMC-U. planning strategies and rules of the market must be followed. In the first stage the UE detects the cell (PSCH). The general rule is that the number of neighbor relations per handover type shall not exceed 15. If the scrambling code planning is task of the RF optimization team. >=10%. This would minimize the processing time used for the third stage of cell search. in the second stage the scrambling code group (S-SCH) and finally in the third stage the UE acquires the primary scrambling code (out of 8). 12x 3G<->3G and 12x 3G<->2G relations).3. those neighbor relations can be translated one to one into the 3G / 3G and 3G / 2G neighbor relations. Aside from any neighbor planning method.4. For new network deployments new scrambling code plans are usually in place. One way of planning would be to assign different primary codes (0-7) to neighboring cells belonging to the same code group. As mentioned before. The second way is to assign different scrambling codes to the neighboring cells using the same primary code (0-7). The primary goal is to maximize the separation of two cells assigned with the same scrambling code. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 17 of 89 . This method is only applicable for 3G / 2G co-located cell sites. Scrambling codes are assigned in the OMC-U. 3. The optimum code plan might be a trade between optimizing the second and third cell search stage. During initial cell search.3. neighbor relations will need to be verified during the drive test optimization. Please refer to Chapter 3. The algorithms used during the cell search are UE vendor dependent and its performance might differ from UE to UE. the UE performs the three-step cell search procedure to determine the used scrambling code by the detected cell. for Lucent equipment the combined lists per handover type are limited to 32. This would minimize the processing time used for the second stage. Taking all 2G / 2G handover relations into account for occurrences e. The recommended strategy is to limit neighbor relations per cell site to an acceptable minimum.g.6. the scrambling code assignment is explicitly required for network expansions. This limitation is UTRAN vendor dependent. An optimum is to achieve 10 to 12 neighbor relations per cell site and per handover type. Similar to the neighbor list assignment. These matrixes provide the distribution for each GSM cell sector in all performed handovers. There are 512 possible scrambling codes in the UMTS-FDD.Another method of neighbor list planning is the usage of the 2G / 2G handover matrix usually provided by the GSM OMC. proper neighbor planning drastically minimizes the amount of drive testing. (e. Also cells declared as neighbors 1st and 2nd order must not use the same scrambling code. The UE must not receive similar scrambling code power of the same primary code from different cell sites.3 that provides some additional information regarding neighbor relation aspects.g. Scrambling Code Assignment The scrambling code assignment must be completed prior to the operational stage of the new cell site(s) (unlocked in OMC-U). It should be noted that there is a limitation on the RNC level regarding the amount of neighbor relation for the combined neighbor lists (UE is in soft / softer handover). divided in 64 groups of 8 codes. The different code planning strategies are consequences of the above mentioned cell search stages.

g.The common code planning strategy is to assign different scrambling groups to the neighboring cells using the same primary codes (0-7). starting with the cell in the middle of the cluster. The general method is to define clusters of up to 64 cells. A prediction tool such as Lucent Airpro cold verify the overlap between cells using the same primary scrambling code. Each cluster will utilize the same primary code (0-7). Usually in practice the clusters are not regular as shown in the picture above and therefore appropriate tools are required. Usually those clusters should be limited to 60 or less cells in order to have some spare code groups for network expansion. yellow 1 and blue 2. The clusters consist of 57 cells (19 cell sites). Figure . or visualization tools such as MapInfo can help to ensure proper code planning. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 18 of 89 . – Scram*ling Code Group Assignment Scrambling code for new cell sites should be assigned according the scrambling code plans defined in the network. This guarantees a maximal distance between cells using the same primary scrambling codes and simplifies the code planning. The scrambling code groups are assigned clockwise from 1-57. Furthermore each defined cluster will be assigned with same primary code (0-7). The prediction tool Airpro provides the automatic scrambling code assignment feature. the green cluster will utilize 0. Figure 5 below shows an example of this method. e.

Using Ocelot® is usually an entirely independent process that is intended to perform RF optimization system wide on commercial networks.3. azimuths or power settings in order to improve coverage. or to achieve a user selected balance of the two.g. see Figure 6. The new combined neighbor list includes SC100 (SC100 is neighbor of SC200). 3. For detailed information please refer to the M&P documents on Global RF Methods and Procedures / Tool Support Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 19 of 89 . Ocelot® can be an essential tool during the Pre-Optimization phase. capacity. It ensures a balanced network or cluster in advance and might minimize the amount of drive testing required for the primary RF Optimization phase.Assigning manual scrambling codes for new cell sites noted. Even the service coverage of SC300^1 and SC300^2 is not overlapping. Possible handover scenarios must also be S . the new combined neighbor list has a conflict with SC300 referring to two cells. Ocelot® performs evaluation and modifications of the RF design by adjusting antenna tilts. the SC reuse conflict is given for SC300 via 2 way handover relations. This process is complex and propagation data.// NB S 1// NB Mo%ile Figure / – Scram*ling code reuse conflict The mobile moves into soft handover of SC300^1 and SC200. SC100 becomes stronger and is added into the active set (3 way soft HO). NB S . The final distance between scrambling code consideration of e. Assuming the unfavourable situation.//01 S . the following aspect should also be reused must not only depend an the same scrambling code. as well as traffic models and can process scanner measurement data. In spite of the complexity in using Ocelot ®.//0. best server plots of the cells using scrambling code reuse conflicts caused by 2 ways considered. Pre-Optimization using Ocelot® Pre-Optimization can also be performed using Lucent Technologies’ optimization tool Ocelot®.7.

1.g.4. There are specific situations that require heath checks to be performed even when not required by the contractual obligation.2. antenna audit or sector verifications.4. Overview RF Drive Test Based Optimization is the primary phase of the RF optimization and consists of three stages encompassing the following activities: • Site Readiness o o o o • Spectrum Clearance Antenna Audit Sector Verification Baseline Existing System RF Optimization Planning o o o o o o Perform Parameter Audit Neighbor List Audit Scrambling Code Plan Audit Tool Readiness Define Clusters Drive Route Planning • RF Optimization Execution o o Cluster Optimization System Verification RF Drive Test Based Optimization is in detail described by the M&P RF Optimization Using Drive Tests Process. These health checks are mainly performed after deploying new networks or cell sites and should be usually covered by the integration team. The following Chapters shall provide the RF engineer with the essential steps and hints for performing the RF drive test optimization. e. RF Drive Test Based Optimization 3.1.4. Also specifics of each task are provided by the individual M&P sub layer documents.4.2. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 20 of 89 . 3. For example base lining the existing network is essential during the network swapout scenario. Site Readiness 3. Specific network issues found during the RF optimization might require spectrum clearance tests or individual cell site verifications tests.3. In general it is not part of the RF optimization except when it is required by contractual obligation. Overview The Site Readiness procedures are health checks that ensure satisfactory performance of cell sites.

Antenna audits are performed exclusively by professional antenna crew teams. This task is also only performed if requested by contractual obligation or becomes required due to poor performance results (e.4.g. If several antenna configuration faults (e. Provided that guard bands matching the receivers’ selectivity have been used.2. e. 3. A possible wrong tilt implementation should always be taken into account during network analysis or design review. There must be a high degree of confidence in proper antenna installation within the entire network. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 21 of 89 . It should also be considered that the actual antenna tilt (mainly electrical tilt) sometimes differs from the one in the network database (planning tool or OMC-U). Antenna Audit This phase ensures proper installation of the antenna system.4. 3. The audit process consists of various antenna inspections regarding mounting height. Spectrum audits might be essential for specific deployment markets or required at individual troubleshooting scenarios. It is desirable to have a very high degree of confidence that the spectrum (downlink and uplink) is cleared prior to any commercial operation.4. Sector Verification This phase ensures proper functionality of a cell site(s) and is only performed by the RF optimization team if requested by contractual obligation. antenna tilts) are reported. azimuth. at shared antenna sites locally generated interference (e.g. In addition. even when all the equipment is compliant with the relevant standards. mixed up SCs or alarms at the OMC-U.2. This results in confusion if new tilt modifications are requested and ends up in sending the antenna teams into the field several times. Sector verification is required for new cell deployments as well as if operational cells show poor coverage. The focus is usually on external interference deriving from different technologies such as private radio. antenna type. If these audits show satisfactory results. antenna tilts or cable inspections.g. an antenna audit should be considered.3.3. adjacent channel or inter operator interference can often be neglected during spectrum clearance verification. cordless telephones.4. radar and faulty or unlicensed equipment.g. due to insufficient guard bands) can be found. intermodulation & crossmodulation e. poor coverage and strong signal reflections).2. then further audits are only required for individual cells sites that show indications of faulty antenna system.2. In case there are doubts concerning coverage versus implemented tilt. The detection of interferences can be a very time consuming and a difficult task once the UMTS system is up and running. Spectrum Clearance Verification The spectrum clearance assures that no external interference is present and sufficient guard bands are obeyed.g. It is intended to detect hardware or configuration errors prior to cluster drive testing. A rule is to audit 10% of arbitrary cell sites within the entire network. This task is only performed if requested by contractual obligation. Indications of external interference can result into high BLER or Tx power in either UL or DL at good coverage conditions or high (‘er) UL interference levels at the NodeB. the antenna team should first check the current tilt and then modify accordingly. alarms at the OMC-U.

If sector problems exist. Tasks such as drive route and cluster planning are essential to ensure high optimization efficiency.4. 3. The sector tests are performed using a measurement drive test system such as Couei XCAL. Optimization Planning 3. it is important to keep the drive routes and metrics identical. Note: It is common during network deployments that the Integration Team performs only a voice test call from the site.3. which are then post-processed by the RF engineering team using Lucent LDAT3G or Couei XCAP. Some tasks such as neighbor list validation or parameter audit might have been completed during the pre-optimization phase and are thus not required in this phase. appropriate actions need to be taken. Baseline Existing System The primary objective for the Baseline Existing System task is to collect and document Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of the existing system prior to any RF Optimization activity.Sector tests are usually part of the cell site deployment performed by the integration team.5. For performance comparison purposes.4. Prior to any network modification it has to be ensured the latest network configuration database is complete and up to date. Qualcomm CAIT3G. especially concerning design parameter such as an antenna height.4.3. Base lining during common RF optimization activities is not explicitly requested. or Agilent Nitro systems including UMTS test terminals Basic functional tests such as transmit power or SC verification can also be performed using a 3G scanner (Agilent). It includes a set of function tests in order to verify that each sector is transmitting with the appropriate performance and the correct scrambling code. Function tests must include all cells are transmitting with reasonable scrambling code power (RSCP of Primary CPICH) as well with the correct assigned SC. 3. Additional tests might be the verification of voice quality. but performance data are collected during the first optimization drives that represent the existing system’s performance. Drive routes and KPIs must be agreed upon with the customer.1. but drive test teams may collect the data. Usually all the functionalities are verified in the field.2. It is important to use both a scanner & a test phone. Overview The Optimization Planning phase emphasizes all tasks necessary to ensure readiness for RF Optimization. The sector test should be repeated until all tests succeed. During the Swapout scenario. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 22 of 89 . This can be done by performing short drive tests around the cell site. tilt and azimuths. base lining should be a necessity. FTP throughput tests and intra cell handover tests. It is also desirable to perform performance tests such as call setup for CS (Voice/Video) and PS (FTP). In this case it needs to be decided by the project team weather complete sector verification tests are required.

IRAT parameters) should be performed at a later step during the RF optimization. Neighbor List Plan Audit A correct neighbor list is one of the most important demands for ensuring reliable network performance. In case parameter-setting lists are unavailable in the beginning. Missing neighbor relations would not only cause severe call failures (drop calls) but extensive drive tests during RF drive test optimization. If the investigated parameters show high deviation from the recommendation settings. Random checks of RF parameter can uncover incorrect parameter assignments or incorrect model definitions in the entire network.5. Arbitrary neighbor relation checks can help to obtain an overview of the neighbor list. In any case the RF parameter setting lists and possible parameter model definitions used in the network should be obtained. The RF parameter audit mainly ensures that the correct parameter settings are used. important RF parameter can also be verified within the system information blocks (SIB). RF parameter settings and parameter models for Lucent deployed networks are obtained either from the NDP Web Portal project database or directly from the OMC-U.g. RF parameters must be inspected for consistency with the UMTS parameter catalogue.3.3. The neighbor list checks should include: • • • Verification of consistency in implemented neighbor lists with neighbor list plan (RF department).3.3. If it is not part of contractual obligation. These checks should be performed using tools like Lucent Airpro or LDAT3G. Detailed descriptions of all RF parameter including recommendation settings are provided by the Translation and Application Notes.2. The parameter catalogue (ParCat) is also available on this web portal. Also tools such as MapInfo in combination with GoogleEarth can help assess the neighbor lists. The RF parameter audit can also provide the optimization engineer general views regarding the network settings and its general behavior regarding network access (cell selection) or handover conditions.3.4. The parameter catalogues should be provided by the customer (vendor dependent) and contain the network parameter definitions including recommended (default) settings. Perform RF Parameter Audit At the beginning of the RF Optimization process. then an estimate of the extent of this verification shall be performed in advance. therefore neighbor list verification prior to the drive testing is highly desired. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 23 of 89 .4. At this optimization stage all RF parameter are already assigned. The complete neighbor list verification is a very time-consuming process. MapInfo and GoogleEarth). Any parameter modification in order to improve network performance (e. or verification by visualization using e. This information can be very helpful during the network analysis later on. Verification of the necessity of each relation (evaluate best server / signal plots in the prediction tool. for new parameter assignments please refer also to Chapter 3. Verification of the amount of neighbor relations (<15 per frequency and RAT). 3.g.4. More information regarding neighbor planning are provided by Chapter 3.3. then the customer should be informed.

• • •

Searching for any obvious missing neighbor relation (NB lists with entries of only 35). Searching for any obvious neighbor relation that is not required. (NB lists with entries of higher 28). Consistency of neighbor plan with implementation.

If these arbitrary checks are satisfied and a correct neighbor plan implementation is indicated, then the neighbor list verification is completed. Further verifications will be performed during the RF drive test optimization. If the checks indicate a poor neighbor plan, it must be decided if each neighbor list requires verification. Also the assignment of an entire new neighbor plan can be considered. The implemented neighbor lists can be verified in the OMC-U, in appropriate network maintenance tools or even from the prediction tools if in sync with the OMC-U. For Lucent UTRA deployed networks the neighbor lists can be obtained from either the NDP Web Portal project database or directly from the OMC-U.
3.4.3.4. Scrambling Code Plan Audit

The scrambling code verification is a minor task and necessary for the RF drive test optimization. This activity shall verify that a proper scrambling code plan is implemented. Displaying the usages of single arbitrary chosen primary scrambling codes is one example in verifying a meaningful code plan. If a poor code plan is observed, appropriate action must be taken (address to RF department). The primary code planning is addressed in further detail in Chapter 3.3.6. A fast and very useful scrambling code plan check can be performed by using MapInfo. Displaying each SC, SC reuse and distance easily can be assessed. For example Figure 7 below display the reuse of SC300 (red) and hence a conflict of the scrambling code plan (reuse distance of SC300 too low).

(C300

Figure 0 – Scram*ling code reuse conflict Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 24 of 89

3.4.4. Tool Readiness Appropriate drive test tools and post-processing tools need to be prepared for optimization. Tool types as well measurement procedures are defined in the scope of work (contractual obligation). It is strongly recommended to perform test drives prior to any network performance drive to verify the accuracy of the measurement tools. Faulty tool performance and unusable measurement results can drastically increase the measurement time. It is also essential to define an accurate tool setup that is approved by the customer. The tool setup would include the following definitions: • • • Antenna types and antenna cables types if external car antenna are used Positions of antennas, in car or roof top Usage of attenuators

Network performance drives are performed within the network coverage area. The driving routes are usually defined according the coverage plots, which are determined by the prediction tool. The definitions of these prediction plots (e.g. in-car penetration factor) must be considered for any comparisons with drive test measurement results. This is essential when using in-car test mobiles and external car antennas for wide band scanner. The usage of additional attenuators for the scanner antenna should be considered, but in general it is recommended to use external antennas to obtain reliable measurement results. In any case it is recommended to use fixed positions for the test mobile inside the car. The aforementioned items are examples to demonstrate the importance of proper tool setup. The tool setup must be completed prior to any network performance drive. Another important matter to consider is the driving team. Usually 3rd party companies carry out the drive tests. Those teams require extensive trainings on handling all utilized tools and those teams should be familiar with troubleshooting common scenarios, e.g. FTP server is down, no call possible, drive test system reboot etc. The lack of knowledge in regard to the drive test system as well as UMTS principles can easily increase costs due to extensive redrives. Tool types, setup and measurement methods are discussed in more detail in Chapter 4.2. 3.4.5. Define Clusters
3.4.5.1. Overview

When RF optimization is performed, the network is subdivided into regions for logistical reasons. In each region, the cell sites are grouped into clusters. It is important to select the correct cluster size as it impacts the resources and time-line for the optimization project. It is also important to consider the availability of all cells as it is essential to optimize clusters with all the cells operating.

Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 25 of 89

It is generally recommended to choose a 2-tier configuration with approximately 19 cell sites. Actual cluster sizes may vary due to contractual agreements regarding desired region and cluster size, as well as customer preferences regarding cell readiness and priority. Cluster sizes are also dependent on the network scenario. Small networks or regions less than 20 cell sites should be determined as a single cluster. Networks of 20 to 40 cell sites should be divided into 1 to 3 clusters. For larger networks, each cluster should range in size from 12 to 19 cell size. Some examples of cluster definitions are provided in the following Chapters. Cluster definition is especially important for the optimization of new network deployments.
3.4.5.2. Cluster Definition for New Network Deployment

[New network deployment for an entire area, no existing optimized cell sites] The actual number used is based on the network layout as well as the topographical environment. The clusters are selected to provide a centre cell site with two rings of surrounding cell sites as shown below in Figure 8. It is advisable to utilize natural barriers such as hills, rivers, RNC borders, etc. for cluster separation to minimize overlap and influence between the clusters. Some cell site overlap should remain between each cluster to ensure seamless coverage across the boundaries. Special attention is required for the border areas of the UMTS clusters. The border between two clusters should be as small as possible to minimize the possible influence between the clusters. These cluster scenarios can mainly be found in urban areas with large cell site deployments (>70 cell sites).

luster1

luster .

luster ,

'ater

Figure 1 " Cluster 2efinition for -e' 2eplo3ments

Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 26 of 89

3.4.5.3. Cluster Definition for a Small New Deployment

[No existing optimized cell sites and region might be border of existing optimized cell sites] These cluster scenarios are mainly found in rural areas such as smaller cities or villages (cell sites 1<>10). For the cluster definitions, the same rules are applicable. It is preferable to define just one cluster in this area. Existing cell sites of the same RAT close to the cluster, e.g. highway cell sites, should be included into the performance drives. If ISHO is supported, driving routes must cover ISHO verification tests. Existing Border Cell Sites

)ighway

luster 2

Figure 4 " Cluster 2efinition -e' 2eplo3ment 5region6
3.4.5.4. Cluster Definition for Network Expansion

[Deployment of one or more cell sites into area of existing (commercial) optimized cell sites] These scenarios are mainly found in urban areas where one or more additional cell sites are being added for coverage or capacity purposes. New cell sites are only grouped to one cluster if they are connected to each other within 1st or 2nd cell tier. Figure 10 below is an example where two new cell sites are integrated into a commercial network area. The cluster shall include all cell sites of 1st and 2nd tier as well as all cell sites that might influence the optimization work and hence the performance verification later on.

luster 2 Figure 17 " Cluster 2efinition for net'or8 #$pansion
3.4.5.5. Cluster Definition for Island Site Deployment

[New deployment of island cell site(s) into area of non-existing cell sites of same RAT] Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 27 of 89

4.g. commercial network might not require specific cluster definitions. If ISHO is supported. C( C1 C. Existing cell sites close to the cluster should be included into the cluster drive.5.6. Clusters are mainly aligned to the driving routes. e. customer complaint areas). Cluster Definition for Existing Network [Existing. driving routes. commercial network] RF optimization for an existing. A common scenario for urban areas may define clusters as north. for highway cell sites. Existing Cell Site luster 2 +igh'a3 Figure 11 " 2eplo3ment of 9sland Cell Site 3. contractual obligations and resources as well time-line. Clusters might be defined according optimization purposes (hot spot. east and center. driving routes must cover ISHO verification tests. west. C) Figure 1( " Cluster 2efinition for e$isting net'or8: no' ne' deplo3ments Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 28 of 89 .These cluster scenarios are mainly found in rural areas for deployments such as in village or on highway. For smaller existing networks. clusters are defined according to regional or island deployments. south.

Driving routes are classified according to its objectives and can be classified as verification routes. The drive route for a typical cluster should not exceed 6 hours.6. Driving routes for network performance verifications should always be determined within the service coverage of the network utilizing coverage prediction plots or signal strength surveys. It is recommended to plan all driving routes with appropriate visualization tools similar to MapInfo.4. The drive route planning is a very time consuming process and should not be underestimated. based on a 6-hour drive per day. Longer routes (e. border routes. Drive routes are defined according to the contractual obligations.ater Figure 1) " !3pes of 2riving Routes • Verification Drive Route Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 29 of 89 . optimization routes. drive route data are imported into the navigation system used by the drive test vehicles.3. refer to Figure 13. After determining the routes. Drive Route Planning Proper and thorough drive route planning is essential in order to gain high optimization results and hence network performance improvements. system verification routes. outer coverage routes and cluster border routes. for optimization purposes) are driven over the course of two or more days.g. %nderl3ing S3stem Cell Sites C1 C( C) Optimization Route $eri"ication Route S!stem $eri"ication Route Outer overa#e Route luster Border Route . customer demands and network scenario.

then a few stationary tests might be considered. Similar planning aspects are applicable for the verification routes and are planned according to contractual obligations. If the clusters are too small for efficient drive tests. A border route is chosen by the way it crosses the cluster borders. An optimization route does not require customer approval. These drives are used to demonstrate reliable network performance in order to obtain customer approval for RF optimization completion. Border verification drives may be required depending on contractual obligations and must have customer approval. Major roads or highways are generally chosen for these routes and these routes should not be included in verification routes (exit drives). Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 30 of 89 . During optimization of existing commercial networks cluster border routes are usually included in the optimization drives. Outer coverage routes may be required for smaller network deployments in rural areas. Border drives are mainly used for neighbor relation verifications. • Cluster Border Route Additional border routes are chosen to verify existing overlapping cluster regions. • Outer Coverage Route The Customer may request a drive route in an area outside of the designed coverage area to determine the extent of coverage in these areas or to verify seamless inter system handover to the underlying network. Smaller clusters have optimization routes that are usually identical with the verification routes. • System Verification Route System routes are verification routes that are defined for global network performance verifications and include usually several clusters. Optimization routes are required for large clusters sizes (urban areas) in particular. Cluster border routes are found in new network deployments consisting of several clusters. Outer coverage routes are used in addition for inter system Handover verifications.g. Verification routes must have customer approval. The lengths of the routes are also dependent on the number of required samples per verification test (e. Extensive drive tests are required for neighbor list or coverage verifications (scanner analyses).Verification routes are defined for cluster performance verification. number of voice calls). highways. • Optimization Route Optimization Routes are individually defined by the RF optimization team and are determined according optimization objectives. Problem areas showing high failures rates or pilot pollution require special investigations and individual drive tests. but the customer determines actual routes. bridges and hotspots. The routes for cluster verification should consist of major roads.

5. a border exit drive must be performed. problem area identification and clearance. Unloaded network conditions can skew acceptance tests. Cluster Optimization for New Network Deployments Cluster optimization should be performed on fully deployed network sections.2.5.5.2. data collection. and reporting. The quality and performance of a network depends on the actual load in the system. The border exit drive should be performed under loaded conditions in order to verify and confirm the Exit Criteria at the borders of the clusters. while a combination artificial load (OCNS) & live traffic can be utilized for loaded tests. Optimizing the system in manageable sized clusters is beneficial for several reasons. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 31 of 89 . Additionally. Each team is able to maintain focus on its cluster with minimal impact from other teams. The primary activities are to provide system tuning. unloaded tests should be performed during the non-peaks hours. Optimization in equipped clusters can proceed simultaneously with installation of other clusters. RF Optimization Execution 3.1. and finally verification drives to ensure completion of Exit Criteria (see chapter 6). Design changes relating to cell site layout modifications or adding a new cell site may be considered if critical coverage holes are discovered during optimization. All cell sites in the network (or a network section) are switched on. loading conditions or excessive coverage cells. If traffic increases and the load rise. System Verification is the final phase of the RF Drive Test Based Optimization activity and it focuses specifically on collecting overall performance statistics for customer acceptance approval. Smaller cell numbers make it easier to focus on optimized areas. since there is less interference present. OCNS) conditions. If live traffic already exists. Smaller cell numbers make it easier to track the parameter changes and the impact on their performance. It is recommended to finish the unloaded cluster tests for all clusters within the network or network sections before continuing with the loaded cluster tests. This avoids retesting of previously optimized clusters in case the cell sites are integrated later. Overview The RF Optimization Execution consists of optimization drives.1.5. the network performance will be diminished and previous acceptance tests become invalid.g.3. smaller cluster optimization aids in speeding up system tests for commercial operation. It is recommended to test each cluster under unloaded and loaded (e. Optimization teams working on multiple cluster testing must coordinate activities especially regarding neighbor relations. Cluster Optimization 3. The performance should always be verified and modified under loaded conditions for new network or cell site(s) deployments. After a small set of adjacent clusters pass the Exit Criteria. 3. Another benefit to smaller cluster optimization is that multiple teams can optimize different clusters simultaneously. System Verification will begin after all clusters in the UMTS network have been tested.

azimuths. XCAL. antenna azimuths. For each drive test an analysis is performed including failure analysis. The major focus of loaded tests is to fix problems such as pilot pollution or around the corner effects by fine-tuning the RF parameters such as the transmit power or handover parameters. This is useful depth coverage analysis (e. UMTS terminal(s) as well as post-processing tools like XCAP. This may results in higher BLER. For large cell site deployments in urban areas it is recommended to perform a scanner analysis to “clean up” the network coverage by mitigating overshooting cells. For such problems. patterns/types or heights) are occasionally performed. The cluster optimization for new network deployments consists of three phases: • Unloaded Cluster Optimization During this first phase. then a root cause analysis is performed. • Loaded Cluster Optimization The second phase is performed under loaded conditions. and antenna tilts. The drive routes are exactly the same routes as those used for the unloaded measurement drives. Verification of seamless service coverage by inter system handovers is required for overlay networks.Verification drives in areas outside of the designed coverage area (outside the clusters) may be required to mitigate excessive coverage and scattered coverage footprints. un-even terrain. The drive test information highlights fundamental flaws in the RF design under best-case conditions. In addition to the phone-based tool kit. Antenna re-adjustments (e. a measurement drive is performed under unloaded network conditions using the optimization route. lower mobility throughput. down-tilts. it is advisable to report the behaviour and proceed with the next cluster. If the problem cannot be resolved after a certain amount of time. Loaded testing produces a rise in the noise floor. pilot pollution. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 32 of 89 . problem spots are identified and optimized. large water-bodies.g. Problem areas are normally re-driven after implementing changes. The unloaded drive test shall identify missing neighbor relations and overshooting cells.g. processing and analysis tools for Cluster Optimization are a phone-based data collection tool kit including e. Verification drives at the beginning for performance comparison reasons (base lining) are not usually required for new network deployments. missing neighbors) in challenging RF environments (e. etc. which has the effect of shrinking the coverage area (cell breathing). or LDAT3G.g. Key Performance Indicator verification as well individual network investigations regarding optimization aspects. The first pass might lead to correction of neighbor lists and adjustments of the fundamental RF parameters such as transmit powers. Once the data from the first phase are collected. The required data collection.).g. The reports must be clear and concise since each network modification requires customer approval. CAIT3G. and more call failures. In addition it is essential to carefully track any recommendations for network modifications and its implementation status. bridges. Appropriate reports must be produced according to customer requirements. a scanner-based tool Agilent is used for power measurements on the physical UMTS channels. It is generally not recommended to attempt resolution of complex time-intensive performance issues. The scanner is an important tool because it is capable of multiple pilot measurements.

as well as tools utilized during cluster optimization will be addressed later in this document. Out of coverage areas should explicitly addressed to the customer.• Cluster Performance Verification The cluster performance is verified in the third phase. This data should be manually removed from the KPIs unless Inter System Handovers are desired and are part of the performance tests. The approval to exit the cluster is based on the terms of the contract. The primary objective of this verification drive. Measurement statistics from out of coverage areas (coverage holes) should not be considered part of the performance test results. The final report from the verification drive is presented to the customer for approval. GSM. Cluster Optimization for Networks different to New Network Deployments The previously described cluster optimization procedures for new network deployments are applicable for all network scenario types. Contractual obligations define the contents of the report.g. Performance data collected in out of coverage areas are usually excluded from the performance verification during the exit drives. depends on contractual obligations.2. This is applicable for smaller network deployments with less extensive clusters. A report specifying the reasons the verification drive did not pass the Exit Criteria is required. If the cluster is not approved. also called exit drive.g. Exit criteria. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 33 of 89 . The coverage extension needs to be verified. In general Optimization routes can be utilized for the verification drives after customer approval. This applies for performance data such as PS data and CS Video data. optimization aspects. Therefore more attention is required on outer coverage drives to ensure smooth inter system handovers.5. The cluster areas are usually not large. scattered coverage should be mitigated to provide sharp coverage borders between UMTS and e. highway cells) need to be considered for performance verification. The reports usually contain the analysis of remaining network failures. coverage plots based on scanner data and tables of KPIs. loaded cluster optimization must be continued until the troubles are resolved. CS voice performance data are usually used to demonstrate reliable inter system handovers.2. • Cluster Optimization for a Small New Deployment Small new deployments are found in rural areas with no overlap to border cell clusters. is to confirm specific Exit Criteria demanded by the customer. refer to the <UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline>. Intra system handover to cells close to the new deployment cluster (e. For specific troubleshooting scenarios such as for call setup failures. Therefore for cluster optimization and verification the same routes are used. drop calls for both CS and PS. Small variations for other network scenarios shall be addressed in this Chapter. 3.

The final statistics from the System Verification are presented to the customer for approval. the new deployed cell site(s) and the existing commercial cell sites in the vicinity must be ensured. System verification involves fusion of the previously optimized clusters and is required to demonstrate that Exit Criteria are met system-wide.3. System verification will begin after all clusters in the UMTS network have been tested. The procedures and analysis are identical to those used in cluster performance verification. The network should be “cleaned up” regarding excessive cell coverage and pilot pollution. It is possible for problem areas to remain after System Verification is completed. (Peak hour may need to be considered). 3. additional tuning of system parameters will be required to accommodate uneven traffic conditions (e. The UMTS network is ready for live traffic testing.5. After the optimization is completed the cluster performance can be compared with the starting point to demonstrate improvements. System Verification System verification is the final phase of the RF Drive Test Based Optimization activity and it focuses specifically on collecting overall performance statistics. • Tests are performed under live traffic since network is commercial. • Cluster Optimization for Existing Network The optimization activities for existing commercial networks require base lining. The system verification route covers major highways and primary roads in the defined coverage area. • An extensive optimization drive is recommended to perform deep scanner analysis. The RF Optimization procedure is considered completed at the end of the system-wide drive test. traffic hot spots) and other dynamic effects which cannot model with a simulated traffic loading.• Cluster Optimization for Network Expansion The focus for optimizing new cell sites deployed into existing cell site clusters is on neighbor lists and coverage footprints. The focus is on the problem areas identified during cluster optimization. which will lead into commercial service (in case of a new network deployment). such as a coverage hole that will be fixed by a future cell site addition. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 34 of 89 . Variations in the procedures are: • Base lining the existing system prior to any optimization activity is required. and are performed under loaded conditions with all cells activated. Reliable network performance of both. The first verification drive is used for the performance starting point. • Cluster Optimization for Island Site Deployment Please refer to Cluster Optimization for a Small New Deployment. These items should be well documented with solutions agreed upon by the customer.g. The procedures used for optimizing existing networks are similar to cluster optimization for new network deployments. The exact system test requirements are defined in the customer contract. Once significant loading with live traffic is present on the network.

Figure 14 below dislpays an overview of tool classification in the field. – 2rive !est <ased !ool Classification Detailed information about tools and components are found under: Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 35 of 89 .1. optimization UTRAN network features and data application tools. Anal3sis !ool 5Post"processing6 tool6 -et'or8 Performance 2ata 5-et'or8 Counter6 GPS Field easurement Collection !ool = 2ata Application !ools 5. data analysis tools. RF Optimization Tools 4.4 4. General The tools used for RF Optimization can be classified into data collection tools.9-2S6 R-C 3MTS ore %#5s6 % !S Scanner -ode < %!RA.Optimization Features 5OC-S: RF Call !race6 Drive Test +o# File Anal3sis !ool 5Post"processing6 tool6 Figure 1.

Drive Test Based Optimization Tools This Chapter shall provide an overview of the different tool types used for RF drive test optimization. For detailed tool descriptions.• • • RF Tools Lab (Hardware.g. e. one mobile for each service. refer to the corresponding tool portals. 4. Air interface messages and performance data are collected by test mobiles. toolkits) Global RF Core Support Homepage (Optimization tools and software) Navigator Portal (Lucent’s tool portal) Detailed description for set-up and handling tools utilized by Lucent’s personnel are provided by several individual documents available on the M&P portal. and CS VOICE. They log and analyze using real time displays both UL/DL air interface messages (Layer 1-3) and DL performance measurements (e. The collection tools should provide the following key features: • • • • • Support efficient number of UE interfaces Support L1-L3 messages as well as all types of log parameters Simultaneous measurement of voice/data Supports auto call and all call types Support of a scanning receiver Some of the common measurement collection tools are: • • • • • • Agilent E6474A (Nitro) Couei (X-CAL-W) SwissQual Qualcomm (CAIT3G) Focus Infocom (3GMA) Ascom Qvoice Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 36 of 89 . CS VIDEO. PS FTP (R99 / HSDPA).2.g. Field measurement tools can be classified into: • • • • Measurement Collection Tools Measurement Scanner Tools UMTS Test Terminals RF Drive Test Kit Measurement Collection Tools are diagnostic driving and collection tools. DL BLER) from UMTS test terminals (UEs). Several test mobiles can be used in combination with the measurement tools.

and their performance compared.1]. and to identify missing neighbors and non-UMTS interference. Panasonic. Readers should note that the at this relatively early stage in UMTS UE development. The system performs absolute and relative channel power measurements of the Primary Synchronization Channel (PSCH). the UE is providing good results. compatibly to the measurement collection tools. DTI/PCtel. The UMTS and/or GSM channel power measurements are executed without using a UMTS/GSM terminal and hence SIM cards. Couei and SwissQual consist of a stationary tests system in addition to the mobile drive test system. It is recommended that wherever possible a range of different UEs should be available. The customer or contractual obligations specify UMTS Test Terminal types used during the RF Optimization. allowing auto voice calls in both directions (mobile originated and mobile terminated calls). and Anritsu. Consequently the type of UE used for the measurements can have a significant effect on the results that are obtained. Secondary Synchronization Channel (SSCH) and the Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH).Measurement collection tools are usually entire optimization platforms consisting of both the measurement collection software tool and the analyzing software tool for post-processing. dual mode operation. Dual and tri band scanners are able to perform similar power measurements on the GSM DCS or PCS bands. and area of application (e. Before using the UEs for drive testing.g. proving an evaluation of the voice quality based on Mean Opinion Score (MOS) [EG ITU-T 862 / 862. However. Utilized UMTS test terminals should also have the availability of charging during operation and should support external car roof antennas. static measurements in good RF conditions should be performed in order to confirm that under ‘ideal’ conditions. Some of the common scanner manufactures are Agilent. Some of the common test terminals are: • • • • Samsung Test Mobile SGH-Z series Qualcomm TM6200 series Motorola Test Mobile Novatel Merlin TU520B (data card) Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 37 of 89 . Required key measurement capabilities are: • • • • Scrambling Code Power Ec and Ec/Io (CPICH) Scrambling Code Group and Scrambling Code Number RSSI (Io) Power measurements on GSM. HSDPA. best server and pilot pollution. Terminals are considered by their commercial availability. Focus. usually the mobile drive test system platform is in general efficient for basic RF optimization. These three channel measurements can be performed simultaneously for multiple scrambling codes. Video). DCS or PCS channels Scanner measurement tools are used for pilot coverage surveys to analyze pilot coverage. Audio files are exchanged between the mobile and stationary system. Optimization platforms as from Ascom. Scanner Measurement Tools measure the UMTS physical layer. the performance of the UEs has been found to vary considerably.

Uplink and downlink attenuation is added to compensate / simulate cable losses. The tool kit may include a scanner based measurement system (e. external mobile antenna gain or penetration losses. The drive test kit is usually equipped with the following components: • • • • • • • • • Measurement Collection Software Measurement Scanner Tools UMTS Test Terminals Laptop for for data recording) Separate Attenuation boxes for uplink and downlink (used to compensate for vehicle penetration loss and for introducing simulated uplink load) Test mobile isolation box to provide RF isolation GPS unit Power supply power box for toolkit components External car roof antenna Figure 1.g. Additional uplink attenuation may be added to simulate uplink loading. one in the transmit path and one in the receive path. CAIT3G) including supplementary devices. Each RF tool kit includes all the equipment needed to fit out one vehicle.g. The attenuation box of the RF tool kit provides two attenuators. Agilent) and a phone based measurement system (e. show examples of such a RF Tool Kits.Required RF Optimization equipment for Lucent personnel will be shipped as RF Tool Kits. Analyses Tools can be classified into: Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 38 of 89 . – RF !ool &its Attenuators are used to simulate indoor/in-car conditions of a phone.

) Layer 1-3 Information for GSM/DSC/PCS if dual mode test mobiles are used NAS Layer Information (RRC Signaling Messages. etc. UL/DL Power Control Information. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 39 of 89 . GMM. CPICH Ec/No. RLC Throughput. RRC State. Call/PPP Context Setup Failure Rate. PPP&TCP/IP Messages. etc. SIR. etc) Layer 2 Information (BLER. etc) Some of the common analysis tools are: • • • • Lucent Technologies (LDAT 3G) Couei (X-CAP-W) SwissQual (NQDI) Focus Infocom (3GMA) In addition to the analysis s/w available from the manufacturers of the collection tools. MM. Transport CH Information. NAS Messages. Support of Key Features: • • • • Geographical mapping Time series plots Histograms Air Interface Message Window Support of Log Parameter: • • • • • • • • Layer 1 Information (CPICH RSCP.) FTP/PPP Information (FTP Throughput. Ec/No. UE Tx power. physical channel measurements on GSM/DCS/PSC if dual/tri band scanner is used.• • Analysis Tools Supplementary Tools Analysis Tools are used to post process the drive test data to aid in performance analysis by providing several metrics. Lucent’s LDAT3g analysis s/w can used to analyze the data recorded by in combination with the measurement collection tools from Agilent Nitro and or Qualcomm CAIT3G. etc) Layer 3 Information (RRC Signaling Messages. REG State. etc) Scanner Information (RSCP. Searcher Ec/No. etc) Call statistics (Call/Session Drop Rate. RSSI. RRC state. Consequently the tools help to evaluate and determine the low performance areas in a UMTS network.

Supplementary Tools Supplementary Tools are helpful or required during the optimization process. a rapid identification of trouble spots is ensured. like Lucent’s SPAT3G / LUNAR are used to generate service measurement metrics based on the data received from the OMC-U. Undeclared Neighbor List). WIND is an UDP-based application that acts as a constant configurable data source and receiver. WINDS runs on a Server connected to the fixed (core) network. and will communicate with any number of WINDS applications installed on wireless terminals. Service Measurement Based Optimization Tools Service measurement tools must be utilized during the Service Measurement Based Optimization. ROP. Configuration. These tools are used primary after network launch when live traffic exists. Appropriate post-processing tools are used to evaluate these performance data. The key characteristic of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is that retransmissions on the user protocol are not performed. PCMD. Per Call Measurement Data (PCMD). Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 40 of 89 . and Fault Management data • • • 4. Network performance counters are installed at the OMC-U in order to collect network performance data (KPIs). Focus is radio access network (RA Analysis reports in SPAT3G/LUNAR are: • • • • Root cause analysis of drop calls and access failures by correlating PCMD data with configuration data Geographical maps of estimated locations of drop calls and access failures by correlating PCMD data and cells locations information Expedited analysis of group of cells by creating subsets by correlating configuration data with service measurements data Optimization of configuration parameters by comparing and flagging existing parameter settings against Lucent or service provider recommended values as well as based on pre-defined rules Optimization of neighbor lists by correlating Handoff Matrix data and Undeclared Neighbor List data with configuration and cells location information Optimization of inter-frequency handoff performance and drop call rate by correlating directed handoff parameters with Handoff Matrix data and cells location information High runner cells/sectors root cause analysis reports correlating Service Measurements. Neighbor list data (Handoff Matrix. Such tools. SPAT3G (System Performance Analysis Tool) and LUNAR (Lucent Network Analysis Reality) for 3G networks are Windows-based PC tool used to troubleshoot and analyze the performance of a live network using data sources including Service Measurements. Use of these UDP test data transfers is preferred to test and characterize the air interface performance. Translations.4.4. Thus.3.

coverage holes. The Key Procedures are: • • • Display of topographical maps (e. neighbor lists. MapInfo version 8. pilot pollution. LDAT3G will be able to plot application layer statistics such as throughput and packet error rate. Figure 17 on the next page shows an example of a GoogleEarth output. A special plug-in provided by GoogleEarth allows MapInfo to export the cell data information to GoogleEarth. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 41 of 89 .0 is required.g. MapInfo is a very effective tool that can help to assess the network performance with regard to the network design by using scanner measurement data. Figure 1/ " ap9nfo Plot #$ample GoogleEarth is a Internet tool displaying detailed satellite images of urban areas. street maps using plug-in MapInTheBox) Display of Cell Database (export from planning tool) Display of Scanner Measurement Data This enables investigations into the network excessive cell coverage. This efficient tool is used to perform network investigations regarding terrain conditions. GoogleEarth can be used together with MapInfo. This may be used to troubleshoot application layer performance problems through correlating these application layer plots with Layer 1 to 3 plots and events. MapInfo is used in parallel with the analysis tools. It helps to judge on excessive cell coverage and neighbor relations. etc. Figure 16 below shows an example of a MapInfo plot.An extension of the LDAT3G post-processing tool is the ability to read and process WINDS log files. scrambling code plan.

when the network is initially installed. Uplink loading can be simulated by implementation of attenuators at the mobile (UE) in the uplink path. where cluster testing and complete system wide testing is required. The exact attenuation used is Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 42 of 89 . This is particularly necessary in the optimization phase after deployment.Figure 10 " Google#arth 'ith cell data from ap9nfo UTRAN Optimization Features are: • • OCNS RF Call Trace The Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator (OCNS) is a feature of Lucent’s UTRAN to simulate live traffic in the network in order to test the system performance. For more details about simulated download refer to Translation Application Note OCNS. The attenuation must be equivalent to the noise rise (cell load) specified in the link budgets and agreed upon by the customer. For example. and only applies to the DL. 5dB attenuation should be employed in the uplink to correspond to 68% uplink loading. OCNS is primarily used to test network capacity and to verify performance parameters of the network.

The data and information collected is used by the network operator to manage and support: • • • • Network optimization • Performance Troubleshooting (RF as well as data performance) • Warranty and exit criteria for customer contracts The tracing functionality within the RNC is performed by the collection of signaling messages on the Uu. RF Call Trace should be used sparsely and with extreme care. The extent of this data is dependent on capabilities of the UE. but can also include downlink measurements that are performed by the UE. and subsequently reported in the uplink. which allows the operator to gather radio related information associated to one or more UEs within the cells. LDAT3G can correlate RF Call Trace data with measurement drive test data (if compatible drive test data collection s/w is used). For more details about simulated download refer to Translation Application Note RFCT Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 43 of 89 . This data is principally derived from uplink measurements by the Node-B. The RF Call Trace capability is a feature of Lucent’s UTRAN.given in the ATP (Acceptance Test Plan) that is written by SAE (System & Architecture Engineering). as its activation can alter the performance of the network and measurement UEs. RF Call Trace logging files can be analyzed by LDAT3G. Iub and Iu interfaces.

FTP server/LAN. depending on the contractual obligations. auto Voice Calls and auto Data (FTP) Sessions.1 (2005-07). These tests may include latency tests (using ping application scripts) or air interface performance tests utilizing the UDP application protocol (WINDS tool). Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 44 of 89 .5 5. throughput or quality.1.P* (essions Figure 11 " Primar3 Application !ests Additional specific tests may be performed in to verify the UTRAN performance. Refer also to UMTS Performance Expectations . For non Lucent UTRAN equipment the application tests are determined by the contractual obligations.ata (essions )(. The primary applications tests currently used for network performance verifications during RF optimization are displayed by Figure 18 below. C( Voi!e Calls C( Video Calls *$$li!ation +est P( . or ISDN lines must not be the limitation factor regarding latency.g. It is always preferable to perform these tests under loaded conditions. General An UMTS system requires various data and voice tests to verify network performance. Application tests and measurement procedures for Lucent UTRAN deployed networks will be obtained from the ATP (Acceptance Test Plan) that is committed by SAE (System & Architecture Engineering). The majority of application tests are performed automatically by the measurement system tools. e. Application Tests for Network Performance Verification 5. Quality of service parameters and their computations based on field measurements and made from customers point of view is in detail addressed by ETSI TS 102 250-2 V1.3. It should be ensured that network elements don’t have an impact on the performance of the application tests. This Chapter discusses the generics of the different applications. having either artificial load or live traffic conditions.

Primary targets are the network performance regarding call setup Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 45 of 89 .e. FTP and VOICE 3G. 862. • The Drive test kit consists usually of two Laptops. CS VIDEO and VOICE 2G or 3G single mode). Counterpart for the Video application is a stationary team. All applications run automatically. CS Voice Call Voice measurement tests are based on Mobile Originated Calls (MOC) and Mobile Terminated Calls (MTC).2. each running two applications in parallel (e.g. Counterpart for the Voice application(s) are either: o o o A stationary team (MTC calls are performed manual) A auto answering test number (only MTC calls can be performed) A measurement system (automated MTC and MOC calls. The VIDEO application may need to be performed manually.1) • • • Figure 14 " !est application Scenario 5.below displays a typical configuration scenario for running application tests. fixed test equipment connected by cable to the network) for the PS data application is a FTP server is available via IP network. Voice quality is verified based Mean Opinion Scare [EG ITU-T 862. MTC and MOC calls as well as video quality verifications (visual & audio/video sync) can be performed. Counterpart (i.

It is recommended to run two voice applications for overlay network scenarios.4. The application runs automatically. Listening quality scores lie between 1 and 4. PESQ-LQ score lie between 1. 5. The Voice Quality is measured by several drive test systems based on Mean Opinion Score (MOS) standardized by EG ITU-T 862 and 862. and sufficient idle time must be allowed for UE Registration & Location Update procedures. CS Video Call Video calls are performed similarly to the Voice calls. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 46 of 89 .1. performs 3G / 2G voice calls (ISHO enabled). 5. Call duration and idle times need to be chosen carefully to avoid call failures due to overlapping of mobile originated and mobile terminated calls.and upload of data files (alternatively the WINDS tool can be used). which is standard in the industry and is defined in ITU-T P. PS Data Sessions For PS data sessions.800.3.0 and 4. The highest score (4.5. PESQ-LQ® scores are closer to the listening quality subjective opinion scale. The Voice Quality Testing (VQT) utilizes several industry standard ITU algorithms in order to measure the speech quality of a transmitted voice file.5 is usually the maximum obtained in a subjective test. This method gives the opportunity to verify the single networks more efficiently since an ISHO in weak coverage areas is disabled. FTP transfers are normally used by performing simple down . This is because 4. The second mobile is alternate configured as 2G or 3G only. Voice calls are automatically executed by the drive test systems.success rate and call completion rate.5) means that no distortion is measured. The Video quality is currently measured manually by visual assessment. Figure (7 " Voice >ualit3 !est Specification PESQ® result is PESQ-LQ ®. One mobile is configured in dual mode. VQT compares the original unprocessed signal with the degraded version (Figure 20). As the amount of distortion increases the quality falls.5. but the MTC calls need to be performed manually. The score gives a measure of customers' perception of quality.

as well as at the laptop for uploads. i. a file of around 1Mbytes should be prepared in a similar manner.5. another prerequisite for FTP testing is to have several data files available at the network side for downloads. 10MB and 30MB on the server side. Test Case Example Circuit Switched Voice RF Toolkit Configuration: three User Equipment (UE) + Scanner Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 47 of 89 . 5. While 10MB and 1MB files cover most drive testing needs during optimization. 5. Higher data rates need to be enabled in the test mobile (U-SIM). 3MB. HSDPA Sessions HSDPA sessions are similarly performed as the PS data sessions. 300kB. Example of Test Scenario. As a rule of thumb.e. 1MB. The HSDPA feature needs to be supported by the test mobiles and the UTRAN. and 100kB.Essential for any FTP-based testing is the correct setting of TCP and PPP parameters at the laptop. On the server side a file of around 10Mbytes should be prepared. 1MB and 3MB on the terminal side. the file size should be chosen in such a manner that downloads last at least one minute but not more than five minutes. In addition to the appropriate permissions at the FTP server. On the laptop.6. in practice it is often convenient to prepare a series of files on both sides with different sizes.

Figure 21 below shows a possible test configuration in detail. Figure 21 – Test Configuration Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 48 of 89 .

UMTS Performance Metrics 6. Final acceptance values and precise measurement procedures for Lucent UTRAN deployed networks will be obtained from the ATP (Acceptance Test Plan) that is written by SAE (System & Architecture Engineering). For this reason. also called Exit Criteria used in the RF Optimization are customer and market specific. These specific measures and events are performance metrics that are composed of a series of quality indicators. The following Chapter describes the Key Performance Indicators.6 6. Metrics vary depending on the contract and additional unlisted metrics may be necessary. Since there is a large amount of quality indicators used for function and performance tests. the associated methods of measurement and warranty targets generally used during the optimization process of both voice and data. The network performance is in general verified by the following factors: • • • • Call Availability (i.1. specific Exit Criteria cannot be provided in this guideline.e. Such assessments that may be used as a general health check on a network or in warranty situations where it is important to ascertain whether the deployed network is achieving a level of performance consistent with customer design requirements. The exact warranty targets. It is expected that values will be defined based on the design criteria for the market prior to the actual RF Optimization. a subset of key indicators is chosen that best can represent the quality and performance of a UMTS network. General Specific quality and performance criteria within a UMTS network are assessed by certain measures and events. Each of the classes listed above can be measured by specific KPIs as following: Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 49 of 89 . Successful Maintenance of the Call as opposed to Dropped Call) Call Quality Call Mobility A Call refers to both Circuit Switched Calls and Packet Switched Calls (Sessions).e. These Key Performance Indicators (KPI’s) are utilized for RF Optimization. successful Set-up of the Call) Call Reliability (i.

The design coverage area consists of those locations where coverage exists as determined and provided by the design prediction. Coverage plots for the clusters and the system shall be available prior to any test drive. A summary of Performance Metrics currently utilized for RF optimization is given below. The UMTS Performance Metrics are in detail described by the <UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline>. Call Mobility: Intra and Inter RNC Soft Handover Success Rate.• Call Availability: Successful Radio Resource Control (RRC) Connections Establishment Rate. Collecting Key Performance Data Key performance data needs to be collected during drive tests so they can be evaluated against Exit Criteria. in the link budget) may be verified at the street level by adjusting the attenuation in the test van setup. Location Area (LA) Update Success Rate. however. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 50 of 89 . In-building coverage via external UMTS infrastructure shall not be tested as part of acceptance. any building penetration margins specified in the design (i. and Routing Area (RA) Update Success Rate. Relocation Preparation (for UMTS to GSM HO) and UMTS to GSM Handover Success Rate. Bin sizes shall be agreed upon with the customer. Call Quality: Uplink and Downlink Block Error Rate (BLER). For each one a target (Exit criteria) is set. The performance data should be collected within the design coverage area that is agreed upon by with the customer. For purposes of data collection and analysis the routes shall be divided into spatial subdivisions called geographic bins. During data collection test routes shall be driven or sampled at speeds agreed with the customer to be representative for subscriber behaviour. • • • This Chapter will address the general usage of Key Performance Metrics during RF optimization. Call Reliability: Total RAB Dropping Rate. Final acceptance drives are usually conducted on a per-cluster basis and on a per-system basis and are referred to as cluster exit drive and system exit drive respectively..e. Dropped RRC Connections Rate and Total Radio Access Bearer (RAB) Establishment Success Rate. Voice: • • • Data: • • Data Session Success Rate Data Session Drop Rate Drop Call Rate Call Success Rate (originations and terminations) Voice Quality 6.2.

Call Success Rate = Successful Originations + Termination Attempted Originations + Termination *100 For acceptance the origination success rate shall meet or exceed x%. As mentioned before. Total RAB Drop Rate = Failures) 100 * (NumRABDrop. They are applicable for both Packet Switched (PS) and Circuit Switched (CS) services.3.sum) (Total Number of RAB Attempts . Drop Call (CS Voice and PS Data) The drop call rate shall be the ratio of drop calls to the total number of calls that entered a connected state. the UMTS Performance Metrics are in detail described by the <UMTS RF Performance Analysis and Troubleshooting Guideline>. (Common value is 2%) Call Success Rate (CS Voice and PS Data) The all Success Rate for call originations and terminations are defined as follows.6. precise measurement procedures will be obtained from the ATP (Acceptance Test Plan). Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 51 of 89 . Key Performance Indicators This section presents examples of major KPIs for Voice and Data used during RF optimization.2.Total Number of RAB Establishment For acceptance the drop call rate shall be x% or less. (Common value is 95%) Voice Quality Refer to Chapter 5.

Regarding their tuning occurrence the RF parameters can be classified into three classes. General RF Optimization may require the adjustment of various RF parameters. These algorithms are not discussed in this document. e. it is important to prioritize the parameters depending on their ability to improve performance with minimal complexity and trade-offs. InterRAT. UMTS RF Parameters 7. Primary Parameters These parameters may require frequent adjustments.1. height and type) Pilot Channel Power Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 52 of 89 . Certain parameters need very infrequent adjustments to influence performance on a system wide basis. These include: • • • Neighbor Lists Antenna Parameter (antenna tilt. Therefore. capacity and call quality. Secondary and Fixed parameters. often from one cell site to another. azimuth. Cell Selection / Re-Selection. The individual operator may use additional parameters for RF Optimization. where UMTS algorithms are discussed in detail. The fixed parameters are not discussed here. for Handover. Some of parameters require frequent tuning depending on the local RF environment and thus have variable final values. The three classes are Primary. The primary and secondary parameters are generally specified by 3GPP (3GPP TS 25.331).7 7. Some of those have complex interactions with one another affecting the system in terms of coverage. Refer also to Lucent’s Translation and Application Notes. It is important to be familiar with the UMTS algorithms specified in 3GPP.g.

g. data throughput.Secondary Parameters The secondary parameters can be used for further fine-tuning. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 53 of 89 . Neighbor Lists The optimization of neighbor list is one of the primary measures during RF optimization. Neighbor lists are defined both for Inter and Intra System handovers. Changing those parameters can create complex interactions in key system performance such as coverage. Antenna configuration modifications should be considered before CPICH power parameter adjustments. pilot pollution or interference. 7. Antenna configuration changes include mainly adjustments on electrical tilt. and can vary from network to network or within a network. AICH. The general approach is to keep the neighbor relations to an optimum minimum value (<=15). P+SSCH.2. These parameters include: • • • • • Power Control parameters Load Control parameters Common Channel powers (e. These parameters should be adjusted only after consulting the subject matter experts. BCH) Access parameters which are not part of the secondary parameters Handover parameters that are not part of the secondary parameters 7. azimuth or antenna height might be considered. especially in specific problem areas and includes: • • • • Handover parameters (inter + intra InterRAT) Access parameters Cell Selection / Re-selection parameters HSDPA parameters Fixed Parameters The fixed parameters are not typically adjusted during the RF Optimization. capacity. The impact is not easily characterized or predictable.g.1. Antenna Parameter Antenna Parameter configuration can be adjusted for reasons such as coverage adjustments. etc.2. as well as guarantee an efficient mobility in the network (seamless service coverage). modification on mechanical tilt. Neighbor relations have a direct impact on system reliability. Primary Parameters 7.2. e.2. system engineering (SAE). If not sufficient. voice quality.

2.3.-alit le$el (Ec%No* a cell .in (d'.-. it constantly compares the signal strength of the current pilot with all other available pilots. The reselection can be within the same system and to another cell or carrier.ode/ Mini. Cell Selection +.-#t ha$e !or #election in idle . For example.-al. When the mobile finds another sector of sufficiently greater signal strength.* Mini. it continuously compares the strength of the current pilot with all other available pilots. Special network conditions might require special settings for these parameters.1. 7. 7.-ired . Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 54 of 89 .-ired 12 le$el (1SC3* a cell . in loose networks (rural) the requirements for cell selection / re-selection shall be low to allow mobiles network access that experience higher pathloss. Cell Selection / Re-Selection When the UE is switched on. On the other hand. When the mobile finds another sector with sufficiently greater signal strength.ode/ Cell Reselection When the UE is in idle mode. for example like GSM. especially ones that are definable per RNC and not per cell. it searches for a suitable cell.-.-#t ha$e !or #election in idle . Pilot Channel Power The pilot transmit power can be adjusted to cope with certain coverage overshoot problems and multiple pilot coverage regions (pilot pollution).3. For example.in (d'* +r0le$. Pilot transmit power adjustments should be considered where antenna parameter changes are not sufficient to eliminate a problem in a particular area. but it can also occur to the different underlay system. When the UE is in idle mode. it will perform a reselection. it will perform a reselection. The parameters given below are used to change the requirements for a mobile to perform cell selection or re-selection. In some cases.3. re. small changes in soft handover parameters can impact overall system capacity and channel element utilization.7. transmit powers can be adjusted to provide fill-in coverage for weak signal strength areas. Secondary Parameters The secondary RF Optimization parameters can have system wider performance impact and should be adjusted with caution. re. in dense networks (multiple pilots) mobiles shall meet high requirements for re-selection to avoid ping-pong effects and unnecessary signaling (interference).

ea#-re.eter 31>C6 con#tant .in (d'.-. The mobile selects the initial transmit power probe based on the received signal strength and some adjustment factors.a be tran#.e##age )art at a )o4er le$el too lo4 to be decoded correctl b the Node'/ 6igh $al-e# i.ble# . The purpose of the access parameters is to minimize the power transmitted while maximizing the access success rate and minimizing the access delay.e 4ill .al-e i# not -#ed i! the reco.-ired 3ilot 12 le$el in the cell in d'. re.ing .ended Ec%No .ore )o4er than i# nece##ar to be detected7 th-# increa#ing the -)lin9 inter!erence/ The )o4er-ra.ini. re.ble to be detected at a $er lo4 Eb%N07 th-# to #end the 1>C6 .-alit $al-e S.-enc :DD ./ Ti.al (d'* 3o4er 1a.ble7 .-ired 3ilot .ea#-re/ Thi# $al-e i# con#olidated/ 1eco.-al.ent +o!!#et1#7n (d'* +o!!#et"#7n (d'* +h #t1# (d'* +h #t"# (d'* +.303 v3.ent#/ De!ine# a thre#hold !or the .-al abo$e 4hich the UE #to) )er!or.ea#-re.al #ince lo4 $al-e# o! 31>C6 con#tant .ea#-re !or cell #election and re-#election i# #et to C35C6 1SC3/ Thi# #)eci!ie# the o!!#et bet4een the t4o cell# (6 #tere#i# $al-e )rioriti8ing the ran9ing o! the #er$ing cell*/ 5t i# -#ed !or :DD cell# in ca#e the .ea#-re.-al abo$e 4hich the UE #to) )er!or.al lead 1>C6 )rea.ended i# C35C6 Ec%No (0*7 #o +h #t" and +o!!#et" are -#ed/ Thi# #)eci!ie# the o!!#et bet4een the t4o cell# (6 #tere#i# $al-e )rioriti8ing the ran9ing o! the #er$ing cell*/ 5t i# -#ed !or TDD and GSM cell# and !or :DD cell# in ca#e the .ea#-re/ .ing intra!re.-alit . 3o4erO!!#et3).i8ing UA inter!erence and #)eed -) the #-cce##!-l UE acce## to the net4or9/ Please refer to 3GPP TS 25. ? 3.ini.ble# to be detected at $er lo4 Eb%N0/ Other4i#e 4ith too high $al-e#7 1>C6 3rea.-alit .0 “Interlayer Procedures in Connected Mode.-#t be ran9ed higher than the #er$ing cell be!ore thi# cell i# #elected/ > longer ti.* Tre#election# (ti.-alit .)ing !actor 3o4er 1a.ent# !or re#election to4ard# thi# 1>T t )e/ 7.x.itted 4ith .) Ste) The 3o4er o!!#et 3 )-.ea#-re/ Thi# $al-e #ho-ld be increa#ed i! )ing-)ong re#election# are e0)erienced/ Thi# #)eci!ie# the .ini.) Ste) <integer & 0=/ Trade-o!! bet4een .e $al-e <#ec= 4hich de!ine# ho4 long a neighbor cell .ea#-red in d' 5t# #etting ha# to be con#idered along 4ith #etting o! )ara.. The mobile subsequently ramps up the power on successive probe attempts for every unacknowledged probe.a ca-#e 1>C6 3rea.3.e##age @ control @ 3)rea.ing inter!re.)ro$e the 1>C6 #-cce## rate o! 1>C6 b-t al#o increa#e o! UA inter!erence/ Too lo4 $al-e# . Access Procedure The mobile goes into the network access stage when a call is originated.-.-alit $al-e S..-alit .e* #5'3SintraSearch #5'3SinterSearch #5'31>TSearch De!ine# 4hether C35C6 1SC3 (1* or C35C6 Ec%No (0* i# -#ed a# the cell re#election .-alit le$el in the cell in d'/ Thi# #)eci!ie# the .-alit .-alit . Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 55 of 89 .-al abo$e 4hich the UE #to) )er!or.a9e )ing-)ong re#election# -nli9el b-t al#o dela the re#election o! a ne4 #ector/ De!ine# a thre#hold !or the .2.in (d'* +r0le$.ent#/ De!ine# a thre#hold !or the .ea#-re !or cell #election and re-#election i# #et to C35C6 Ec%No/ 6 #tere#i# $al-e )rioriti8ing the ran9ing o! the #er$ing cell (d'* i! C35C6 1SC3 i# -#ed a# .Cell Select 1e#election Mea#-re.-enc :DD .-alit $al-e S. (d'* 31>C6 con#tant .ea#-re i# -#ed/ 6 #tere#i# $al-e )rioriti8ing the ran9ing o! the #er$ing cell (d'* i! C35C6 Ec%No i# -#ed a# .

-antit o! the ne4 candidate cell to enter the acti$e #et and one o!!#et i# added to the .)ortant in order to en#-re that no lin9 i# dro))ed !ro.-#t be con#idered along 4ith )ara. e.eter7 the le## re#tricti$e it i#/ The o)ti.a0i.ber o! acti$e #et cell#* and do4nlin9li.ent .eter 6 #tere#i#/ 5n ca#e o! !or e$ent 1> the gi$en $al-e decrea#e# the global h #tere#i# !actor !or e$ent 1> .eter .e##age to be #ent b the UE !or a de!ined )eriod o! ti.ea#-re.331 “RRC Protocol Specification”.-. the UE to the UT1>N/ Thi# )ara.ean# !or 4hich )eriod an hando$er e$ent i# !-l!illed be!ore #ending a . acti$e #et #i8e !or e$ent 1C to be re)orted/ Thi# )ara.-. )oint i# al#o di!!erent !or di!!erent data rate#/ The )ara.ean# that the ne4 candidate cell 4ill ha$e to be b the indi$id-al #etting better than the 4or#t )ilot incl-ded in the acti$e #et !or e$ent 1C to be triggered/ Thi# )ara.ited and do4nlin9 li.e To Trigger (d'* Cell 5ndi$id-al O!!#et Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 56 of 89 . for bridges or city highways Handover Measurement Reporting 1e)orting 5nter$al :ilter Coe!!icient 3eriodicit o! re)orting hando$er e$ent# (1>B1C* !ro.ea#-re.ent .a9ing the triggering condition le## re#tricti$e/ 5n ca#e o! e$ent 1' the gi$en $al-e increa#e# the global h #tere#i# !actor !or e$ent 1' . acti$e #et #i8e !or 4hich e$ent 1> can be re)orted/ The o)ti.ent .ea#-re.3.e d-ring 4hich the triggering condition# !or the related e$ent ha$e e0i#ted/ :or e$ent 1> and 1C it i# not reco.ance# are achie$ed 4ith higher n-.ended to dela the occ-rrence o! the e$ent7 4herea# !or e$ent 1' dela ing the occ-rrence i# i.i8ed $al-e #ho-ld con#i#t in a good trade-o!! bet4een -)lin9-li.ini.eter #ho-ld be al4a # #et to a $al-e greater than )ara.aller the $al-e o! thi# )ara.it the .ent# b the UE7 .ea#-re.ited #cenario# (4here better )er!or.eter #et the re)orting range !or a candidate )ilot to be able to trigger e$ent 1> and 1'/ The #.-antit o! the cell candidate to enter or lea$e the acti$e #et re#)ecti$el / 5n ca#e o! e$ent 1C one o!!#et i# added to the .ea#-re.g.eter a!!ect# the #)eed o! the hando$er )roced-re/ >$erage 4indo4 o! the e$ent .eter Deacti$ation Thre#hold in order to allo4 E$ent 1C to be re)orted The )ara.-antit o! the 4or#t cell incl-ded in the acti$e #et/ >cti$ation Thre#hold 1e)orting 1ange (d'* 6 #tere#i# (d'* Ti.ited #cenario#/ The $al-e o! thi# )ara.-.ea#-re. Soft/Softer Handover The tuning of Handover parameters has the following goals (Please refer to 3GPP UMTS TS 25.7.eter i# -#ed to li.ent re)ort to the UT1>N/ > narro4 4indo4 4ill #)eed -) the hando$er )roced-re7 b-t 4o-ld al#o ca-#e )ing-)ong e!!ect/ Handover Algorithm Deacti$ation Thre#hold The )ara.a9ing the triggering condition le## re#tricti$e/ 5n ca#e o! e$ent 1C thi# h #tere#i# )ara.eter i# the onl one that control# the range !or triggering condition and the gi$en $al-e .eter #et the .ent 1e)ort . Release ´99): • • • Ensure a smooth coverage area (ensure HO when required) Use the advantage of Handover gain (find best trade-off between handover gain and network capacity) Coordinate traffic distribution.3..ited #cenario# ($ice $er#a*/ The o)ti. the acti$e #et d-e to a #hort !ade in the recei$ed #ignal/ The o!!#et on a cell ba#i# can be either )o#iti$e or negati$e/ 5n ca#e o! e$ent# 1> or 1' the o!!#et i# added to the .eter #et the .ent #ignaling load a$oiding Mea#-re.i8ed $al-e #ho-ld con#i#t in a good trade-o!! bet4een -)lin9 li.

ent# criteria !or acti$ation o! co.-antit to be -#ed !or .aho' G#.ea#-re.-enc * !or triggering e$ent ": (act-al .-alit dro)# belo4 #)eci!ied thre#hold#*/ Thi# e$ent i# -#ed to #tart inter-1>T .ea#-re.-alit o! the o4n # #te.-alit o! the o4n # #te. changeable on the cell basis: . InterRAT Below is list of some typical Inter-RAT HO parameters.-enc * !or triggering inter-1>T M>6O in ca#e o! Ser$ice 6ando$er #et to D#ho-ld notE (act-al . UMTS to GSM 4ith !ollo4ing #-b-)ara.ber o! GSM neighbo-r cell# related to the acti$e #et 4hich #ho-ld be .4.ea#-re.eToTriggerC S)eci!ie# the ti.-alit o! GSM # #te.ode !or UMTS to GSM 6O 4ith !ollo4ing #-b-)ara. (M>6O* !or triggering the UMTS to GSM hando$er )roced-re/ The M>6O algorith. (UMTS # #te.Mea#-re.ent# criteria !or deacti$ation o! co.+>ctCM"D -.ine# the .ea#-re.-alit o! the o4n # #te.-alit ri#e# abo$e #)eci!ied thre#hold#*/ Thi# e$ent i# -#ed to #to) inter-1>T .eToTriggerC S)eci!ie# the ti.-enc / :ollo4ing o)tion# are t )icall a$ailableC a* 1SC3 b* Ec%No c* 1SC3 and Ec%No Thi# )ara. i# ba#ed on .eter#C a* rSC3Thre#holdeCN0Thre#holdC S)eci!ie# a $al-e !or the .ent# !or a UE that re.-ire# CM/ b* ti.eToTriggerC S)eci!ie# the ti.-.-#t be tr-e be!ore the UE #end# an e$ent triggered .ent+-antit 5nte r1>T66O .t#"G#.ent# re)ort to the UT1>N/ De!ine# the .-enc * !or triggering e$ent "D (act-al .-#t be tr-e be!ore the UE #end# an e$ent triggered . i# al4a # enabled/ De!ine# GSM .ea#-re.eter# (M>6O*C a* g#.ent# o! the GSM cell#/ T )icall 7 M>6O algorith.-alit i# abo$e #)eci!ied thre#hold* b* g#.ent# re)ort to the UT1>N/ c* FeightC S)eci!ie# 4eighting bet4een #tronge#t lin9 and re.ea#-re.+-alit Thre#holdC S)eci!ie# a $al-e !or the .*/ U.-#t be tr-e be!ore the UE #end# an e$ent triggered .ea#-re.ea#-re.obile a##i#ted hando$er algorith.:ilterCoe!!icientC lo4 )a## !ilter !or GSM . Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 57 of 89 .ea#-re. (UMTS !re. n-.ent# re)ort to the UT1>N/ De!ine# the . !or triggering e$ent 3> and 3C (act-al . UT1>N to GSM/ 5t deter.Neighbo-rAi#tSi8eC Ma0i.)-ting the .ent# !or a UE that re.ode !or UMTS to GSM 6O 4ith !ollo4ing #-b-)ara.ea#-re.eter#C a* rSC3Thre#holdeCN0Thre#holdC S)eci!ie# a $al-e !or the .ent# (3> B 3C* c* co.e nt# Thi# )ara.t#"G#.+TriggerM>6 O (refer to UMTS IRAT Optimization Guidelines).+DeactCM": -. (UMTS !re.6OMea# -.eter enable#%di#able# the .)re##ed .binedG#.-alit o! the o4n # #te.ent# o! the UMTS !re.eter i# -#ed !or 5nter-1>T hard hando$er !ro.7.3.ea#-re.t#"G#.ent# criteria to trigger UMTS to GSM 6O (M>6O* 4ith !ollo4ing #-b-)ara.e !or 4hich the triggering condition# .t#"G#.-ire# CM/ b* ti.ea#-re.e !or 4hich the triggering condition# .)re##ed .-alit dro)# belo4 #)eci!ied thre#hold#*/ b* ti. (UMTS !re.ea#-re.eter#C a* rSC3Thre#holdeCN0Thre#holdC S)eci!ie# a $al-e !or the .ea#-red b the UE De!ine# the .e !or 4hich the triggering condition# .ent# criteria !or inter-1>T 6O !ro.aining acti$e lin9# !or co.

e to trigger be!ore a e$ent 1D i# #ent/ 5ndicator 4hether a cell #)eci!ic o!!#et i# -#ed !or e$ent 1D e$al-ation/ Setting o! the cell #)eci!ic o!!#et/ Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 58 of 89 .7.3. HSDPA Below are listed some typical HSDPA parameters: hSD3>Sr$CellChgCri t/h #tere#i# hSD3>Sr$CellChgCri t/ti.eToTrigger hSD3>Sr$CellChgCri t/-#eC5O o-t:DD>dGCell#/cellO !!#et 6 #tere#i# $al-e !or triggering the change o! the be#t cell 4ithin the acti$e #et/ Ti.5.

is met: • Pathloss (RSCP based) < maximum allowed pathloss (e. in addition. in particular the limited traffic channel path loss (UL or DL) for a service type. some hints about access failures are provided.8 8. Near Far Problem and HSDPA are addressed in this Chapter. Radio Coverage Radio coverage is defined as an area where the Link Budget condition. Inter/Intra System Handover. therefore Ec/Io requirements should be stated only together with the target RSSI. the quality indicators for a coverage conditions. Poor RF coverage is typically characterized as: • • Coverage Hole or Outer Coverage Area – Area with insufficient pilot RSCP signal strength No Dominant Pilot Area – Area with sufficient pilot RSCP signal strength but no dominant Ec/Io pilot. target BLER and the channel model. Ec/Io values are used for cell selection/reselection.1. max DL power.g. 8. At the end. handover criteria and are. Usually the case when many equal pilots are measured that lower the signal-to-interference distance. RF Optimization Aspects The most common challenges of RF Optimization are Coverage. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 59 of 89 . Additional aspects for Cell Breathing. Pilot Pollution/Interference. There is no relation between the Ec/Io and the required Eb/No for DTCH (SIR). Ec/Io value is very fluctuating and should always be understood as the average value (~2 seconds). Around-the-Corner-Problem and Missing Neighbors. 145dB) The key parameters that define a UMTS service type considering the coverage and capacity issues are (refer to UMTS RF Engineering Guidelines): • • • • • Type of connection Bit rate Current traffic load Type of environment Eb/No requirement (SIR target) In conjunction with a pathloss the required Ec/Io is utilized for coverage verifications.

1. The focus for those areas is rather on defining a sharp UMTS coverage borders in order to ensure smooth Inter RAT Handover (IRAT HO) to the underlying network. Even in some cases the overshooting cell is the dominant cell and hence desired cell. 8. azimuth. e. type.1.g. the following aspects should be considered: • • • • • • Call failures due to missing neighbor relations (inter / intra RAT) Excessive neighbor lists (inter / intra RAT) Call failures due to scattered coverage (deep fading holes) Call failures due to pilot pollution Excessive handover amount (ping pong. Overshooting is usual given if the cell signal strength is present beyond the 1st tier of neighboring cells sites. azimuth. or height) must be considered. (Refer to Figure 22). If an overshooting cell is present. antenna tilts or channel power. mitigate HSDPA performance) Capacity issues Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 60 of 89 . Coverage Hole or Outer Coverage Area Coverage improvements for areas with insufficient RSCP signal strengths are less achieved by changing RF parameters.The UE receive power (RSSI) is not an accurate measure of a pathloss for spread spectrum technologies because it contains everything measured in the frequency band. low RSSI values (below –100dBm) are typically indicator of a weak or poor coverage area. The cell coverage is primarily evaluated by the pilot RSCP signal strength.1. UE may have strong received power due to the many overlapping sectors but no pilot who fulfils the above mentioned coverage conditions. overshooting coverage should be eliminated and exceptions should be seen only as temporary solution until modification on the RF design is undertaken. For the majority of poor coverage areas these modifications will be insufficient. Overshooting Sector Cell Coverage Sector cell coverage is overshooting if the desired cell service coverage is exceeded. Antenna configuration changes (re-location. type. Often are overshooting cells present due to unfavourable terrain conditions (hill / valley) or antenna mounting elevations.2. Nevertheless. or height) 8. Effective measure to improve coverage on a long-term approach is to modify the radio network design by: • • • • implementation of new sites implementation of repeaters or cell extenders for specific areas such as for example tunnels implementation of in-house solutions antenna configuration changes (re-location.

Figure 23 shows an example of an overshooting cell sector (upper 3dB mean must be considered). In the case below even an increased tilt of 4° might not be efficient since the upper 3dB antenna bean is still over horizon. Such tools such as the antenna bean visualization tool from Kathrein should be used only in conjunction with the prediction tool and real scanner measurement data. The antenna tilt must be careful chosen using preferable a prediction tool as well as requires an evaluation of the antenna pattern versus antenna height and cell distance.Overshooting Cell Coverage -eigh*or Cells Scattered Coverage Figure 22 – Around the Corner Problem Modification the electrical antenna tilt will be one of the primarily measures mitigating overshooting cell sectors. Figure 23 – Antenna Pattern Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 61 of 89 .

Ec/Io values aren’t. No Dominant Pilot Area No Dominant Pilot Area refers to the coverage areas with multiple weak Ec/Io pilots increasing the overall interference. Overshooting sectors should be eliminated mainly through antenna configuration changes (tilt. elevated highways. At the same time. This is usually done by antenna tilt / type changes and DL transmit power modifications. azimuth) and/or individual cell parameter modifications like transmit power. upper floors in buildings. Typically the term pilot pollution describes the existence of too many pilots in an area. Pilot Pollution Multiple pilot receptions in the same area increase the overall level of interference. Pilots not used by the terminals cause interference to the ongoing communication. The specified dB range margin is usually the relative pilot removal threshold for example 5 dB. Verify that remained present pilots are declared as neighbors. azimuth). The general rule is: Use the pilot in the active set to improve the communication and the overall system performance lowering the used power or eliminate the pilot causing interference. In practise many active set updates are observed with pilot swapping causing an increase of signalling towards the system. Still this approach requires caution because it may introduce not wanted problems in other areas where a particular modified sector provided coverage or now introduces interference. Pilot pollution is minimized by elimination of individual pilots from the polluted area through antenna modifications (tilt. which in the worst case may cause a call failures. which aren’t required to sustain the communication. leading to the call setup failures and drops. Pilot pollution is interference and results in a rapid BLER rise.8. Pilots that cannot be added to the active set cause interference because the active set is already full with other similar pilots. Common trouble spots are bridges. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 62 of 89 .3. continuous coverage through the soft handover must be ensured to take advantage of the soft handover gain.1. The goal is to increase the dominance of pilots that should cover the area and reduce coverage (interference) of unwanted pilots. The RSCP signal levels are still sufficient. The strategy is hereby to remove individual pilots in order to strengthen one pilot and hence gain an improved Ec/Io ratio. The optimization technique to identify potential pilot pollution areas is to analyse the number of pilots measured by the scanner within a specified dB range margin to the best measured pilot (RSCP of Ec/Io). The UE demands a lot more power from the system to mitigate the registered interference. Pilot pollution occurs when the following conditions take place: • • • • Number of present pilots is larger than the Active Set Size Present pilots have similar signal strengths Present pilots have poor Ec/Io ratios Polluted area shows usually good RSSI values Pilot pollution is typically found in urban areas with a dense cell site design. 8.2. street intersections and large bodies of water.

Another aspect for interference is the multipath reception. " Pilot Pollution Area Pilot pollution does not always cause call failures. Consequently. Each received pilot is accompanied by several strong multipaths. The area around the bridge has multiple pilot reception. If the pilot doesn’t have sufficient RSCP signal strength (extensive pathloss). Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 63 of 89 . the problem area is considered as a coverage hole. Nevertheless. each with two multipaths. RSSI also raised and aggregated Ec/Io ratio dropped. which are the typical symptoms for a pilot pollution. The RF optimization engineer needs to determine whether the Ec/Io ratio is poor due to the excessive pathloss or Pilot Pollution. Figure (. Problem areas with low Ec/Io ratios may be misinterpreted as a pilot pollution areas and lead to the unnecessary iterative drive testing and parameter changes in attempts to establish a dominant pilot. The existing Active Set size is three. The UE uses a rake receiver to exploit multipath reception. a six-finger rake receiver is fully occupied when receiving three pilots. Since the rake receiver has a limited number of fingers. the network should be investigated regarding potential trouble spots and pilot polluted areas should be mitigated. unused multipaths act as interference. The analysis should always concentrate on large observed problem area rather than small spots. up to five strong pilots are received. The UE is able to stand interference up to a certain degree (SIR target). During this drive test a drop call occurred on the bridge due to a BLER raise. The additional pilots and multipaths are interference. Figure 24 below shows an example of Pilot Pollution.

The optimization goal is similar to the strategy of the Near-Far problem. fast power control will be needed to quickly reduce cell site transmit power. This is usually observed beyond buildings (obstructions) at crossroads (Figure 25 and Figure 26). appears too fast. The power control mechanism should be inspected to ensure it is functioning properly. The interfering pilot has in many cases a lower pathloss than the pilots in the active set. – Around the Corner Pro*lem Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 64 of 89 . not part of the active set. Around-the-Corner Problem The Around-the-Corner Problem is a situation when suddenly significant high pilot power of a new cell. >cti$e Set 3ilot 5nter!ering 3ilot Figure (. When the UE goes into handover with the new cell site. The downlink signal quality degrades immediately until the handover is performed or the downlink power control reacts to compensate the interference. For known trouble spots such as an elevated highway or a street crossroads a solution is to modify the handover border of the involved sectors. The Around-the-Corner problem is a continual and unavoidable issue in dense urban areas. This can be achieved by changing the handover margin through the cell individual offset or in some case by reducing the cell coverage for one of the pilots to force the handover earlier respectively to reduce interference and therefore avoid the Around-the-Corner effect.8.3.

The optimization goal is to ensure that all power control algorithms are working properly. Therefore fast closed loop power control is needed to direct mobiles to power up/down very quickly. <5%).4. Power control parameters are tuned only when there are obvious power control failures. Figure (0 – -ear Far Pro*lem Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 65 of 89 . Near-Far Problem The Near-Far problem occurs when an UE transmits on high power near the cell site. An indication of power control failure is if NodeB or the UE is always transmitting on full power despite satisfying block error rates (e. The tuning of the power control parameters is usually not done in the field and adjusted by the system architecture engineers. A startup network with a low subscriber base should not be affected by this type of problem. thus creating excessive interference for an UE located far away from the cell site. (See Figure 27) The goal of the cell site is to receive all UE’s at equal signal strengths.Serving Cell Fast raising Around the Corner 9nterferer Figure (/ – Around the Corner Pro*lem 8.g.

Inversely. which means more power is transmitted by the network cells and users. Neighbour list are pre-optimized during the radio network design stage. The approach to mitigate the problem is to reduce the coverage of “hot” cells and distribute the users to other surrounding cells. Mature networks use performance metric systems to identify hot cells with high cell load. The practise shows that most of times missing neighbour relations are encountered across RNC borders. Scanner data can be used to automatically compute a neighbour list for an initial network rollout.8. .6. All measured pilots are usually averaged in a defined bin size (square) before computing the neighbour list. 8. which is dependent on the network loading. On the uplink an attenuator attached to the UE simulates the non variable load. These pilots are measured with an adequate receive level but cause interference because they cannot be added to the active set. The distribution of pilots is done by the number Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 66 of 89 . A non optimized neighbour list has a big impact to the quality and performance of connection. High interference lowers the quality of service at the initial cell coverage border and thus shrinks the effective coverage area. An increase of the network load is associated with an increase of the network interference. Cell Breathing An UMTS system has the characteristic of cell breathing. Missing Neighbors Missing Neighbors are pilots that are not defined in the neighbour list.5. The user specifies the percentile in the neighbour pilot distribution that before considering neighbour to the best measured pilot. low load leads to low network interference. It is important that all received UMTS sectors are either eliminated if not required to sustain the communication path or declared in the neighbor list. This may also trigger new additional sites to better distribute the generated traffic. which increases the effective cell coverage (see Figure 28)./4 +oadin# ell * ell B 5/4 +oadin# Figure 28 – Cell Breathing Radio optimisation is performed during the initial network rollout with the UMTS downlink feature “OCNS” (Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator) as used by Lucent Technologies to capture the cell breathing effects.

This approach will highlight as site effect overshooting sectors as well as non obvious neighbour relation in respect to the radio network design.8. Thresholds and timers are specified in the 3GPP 25. (refer also to UMTS IRAT Optimization Guidelines and UMTS Inter-System Handover UMTS-GSM DAHO Guideline). unnecessary handovers due non-contiguous UMTS coverage or pilot pollution lead to excessive handover activity. Also. 8. 8. The implementation of the intra system handover follows specification of the standard. Root case analysis of experience drive test failures will provide information on missing neighbour relations. The UTRAN implementation of the algorithms to decide on a particular measurement report event is vendor dependent and not scope of this multi-vendor document.311. Quick intra system handovers are required for rapid changes in pathloss between the UE and the sector due to fading.of times a relation is computed using also the distance information from the radio network design. The standard currently defines the IRAT handover from UMTS to GSM. The performance of intra-system handovers is influenced by: • • • • Parameters for reporting ranges Time-to-trigger parameters Vendor implementation of intra-system handovers Current load situation in serving RNC The goal is to optimize the intra system handover performance by careful selection of thresholds and timers to balance the quality targets and resource availability. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 67 of 89 . Another possibility to optimise neighbour lists is to use the performance management counters (handover matrix) when network traffic is present. require additional signalling resources. too aggressive settings may cause unstable situations where the system could get blocked by adding and removing pilots to the active set in an oscillating manner. OVSF codes) degrade call quality and reduce the throughput of data calls. In all cases extensive drive test is required. Neighbours can also be optimised during the initial optimization phase by evaluating the detected set information from the UE terminal. and increase downlink interference. Conversely. transmission links to RNC. Thus the general behaviour is straight forward and covered by the standard documentation. Time delays due to resource allocation (channel units. Intra System Handover Unnecessary delays in intra system handovers (soft/softer handovers) may cause uplink/downlink interference. Misbehaviour of the algorithm in respect to the specification requires the support of the customer and needs to be addressed to the vendor. Inter RAT Handover The Inter Radio Access Technologies handover (Inter RAT or IRAT) covers the transfer of a connection from a UTRAN system to another system technology.7.

This time also impacts the uplink performance due to architectural limitations in the mobile station. The practice shows that reliable IRAT handover is achieved through the RSCP threshold criteria.311). The disadvantage of compressed mode operation is that it reduces the performance of the radio interface in both uplink and downlink. The performance of the IRAT handover depends mainly on the design of the IRAT neighbors. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 68 of 89 . Because of architectural limitations within most UEs. For MAHO the optimization focus is the compressed mode to avoid unnecessary UE time spent in this mode. The UTRAN takes into account the UE capability information when commanding "Compressed mode operation".The transition from UMTS to another technology should usually occur at the UMTS coverage boarder. The reason behind an inter-system database assisted handover is to avoid inter-RAT measurements to be performed by the UE in compressed mode. For these types of UEs the network is required to leave periods of time (in both the downlink and uplink direction) for which the UTRAN will not send downlink frames or receive uplink frames from the UE. azimuth) and/or parameter settings. Database assisted handover (DAHO) is a terminology given to a handover where the decision for executing the handover procedure is based solely on precise knowledge of the network topology. hard handover scenarios like UMTS to GSM handover. The event triggered reporting mechanism is used for inter RAT measurements in order to limit the performance impact on the UE and the network. The UE sends the measurement report to the network only. The algorithm can be activated alternatively or simultaneously in a cell. Mobile-assisted handover (MAHO) takes into account the received signal strength of the GSM neighbor cells at the current location of the UE. This can be realized through antenna configuration changes (tilt. The optimization tasks cover: • • • Definition of sharp transition borders to avoid unnecessary handovers Underlying system should provide continuous stable coverage Idle mode parameters should be considered and harmonized to avoid ping-pong effects The Inter RAT handover can be executed as database-assisted handover algorithm (DAHO) or as mobile-assisted handover algorithm (MAHO). the received pilot RSCP. and the measured pilot Ec/Io (see 3GPP 25. In general a handover to the other RAT system should follow after the compressed mode trigger. The use of compressed mode should be limited as it has negative impact on the interference situation. require the network to help the UE to perform inter RAT measurements. The amount of capacity degradation depends on the amount of time given to the mobile on the downlink to search and measure the other frequencies. The optimization of the IRAT handover may require the modification of the UMTS coverage to achieve sharp boarder and reliable radio conditions. if certain signal quality conditions of the current UMTS cell(s) and GSM neighbor cell(s) are fulfilled. The compressed mode trigger depends on the vendors implementation and can be for examples triggered by the UE transmit power. These periods are used by the UE to perform measurements on the potential target frequencies for subsequent reporting to the UTRAN. These architectural limitations restrict the UEs ability to receive signals from two transmitters at the same time. The UTRAN requests inter RAT measurements from the UE before any handover decision is made.

The cell change procedure does not support soft/softer handover for the downlink HS-DSCH. azimuth) to avoid unnecessary handovers Remove existing “overshooters” which create interference and possible instable radio conditions Minimize pilot pollution areas Cell change should be performed not too late. The user plane data interruption is caused by the transfer of the MAC-hs–scheduler to the new Node B. which makes KPIs comparable throughout the measurement campaigns Definition of a methodology to correlate test results with relevant network performance counters Monitoring capabilities on the interfaces to collect the relevant traces on UTRAN and Core Network. A possible change is signaled by the UE through the event 1d in the measurement report. and HS-DSCH data interruption time during cell change.9. Streaming. The End-to-End optimization strategy for HSDPA applies following considerations: • • • • Plan drive/indoor/walk testing activities to cover HSDPA cells and collect HSDPA relevant data. HS-SCCH (downlink). On the other hand cell change should not be performed too early to Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 69 of 89 . A handover of a HSDPA connection can be seen as a hard handover where the HS-DSCH is transferred from the source cell to the target cell with interruption of the data transfer. HS-DSCH cell change success rate. The HSDPA performance depend in general from radio channel coverage condition. The network initiates the cell change by the transport channel reconfiguration. The “hard” handover constrains on the HS-DSCH require the following radio optimization aspects to be considered to maximize HSDPA performances (throughput) and avoid degradation. and available downlink resources. traffic type (VoIP.…). user classes (different subscription levels). HSDPA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is a major feature of the 3GPP Release 5 providing enhancements to the downlink transmission capacity (higher end-user data throughput). and HS-DPCCH (uplink) require be traced and analyzed. when the UE has already moved into the area of the new best cell to avoid radio link quality as well as throughput degradation.8. 1B. HTTP. HSDPA related metrics are round trip time (RTT). New physical channels such as HS-PDSCH (downlink). The UE uses soft handover for the uplink. throughput per user. 1C). Define all Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) according to a precise methodology. including eventual drops: • • • • • optimize soft/softer handover boundaries to avoid excessive sector coverage overlap create clear dominant pilot coverage through antenna configuration tuning (tilt. the downlink dedicated control channels and any simultaneous R99 CS voice or data connection using the existing procedures and triggers for the active set update (events 1A. The throughput degrades as all data buffered in source Node B is transferred to the target Node B.

can occur due to the RF specific issues and are therefore aspect of the radio optimization. pilot pollution.10. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 70 of 89 . The evaluation of triggering condition includes the hysteresis. Access failures on RACH can occur due to the missing neighbors. such as for the RACH and cell reselection procedure (intra and idle IRAT).g.g. apart from the eventual Network problems.avoid ping-pong effects by switching back to the previous best cell if the radio conditions vary. autonomous cell reselection. • Local optimization is initially done through the tuning of the parameters hysteresis and time-to-trigger (e. The UE is not available during the cell reselection procedure until it has completed the registration in the other RAT system. parameter settings modification in both UTRAN and target technology should be considered (GSM: for example FDDQMin. cell individual offset. it is important to mention access failures which. Network access parameters. round-the-corner effect). FDDQOffset). time-to-trigger is the elapsed time with fulfilled trigger condition before the UE sends an event triggered measurement report to the UTRAN. In case of idle IRAT cell reselection. Also in idle it is important that the neighborhood is well defined for the serving camped cell. 8. marginal coverage. similar to IRAT HO. In special cases use the cell individual offset to fine tune the trigger condition (e. cell individual offset is added to the measurement for the cell before the UE decides whether the event has occurs • More End-to-End optimization aspects involves other network elements and relate for example to the cell change interruption time with large handover transmission gap causing RLC retransmission and as a consequence results in a larger gap in UE application layer. should be considered in order to improve call setup success rate (CSSR) performance. Access Failures In additions to the previous topics. and measurement results for serving and target cell. and other aspects. in dense urban environment). The radio parameters that affect the cell change are: • • hysteresis is the value for triggering the change of the best cell within the active set.

Air Interface User Rate : The user rate between Mobile Termination and IWF.140).9 9. For NT services it is the maximum possible AIUR. C Call: a logical association between several users (this could be connection oriented or connection less). Application protocol: The set of procedures required by the application. Application: an application is a service enabler deployed by service providers. Cell: Radio network object that can be uniquely identified by a User Equipment from a (cell) identification that is broadcasted over a geographical area from one UTRAN Access Point. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 71 of 89 . For T services it is the maximum possible AIUR not including padding. Definitions of Terms A Access delay: The value of elapsed time between an access request and a successful access (source: ITU-T X. manufacturers or users. Bearer service: A type of telecommunication service that provides the capability of transmission of signals between access points. Active Set: Set of radio links simultaneously involved in a specific communication service between an UE and a UTRAN access point. etc. B Bearer: A information transmission path of defined capacity. delay and bit error rate. Individual applications will often be enablers for a wide range of services.

An RNS that supports the Serving RNS with radio resources when the connection between the UTRAN and the User Equipment need to use cell(s) controlled by this RNS is referred to as Drift RNS. Connectionless bearer services lifetime is reduced to the transport of one message. the direction from Network to UE.g. the source and destination network addresses need to be specified in each message. Connection oriented bearer services lifetime is the period of time between the establishment and the release of the connection. Core network: An architectural term relating to the part of 3GPP System which is independent of the connection technology of the terminal (eg radio. server etc. Control channel: A logical channel that carries system control information. no connection is established beforehand between the source and the destination entities. Connection mode: The type of association between two points as required by the bearer service for the transfer of information. D Delivered QoS : Actual QoS parameter values with which the content was delivered over the lifetime of a QoS session. In a connection oriented mode. Transferred information cannot be guaranteed of ordered delivery.). Controlling RNC: A role an RNC can take with respect to a specific set of UTRAN access points. A cell site consists usually of three sectors. In a connectionless mode. Connection: A communication channel between two or more end-points (e. Within the UMTS RF Engineering the term Cell Site is rather used to specify unmistakable the site property with its cell UMTS equipment (NodeB). The Controlling RNC has the overall control of the logical resources of its UTRAN access point's. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 72 of 89 . Connected Mode: Connected mode is the state of User Equipment switched on and an RRC connection established. a logical association called connection needs to be established between the source and the destination entities before information can be exchanged between them. Common Channel: A Channel not dedicated to a specific UE. Drift RNS: The role an RNS can take with respect to a specific connection between a UE and UTRAN. Coverage area: Area over which a 3GPP System service is provided with the service probability above a certain threshold. Downlink: Unidirectional radio link for the transmission of signals from a UTRAN access point to a UE. A bearer service is either connection-oriented or connectionless.Cell Site: Cell Site refers actually to the cell as previous explained. Current serving cell: This is the cell on which the MS is camped. terminal. There is only one Controlling RNC for any UTRAN access point. In general. wired).

while maintaining a defined bearer service QoS. messaging services and retrieval services (source: ITU-T I. Handover: The process in which the radio access network changes the radio transmitters or radio access mode or radio system used to provide the bearer services. Iur: A logical interface between two RNC. H Handoff Gain/Loss (dB) : This is the gain/loss factor (+ or -) brought by handoff to maintain specified reliability at the cell boundary. Hard Handover: Hard handover is a category of handover procedures where all the old radio links in the UE are abandoned before the new radio links are established. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 73 of 89 . Handover: The transfer of a user’s connection from one radio channel to another (can be the same or different cell). Information Data Rate : Rate of the user information.113). An intra cell handover does not require network connections to be altered. which must be transmitted over the Air Interface. Fraud Detection and Prevention Systems.E Enterprise Systems: Information Systems that are used in the telecommunication organization but are not directly or essentially related to the telecommunications aspects (Call Centre's. Intra cell handover : A handover within one sector or between different sectors of the same cell. Iub: Interface between an RNC and a Node B. Whilst logically representing a point to point link between RNC. Interactive services are divided into three classes of services: conversational services. Interactive service: A service which provides the means for bi-directional exchange of information between users. Iu: Interconnection point between an RNC or a BSC and a 3G Core Network. An inter cell handover requires network connections to be altered. Invoicing etc). the physical realization may not be a point to point link. It is also considered as a reference point. output rate of the voice codec. Inter cell handover : A handover between different cells. For example. I Idle mode: The state of UE switched on but which does not have any established RRC connection.

Logical Channels are provided on top of the MAC layer. Logical O&M: Logical O&M is the signaling associated with the control of logical resources (channels.g. N Negotiated QoS: In response to a QoS request. maintain and release the various physical channels. The average (mean) bit rate available to the user for the given period of time (source: ITU-T I. For TDD BS this refers to the measure of power when averaged over the transmit timeslot at the maximum power setting (TS 25. After QoS negotiation.L Logical Channel: A logical channel is an information stream dedicated to the transfer of a specific type of information over the radio interface. the network shall negotiate each QoS attribute to a level that is in accordance with the available network resources. this is a measure of the maximum power supported by the UE (i. The RNC controls these logical resources. Medium Access Control : A sub-layer of radio interface layer 2 providing unacknowledged data transfer service on logical channels and access to transport channels. M Maximum output Power: For UE. e. Mobile evaluated handover : Mobile evaluated handover (MEHO) is a type of handover triggered by an evaluation made in the mobile.) owned by the RNC but physically implemented in the Node B.101). Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 74 of 89 . cells.105). For FDD BS.104). Mean bit rate : A measure of throughput. The mobile evaluates the necessity of handover based on the measured radio environment and based on criteria defined by the network. the mean power level per carrier of the cell site measured at the antenna connector in a specified reference condition (TS 25. Maximum Transmitter Power per Traffic Channel (dBm): The maximum power at the transmitter output for a single traffic channel. All messages needed to support this information exchange are classified as Logical O&M forming an integral part of NBAP.e. When the evaluation meets the hand-off criteria the necessary information is sent from the mobile to the network. the bearer network shall always attempt to provide adequate resources to support all of the negotiated QoS profiles. A number of O&M procedures physically implemented in Node B impact on the logical resources and therefore require an information exchange between RNC and Node B. Mobility: The ability for the user to communicate whilst moving independent of location.210). uplink radio environment and/or availability of network resources. Mobility Management: A relation between the mobile station and the UTRAN that is used to set-up. the actual power as would be measured assuming no measurement error) (TS 25. the network may then execute the handover. The network then decides on the necessity of the handover based on the reported evaluation result and other conditions.

Multiple QoS sessions may exist. Terminates the Iub interface towards the RNC. each with a different QoS profile.Network connection: An association established by a network layer between two users for the transfer of data.25. The period between the opening and closing of a network connection whose characteristics are defined by a QoS profile. The QoS profile defines the performance expectations placed on the bearer network. Packet transfer mode : Also known as packet mode. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 75 of 89 .. Q QoS profile: a QoS profile comprises a number of QoS parameters. e. relative phase (I/Q). Node B: A logical node responsible for radio transmission / reception in one or more cells to/from the User Equipment. which denotes that the communication involves only two network terminations. Performance : The ability to track service and resource usage levels and to provide feedback on the responsiveness and reliability of the network. a physical channel is defined by code. Point-to-point: A value of the service attribute "communication configuration". a physical channel is defined by code. frequency. in the uplink.g.g. Physical Channel: In FDD mode. QoS session: Lifetime of PDP context.113). A transfer mode in which the transmission and switching functions are achieved by packet oriented techniques. Protocol: A formal set of procedures that are adopted to ensure communication between two or more functions within the within the same layer of a hierarchy of functions (source: ITU-T I. or X. and time-slot. which provides explicit identification of a set of network data transmissions and agreement concerning the services to be provided by the set (source: ITU-T X.213 / ISO-IEC 8348).112). frequency and. O Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator a mechanism used to simulate the users or control signals on the other orthogonal channels of a downlink P Packet data protocol (PDP): Any protocol which transmits data as discrete units known as packets. Network Element: A discrete telecommunications entity which can be managed over a specific interface e. the RNC. so as to dynamically share network transmission and switching resources between a multiplicity of connections (source: ITU-T I. IP. In TDD mode. A QoS profile is associated with each QoS session.

Radio interface: The "radio interface" is the tetherless interface between User Equipment and a UTRAN access point. Radio link: A "radio link" is a logical association between single User Equipment and a single UTRAN access point. Service integrity performance and Other factors specific to each service. unacknowledged and acknowledged data transfer service.Quality of Service: The collective effect of service performances which determine the degree of satisfaction of a user of a service. A radio frame is divided into 15 time slots of 0. such as. Radio Network Subsystem Application Part : Radio Network Signaling over the Iur. Radio link removal : The procedure where a radio link is removed from the active set. Radio Access Mode: Mode of the cell. R Radio access bearer : The service that the access stratum provides to the non-access stratum for transfer of user data between User Equipment and CN.666 ms duration. • • • • • Service operability performance. FDD or TDD. This term encompasses all the functionality required to maintain such interfaces. It is characterized by the combined aspects of performance factors applicable to all services. Radio Access Network Application Part : Radio Network Signaling over the Iu. Radio Link Control: A sublayer of radio interface layer 2 providing transparent. The unit of data that is mapped to a radio frame (10 ms time interval) may also be referred to as radio frame. Radio link addition: The procedure where a new radio link is added to the active set. Radio Link Set: A set of one or more Radio Links that has a common generation of Transmit Power Control (TPC) commands in the DL Radio Network Controller : This equipment in the RNS is in charge of controlling the use and the integrity of the radio resources. Service retainability performance. Its physical realization comprises one or more radio bearer transmissions. Radio Bearer: The service provided by the Layer 2 for transfer of user data between User Equipment and UTRAN. Radio frame : A radio frame is a numbered time interval of 10 ms duration used for data transmission on the radio physical channel. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 76 of 89 . Service accessibility performance.

the average power of the received signal after despreading and combining. Service Area: The Service Area is defined in the same way as the Service Area according to ITU-T Recommendation Q. respectively. functionality offered to a user. Receiver Noise Figure (dB): Receiver noise figure is the noise figure of the receiving system referenced to the receiver input. The Service Area can therefore change when the signaling system is being extended. There is one Serving RNS for each UE that has a connection to UTRAN. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 77 of 89 . Sector: A "sector" is a sub area of a cell. Service: a component of the portfolio of choices offered by service providers to a user. Service bit rate: The bit rate that is available to a user for the transfer of user information (source: ITU-T I. The Serving RNS terminates Iu for this connection. Serving RNS: A role an RNS can take with respect to a specific connection between an UE and UTRAN. Required Eb/(No+Io) (dB): The ratio between the received energy per information bit to the total effective noise and interference power density needed to satisfy the quality objectives. All sectors within one cell are served by the same cell site. Receiver Antenna Gain (dBi): The maximum gain of the receiver antenna in the horizontal plane (specified as dB relative to an isotropic radiator).Radio Network Subsystem : Either a full network or only the access part of a UTRAN offering the allocation and the release of specific radio resources to establish means of connection in between an UE and the UTRAN. A Radio Network Subsystem is responsible for the resources and transmission/reception in a set of cells. An UE has either zero or one RRC connection.113). S Seamless handover : "Seamless handover" is a handover without perceptible interruption of the radio connection. QoS modification requests are also possible during the lifetime of a QoS session.1001 [4]. RRC Connection: A point-to-point bi-directional connection between RRC peer entities on the UE and the UTRAN sides. A radio link within a sector can be identified by a single logical identification belonging to that sector. Received Signal Code Power : Given only signal power is received. Requested QoS : a QoS profile is requested at the beginning of a QoS session. Receiver Sensitivity (dBm): This is the signal level needed at the receiver input that just satisfies the required Eb/(No+Io). Instead it is based on the area in which a fixed network user can call a mobile user without knowing his location. The Serving RNS is in charge of the RRC connection between a UE and the UTRAN. for example. In contrast to the PLMN area it is not based on the coverage of a PLMN.

T Terminal: A device into which a UICC can be inserted and which is capable of providing access to 3GPP System services to users. Transmitter Antenna Gain (dBi): The maximum gain of the transmitter antenna in the horizontal plane (specified as dB relative to an isotropic radiator. Suitable Cell: This is a cell on which an UE may camp.Shared Channel: A radio resource (transport channel or physical channel) that can be shared dynamically between several UEs. either alone or in conjunction with a UICC.104). Total power dynamic range: The difference between the maximum and the minimum total transmit output power for a specified reference condition (TS25. (U)SIM code group: Combination of the (U)SIM code and the associated network subset and network codes (it is equivalent to the IMSI). (U)SIM personalization: Enables a user to personalize a ME so that it may only be used with particular (U)SIM(s). An equivalent term for Transport Block is “MAC PDU”. Transport Block: Transport Block is defined as the basic data unit exchanged between L1 and MAC. whether using dedicated or common physical channels.g. e. Transport channel: The channels offered by the physical layer to Layer 2 for data transport between peer L1 entities are denoted as Transport Channels. The number of data bits successfully transferred in one direction between specified reference points per unit time (source: ITU-T I. It must satisfy certain conditions. Different types of transport channels are defined by how and with which characteristics data is transferred on the physical layer. Throughput: A parameter describing service speed. Soft Handover: Soft handover is a category of handover procedures where the radio links are added and abandoned in such manner that the UE always keeps at least one radio link to the UTRAN.113). Traffic channel: A "traffic channel" is a logical channel which carries user information. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 78 of 89 .

Uu: The Radio interface between UTRAN and the User Equipment.112). Uplink: An "uplink" is a unidirectional radio link for the transmission of signals from a UE to a cell site. Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 79 of 89 . The characteristic of UE Service Capabilities is that their logical function can be defined in a way that is independent of the implementation of the 3GPP System (although all UE Service Capabilities are of course constrained by the implementation of the 3GPP System). from a Mobile Station to a mobile cell site or from a mobile cell site to a cell site. which the application is able to register on with the appropriate security.U UE Service Capabilities : Capabilities that can be used either singly or in combination to deliver services to the user. User: An entity. Example: a person using a 3GPP System mobile station as a portable telephone. Examples: a data bearer of 144 kbps. an IP teleservice. User-network interface: The interface between the terminal equipment and a network termination at which interface the access protocols apply (source: ITU-T I. which uses 3GPP System services. a high quality speech teleservice. their status and reference to service preferences. User Services Profile : Contains identification of subscriber services. not part of the 3GPP System. a capability to forward a speech call. Universal Subscriber Identity Module (USIM): An application residing on the UICC used for accessing services provided by mobile networks.

c I or The ratio o! the recei$ed energ )er 3N chi) o! the C35C6 to the total tran#..it# energ )er 3N chi) !or the OCNS to the total tran#.c Ior The ratio o! the a$erage tran#.ea#-red at the UE antenna connector/ >$erage energ )er 3N chi) !or the OCNS/ Io O1#) _ .it )o4er #)ectral den#it / P − 1PI12 ? .it )o4er #)ectral den#it / The total recei$ed )o4er #)ectral den#it 7 incl-ding #ignal and inter!erence7 a# .Definitions Equations Following RF relevant formulas are given.c >$erageH energ )er 3N chi) !or 3-C35C6/ Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 80 of 89 . as specified by 3GPP: 1PI12 .it energ )er 3N chi) !or di!!erent !ield# or )h #ical channel# to the total tran#.10 10. c I or .c .c O1#) _ .it# )o4er #)ectral den#it at the Node' (SS* antenna connector/ >$erage energ )er 3N chi)/ The ratio# o! the a$erage tran#.

ent )eriod a# the ratio bet4een the n-.a))ed on a 3-CC3C6 and a S-CC3C6/ The UE #hall be able to )er!or.UTRAN measurement abilities CPICH RSCP De"inition 1ecei$ed Signal Code 3o4er7 the recei$ed )o4er on one code .at #et incl-de at lea#t one tran#)ort bloc9/ The .ent #hall be the antenna connector o! the UE/ 5dle7 Connected 5ntra7 Connected 5nter CPICH Ec/No De"inition The recei$ed energ )er chi) di$ided b the )o4er den#it in the band/ The C35C6 Ec%No i# identical to C35C6 1SC3%UT1> Carrier 1SS5/ Mea#-re.bination/ The 'AE1 #hall be co. each antenna #hall be #e)aratel .ea#-re.ation o! the tran#)ort channel bloc9 error rate ('AE1*/ The 'AE1 e#ti..)-ted o$er the .ar C35C6 the recei$ed energ )er chi) (Ec* !ro.ent DTran#)ort channel 'AE1E can be re.at# in the a##ociated tran#)ort !or.ea#-red and #-.ea#-re.al noi#e and noi#e generated in the recei$er7 4ithin the band4idth de!ined b the recei$er )-l#e #ha)ing !ilter/ The re!erence )oint !or the .-e#ted !or a tran#)ort channel 4hen the a##ociated C1C #i8e i# non 8ero and all tran#)ort !or.ea#-re.ar C35C6/ The re!erence )oint !or the 1SC3 #hall be the antenna connector o! the UE/ 5! T0 di$er#it i# a))lied on the 3ri.ent DTran#)ort channel 'AE1E .a onl be re.ent DTran#)ort channel 'AE1E doe# not a))l to tran#)ort channel# .ent DTran#)ort channel 'AE1E on an tran#)ort channel con!ig-red #-ch that the . the .ea#-red and #-.ber o! recei$ed tran#)ort bloc9# re#-lting in a C1C error and the n-.ent #hall be )er!or.ar C35C6/ The re!erence )oint !or the C35C6 Ec%No #hall be the antenna connector o! the UE/ 5! T0 di$er#it i# a))lied on the 3ri..ation #hall be ba#ed on e$al-ating the C1C o! each tran#)ort bloc9 a##ociated 4ith the .ea#-re.-e#ted a# de!ined in thi# #ection/ Connected 5ntra *pplica%le "or Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 81 of 89 .ea#-re.ed on the 3ri.ent DTran#)ort channel 'AE1E .ar C35C67 be!ore calc-lating the Ec%No/ 5dle7 Connected 5ntra7 Connected 5nter *pplica%le "or Transport channel BLER De"inition E#ti.ea#-red on the 3ri.ed together in <F#= to a total recei$ed chi) energ )er chi) on the 3ri.ea#-red tran#)ort channel a!ter 1A co.ed together in <F= to a total recei$ed code )o4er on the 3ri.-e#ted !or a tran#)ort channel 4hen the a##ociated C1C #i8e i# non 8ero and at lea#t one tran#)ort !or.ar C35C6 the recei$ed code )o4er !ro.ar C35C6/ 5dle7 Connected 5ntra7 Connected 5nter *pplica%le "or UTRA carrier RSSI De"inition *pplica%le "or The recei$ed 4ide band )o4er7 incl-ding ther.at in the a##ociated tran#)ort !or.ea#-re.a onl be re. each antenna #hall be #e)aratel .ber o! recei$ed tran#)ort bloc9#/ Fhen either T:C5 or g-ided detection i# -#ed7 the .ea#-re.at #et incl-de# at lea#t one tran#)ort bloc9/ Fhen neither T:C5 nor g-ided detection i# -#ed7 the .

)re##ed .ent #hall be the T0 antenna connector/ 5n ca#e o! T0 di$er#it the tran#.bling code on one gi$en carrier/ Mea#-re.ent #hall be )er!or.ent7 e/g/ al#o the #lot# in the tran#.ent #hall be )o##ible on the D3CC6-!ield o! an dedicated radio lin9 tran#.-.-.ea#-re. tran#.itted carrier )o4er !or each branch #hall be .ent o! the recei$ed )o4er on one code/ 5SC3 ? 5nter!erence Signal Code 3o4er7 the inter!erence on the recei$ed #ignal/ S:?The #)reading !actor -#ed on the D3CC6/ SIRerror De"inition S51error ? S51 @ S51targetIa$e7 4hereC S51 ? the S51 .itted )o4er on one channeli#ation code on one gi$en #cra.ea#-re. one UT1>N acce## )oint 4hen tran#.ent #hall be the T0 antenna connector/ 5n ca#e o! T0 di$er#it the tran#.itted code )o4er .-.ea#-red b UT1>N7 de!ined in #ection J/"7 gi$en in d'/ S51targetIa$e ? the S51target a$eraged o$er the #a.i##ion ga)/ The re!erence )oint !or the S51 .ed together in <F=/ Transport channel BER De"inition The tran#)ort channel 'E1 i# an e#ti.i##ion )o4er i# the .ea#-re.itted code )o4er in co.ade in a linear #cale and S51targetIa$e #hall be gi$en in d'/ Transmitted carrier power De"inition Tran#.ea#-red !ro.ean )o4er <F= on one carrier !ro.ean )o4er <F= on one carrier !ro.a0i.ation o! the a$erage bit error rate ('E1* o! the D3DC6 data o! a 1adio Ain9 Set/ The tran#)ort channel (TrC6* 'E1 i# ..i##ion )o4er i# the .-.a0i.ode the S51 #hall not be . the data con#idering onl non-)-nct-red bit# at the in)-t o! the channel decoder in Node '/ 5t #hall be )o##ible to re)ort an e#ti.i##ion )o4er/ Total tran#.ea#-re.e )eriod a# the S51 -#ed in the S51error calc-lation/ 5n co.)re##ed .ode S51 target?S51c.ode the S51targetIa$e #hall not be calc-lated o$er the tran#.ea#-red and #-.itted )o4er and the .ea#-red and the .i##ion ga) #hall be incl-ded in the .)re##ed .ate o! the 'E1 d-ring the late#t TT5 !or that TrC6/ Tran#)ort channel 'E1 i# onl re.itted code )o4er !or each branch #hall be .a0i.i##ion ga)/ The a$eraging o! S51 target #hall be .itted carrier )o4er7 i# the ratio bet4een the total tran#. one UT1>N acce## )oint/ Ma0i.ent/ The re!erence )oint !or the tran#.ent #hall be )o##ible on an carrier tran#.SIR De"inition Signal to 5nter!erence 1atio7 i# de!ined a#C (1SC3%5SC3* ×S:/ Mea#-re. the UT1>N acce## )oint and #hall re!lect the )o4er on the )ilot bit# o! the D3CC6-!ield/ Fhen . o! the t4o $al-e# #hall be re)orted to higher la er#7 i/e/ onl one $al-e 4ill be re)orted to higher la er#/ Transmitted code power De"inition Tran#. the UT1>N acce## )oint/ The re!erence )oint !or the tran#.ea#-ring the tran#.ea#-re.ode all #lot# #hall be incl-ded in the .ate o! the tran#)ort channel 'E1 !or a TrC6 a!ter the end o! each TT5 o! the TrC6/ The re)orted TrC6 'E1 #hall be an e#ti. tran#.ed on the D3CC6 o! a 1adio Ain9 Set/ 5n co.itted carrier )o4er .itted code )o4er7 i# the tran#.itting at the con!ig-red .ent# #hall be the 10 antenna connector/ 4hereC 1SC3 ? 1ecei$ed Signal Code 3o4er7 -nbia#ed .itted !ro.)re##ed .ea#-re.itted !ro.e ti. )o4er !or the cell/ Mea#-re.-ired to be re)orted !or TrC6# that are channel coded/ Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 82 of 89 .ea#-red in the tran#.Itarget #hall be -#ed 4hen calc-lating S51targetIa$e/ 5n co.

ation o! the a$erage bit error rate ('E1* on the D3CC6 o! a 1adio Ain9 Set/ >n e#ti.e to a UE/ The re!erence )oint !or TT2 #hall be the T0 antenna connector/ T12 ? The ti. the UE/ The re!erence )oint !or T 12 #hall be the 10 antenna connector/ Mea#-re.i##ion o! the beginning o! a do4nlin9 D3C6 !ra. an UT1>N acce## )oint and D3DC6%D3CC6 !or each 1A recei$ed in the #a.itted !ro.Physical channel BER De"inition The 3h #ical channel 'E1 i# an e#ti.e* o! the corre#)onding -)lin9 D3CC6%D3DC6 !ra.ent #hall be )o##ible on D3C6 !or each 1A tran#.ate o! the 'E1 a$eraged o$er the late#t TT5 o! the re#)ecti$e TrC6/ Round trip time De"inition 1o-nd tri) ti.e o! rece)tion o! the beginning (the !ir#t detected )ath7 in ti.e !ro.e UT1>N acce## )oint/ Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 83 of 89 .e (1TT*7 i# de!ined a# 1TT ? T12 @ TT27 4here TT2 ? The ti.e o! tran#.ate o! the 3h #ical channel 'E1 #hall be )o##ible to be re)orted a!ter the end o! each TT5 o! an o! the tran#!erred TrC6#/ The re)orted )h #ical channel 'E1 #hall be an e#ti.

ivision M"lti$le *!!ess Cell .Abbreviations A *.dentity Common Pilot Channel Common Pa!%et Channel Cy!li! Red"ndan!y Che!% Cir!"it (wit!hed Cir!"it (wit!hed .ndi!ator Channel *!%nowledged Mode *!!ess 'etwor% *0sol"te Radio Fre/"en!y Channel '"m0er *!!ess (trat"m *!!ess (ervi!e Class *dditive 1hite 2a"ssian 'oise B 3C) 34R 354R 3road!ast Channel 3it 4rror Ratio 3lo!% 4rror Ratio C CCC) CC) CCPC) C!t CC+rC) C.11 11.C) *M *' *RFC' *( *(C *12' *!/"isition . CP. C+C) C1 Common Control Channel Control Channel Common Control Physi!al Channel Cir!"it Coded Com$osite +rans$ort Channel Code .ata Common +raffi! Channel Contin"o"s 1ave 6"nmod"lated signal7 Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 84 of 89 .C) CPC) CRC C( C(.M* C.

D .(C) .5 .ownlin% (hared Channel .(CP ."$le& Frame 4ras"re Rate# Frame 4rror Rate F"ll Rate G 22(' 2+P 2+P89 29.nstit"te F F*C) F.ntermod"lation .ivision .ata )y$er +e&t +ransfer Proto!ol .edi!ated Physi!al Control Channel .(: . F4R FR Forward *!!ess Channel Fre/"en!y .'*P .ation for (tandardi.ownlin% 6Forward 5in%7 .nternet (ervi!e Provider . 4"ro$ean +ele!omm"ni!ation (tandard 4"ro$ean +ele!omm"ni!ations (tandards .P.edi!ated Physi!al Channel .+9 L 51 53 5*' 55C 5m 5ayer 1 6$hysi!al layer7 5ayer 3 6networ% layer7 5o!al *rea 'etwor% 5ogi!al 5in% Control +raffi! !hannel with !a$a!ity lower than a 3m M M*C M!$s Medi"m *!!ess Control 6$roto!ol layering !onte&t7 Mega8!hi$s $er se!ond N '*( '3*P 'C455 'on8*!!ess (trat"m 'ode 3 *$$li!ation Part 'eigh0oring 6of !"rrent serving7 Cell Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 85 of 89 .nternet Proto!ol .ynami! Reso"r!e *llo!ation Control .C) .C) .edi!ated +raffi! Channel E 4+( 4+(.(P .ata Channel .R'( . 2ateway 2PR( ("$$ort 'ode 2PR( +"nneling Proto!ol 2PR( +"nneling Proto!ol for 9ser Plane 2ra$hi!al 9ser .nternational :rgani.M .P .R*C .+C) .edi!ated Control Channel .nternational +ele!omm"ni!ation 9nion + ): )(C(.nterferen!e (ignal Code Power .ation .CC) .PCC) .nterfa!e )andover )igh ($eed Cir!"it (wit!hed .rift R'( . )++P .edi!ated Channel ..ntelligent 'etwor% *$$li!ation Part .edi!ated Physi!al .PC) .

(C) P.O :<M :C'( :(.9 P)= PhyC) P' PPC) PPP PR*C) P( P(C P(C) P(P.P P.ation Code Physi!al (hared Channel Pa!%et (wit!hed P"0li! .+C) P.ata 9nit Physi!al layer Physi!al Channel Pse"do 'oise Pa!%et Paging Channel Point8to8Point Proto!ol Physi!al Random *!!ess Channel Pa!%et (wit!hed Primary (yn!hroni. RM :+* :V(F :$erations < Maintenan!e :rthogonal Channel 'oise (im"lator :(.C) P. Referen!e Model :ver8+he8*ir :rthogonal Varia0le ($reading Fa!tor P P8CCPC) P8CP. R13 R? R?54V Ro"ting *rea Radio *!!ess 3earer Radio *!!ess 'etwor% Radio 3earer Radio 5in% Radio 5in% Control Radio 5in% Control Proto!ol Radio 5in% Proto!ol Radio 'etwor% Controller Radio 'etwor% ("0system Radio 'etwor% ("0system *$$li!ation Part Radio Reso"r!es Radio Reso"r!e Control Radio Reso"r!e Management Radio (ystem *!!e$tan!e +est Re!eived (ignal Code Power Re!eived (ignal (trength .ata Channel Pa!%et .ata 'etwor% Q >o( >"ality of (ervi!e R R* R*3 R*' R3 R5 R5C R5CP R5P R'C R'( R'(*P RR RRC RRM R(*+ R(CP R((.ata Proto!ol Physi!al .' P.' Primary Common Control Physi!al Channel Primary Common Pilot Channel Power Control Pa!%et Common Control Channel Paging Control Channel Paging Channel Physi!al Common Pa!%et Channel Pa!%et Control 9nit Pa!%et .ata +raffi! Channel Proto!ol .ndi!ator Resol"tion 3andwidth Re!eive Re!eived signal level Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 86 of 89 .ata 'etwor% Pa!%et .ownlin% (hared Channel Pa!%et .) PC PCCC) PCC) PC) PCPC) PC9 P.

@ (e!ondary (yn!hroni.ation Code ($a!e +ime +ransmit .CC) (.ivision8Code .ation Control Channel (yn!hroni.ation Channel (tand8*lone .ivision M"lti$le *!!ess +rans$ort Format +imeslot '"m0er +ransmit Power Control +ransfer Proto!ol . (e!ondary Common Control Physi!al Channel (e!ondary Common Pilot Channel (ervi!e *!!ess Point (yn!hroni.ata 9nit +rans$ort Channel +rans!eiver +ime (lot +raining (e/"en!e Code +e!hni!al ($e!ifi!ation 2ro"$ +ime (wit!hed +ransmit . +? +?P1R +iming *dvan!e +e!hni!al Committee +e!hni!al Re$ort +ransmission Control Proto!ol +ime .edi!ated Control Channel (ervi!e .R?>9*5 Re!eived (ignal >"ality S (8CCPC) (8CP.9 +rC) +R? +( +(C +(2 +(+.iversity +ransmit +ransmit PowerA +& $ower level in the M(-+?P1R-R4>94(+ and M(-+?P1R-C:'F $arameters Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 87 of 89 .M* +F +' +PC +P.9 (F (F' ()CC) (.ation 3"rst (yn!hroni.iversity T +* +C8+R +CP +.R (M (M( (M(8C3 (' (P (>' (R3 (R'C (R'( ((@ ((C (++.C) (*P (3 (CC) (C) (.nterferen!e Ratio (ession Management (hort Message (ervi!e (M( Cell 3road!ast ("0s!ri0er '"m0er (wit!hing Point (e/"en!e n"m0er (ignaling Radio 3earer (erving Radio 'etwor% Controller (erving R'( (ignaling (ystem 'o.ata 9nit ($reading Fa!tor (ystem Frame '"m0er (hared Channel Control Channel (ignal8to8.8C.

ivision M"lti$le *!!ess 1ireless .elay .P 15*' 1+..dentity Mod"le 9niversal +errestrial Radio *!!ess 9niversal +errestrial Radio *!!ess 'etwor% 9ser8to89ser . 95 9M 9M+( 9P 9R*' 9R3 9(C) 9(F 9(. 9+R* *0sol"te Radio Fre/"en!y Channel '"m0er 9+R* *0sol"te Radio Fre/"en!y '"m0er 9n!onstrained .P 94 9.M* 1.nformation V V* Voi!e *!tivity fa!tor W 1*P 1C. 1ireless *$$li!ation Proto!ol 1ide0and Code .nterfa!e 9$lin% 6Reverse 5in%7 9na!%nowledged Mode 9niversal Mo0ile +ele!omm"ni!ations (ystem 9ser Plane 9M+( Radio *!!ess 'etwor% 9ser Radio 3earer 9$lin% (hared Channel 9$lin% (tate Flag 9niversal ("0s!ri0er .M 9+R* 9+R*' 99.atagram Proto!ol 1ireless 5o!al *rea 'etwor% 1ide0and +ime .U 9*RFC' 9*RF' 9."$le&ing Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 88 of 89 ..atagram Proto!ol 9ser 4/"i$ment 9ser . 9.ivision .ata 9ser .

dle Mode and Pro!ed"res for Cell Resele!tion in Conne!ted Mode 32PP +( 2E. .0# RRC Proto!ol ($e!ifi!ation 32PP +( 2E.7 32PP +( 2E. M!4lroy# (..G.0# .0.F.9.evesh Patel C.7 :$tim"m $ower setting for $ilot and !ontrol !hannel# Fran% 3eyer# 5"!ent 1&4V RF :$timi..'2 29.F.M* (ystems# Version 1.21D V3.0# Radio reso"r!e management strategies 32PP +( 2E.E3# 'ovem0er G# 199G# 0y V.nterfa!e Proto!ol *r!hite!t"re 32PP +( 2E.4 R4V 20.0# 94 Pro!ed"res in . ( < +R:9354()::+.ation 2"idelines# version 1. 1ang C.M* RF :$timi.e! 2001# 0y . Fe"erstein# I.30D V3.331 V3.0# Physi!al layer $ro!ed"res 6F.F.9 2). (hio# ?.0 Copyright ©2006 Lucent Technologies Unpublished and Not for Publication All Rights Reserved Page 89 of 89 .F. PC( (ystems# Version 1.0# 2eneral 9M+( *r!hite!t"re 32PP +( 2E.a(ilva# M.09# 0@H11H2002# 0y Vladan Iovanovi!# *n" (andh"# )ayder Jammona# *mit (hah 321& RF :$timi.101 VD.922 V3.M* RF P4RF:RM*'C4 *'*5=(.211 V3.0# Physi!al !hannels and ma$$ing of trans$ort !hannels onto $hysi!al !hannels 6F.ation Pro!ed"res for 1.301 V3..0# Radio .References B0C B0C B0C B0C B0C BGC B@C BFC B9C B10C B11C B12C 32PP +( 23.ation Pro!ed"res and 2"idelines for PC( and Cell"lar C.