You are on page 1of 82



- Der Her der Ernte geht!

und sammelt Garben
uns ein, die Starben! -
[The Lord of Harvests goes out
to gather in the sheaves,
Even of those who died!]


The Crisis of Faith

Anthropology is the study of Man; that is the literal meaning of

the word translated from the Greek. The science; for it has,
from its beginnings, aspired to the position of a science; - the
science of Anthropology is a child of the nineteenth century,
along with those other aspiring disciplines, psychology and
Anthropologists, particularly in the early days of the discipline,
avidly sought out 'primitive' peoples and tribes, and
assiduously studied their ways and customs, attempting to
preserve their languages, artefacts, customs and beliefs. And
to what purpose, one may ask.

The motives which drove the early Anthropologists were

complex and many, but high on their list of priorities was a
desire to understand their contemporary predicament through an understanding of a
'simpler' and 'purer' culture. Their own predicament was, of course a crisis of purpose and
direction, which had been brought into focus by the recent speculations of Darwin ,
combined with the unprecedented development of the physical sciences, and their
application to Western economies.
A crisis of purpose and direction is, in the final analysis a
crisis of philosophy or faith, and therefore it was hardly
surprising that these Anthropologists, and those who
elaborated upon their research, were particularly intrigued
by the myths and legends of the 'primitive' peoples whom
they studied; in fact they were intrigued by 'primitive' belief
at the very moment when their own beliefs were in turmoil.
Investigations into such 'primitive' beliefs included such
influential works as Frazer's 'Golden Bough' (1) and
Freud's 'Totem and Taboo' (2), and although it is probably
significant to note that neither of these authors were,
strictly speaking, anthropologists, they both aspired to use
the most recent findings of that discipline in providing
material for their writings.
Whilst Anthropology is an essentially 'contemporary' study,
the purpose of the elaborations of authors such as Frazer and Freud, amongst others, was
to extrapolate, retrospectively; in an attempt to discover in the past ideas which would
facilitate an understanding of the problems of contemporary Western society.

(1) Sir James George Frazer OM,1854-1941. Born at Glasgow,

he published the 'Golden Bough' in 1890. The book had a
world-wide impact, both on academics and on writers and
artists of the period, its influence filtering down into popular
culture in the opening decades of the Twentieth Century.
While, by present standards, much of Frazer's methodology,
and many of his opinions, have fallen into disrepute, there
has been a reawakening of interest in his work in recent

(2) Sigmund Freud, 1865-1939. Born at Frieberg, Moravia, in

Czechoslovakia, which was then part of the Austro-Hungarian
Empire, (which was dismantled after 1918). He was, in many ways,
the creator of psychoanalysis. He published 'Totem and Taboo' in
1913, partly as an attempt to 'explain away' religion as a by-product
of Oedipus Complex, one of his most well known concepts. It is a significant example of 'armchair
Anthropology', which, over the years, has suffered a similar fate to Frazer's 'Golden Bough'.

This emphasis upon history was directly related to the nature of the crisis, which had been
launched with Darwin's (3), largely unintentional, and devastating, criticism of the then
generally accepted Heilsgeschichte, or Christian view of history as the unfolding process
of God's salvation, as offered to man.
Darwin's findings in the realms of Biology, by removing the initial Creationist premiss,
effectively caused the contemporary stage in the historical process to lose its sense of
moral certitude and meaning, rather in the manner that Nietzsche (4) had suggested in

Freud, Jung (5), Frazer and others, however, were hoping to provide that meaning
from man's own history, whilst Nietzsche was trying to manufacture such meaning from his
own concepts of the 'ubermensch' and 'Eternal Recurrence', which would stand as
contemporary myths.
If one was unnerved by Darwin's findings and rejected Christian, existentialist or
psycho-anthropological responses, one could always aspire to the purest philosophical
line, which at that time was represented by the followers of Hegel (6), such as Caird and
Bradley. The problem with Hegel, however, was that few people could comprehend his
clouds of metaphysical erudition, and therefore as hardly anyone understood what he was
talking about, very few could take his option as a solution to the continuing crisis.
Whilst all this 'ivory tower' activity was being pursued by academics, the majority of
main-stream Christians and many theologians, as well, had come to an accommodation
with Evolutionary theory, and were willing to see such ideas be grafted, somewhat
awkwardly onto the main corpus of Christian doctrine. At the same time Christian
academics, such as Schweitzer (7) and Bultman (8), were making further concessions to
contemporary Historical methodology by 'de-mythologising' much of Christian Scripture
and tradition.
By the closing years of the century there was a continuing, but accommodating
Christian tradition, which was accompanied by a new realisation and understanding of
contemporary 'primitive' spirituality, which, it was considered, shed light on the spirituality
of our own ancestors, and resonated with the classical inheritance, which was still so much
a part of Western Civilisation.
In America, there was also a concern for the spiritual, although it was not on quite
the same plane as that aspired to by European philosophers, scientists and academics.
American spirituality had its roots in the Protestant Fundamentalism of the Founding
Fathers, who sought refuge from persecution in the Old World. Their spirituality was not
only Fundamentalist in the theological sense of the word, but also fundamental & earthy. It
gave rise to Salem but also to a myriad diverging traditions, the most potent of which
would return in triumph to the Old World.

(3) Charles Robert Darwin, 1809-1882. Born at Shrewsbury,

England, the grandson of Erasmus Darwin, the naturalist. He
published his 'On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
Selection', in 1859, as a belated result of his experiences whilst
aboard the survey ship 'HMS Beagle' between 1831 and 1836.
His subsequent book, the 'Descent of Man', published in 1871,
added fuel to the controversy regarding the apparent 'scientific'
opposition to Biblical authority, and by inference, Christian
values, as they were then expressed. Darwin's views continue to
cause controversy with today's Creationists, who are opposed to
Neo-Darwinism, which represents the current Evolutionary
Theory, being an synthesis of Darwinism and Mendelev's

(4) Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, 1844-1900. Born at Rocken,

Saxony, the only son of a Lutheran pastor, he subsequently taught
Greek and Philology. He published 'Also Sprach Zarathustra', his third
major work, between 1883-1885. The main premiss of the book is that,
for contemporary European man, 'God is dead', and that as this fact has
deprived the world of moral and ontological meaning, it must be
substituted by new and equally meaningful concepts.
(5) Carl Gustav Jung, 1875-1961. A Swiss psychiatrist, who was one of
Freud's most brilliant disciples and collaborators; they disagreed, in
1921, regarding the role of sexuality in the psychological development of
the individual, and Jung went on to develop a Neo-Freudian theory,
which lent heavily on the spiritual aspects of the individual's
development. His many books taking much of their material from
contemporary Anthropological studies.

(6) Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, 1770-1831. German

philosopher who held that the Universe is a manifestation whereby
the Absolute Spirit realises itself through the World Historical
Process. This process is typified by the three-fold development of
thesis, antithesis and synthesis, known as the Hegelian Triad.

(7) Albert Schweitzer, 1875-1965. French theologian who wrote one main work, 'The Quest for the
Historical Jesus'. This work attempted to use contemporary historical methodology in studying the life of
Jesus of Nazareth. The book was condemned by the Pope in 1917, in his Encyclical against Modernism, and
the book subsequently became exceptionally influential in Protestant and liberal Christian circles.

(8) Bultman. A German contemporary of Schweitzer, Bultman is noted for having developed the concept
of 'de-mythologising scripture in response to the insights made available through the techniques of 'Form
Criticism'. Put simply, Bultman believed that the text of the bible revealed that many of the accounts it
contained were folk-stories or myths, and that therefore to obtain the true Christian message such passages
should be stripped away, or at least ignored.
The Mormon Story

In America, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the Christian tradition, which was
mainly Protestant in inspiration, was still strong and robust. 'Doubt', in the European
sense, was almost unheard of, and the only opportunity for doubt, of any kind lay, in the
individual's choice with regard to the Christian sect to which he would owe allegiance. The
moral order was firmly defined, and the existential crisis which was beginning to plague
Europe had not reached the New World, and to a certain extent, in some strange way, it
never would.
In Vermont, in 1820, Joseph Smith (1)
received his first religious call, in the form of a
visionary experience. Twenty years later, and
just a few miles away, the Fox family were
involved a series of strange experiences
which were to form the first stirring of the
modern Spiritualist movement. Both the Fox
sisters and Joseph Smith were, effectively,
shamans, in a relatively modern, educated
and technically advanced society. Strictly
speaking, Anthropologists didn't need to go to
far off, primitive tribes, and historians and
other academics had no need to peer into the dark recesses of time, in order to find living
myths, and the footprints of the Gods; for while the mythology of the established Churches
was crumbling, a new mythology was being created, in some part, out of the ruins of the
The story of the Mormons begins in 1805 when Joseph Smith Snr. and Lucy Mack
Smith became the proud parents of Joseph Smith Jnr. The Smiths lived, at that time, in the
town of Sharon, in Windsor County, Vermont. In the early eighteen-hundreds the Smith
family moved from the Green Hills of Vermont to Palmyra, west of New York.
While the Smiths were firmly Christian in outlook, they were not attached to any
particular church or sect, and they were searching, amidst a
sea of conflicting views, for the true Church of Christ. They
were, in fact suffering from a peculiar religious 'anomie', which
was extremely prevalent, at that time, in that part of the United
States. They were, in their own simple way, suffering from the
same spiritual disorientation that was, and would be, afflicting
the finest minds in Europe as the century progressed.
In the Spring of 1820, Joseph Smith Jnr. was in the
woods one morning, outside Palmyra, when he saw two
shining figures. Smith believed that these two figures were
God the Father and God the Son, and that while observing
them he had heard the same words that were reported to have
been spoken at the 'Transfiguration', described in the
Gospels. In addition he was informed that none of the current
Christian Churches, or sects, were legitimate, and that the
truth would be revealed to him at a later date.
For the next four years Joseph Smith continued his life
as a farm boy, until the 21st September, 1823. On that night
he was visited, in his bed room, by an entity calling himself
Moroni, who gave him information which enabled him to to
recover some inscribed gold plates, which were buried on the
summit of a nearby hill called Cumorah.
A further four years, however, were to pass
before he was permitted to recover these plates,
and during these years Smith was to be
instructed and prepared.

(1) Joseph Smith, 1805-1844. Born in Vermont, in the

USA, Joseph Smith was the son of a poor farmer and
consequently received little formal education. He is
remembered as the founder of the marginally Christian
sect, known today as the Mormons who have a world wide
following of about 6,000,000.

In 1829 Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery,

a local schoolteacher, began the task of
translating the plates. Financial assistance,
essential for the performance of such an
undertaking was supplied by Martin Harris, a
wealthy local farmer with a religious bent. Smith,
with the aid of two 'stones' found with the plates,
translated the plates, from behind a curtain,
while Cowdery recorded the words in longhand.
The thin gold plates were inscribed, according to
Smith, in 'Reformed Egyptian'.
Harris, apparently took the plates to a certain Professor Charles Anthony, of New
York, who examined them and issued a written statement, asserting that the inscriptions
on the plates were in Egyptian, Chaldaic, Assyrian and Arabic and that the translation so
far was an accurate one. He subsequently retracted and tore up this statement.
The document that resulted from Smith and Cowdery's
efforts was entitled 'The Book of Mormon' and was published
in the Spring of 1830. Eleven witnesses, in total, swore
affidavits to say that they had seen the gold plates from which
Smith translated the 'Book of Mormon', although some of
them retracted their statements at a later date. The plates in
question were, on completion of translation, returned to
Moroni, according to Smith; a section of them not having been
allowed to be translated until some unspecified time in the
During the translation of the mysterious plates, in May of
1829, Smith and Cowdery had been visited by an entity,
subsequently identified as John the Baptist, who had
conferred upon them the Aaronic Priesthood (2), as they
prayed by the banks of the Susquehanna River. A short time
later, Smith and Cowdery were further initiated into the
Melchizadeck Priesthood (3) by three entities, described as the Apostles Peter, James and
After the initiation into the priesthood, the Mormon story becomes rather more 'run
of the mill'. The sect grows, and because of its unorthodox beliefs, which include
polygamy, is forced to set up its own separate community. Few people appear to want the
Mormons as neighbours, and the new, and rapidly growing sect is forced to move,
constantly, in search of a new home.
(2) Aaron. In the Old Testament, in the books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy Aaron is
described as the elder brother of Moses. After God's revelations to Moses, on Mount Sinai, Aaron was made
responsible for the ritual activities of the Israelites, during their time in the desert, as first High Priest. All
subsequent Jewish High Priests traced their descent from Aaron, but with the Hasmoneans, in the first
century BC, who annexed the office and subsequently sold it to the highest bidder, the office lost all contact
with the true Aaronic line. This was the main cause of both the Sadducees (who provided the later holders of
the office) lack of popular support in New Testament times, and the creations of splinter groups such as the
Essenes, who maintained that they were the legitimate Aaronic priesthood.
(3) Melchizadeck appears in the Book of Genesis, in the Old Testament, as a priest who blesses
Abraham and offers a sacrifice of bread and wine. Because, according to the Bible, Abraham was the Father
of the Jewish race, which includes Moses, Aaron, David etc., anyone with authority sufficient to give a
blessing to Abraham must have a higher status than Abraham and his descendants, and therefore the
Melchizadeck Priesthood must be superior to the Aaronic. For this reason Jesus is described in both Roman
and Anglican ritual as being,' a Priest, after [of the same] the order of Melchizadeck'.

In 1839 the sect established a community at Commerce, in Illinois. They re-named the
community Nauvoo and by 1843 its population numbered sixteen thousand. Eventually
Smith found himself in difficulties with the Law, accused of Treason by the Illinois
authorities. At first he tried to run, but later gave himself up, and was subsequently
lynched, along with his brother, whilst awaiting trial, in June 1844. Now the Mormons had a
martyr. Strangely, when the community, which was now on the move again, selected its
new leader, they chose none of the founding members, who had seen the plates, but
rather Brigham Young (4), who proceeded to take his flock to Salt Lake, in Utah, and there
re-forge the Church of the Latter Day Saints into its present form.
One of the key questions which has exercised the minds of Christians since the first
disputes of the Council of Jerusalem, in Apostolic times, is 'what constitutes orthodox
Christianity ?'. In the present era of professed Ecumenicism and burgeoning sects, this
problem has become more pressing for committed Christians, although in the ranks of the
non-committed few know the problem even exists. Undoubtedly it was the question which
exercised Joseph Smith's mind back in the eighteen-twenties, and if the question was put
in more general, and not specifically Christian terms, it was, and is,the question haunting
the minds of the greatest thinkers.

(4) Brigham Young, 1801-1877. Born in Vermont,in the USA, he joined the Mormon Church in 1832, and
three years later was appointed an Apostle. He succeeded Joseph Smith in 1844, as leader of the

Before the Beginning

Before the beginning, according to Joseph Smith, God possibly existed. This is not,
however, the God usually referred to by the Mormons. The God under consideration here
is the ultimate, unfathomable Being from whom all existence, and existent beings
presumably derive. Principal amongst those existent beings are the Gods, one of which is
the Being, according to Smith that we usually refer to as God. Bearing only this initial
revelation in mind, however, one notes, that a totally new light is cast upon practically all
other Mormon pronouncements. There is more, however.
It may seem surprising that a religious leader and teacher, of the stature of Joseph
Smith might be a little vague about the existence or nature of the Supreme Being, but this
should, in fact, be understandable, taking into account the presumption that Smith's
original problem was, in truth, an existentialist dilemma, from which his revelations,
apparently, released him. Smith was concerned about his future conduct and resulting
destiny. He was searching for a 'way', rather than a 'truth'.
His revelations, regardless of how bizarre we
might find them today, were not speculative, but
rather, thoroughly practical.
But to continue the narrative; one of the
Gods in existence in the beginning was called
Elohim (1), and he inhabits a planet which
circles the star Kolob. Elohim is a spiritual
being, a God, who has, however, a physical
body in human form. This planet is also
inhabited by a number of goddesses, who also
posses physical bodies. Amongst other things,
the God and goddesses indulge in sexual
intercourse, which as with other beings, results
in the birth of children. These children, however,
are spiritual, not, apparently, having material
bodies like their parents. This is, of course, the
origin of the Mormon's belief in the pre-
existence of the soul, which was referred to previously.
The spirit children of Elohim are unable to become gods, like their parents, unless
they have a material body, and have undergone a probationary period in that body. The
bodies which are available to them, according to Smith, are the newly conceived foetuses
resulting from the sexual activities of people on the planet Earth. Who then, one may ask,
are the inhabitants of Earth ? It appears that Elohim, in the form of Adam, created Eve,
whom he mated with, in order to create a race of material creatures who would bear the
souls of His spirit children.
In order to successfully pass their period of probation in the material sphere,
Elohim's spirit children; that is us; must lead a moral life, be taught the means by which we
can ascend through the planetary spheres, past the angelic guardians, to return to Kolob,
and be eternally wedded ('sealed' in Mormon jargon) to our wives so that they may
become goddesses with us. The Temple ceremonies, which were referred to previously
are all designed to perform these functions.

(1) Elohim is a word of uncertain derivation and origin. The Semitic word 'El' is generally accepted by
scholars to mean God, carrying ideas or power and might. Elohim, strictly speaking is the plural form of the
word meaning Gods or spirits, although often, confusingly, in ancient texts it is used to represent the singular.
The use of the name Elohim in the Bible is mainly restricted to narratives in the Pentateuch, (the first five
books of the OT, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy and Numbers). It is significant that, although the
word appears in source texts, it was not used in the King James Authorised version of the Bible with which
Joseph Smith would have been familiar.

The position of Jesus in Smith's scheme is, not surprisingly, a little different to that
usually taught. According to Smith, Elohim came from the star system of Kolob and mated
with a Jewish girl called Miriam, who subsequently gave birth to a son called Jesus
(Joshua). Miriam was not married at the time, so no impropriety was involved, although
she later married a man called Joseph.
Because Jesus was the result of the union of a God and a mortal he was, according
to Smith, already divine, and therefore able to assist man in his search for the moral
guidance needed to pass successfully through his Earthly probation. Jesus had a brother,
however, Lucifer, who was intent on giving men divinity without the need for an Earthly
probation. Elohim rejected Lucifer's suggestion and the spirit children who had supported
Lucifer were forced to become dis-incarnate entities who constantly opposed man, while
the spirits who supported Elohim were permitted to enter human forms on earth, when the
opportunity arose. Those spirit children who had remained neutral during the dispute were
condemned to take the material forms of less evolved races, such as Negroes and other
non-European peoples, who would not be able, because of their inferiority, to
advantageously use their period of probation, (hence the restrictions on coloured people
with regard to the Mormon priesthood).
It has also been taught, by at least two of Smith's original Twelve Apostles Orson
Pratt and Orson Hyde, that Jesus was married, polygamously, of course, and had three
wives, Mary and Martha, sisters of Lazarus, and Mary Magdalene. It is suggested that the
Marriage of Canna, found in John's Gospel, is in fact an account of Jesus' marriage
While the foregoing brief account explains such matters as the implied pre-
existence of the soul, mothers in heaven, certain Temple rituals, the impediments placed
on coloured people regarding the priesthood, references to Mormons being 'space men',
and the name Kolob, etc. it still leaves unanswered the question of the Genealogical
Mormons do not believe in infant baptism, and in that they rub shoulders with many
other Protestant sects, most notably, of course, the Baptists (2). Such a view, while not
shared by all Christians, is considered completely consistent with orthodox Christian
teaching. The Mormons, however, believe that the dead may be baptised. Fortunately,
they do not enact this belief literally, by
exhuming corpses, but rather allow the
living to stand proxy for the departed.
Researchers have indicated that
Shakespeare, Beethoven, Queen Victoria
and all the American Presidents amongst
many others have been baptised
posthumously. This, of course, is the
reason for all those genealogical records,
which lie, in their protective, holocaust-
proof bunkers, in Little Cottonwood
Smith's scriptural justification for
this teaching, as if any were needed after
some of his previous doctrines, is to be found in the fifteenth chapter of Paul's First Letter
to the Corinthians. Surprisingly, some might think, Smith appears to be correct in his
interpretation of this remarkably straightforward passage of scripture; which opens up the
awkward question of why the doctrine is not accepted by orthodox Christians when it is
clearly an Apostolic teaching. To pursue questions like that, however, would open up such
a can of worms that it is better to return to the Mormons, and the revelations of their 'latter
day' prophet.

(2) Baptists are a Protestant sect or church originating in England in the Seventeenth Century, and
founded by the Rev. John Smyth. The first Baptist church in America was founded on Rhode Island
in 1639, by Roger Williams. Baptists conceive of the Church as a community of Saints (spiritual
regenerates), and find all spiritual authority in the Bible. Their name derives from their belief that
Baptism should be preceded by a profession of faith, and therefore may only be applied to those
who have reached the age of reason.
The Message of Moroni

Ever since the 'Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints', (the Mormons), came into
existence, the orthodox churches have attacked it and declared it to be not just another
sect, but rather a non-Christian sect. The hatred of orthodox Christians was initially so
great that all the evidence points to the probability that they conspired to murder Joseph
Smith, in the hope that the infant sect would collapse. The question remains, 'why were
they so afraid of the Mormons, and why has this fear been subsequently tempered?'.
The Mormons, at the time of Joseph Smith's death were powerful neither politically
nor economically in national terms, and undoubtedly the aspect of this 'new' religion which
the orthodox feared most was Mormon doctrine. Surprisingly, after all the fuss about
visions and affidavits, it is not in the 'Book of Mormon' that the fundamental tenets of the
'Latter Day Saints will be found, but rather in two obscure and practically unavailable
books, 'The Pearl of Great Price', and 'Doctrine and Covenants', both by Joseph Smith.
The 'Book of Mormon', itself, running to over five hundred
pages in paperback, is at best a weak caricature of the
Old Testament, even to the extent of parodying the
language of the King James Bible. The text purports to
describe the history of a small group of Israelites, who left
Palestine in about 600 BC and journeyed to America,
where they existed until about 400 AD, when their
civilisation finally collapsed.
Being a pastiche of the Old Testament, much of the work
is primarily a record of this alleged people's history, and is
filled with endless genealogies, plots, conspiracies,
betrayals and battles. Eventually the resurrected Christ
appears in order to bring the Gospel to his other sheep.
As in the Western hemisphere, Christ's teachings appear
to bring little help to his followers in the New World, who
proceeded to wage war for two-hundred years, which
finally results in their complete destruction.
Theological argument is not a strong point in this saga,
and many of the teachings are simply rehashes of material from both the Old and New
Testaments, often using the very same phraseology. Anyone reading the Book of Mormon,
superficially, could easily think he was reading some little known piece of canonical
Scripture, and it is on this basis that Mormons approach likely converts, with an aura of
Christian respectability. A well turned out, 'squeaky clean' Mormon missionary will not
stand on your doorstep and discuss the 'Pearl of Great Price', the 'Doctrine and
Covenants' or the Temple Rituals (1), and may well deny all knowledge of them.
So what are these teachings, which upset orthodox Christians so much ?
The most well known; notorious even, is the Mormon teaching regarding marriage. All the
leading Mormons, in the early days of the sect, practised polygamy. It is reliably reported
that Brigham Young had sixteen wives, and one estimate even puts the total at twenty-
seven. Joseph Smith was equally accused of having up to eighty four wives, although the
accepted minimum is around thirty. The result of this is that, even today, family trees can
be remarkably complex amongst even the most respectable of long established Mormon
(1) The first Temple was built in Kirtland, Ohio, and still stands today.
The second Temple was the ill-fated Nauvoo Temple, destroyed by
opponents of the sect. The third, and most well known Temple stands in
the Main Square in Salt Lake City, Utah. It was begun in 1853 and was
finally completed in 1892. Plans for this Temple were made two days
after the Mormons arrived in Salt Lake Valley. The other main Temples
are the St. George, the Logan and the Manti Temples, all in Utah. There
are other Temples, many in different parts of the world, wherever there
is a sufficiently large Mormon population. In addition to Temples,
Mormons use chapels, which perform the same function as Non-
Conformist churches.

Eventually, in
1890, the Mormon
leadership made
an agreement with
the United States Federal Authorities, in which
they undertook not to practice polygamy, whist
retaining it as a 'moral ideal'.
With this one concession, the Mormons gained
an instant, if grudging, respectability, and most of
their other doctrines and practices were allowed
to be quietly swept under the theological carpet.
Now Mormonism is on the decline, not because it
is a scandal to other Christians, but rather because it is too respectable. Here and there, in
the hill country around Salt Lake Valley, there are the odd few 'oldsters' still practising
polygamy quietly, and there is at least one of the many splinter groups, which have formed
sects from a sect, which advocate and openly practice polygamy. By and large, however, it
is a dead issue, which is strange.
Perhaps the most pertinent question is why the Mormons practised polygamy in the
first case. Most commentators cite the obvious reasons, which are that the Mormon
community was short of men, and in addition, was anxious to increase its numbers as
quickly as possible. Careful scrutiny of the census records of the period, however, shows,
surprisingly, that there were more men in the Mormon community than women. So why
polygamy ? The simple answer is that Joseph Smith was 'told' to institute the practise of
One of the main reasons why orthodox Christians opposed Mormonism so violently
was the fact that Smith espoused the doctrine of 'continuing revelation'. The Christian
Church, from earliest times, had taught that God's revelation to the world, which had
begun with Adam, ended with the death of the last Apostle. The 'Deposit of Faith' was
complete and could not be added to. The result of this teaching was the emergence of
'theology', the medieval 'Queen of Sciences', which endlessly attempted to interpret and
re-interpret the deposit of faith, as found in scripture and 'the traditions of the Church'. Re-
interpretation and comment, however, were all that were allowed. No new revelation was
Smith, however, considered himself an Apostle,
having been empowered with the Melchizadeck
priesthood, and therefore, in 'these latter days',
prophecy and revelation had been renewed. It
is, as a result, a fundamental doctrine of the
Mormons that there is a continuing revelation
from the Lord. One of these revelations, which,
apparently, took place on the 12th July 1843,
was the 're-institution' of polygamy.
'Re-institution' may seem an inappropriate
term, but in fact even the most cursory
inspection of the Old Testament will reveal that
polygamy was the norm among almost all of
the the characters depicted in the Old
Testament, and the practise was accepted by
the Jews in Gospel times. The concept of 're-
institution', however, was not the complete
story, and the greater part of the motivation for
polygamy lay in Smith's other teachings, which
were of a somewhat less worldly nature.

If today you were to visit Little Cottonwood Canyon, twelve miles from down-town Salt
Lake City, you would find, hidden in the
granite walls of that canyon huge
doors, cut into the living rock, which
lead to vast, brightly lit, air conditioned,
steel lined rooms, protected by fifteen
ton blast proof doors. This is the
Genealogical Centre of the Church of
the Latter Day Saints; protected by
steel, concrete and granite from all that
the latter days may throw against it.
In these cavernous, echoing
halls are kept, on microfilm, detailed
information about your family, along
with similar information about most
families in Europe, America and
beyond, going back, in some cases, for hundreds of years. The information about you,
kept here, is probably more accurate and more detailed than that kept by your local council
or the Registrar of Births Deaths and Marriages; after all, these records are not kept for tax
or census purposes, but rather for the 'Lord'.
In a similar vein to the re-institution of polygamy, the fundamental question with
regard to the genealogical activities in Little Cottonwood Canyon is obviously, 'why ?'.
Returning to Salt Lake City there is also the question of the Temple, standing
solemnly beside the famous Tabernacle, after which the renowned Choir is named.
The Salt Lake Temple is not an outstanding piece of architecture, although, with its grey
granite walls, many feet thick, it is monumental and moving, particularly when the sun
glints on the golden statue of Moroni, atop the highest pinnacle.
It may come as a surprise to many, however, to realise that the
Temple is not like most other great churches, temples or
cathedrals in the world, which are often open to tourists and
worshippers. There is no non-Mormon (2), living today, who
has seen the inside of the Salt Lake City Temple (3). The
Temple rites are absolutely secret and are only known to, and
practised by, a small inner circle of the sect, for not all
Mormons are permitted entry to the Temple (4). Not only are
many Mormons excluded from the Temples, but, in addition
people of coloured extraction, are not permitted to enter
certain aspects of the Aaronic Priesthood, let alone the
priesthood of Melchizadeck.
The key to Mormon teachings lies in the doctrine of
continuing revelation. Whilst the 'Book of Mormon' was an
obvious example of this doctrine, it contained little new
theology, despite its remarkable claim that the Jews had
colonised the Americas and Christ had preached in the 'New
World' subsequent to his resurrection. In fact the 'Book of Mormon' almost seems to
become somewhat of an embarrassment with the rising influence of Brigham Young,
Kimball and Pratt, and the steadily declining influence, and in some cases expulsion, of the
original witnesses to the plates.
Equally, as all of Smith's writings were published under the control of Brigham Young, the
authorship of some of the doctrines may be open to question, although as Young is looked
upon as being an equal prophet to Smith, by Mormons, this may not be a pertinent
question from a Mormon standpoint.
It has been pointed out that there are some thought provoking similarities between
Mormonism and Freemasonry. Possibly the most obvious similarity is the secrecy that
shrouds the inner activities of the two groups. The fact that, when Joseph was translating
the tablets, Hyrum, his brother was deeply involved in Freemasonry, and that in 1842, two
years before his death, Joseph Smith became a Master Mason, may be considered
significant here.

(2) Mormons refer to non-Mormons as Gentiles, except for Jews, who are referred to as such.

(3) The same prohibition applies to all Mormon Temples. Temples which have been built recently are
normally open to non-Mormons for a short period immediately after completion. Not all areas of the buildings
may be inspected however. There are photographs of part of the interiors of the Salt Lake City Temple, and
other older Temples, such as the Manti and Logan, which are published by the Mormons.

(4) Entry to a Temple for Mormons requires a written testimonial from their Bishop. In practise this
means that less than 25% of Mormons are ever permitted to enter Mormon Temples, and that a tiny 6%
regularly attend Temple services. This forms the inner elite of 'true believers'.

While the Mormons are undoubtedly more seriously intentioned than Freemasons,
they also share in common the fact that the outward façade they present to the world
bears little resemblance to their inner reality, and that in this it may be suggested that both
groups are guilty of dissembling.
Mormons are outwardly a Protestant (5) Non-Conformist sect, and are always
assiduous in presenting a front of the utmost respectability in public, and it is this
respectability, which has if anything, contributed to their current decline.
Smith was brought up in a totally Christian milieu, in which the Bible was the central
literature of his society, and Darwin was yet to make is voyage on the 'Beagle'. His
religious thinking, therefore, while it was creative and innovatory, could not form itself into
anything other than a semblance of Christian iconography. Smith's original, and initiatory,
visionary experience he interpreted as being a manifestation of the 'Father' and the 'Son',
complete with a quotation from the Gospel, although, strangely and significantly, his
subsequent experiences, revolving around the discovery of the plates, were
communicated by the non-Biblical Moroni. A later vision, which was also witnessed by
Cowdery, by the banks of the the Susquehanna River, involved an entity who was
identified as the Biblical figure, John the Baptist, while a subsequent encounter, in which
Oliver Cowdery was also involved, suggested that three of the original Apostles, Peter,
James and John made contact with the founders of the new sect.
The setting for Smith's early revelations, with the exception of Moroni, was,
therefore, essentially Christian, and the 'translation' of the plates, by Smith, produced a
document that was decidedly scriptural in style, particularly with its references to the risen
Christ preaching in the New World. In addition, practically all of Mormonism's early
converts were Christians who saw Smith's revelations as the 'restoration' of the Gospel.
This concept of 'restoration' is pivotal to Mormon evangelism, and as been much stressed
during the church's life.
The publishers of Robert Mullen's, book 'The Mormons', tell us in their blurb that the
book 'fully answers all the questions that have ever been asked about Mormonism'. This is
a typical stance, here being taken by an author who states that he is not, himself, a
Mormon, although the book is a continuing eulogy to Smith, Young and the Saints in
general. There are, though, in the book, two lacuna which reveal a little of the truth. In
referring to the British Temple, built at Lingfield, south of London, and dedicated in 1958,
Mullen refers to the building as the headquarters for 'higher religious teaching', and then
proceeds quickly to a long and highly approving description of the Hyde Park Chapel.
If this higher religious teaching is only available to the most fervent Mormons, then there
obviously is something further to be revealed.
Part of that something is to be found in a poem quoted in that same book. The
poem, by the Mormon poet, Eliza R Snow, although mediocre poetry, is worth quoting
almost in full, as it is pertinent to our investigations.

(5) Protestants consist of a number of Churches who initially broke away from the
Roman Catholic Church during the 16th Century, in a process known as the Reformation.
Subsequently these churches divided further into various groups or sects, which have
continued to fragment.
The original break with Rome was caused by discontent of both laity and clergy with
the church hierarchy's abuse of its privileges and power, combined with theological doubts
concerning the nature of the sacraments and authority within the Church. The most
significant reformation thinker was undoubtedly Martin Luther, who was able to bring
together the forces of social discontent, rising nationalism, and an increasing desire for
personal autonomy, in the creation of a new church. Subsequently Europe was divided
into a Protestant North and a Catholic South, and a similar situation arose in the New

O My Father.

O my Father, thou that dwellest in the high and glorious place;

When shall I regain thy presence, and again behold thy face?

In thy holy habitation, did my spirit once reside?

In my first primaeval childhood, was I nurtured by thy side?

For a wise and glorious purpose thou hast placed me here on earth;
And withheld the recollection of my former friends and birth.
Yet oft-times a secret something whispered,"You're a stranger here";
And I felt that I had wandered from a more exalted sphere.

I had learned to call you Father, through thy spirit from on high;
But until the key of knowledge was restored, I knew not why.

In the heavens are parents single? No; the thought makes reason stare.
Truth is reason; truth eternal tells me I've a mother there.

When I leave this frail existence - when I lay this mortal by,
Father, mother, may I meet you in your royal court on high?

A cursory reading of the poem would indicate that it is a typical example of a

popular nineteenth century genre of sentimental religious poetry, which has long since
gone out of fashion. Mullen, enigmatically, suggests the poem deserves careful reading,
and yet, one short paragraph later has given an explanation of the poem which may be
summarised as; 'the Lord's purpose is one of goodness and joy which requires man's
active co-operation'.
At the beginning of the nineteen-sixties Perry Como introduced a group of new,
young singers, during his popular television show, and they later became his regular
guests before appearing in shows of their own. They were all brothers, sang, and called
themselves the Osmonds. Eventually one of the brothers, Donny, shot to fame and
stardom, becoming for some years a 'teen idol'. Gradually tastes changed and the group
faded into comfortable and wealthy obscurity. At the height of their success the group
produced one record album which, compared to their others, was an instant flop. Musically
it was one of the highlights of an interesting era, but our concern is with, what are referred
to in the business as, 'the lyrics'. The Osmond brothers were Mormons, and in their record
album, 'The Plan', they hoped to alert their young fans to the moral and existential crisis
which they believed was developing as the 'last days' approached. It should be noted,
incidentally, that at this time, when the 'cold war' was at it's hottest, the Mormons had,
along with many other religious groups, become decidedly Millennial (6).

(6) Millenarianism, also referred to as Chiliasm (from the Greek), is the belief that Christ will return to
Earth and reign for a thousand years. This view is based upon the literal interpretation of Scriptural passages
such as Revelations Ch. 20 and other Apocalyptic works, such as the book of Daniel. The Mormons have, at
various times given emphasis to this view, which also forms a fundamental element in the teachings of the
Seventh Day Adventists, and the Jehova's Witnesses.

The most revealing text, from the lyrics of 'The Plan' is a song called 'Before the
Before the Beginning

Before the beginning, we were living Oh so far away from here,

We called it home, but didn't stay,
We knew that we could leave one day, and cry.

Before the beginning, we were willing to lay aside who we had been,
And take a chance to slip away, or make it back to home one day.

In the beginning we'd be living, as we would be, He once was,

To look at Him, to look at me, and think some day
Like Him I'll be.

Perhaps even more revealing, from the song, 'Goin' Home':

I'm a space man, from a different land,
I gotta get back home.

Hidden away on the album sleeve is the music publisher's name; Kolob Music Co. And
where was the music recorded ? Kolob studios, of course. Surprisingly, nowhere in the
lyrics is Christ's name, or Joseph Smiths name mentioned, although the record had the
wholehearted approval of the Church's highest authorities. Perhaps this was an aborted
attempt by the Mormons to 'come out of the closet'.
Returning to the first poem, and ignoring the religious sentimentality, careful scrutiny
shows that two fundamental, but decidedly strange ideas, form the basis of the work. The
first is that the soul has existed before birth.

'In thy holy habitation, did my spirit once reside?

In my first primaeval childhood, was I nurtured by thy side?

For a wise and glorious purpose thou hast placed me here on

And withheld the recollection of my former friends and birth.

Yet oft-times a secret something whispered, "You're a stranger

And I felt that I had wandered from a more exalted sphere.'

The doctrine of the 'pre-existence of souls', is by no means unique to Mormonism,

although it should not be confused with re-incarnation (7). It should be pointed out that the
doctrine of pre-existence is not considered to be compatible with orthodox Christian
teaching, and therefore the fact that the Mormons hold to this belief is one of the reasons
why they are attacked so vehemently, even today by certain Christian denominations.

(7) Re-incarnation is the doctrine that the soul or spirit may enter another human or animal body after
death. Widely accepted as a pivotal doctrine of most Eastern religions, such as Jainism, Hinduism and
Buddhism, and it is also widely believed by many religiously non-committed individuals in the West. The
doctrine is also found in the teachings of Ancient Greek Philosophers including Pythagoras & Plato, and has
been believed by various Christian sects, such as the Gnostics and their spiritual descendants, the Cathars.

Most ordinary people, however, would probably consider arguments over the merits of the
doctrine of pre-existence an example of theological nit picking. The second idea, contained
in the poem, though, would probably draw a stronger reaction from most people.
'In the heavens are parents single? No;

'the thought makes reason

Truth is reason; truth eternal tells me I've a mother there.
When I leave this frail existence - when I lay this mortal by,
Father, mother, may I meet you in your royal court on high ?'

It is clear from the text, that the idea is being presented that we have a heavenly mother.
This is not, of course the Catholic concept of Mary, the Mother of the Church, or the
Mother of Christians, for all 'Romeish Doctrine' was an anathema to Smith and his
followers. Equally the poem is not alluding to a mother or, possibly grandmother, who has
preceded us in death. The unequivocal meaning of the passage is that there is a feminine
God, and not in the manner that some contemporary Christian feminists wish to refer to
God as Father/Mother, in a bizarre attempt to transfer sexual equality to divine spheres.
Put more bluntly, the poem is referring to God's wife, and this immediately puts
Mormonism beyond the pale, with regard to any orthodox Christian acceptance.
The libretto from 'The Plan', clearly restates the pre-existence theme, but also
contains the very enigmatic verse;

'In the beginning we'd be living, as we would be, He once was,

To look at Him, to look at me, and think some day
Like Him I'll be.'

This is accompanied by a superscription on the album cover which reads; 'As man
is, God once was - As God is, man may become.'
Ignoring the convolutions of the lyrics, it appears that the statements are practically
identical, and may be seen to propose a relationship between divine and human nature
which is far from the almost infinite gulf religions usually present. If God was once like us,
and we will be like God, where does this fit in with the mediation of Christ (8), or for that
matter, what role does Christ play, if any.
As I stated earlier, the Mormons present a Christian façade but are, it appears,
dissembling. But why ?
Finally we have the reference on the Osmond's album to Kolob Studios and Kolob
Music Company. Just a made up company name, perhaps ?
Well, in fact; no. Kolob is the name of a star system, 'Oh so far away from here'. Its not
referred to in its true guise in the lyrics of 'The Plan', and you can look as hard as you like
in the 'Book of Mormon', and you won't find it. Equally, you would probably get a blank look
from your Mormon missionary on the doorstep, if you mentioned it to him, (it's always a
him, by the way; in fact two hims).
The next question is,'How does all this fit in with God and his wife, and pre-
existence ?' Perhaps, like the Osmonds, we should go back to 'before the beginning' for
our answers.
(8) The mediation of Christ is a doctrine subscribed to by practically all Christian denominations. It
basically states that the nature of both Original and actual sin, (Original sin is the sin committed by Adam &
Eve, and actual sin is the sins people commit during their lives), is sufficient to distance man totally from
God, and that it is only through Christ acting as mediator, by virtue of his atoning death that man can hope to
restore his relationship with God.


To the average Christian, agnostic or atheist, who

together undoubtedly make strange bedfellows, the ideas
of Joseph Smith generally seem strange, and even
repellent. To academics, well versed in the history of
religion and philosophy, however, those ideas create a
fascinating puzzle, full of loose ends and strange
As I have already suggested, Mormonism is only
superficially Christian. This ,however, may be seen as an
oversimplification. Rather, Mormonism should be seen as
a poorly constructed synthesis of two very different
The first tradition is that of Protestant Christianity.
This derives from Smith's background, as a child and
young man. In the early eighteen hundreds the Eastern seaboard of the United States
was alive with revivalist movements, and fundamentalist enthusiasm, much of it of a
millenial nature. It must be remembered that we are speaking of a time without modern
media, communications or entertainment, when most people lived in isolated, self
sustaining communities. For the majority, education was minimal, and although literacy
rates were remarkably high, considering the lack of formal education, the number of books
readily available was limited, and of course an authority and significance, unimaginable
today ,was then granted to Holy Scripture.
That the Smith family were imbued with this Protestant tradition is undeniable,
considering the fact that it was well known that the family was waiting on a revelation
regarding which of the many competing sects was the true church of Christ. Religion was a
fundamental question to be answered, for people then, in the same way that politics and
economics has become a fundamental topic for people now. Equally, the religious question
should not be thought of as being the same then as it is for many people now. In Smith's
day the religious question was not a matter of choosing between a large number of
competing, but completely separate, religious traditions, such as Islam, Christianity,
Buddhism etc. or, for that matter deciding on the existence or non existence of God. The
religious question, in Smith's time, was simply a question of finding the true interpretation
of scripture. There was only one possible religion; Christianity. There was only one
scripture; the Bible, and to doubt the existence of God would have meant social ostracism,
and the imputation of insanity or possession (1). The only other tradition, active at that time
and in that place, which could aspire to any religious stature was Freemasonry, with which,
it appears, both Joseph and Hyram were involved, during the period that Joseph
formulated the bedrock of Mormon doctrine.
The Christian Protestant tradition is, as I have already stated, evident in the front
the church presents to the world, particularly in its missionary activities. It is a tradition that
also appears with regard to the entities who brought the initial communications to Smith
and later Cowdery. They were identified, in order of appearance as God the father, Jesus,
John the Baptist and Peter, James and John, the Apostles. The only figure to break this
succession of scriptural figures is, of course, Moroni, faithfully reproduced on the top of the
pinnacle of the Salt Lake Temple. Moroni, however, although not appearing in canonical
scripture, is, in the book of Mormon, placed in a pseudo-scriptural setting, parodying the
Authorised version.
(1) Smith was convicted by the local civil authorities for 'scrying' in 1826, [see footnote 30]. Scrying is a
form of divination, which involves using a speculum, i.e. a mirror, crystal ball, bowl of water, or some other
reflective surface. All forms of divination are condemned by orthodox Christians, and the fact that divination
was an indictable offence demonstrates the strength of orthodox Christian feeling to be found in such
communities at that period.

The priesthood, both of Aaron and Melchizadeck, whilst bearing few similarities to their
progenitors, at least contain a scriptural aura, along with the inclusion of Baptism. The
book of Mormon itself, whilst claiming to present what most observers consider to be an
unlikely, and un-historical narrative, at least adorns itself with scriptural trappings, to the
extent of Christ preaching, in a manner similar to that presented in the Gospels. In all
these aspects one can see Joseph Smith being true to the tradition he had been imbued
with as a boy. On their own they create a picture of just another eccentric Protestant sect.
The other 'side of the coin', though, is very different. The question arises; where
have all these references to Kolob, Elohim, polytheism and interstellar communication and
travel come from ?
Today such ideas are the common currency of UFO cultists and protagonists of
'New Age' philosophies. In the early eighteen hundreds, whilst there were a considerable
number of reports of UFOs in the north eastern USA, they were not seen in the context of
extra-terrestrial UFOs, and there was no New Age philosophy, but only the strong Christian
tradition, already referred to. Smith seems to be a
prophet 'out of time', creating a story which would be
understandable in today's cultural milieu, but which
appears, remarkably, to receive no support from the
culture of his own time. Inevitably, this speculation
must bring us back to the entities who communicated
with Smith, by his own account, and who provided him
with the 'plates'.
To consider, first, the 'plates'; it seems unlikely that
Smith could have had the golden plates of Moroni
manufactured within the community where he lived,
even if they were not made of gold. Secondly; it is
difficult to deny their existence, considering the
affidavits signed by eleven individuals, who stated,
unequivocally that they had seen and handled the
plates. Granted, three of the witnesses were related to
Smith, one being his father, and that subsequently
some of the witnesses retracted their statements;
although those retractions took place in an atmosphere of feuding and schism. It should be
noted that, in the end, though, all the signatories declared the truth of their statements on
their death-beds. If the plates did exist, and were not manufactured contemporaneously
and in that locality, then the question remains regarding their origin.
Smith's story, as we already know, was that he dug them up from a hill called
Cumorah, the supposed site of the last great battle between the Lamanites and the
Nephites (2), according to the book of Mormon. As the history of the book of Mormon is not
supported by any evidence available to researchers and historians, it is reasonable to
believe that the plates need not have been old, and in fact may have been placed at
Cumorah contemporaneously, for the purpose of Smith discovering them. The question
then arises as to who placed them there.
The only person with knowledge of the location of the plates was Moroni, the non-
Biblical entity referred to earlier. The problem, however, with this solution is that we are
thereby forced to accept, to some degree, the reality of Moroni, and by inference, the
other entities that Smith claimed to have seen.
(2) The Lamanites and the Nephites were the two nations which, according to the 'Book of Mormon', had
formed from the original group of Jewish migrants which had travelled to America about 400 BC. Despite the
fact that the resurrected Christ appeared to his people in the New World and preached to them, these two
nations eventually began a war against one another, which lasted for 200 years. The Nephites were totally
destroyed, Moroni being the last of their number, and the Lamanites declined culturally, and eventually
evolved into the American Indians, subsequently encountered and subjugated by European colonisers.

The alternative option, however, is to accept that all the bizarre revelations, which Smith
received, came from the mind of a poorly educated farm boy. Some commentators would
point out, however, that both Hiram and Joseph Smith were involved in Freemasonry, and
the teachings and rituals of the 'craft' may account for the non-Christian element in
Mormon teaching.
Because of the essentially secret nature of Freemasonry, there has always been a
certain amount of doubt and confusion about its teachings and practices. From the most
generally accepted accounts, though, there is
little evidence that 'run of the mill' Masonry
had any influence on the Smith brothers.
Royal Arch Masonry, however, which is the
form of Masonry which goes beyond the Third
Degree of ordinary Masonry, may have some
tenuous links with Mormonism.
Royal Arch Masonry appears to have
originated around the middle of the
eighteenth century, the first recorded Lodge
being the Stirling Rock Royal Arch Lodge, in
Scotland, in 1743. There are records existing
that indicate that a Royal Arch Lodge existed
at Fredericksberg, Virginia in 1753, so that by
the early eighteen hundreds Royal Arch
Masonry would have been sufficiently
established on the East Coast of the USA for
Joseph and Hiram Smith to been aware of its
existence. As Royal Arch Masonry is only
available to Master Masons, Joseph Smith
could only have become a Royal Arch Mason
after 1842, two years before his death. Any
information, therefore, concerning the rituals and teachings of Royal Arch Masonry could
only have come from Hiram Smith, Hyram's colleagues in Masonry, who may also have
known Joseph, or books available to Joseph detailing such rituals and teachings. Now the
oaths and resulting penalties associated in Freemasonry with revealing the secrets of the
craft are sufficiently well known not to require repeating. It is, therefore, very unlikely,
particularly at that time, that Joseph Smith would have had access to, or knowledge of the
doctrines of Royal Arch Masonry.
It is worth noting however that Royal Arch
Masons were aware of the name Elohim, as a title
for God, although they did not use it in their rituals.
Additionally, the main concepts of Royal Arch
Masonry centre around events associated with, and
descriptions of the Jerusalem Temple (3), and
Mormonism is pervaded with the necessity of
Temple ritual. Equally Mormon Temple ceremonies
involve the wearing of robes, as do some Royal
Arch ceremonies, unlike ordinary Masonic ritual.
Mormons also wear 'aprons', during Temple
ceremonies, as do Masons, but unlike Masonic
aprons, which represent the stone masons working
dress, Mormon 'aprons', usually embroidered with
green fig leaves, represent man's primaeval fall, and
awareness of sin.
(3) The first Jewish Temple was a
portable structure, described in detail in the
books of Exodus and Leviticus, in the Old
Testament. Basically it was a Tent designed
to accommodate the Ark of the Covenant
and other associated ritual objects, such as
the altar of incense etc. The Ark was, and
maybe is, a mysterious object, partly a
receptacle for the Tablets of the Law, 'graven
by the Hand of God', and partly a Throne,
upon which the Shekina (Glory) of the Lord
would descend, and from which the voice of
God would speak to His High Priest. Anyone,
other than the High Priest, who touched the
Ark would be instantly killed, and for that
reason the priests carried the Ark, when it
was transported, on long poles, which slotted
along its sides. David, the Jews first King wished to build a permanent Temple for the Ark
but, because of his sinfulness, was not permitted to by God. The task was left to his son
Solomon. A detailed description of the building is given in First Kings and Second
Chronicles. This, the First Temple, was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 587 BC. Prior to
the destruction, the Ark was hidden, probably in the Judean Hills, where it may still await
The Second Temple was
was built after the Jews returned
from their exile in Babylon in 537
BC. Because the Ark was never
recovered, the Holy of Holies lay
empty, and over the years,
particularly during the Hellenistic,
Seleucid and Hasmonean eras,
the Temple gradually decayed. In
19 BC Herod, the Roman client
King of Judea, pulled down the
Second Temple and began
building the Third, and last,
Temple. Work on the Temple
continued until 64 AD. In 70 AD
the Temple was finally destroyed
by the Romans.
In the original Jewish
Temple, and the two rebuilt
Temples, the Holy of Holies was
separated from the remainder of the building by a veil. In similar fashion, Royal Arch
Masonry has rituals involving a veil, and a dividing veil was a prominent feature of the
Mormon Temple at Nauvoo, and all subsequent Mormon Temples.
Fascinating as these correspondences are, though, they are not really significant
when one considers that the creators of Royal Arch Masonry and Joseph Smith were
working from the same source material, namely the various scriptural descriptions of the
Jerusalem Temple.
We are still left, then, with the question of the source of Joseph Smiths strangely
non-Christian doctrines. These doctrines, of course, are not unique to Mormonism. All the
specifically non-Christian doctrines which Smith taught are to be found, initially, in
Gnosticism is a religious and philosophical system whose origins are difficult to
identify. The system contains elements which derive from the religious beliefs and
practices of the Ancient Egyptians, as well as the Jews and other ancient Semitic groups.
The word Gnosticism derives from the Greek word gnosis; meaning knowledge. The
main thrust of the Gnostic argument was that salvation could only be attained by
possessing a certain secret knowledge. Like Joseph Smith, who was seeking an answer
to his existential dilemma, so also, Gnosticism offered to the people of the Ancient World
answers to similar dilemmas. Both Gnosticism and Mormonism offer salvation through
knowledge of the divine plan, rather than through a relationship with the divine being.
One of the problems in describing Gnosticism is the simple fact that it is probably
the most amorphous of all religious philosophies. The most widely known form of
Gnosticism is Christian Gnosticism, and while orthodox Christians have always
condemned it as a heresy, many commentators would suggest that so called 'orthodox'
Christianity is in fact a product of Christian Gnosticism, created by the 'apostle' Paul (4),
who was, himself, steeped in Gnostic and Hellenistic religion and philosophy. It has
therefore been argued that, if Jesus of Nazareth had returned to earth any time since the
end of the First Century AD he would have had great difficulty in recognising the Christian
Church as having any connection with the teachings and ideas which he espoused.
True Gnosticism existed long before the existence of that Jewish sect, which broke
away from Pharisaic tradition, under the influence of the Apocalyptic teachings of one
Jesus of Nazareth, and which was later known as Christian Church. Gnosticism, in its
original form was, undoubtedly, the result of the immense social and cultural upheavals
caused by the creation, and subsequent disintegration of the vast Hellenistic Empire
created by Alexander the Great.
Whilst Gnosticism answers an existential need, it also provides a speculative
metaphysic of some considerable complexity. Gnosticism itself may be clothed in the
trappings of almost any culture; its elements bearing the names and symbolism redolent of
that particular place and time, whether it be Egyptian, Greek, Syrian or some syncretic
amalgam of all or some.

(4) Saul of Tarsus, who, after his conversion to Christianity changed his name from the Hebrew, Saul, to
the Roman, Paul, was the son of a wealthy Jewish family. He had received a Pharisaic and Classical
education, which resulted in him being familiar with both Jewish Gnostic inspired literature and Classical
philosophy, including that of Plato and the Stoics. Although referred to as an 'Apostle' by the church, he was
not, strictly speaking entitled to that appellation, which was only given to those who had 'known Jesus in the
flesh', and had been chosen by him at the beginning of his public ministry. Paul, undoubtedly, changed the
'Followers of the Way', as they were known, from an Apocalyptic Jewish Sect into members of a Hellenistic
Mystery Religion.

Gnosticism is essentially monotheistic, although initial and cursory inspection might not
immediately reveal this. All Gnostic systems posit the existence of One Supreme Being,
usually conceived of as 'unknowable', if that is not a contradiction in terms. Being
'unknowable' this Ultimate Being is, seemingly, utterly divorced from material reality, which
is brought into existence by a being, or beings, either created by, or emanating from the
Ultimate Being. This creative being is known as a Demiurge, from the Greek for craftsman,
and is the equivalent of the non-Gnostic's concept of God. The Demiurge or Demiurges, if
the system requires a plurality, creates the Universe and all other existent beings.
Between the Demiurge, sometimes also known as the Logos, and man lie
numerous other beings, who act as guardians, maintaining a necessary separation
between the human and the Divine. These Guardians are usually referred to as Aeons,
and they are generally allotted, one to each planetary sphere, between the earth and the
Heaven of the Demiurge. In addition to the Aeons there are Guardian Spirits for each of
the Races of Man, and other Guardians for each of the Nations.
At a lower level there are Elemental Spirits; that is entities comprising of only one of
the four elements, Earth, Air, Fire and Water, unlike human beings, who are composed of
an equal mixing of all the elements. The lesser forms of the elementals are considered to
act on behalf of the Demiurge, creating and maintaining the various aspects of creation,
according to their elemental natures, i.e. earth spirits with regard to vegetation, water
spirits with regard to the seas, rivers and lakes etc.
This rather involved metaphysical structure sets the scene, but the crux of the
matter lies in the Gnostic teaching about salvation; the existential relationship between the
Cosmos and Man.
Man's origins are held by Gnostics to lie in the Heaven of the Demiurge or Logos
(5). This idea echoes the doctrine of the Theory of Forms, proposed by Plato in the
'Republic', and in certain other of the 'Dialogues'. From this perfect world man descends
through the planetary spheres, into the world of imperfection and matter. Man's life is held
to be a probationary period, and when it ends, if the divine spark of the spirit is still viable,
it will attempt to return, through the planetary spheres, to its original home. The planetary
spheres, however, are guarded by the Aeons (6), who will not permit the ascent of the
soul. The 'Gnosis' consists, therefore, apart from the metaphysic presented so far, in the
signs and passwords which will enable the soul to pass the guardians of the spheres.
Each planetary sphere constitutes a heaven, or more precisely a celestial realm, and while
on earth, the degree of an individuals initiation will indicate the highest sphere to which he
can ascend after death. Salvation is, therefore, not an absolute, but is rather dependant on
the level of Gnosis achieved in life.

(5) Logos is a Greek word translated variously as 'word', 'speech' or 'reason'. The term was used by
numerous Greek philosophers to describe the universal principle of reason, which they believed resided in
man. The Hellenised Jewish writer, Philo, introduced the word into Gnostic terminology when he referred to
the Logos as God's agent in creation, and an intermediary between God and Man. The most well known use
of the term is to be found in the prologue to the Fourth Gospel. John's Gospel derives much of its flavour
from Gnostic thought, which was very prevalent at the time. In John's Gospel Jesus of Nazareth is referred to
as the Logos, thus wresting him from his Jewish origins and re-creating him as a Gnostic Demiurge.

(6) Because of the limitations of their astronomy, the Ancients only recognised seven planetary spheres,
or heavens. Paul of Tarsus, in his 'Second Letter to the Corinthians' states that a man was 'caught up into
the third heaven', that is the third planetary sphere. This passage demonstrates how Gnostic ideas had
thoroughly infiltrated the Early Church by the middle of the First Century, and even today we have the
popular phrase 'seventh heaven', which derives from the ancient Gnostic tradition.

This is undoubtedly a powerful and influential system, which informed almost all Classical
religion and philosophy, and by way of the Seleucid hegemony of Palestine in the Second
Century BC, influenced the Hasidim, and subsequently the Essenes and Pharisees, and
through them the evolving Christian Church. Despite the fact that Gnosticism was
repeatedly condemned by the Christian Church, by the very fact that the antecedents of
the Church, in the form of the Jewish sects previously referred to, were riddled with
Gnostic thought it was inevitable that some Gnostic ideas were to become part of the
common currency of Western culture. In addition the rediscovery of Classical learning,
after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, a process usually referred to as the Renaissance,
brought a second stream of Gnostic ideas into the West, in the form of Neo-Platonism (7)
which formed the basis of many later Occult investigations and developments.
It is easy to see the connections between Joseph Smith's ideas and the Gnostic
system. Both see the Ultimate Being as 'outside creation'. Both posit the existence of a
Demiurgic creator God, with 'special responsibility' for this planet. Many of the Mormon
Temple ceremonies involve the ritual revealing of esoteric signs and passwords which will
enable the aspiring Mormon to pass through the planetary spheres in order to reach the
seventh Celestial Sphere which contains the star Kolob and the celestial realm of Elohim.
Smith also taught a plurality of 'Gods'. and this, again, is consistent with Gnosticism.
Is Mormonism, then, just another resurgence of that ancient 'heresy' Gnosticism ?
Orthodox Christians would say 'yes', while strongly denying that their form of Christianity
had any Gnostic elements in it at all. Apart from the latter proposition, they would
undoubtedly be right; Mormonism is an awkward amalgam of Protestant Christianity,
Americanism and Gnosticism. The Protestant element is easily accounted for by reference
to Smith's religious and cultural environment.
The Americanism is evident in the spurious 'history' of America provided by the
'Book of Mormon'. Such a phenomena is well known in situations where a national identity
has been suddenly acquired, rather than developing over the centuries. Germany is an
example. The creation of a German nation demanded a German identity, which people like
Wagner were eager to provide. Yeates performed a similar service for the Celts. Unlike
Smith, however, Wagner and Yeates had a legitimate mythology to develop. Smith's tales
of ancient America, unfortunately do not bear scrutiny, probably because Smith himself did
not have the imagination or depth of learning which would be required for such a daunting
Finally, the Gnostic element raises a fundamental question. It is difficult enough,
today, to obtain material detailing the belief and philosophy of the Gnostics. Much of this
information has only become available during the present century as a result of
excavations such as those at the Wadi Qumran and Nag Hammadi, and the subsequent
translation and resulting interpretation of the documents found. Such information was
definitely not available to Joseph Smith, who was then living in the little town of Palmyra, in
New York State in the eighteen-twenties.

(7) Neo-Platonism was a philosophical and religious system which, for intellectuals, rivalled Christianity
between the Third and Fifth Centuries. Expounded most eloquently by Plotinus, it derived its initial ideas from
the writings of Plato, and added to them other elements, mostly of Gnostic origin. Primarily a speculative and
contemplative system, it fell into decline with the collapse of the Classical world following the Barbarian

That the Gnostic element was the product of his own imagination is equally unlikely. We
have already noted that the 'Book of Mormon' is a dull, and almost unreadable pastiche of
the Old Testament, probably as much the work of Cowdery as of Smith. Undoubtedly, as
stated before, there were 'plates', but whether Smith and Cowdery were able to translate
(8) them with any accuracy, if at all, remains an open question. This would indicate that
Smith's ability as a creative theologian and philosopher was at the level one would expect
from a relatively uneducated, provincial farm boy. And yet the most significant part of
Mormon doctrine is an almost 'blow by blow' recreation of fundamental Gnostic beliefs,
with an unknown star system added in for good measure.
Equally, the Gnostic elements were absolutely contrary to everything that Smith had
been brought up to believe from childhood. These elements preached a pagan polytheism
as opposed to a Christian monotheism; an immoral and sinful polygamy as opposed to a
Christian monogamy and a heretical 'salvation through knowledge' as opposed to the
Protestant teaching of 'justification through faith in Christ's atoning sacrifice'. How Smith, a
believing and committed Christian, came, in the first instance, to conceive of these ideas,
and to subsequently disseminate them is an outstanding enigma.
Fundamentalist Christians would undoubtedly suggest that Smith had been taken
over by 'the Deceiver'. A similar, but less extreme solution would be that this may have
been a case of clairvoyance or 'channelling'. Something or someone appears to have been
using Smith to convey certain, somewhat strange, ideas. The obvious choice is, of course,
Moroni. Undoubtedly, like most other contacts and 'spirit guides', 'Moroni' was a suitable
identity for the intelligence that was making contact, and it was an identity which Smith
could subsequently work into his Biblically influenced, turgid tale of pre-colonial America.
If this is the solution to the strange case of Joseph Smith; American farm boy turned
Prophet, High Priest, Author, Mayor and Military leader (9), and finally Martyr, then it joins
Smith to an ever growing band of individuals who had been guided, changed, used or
abused; and whose influence has, on occasions, changed the course of history.

(8) Smith maintained along with the the plates buried at Cumorah were two stones, which were called
'Urim' and 'Thummin', and a breastplate. These stones were apparently used by Smith to enable him to
translate the plates. When Smith translated, he did so from behind a curtain, and therefore we have no
knowledge of how he used the stones, or to what use, if any, the breastplate was put. Significantly, no
mention of the stones or the breastplate is made in the affidavits relating to the plates. It is interesting to note
that in 1826, Smith was convicted and imprisoned for a short time for 'glass looking'; scrying, in other words.
Apparently he claimed to have a magic stone which, when he peered at it, showed him where money or
treasure was hidden. Oddly, this is one year before he claimed he recovered the plates, stones and
breastplate from Cumorah, while it is three years after his initial discovery of them.
The stones were not, surprisingly, an invention of either Moroni or Smith. There is evidence for such
stones having actually existed. The stones are first mentioned in the book of 'Exodus' and are described as
stones, worn on the shoulders of the High Priest, as part of the harness supporting the 'Breastplate' bearing
the twelve stones or jewels,which supposedly represented the Twelve Tribes of Israel. These two stones
were believed to indicate the will of God by emitting light. The last occasion on which they were seen was
during the Seleucid period, and there is documentary evidence that independent Greek witnesses saw the
stones emit a substantial light on that occasion. Subsequently, the stones ceased to function, indicating that
the Lord was no longer prepared to speak to his people. It was generally believed that this was because of
the failure of the Aaronic Priesthood, and this was held to be a major cause of the crisis in the Jewish religion
which brought about the development of such sects as the Pharisees, Essenes, and the followers of Jesus.
The stones, which formed part of the Temple Treasure, were seized by the Romans in 70 AD, when they
destroyed the Temple, and were taken back to Rome, with other items from the Temple treasury. At this point
the stones disappear from history. Smith and the Mormons offer no explanation as to how they became
buried in the Hill at Cumorah.

(9) Smith became Mayor of Nauvoo, and at the same time was Lieutenant General of the Nauvoo
Legion, which he used to suppress opposition to his view; an action which resulted in his arrest by the State
Authorities and subsequent lynching.


The Spirits Awake

The title of this chapter is a combination of parts of two

book titles. both of these books are practically
unobtainable today, despite having been exceptionally
influential in their own times. The fist book is 'The Myth of
the Twentieth Century' by Alfred Rosenberg (1). The
other book, equally influential when published, yet hardly
read now is Houston Stewart Chamberlain's (2) 'The
Foundations of the Nineteenth Century'.
The 'myths' which we shall consider now, however,
do not yet correspond in detail to those of which
Rosenberg wrote, for, of course, we are still in nineteenth
century of Chamberlain.
To rejoin our story we must return to New York
State, a mere ten miles from where Joseph Smith was
born, at about the time when Joseph Smith's career was reaching its violent climax.
The Fox family lived in a small town called Hydesville, a small town near Rochester,
that was almost identical to town in which Joseph Smith had been nurtured. James D
Fox,was a poorly educated, Methodist farmer, barely scraping together a living, who
occupied a small wooden framed house with his wife, Margaret and their two daughters,
Margaretta, aged 14 and Kate, aged 12. The previous tenant of the house, Michael
Weekman, had suffered from odd, unexplained noises, and when the Fox's moved in they
were similarly effected. They thought little of it, however, until, one night in March,1848,
Kate suggested that the noises should imitate the rhythms of her clicking fingers. Much to
the family's surprise the knocks followed suite, giving every sign of independent
intelligence. It was not long before a code had been established, and the rapping
phenomena had indicated that it was controlled by the spirit of a certain Charles B Rosma,
who had been murdered in that very house some five years earlier.
In a very short time the girls became local celebrities, and were the subject of much
speculation and investigation. One important fact that was noted was that whenever the
sisters were absent from the house, no phenomena occurred. It was decide, therefore to
separate the girls; Kate stayed with here elder sister, Leah, in Rochester, and Margaretta
stayed with her brother, David, in Auburn. The phenomena, however, occurred in both the
houses at which the girls were staying. Surprisingly, a haunting phenomena, as opposed
to a poltergeist phenomena, began at the Fox's home in Hydesville. Awful gurgling noises
and the sound of a body being dragged across the floor terrified James and Margaret Fox,
and were witnessed by their neighbours and friends. It was not until 1904 that a wall in the
cellar of the house collapsed, and the remains of a body were discovered along with
certain items associating it with Charles Rosma. Eventually the Fox family moved to
Rochester, but manifestations of the phenomena continued. It was after the move that the
spirits proclaimed their message that the Age of the Spirits had dawned, and it was from
this time that Spiritualism itself became truly established.

(1) Alfred Rosenberg, 1893-1946. He was born in Russian Estonia and

had fought in the Russian Army in the First World War. In 1917 he left Russia
for Germany and settled in Munich where he became an associate of Dietrich
Eckart and joined the occult organisation, the 'Thule Gesellschaft'. He became
the official 'philosopher' of the Nazi party, both before and after Hitler's rise to
power, publishing 'The Myth of the Twentieth Century' in 1930.

(2) Houston Stewart Chamberlain. Born in 1855, he was educated abroad.

At the age of twenty-seven he moved permanently to Germany. His reputation
was made through his major publication, 'Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten
Jahrhunderts' ['The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century'], which sought to
encourage a belief in the superiority of the Aryan Race.
It was not until 1888, when the Fox sisters were in their fifties, and both widowed, that they
publicly admitted that they had caused these loud knocking noises, or raps, with their toe
joints, and for many commentators, both then and now, this has marked the case as
fraudulent, and not worth further investigation. The fact that they received $1,500 for
making this statement, and that, at the time, both sisters were in considerable debt as a
result of their heavy drinking does cast a certain amount of doubt upon their statement.
The sisters subsequently said that this had only occurred occasionally, in response to the
impossible demands for displays of phenomena which were being made upon them, at
that time, by numerous investigators. All other examples of such rapping, they declared,
were entirely genuine.(3)
Here we have a similar situation to the withdrawal of Testimony, by Cowdery and
others, as a result of intense feuding and schism within the newly created Church, with
regard to Smith's plates, and the subsequent re-avowal of their original position. A little bit
of mud always sticks, and has, in both cases, caused continuing problems when
attempting to reach an unbiased, yet critical assessment of these matters.
Notwithstanding the doubt over the veracity of the Fox sisters, the North Eastern
seaboard of the USA was subsequently deluged with para-normal manifestations, as the
story of the Fox sisters spread. It was during this time that the traditional form of spiritualist
seances evolved; tables moving musical instruments being played by unseen hands,
objects moving or appearing from nowhere. The spirits, it appeared, were sensitive to light,
and therefore most seances were held in either complete darkness, or were dimly
illuminated by phosphorus covered sheets or slates. The opportunities for fraud, of course
were endless. In the Rochester area alone over one hundred mediums set themselves up
in the space of one year,1850. A little later the elder Fox sister, Leah, introduced the
phenomena of spirit materialization, which was to be the source of much investigation and
controversy, which would eventually bring spiritualism into general disrepute.
The Fox sisters had by now taken to touring, somewhat like a vaudeville act, and in
Buffalo they were seen by two brothers by the name of Davenport. When they returned
home from the seance they too began to experiment with table turning, and eventually
became more famous than the Fox sisters.
The contents of the messages received by the sisters, the Davenports and many
others, unlike Smith's communications from Moroni, were unremarkable; some would say
trite, apart, that is, from the spirits demand that a new religion of spiritualism be founded,
and spread throughout the world. The general consensus was that they were receiving
communications from spirits of the dead, who appeared to be mainly concerned with
providing some indication of the continuance of identity after death.
About twenty years later, after the Fox sister's initial experiences, the American Civil
War occurred.
Within four years, approximately six hundred and eighteen thousand soldiers killed, along
with a considerable number of civilian deaths, Spiritualism, as communication with those
who had 'passed over' was now called, became an essential solace for many of those left
As the century progressed, literacy, cheap books, and improvements in
communications, combined with the decay of traditional communities and values, as
people moved into the more affluent cities, speeded the dissemination of new ideas,
including Spiritualism. Soon the spiritualist 'Gospel' was spreading across the Atlantic to
Britain and Europe, as Ouija boards, planchettes, table-turning and seances became
fashionable and 'smart'.

(3) As the Fox sisters were restrained in every way when communicating with spirit entities, it provides
an interesting and informative experiment to try and produce loud knocking or rapping sound by moving ones
toe joints. The author and publishers, however, cannot beheld responsible for any injury readers may sustain
whilst attempting to reproduce such phenomena.
In 1882, in England, the Society for Psychical Research was set up by Myers and
Sidgwick, with the intention of scientifically examining the claims of Spiritualists. Among
those who investigated, and subsequently became converted, was the eminent scientist,
William Crookes (4), and the famous novelist, Sir Arthur Connan Doyle (5).
Whilst Nietzsche was announcing that God was dead, the 'spirits' were waking, and
were on the march in countless church halls, suburban sitting rooms, and even in the
salons of the rich. The New century was bringing with it new phenomena and a
awareness, the origins of which were shrouded in mystery. What the 'spirits' told them
most people took at face value, like sleepwalkers, stepping into the unknown.
(4) Professor William Crookes OM, Fellow of the Royal Society, President of the British Association of
Science, 1832-1919. British scientist, known for his discovery of the element Thallium in 1861, the
radiometer in 1875 and the vacuum tube, used in x-ray technology and the precursor of the cathode
ray tube, which forms the essential component of televisions and VDUs. He was awarded the Order
of Merit in 1910.

(5) Sir Arthur Connan Doyle, 1859-1930. Born in

Edinburgh,he later qualified as a doctor, and served in
South Africa during the Boer War. He is most well
known for his Sherlock Holmes books, the first of which
appeared in 1887. He also wrote adventure stories,
along with early examples of the science fiction genre.

In 1917 Doyle was involved in an investigation of a

number of photographs which claimed to show
images of 'fairies'.The photos had been taken by two
young girls, using a 'Midg' camera. The plates were
developed by their father, who was an amateur
photographer. The material was sent to the 'Kodak'
laboratories in London. Whilst the company was not
prepared to state that the photos were genuine, they
equally were unable to find any evidence of fraud. Critics of the photographs have pointed
out that the fairies in the picture appear to be wearing contemporary fashions and are
similar to depictions of fairies appearing on certain advertising material which was popular
at that time. As recently as 1970, however, the Wright sisters have maintained that the
photographs were genuine.
Perhaps the strongest evidence for their
authenticity is to be found in the blurring of the
extremities of certain figures, which indicates that
they are in movement, as the figure's positions would
suggest. Whilst such an effect would be easily
produced with today's sophisticated air-brush, or
computer techniques, it would be virtually impossible
to create in 1917. As with many of these phenomena,
we have a juxtaposing of absurdity, as in the
fashionable appearance of the fairies, contrasted
with the unexplainable, in terms of the apparent
genuineness of the figure's apparent movement, and
we are left, unable to judge one way or another. In
1922, Doyle published 'The Coming of the Fairies' [London; Hodder and Stoughton], which
describes the circumstances surrounding this baffling case, and contains reproductions of
the photographs in question.

Helena Hahn was born in the Ukraine on 12th August, 1831, about ten years after Joseph
Smith had his first brush with Moroni. Her father was Colonel Peter von Hahn, & her
mother, Helena de Fadeef was a well known
novelist & daughter of Princes Elena
Dolgorukov. Helena's mother died when she
was eleven & she was thereafter brought up
in her grandmother's house. She was an
exceptional child, learning Greek & Latin from
her grandmother. She painted & played had
an above average talent at the piano. As a
young girl, she also reported being able to
see various entities and indulged in 'automatic
She was married to Nikifor V Blavatsky, an
Imperial Civil Servant, in her late teens.
Blavatsky was middle-aged and the marriage,
which was never consummated, soon ended.
Shortly after the marriage Helena left him and,
with her father's financial support, made her way around Europe, acting as a paid
companion for successive wealthy ladies. In 1851 she was in London, at the Great
Exhibition, & it was at this time that she first met the mysterious 'Master Morya', in Hyde
Park of all places. Subsequently she claims to have developed powerful mediumistic
powers and later met the renowned American spiritualist medium Daniel Douglas Home.
As a result of his encouragement and advice she decided to travel to America.
In 1873 America was still an under-populated continent, the white Americans having
efficiently exterminated, with a few exceptions, the native population. The American
Government was calling out for people to emigrate, and there were many, like Helena, who
were only too willing to heed the call, to settle in the 'land of the free and the home of the
After a short while she found her feet, meeting, and shortly afterwards, marrying a
newspaper reporter called Colonel Henry S Olcott. After two years of marriage, feeling
that she was now financially secure, she set about establishing the Theosophical Society,
with Olcott's money. Success was slow in arriving. Two years later, however, she published
'Isis Unveiled' (1), which she declared had been produced by automatic writing, and as a
result of the book's astounding success, Theosophy took off.
The published aim of the Society was the study of hidden wisdom or knowledge;
what the Greeks would have called Gnosis. The Olcotts, not satisfied with the success
which Theosophy had generated in America, set sail, lock, stock and barrel, in 1878, for
India. In India they met, surprisingly perhaps, with an even greater success than that which
they had achieved in America. Everything went very well until 1884 when Richard
Hodgeson was sent by the Society of Psychical research to look into Madame Blavatsky's
claims. The whiff of fraud and scandal, resulting from the investigation of Madame
Blavatsky's more extravagant claims, forced her to return to Europe, where she settled in
London, spending her remaining years labouring to complete her final work, 'The Secret
Doctrine'. Shortly after its completion, in 1891, she died of heart disease, at the age of
Madame Blavatsky's life, like Joseph Smith's, was not entirely edifying, and we will
find this a recurring factor in the lives of many of the individuals described in this study. Her
significance and importance lies in her writings and teachings, rather than in her
personality, which was not attractive. Her two main claims to fame are the books published
in 1877 and 1888, respectively. The first, previously mentioned, was 'Isis Unveiled'
followed ten years later by 'The Secret Doctrine'.

(1) Isis is a goddess of Egyptian origin. She is said to be the

daughter of Geb and Nut, [the Earth and Sky], and the sister of
Osiris, whom she later married. When Set dismembered Osiris,
his brother, Isis searched for this dismembered pieces, and, with
the help of Anubis, the God of Embalming, re-animated Osiris.
Horus, the son of Isis, subsequently avenged his posthumous
father's death, by killing Set. Osiris was worshipped as God of
the under world in classical times, but Isis became the centre of a
Gnostic Mystery religion, eventually taking on the aspects and
powers of many of the Ancient Gods.

Both are massive works, revealing an amazing breadth of vision, often cogently and at
times elegantly expressed. The works belie their author, unlike Smith's work, which,
despite its remarkable substance, is always coarse and lacking in intellectual fines.
Unlike Smith, Madame Blavatsky made no attempt to accommodate Christianity into
her thought. Her teaching was influenced by Eastern thought and, of course, Gnosticism,
and espoused the doctrines of re-incarnation and karma. In addition, however, she
maintained that non-material occult forces existed which the initiated to control would be
able to control by virtue of the 'secret knowledge' which she taught.
One of her main preoccupations was centred round the belief that certain highly
evolved beings existed now, on earth, and could be contacted. These were referred to as
the 'Hidden Masters'; nine in number. Madame Blavatsky, of course, claimed to be in touch
with these beings, namely 'Master Morya' & 'Koot Hoomi', and it was over these claims
that the accusations of fraud were initially made. As in the case of Joseph Smith, and also
many of the later cases we shall consider, Madame Blavatsky was initially the recipient of
penetrating and accurate information, which she claimed originated with these 'Hidden
Masters', and for which there are few rational explanations. Her books, for example, like
Smith's revelations, go far beyond her own intellectual powers and ability. As in many other
cases, however,in time, she appears to have been abandoned by whatever or whoever
was providing her with this additional perception and inspiration. With only her own powers
to fall back on, she was easy prey for her enemies, although in her case this did not result
in a lynching, but rather in her credibility suffering a serious decline.
With regard to man's origins, Madame Blavatsky taught that there had been five
previous Root Races, and that the Aryans are the purest of the Fifth Root Race, while the
Negro is the most debased. The Jews, she claimed were a degenerate link between the
Fourth and Fifth Root Races. Finally, she suggested that the Races of man were, at
various times manipulated by beings from the stars. Whilst much of her Hindu inspired
teaching failed to gain a prolonged acceptance, her occult teachings about race were to
become remarkably influential as the years passed.
After Madame Blavatsky's death the Theosophical Society was taken over by Anna
Kingsford and Edward Maitland, and then later taken over by Annie Bessant and C W
Leadbeater. The last two managed to conjure up a modern-day messiah, in the person of
Jiddu Krishnamutri, who eventually felt obliged to 'blow the whistle' on the whole affair by
repudiating his role, with the result that the movement was discredited and suffered a
further decline from which it has never fully recovered.
While all these ideas can easily be dismissed as so much 'mumbo jumbo'. there are
correspondences between Blavatsky's teachings and those of Joseph Smith. It may, of
course, be argued that Madame Blavatsky spent some time in New York City, close to the
birth place of Joseph Smith. While that is true, it should be noted that by the time Madame
Blavatsky had arrived in New York, Mormonism, and every living Mormon,had been
forcibly removed from New York State at least thirty years previously. The Mormons, at the
time of Madame Blavatsky's short sojourn in America were thousands of miles away in
Utah, in self imposed exile. Equally few books on Mormonism, if any, were published in the
Eastern States, and those that may have been would have made little reference to the
secret Temple doctrines which Theosophy, in some strange way, shares with Mormonism.
That there are links between the two systems is beyond doubt, although those links
cannot be shown to exist in any cultural or academic manner. Were Koot Hoomi, Morya &
Moroni linked in any way ? Were Blavatsky & Smith snared by the same intelligence ? If
they were they were not the first & undoubtedly not the last.

The Rise of the Occult

Theosophy was but one manifestation of the continuing growth of interest in the occult
which developed throughout the nineteenth century. The occult teaching of Madame
Blavatsky was inspired, to some degree, by the religious philosophies of the East, but
there was an Occidental tradition as well, which had an even greater level of
correspondence with the resurrected Gnosticism of Joseph Smith.
The Occidental tradition has its origins in the remnants of Gnostic teaching which
had survived the destruction of the Classical world,
combined with the traditions from the Jewish Kabala (1),
Medieval ceremonial magic and the rituals of Freemasonry.
This tradition was revitalized by Alphonse Louis Constant;
better known as Eliphas Levi.
Levi was a failed Catholic Priest, who later became a left-
wing journalist, before turning to the Occult. In 1852,
through an association with a mysterious individual called
Wronski, who claimed to be of the Polish nobility, he
became involved in the study of ceremonial magic. In 1856
he completed the publication of 'The Ritual and Doctrine of
High Magic', which was followed later by 'The Key of the
Mysteries' and 'The History of Magic'. His writings were
studied in France particularly, where they had an important
influence on the emergence of 'fin-de-siecle' culture, but
were also read widely in the rest of Europe and England, in translation. Levi died in 1875,
two years before the publication of Madame Blavatsky's 'Isis Unveiled'.
In England, the most vociferous exponent of this new dawn of the occult was the
writer, Bulwer-Lytton. Born in 1803, in London, he was publicly honoured for his services to
literature by being raised to the Peerage, as Baron Lytton of Knebworth. Not surprisingly,
he was a friend of such respectable Victorian figures as Charles Dickens and Benjamin
Disrelli, and pursued a highly successful literary career, until his death in 1873. Like
Joseph Smith, he was a Master Freemason, but in addition he was also a member of the
English Rosicrucian Society (2).
Among Lytton's works was 'The Haunted and the Haunters', in which he paid
homage to Eliphas Levi, portraying him as a master of the occult arts. Probably Lytton's
most famous work, however, which was a best-seller in England, was 'The Last Days of
Pompeii', but this was by no means his most significant book. In terms of influence, 'The
Coming Race' far outclassed 'The Last Days of Pompeii', and had a far greater following,
in translation, in Germany rather than England.

(1) The Kabala, (also spelt Kabbalah and Quabalah etc.), is a system of Jewish ceremonial magic
which received its most elaborate exposition during the Middle Ages, although its origins lie in the
Gnosticism of the last centuries of the pre-Christian era. It teaches that there are ten levels of reality,
(seven of which correspond to the Gnostic planetary spheres). The lowest of these levels is the Earthly
or material plane. The planes are inter-related, and these relationships are referred to as 'The Tree of
Life', because their diagrammatic representation brings to mind a schematic representation of a tree.
By ritual it is possible to focus the consciousness and will to the extent that a path from the lowest level
to the highest may be undertaken, which will awaken in the aspirant those powers to which we have
previously referred.

(2) The Rosicrucian Order has its origins in Germany in the Seventeenth Century. The first
document relating to this teaching was first circulated in 1610, and was subsequently published four
years later under the title 'The History of the Fraternity of the Meritorious Order of the Rosy Cross'. For
a long time the Order was mainly associated with the alchemical search for the 'universal solvent' the
'universal panacea' and the means of transmuting base metal into gold. The rituals of Rosicrucian
Masonry, however, have always contained elements which were strongly associate with the Gnostic
and Kabbalistic traditions. It is generally accepted that Rosicrucian teachings have contributed
considerably to the development of Freemasonry, and in Lytton's time the 'Societas Rosicruciana in
Anglia', founded by Robert Wentworth Little in 1865, was one of the most eminent of the 'additional
degrees' open to those who had reached the highest degree in speculative craft Masonry. This 'higher'
order of Masonry provided most of the members of the breakaway movement, known as the 'Golden

Shortly before Lytton's death Germany became a single political entity, as a result of the
machinations of Prince Otto von Bismarck, the 'Iron Chancellor'. German intellectuals were
eager for a national and cultural identity, which was understandable, but in addition they
were looking for a new spiritual dimension upon which to base their rising nationalism.
'The Coming Race' describes the discovery of a subterranean civilisation ruled by
'supermen'; who bear an uncanny resemblance to Madame Blavatsky's 'Hidden Masters'
and the supernatural beings encountered by Joseph Smith. The superhuman beings, in
Lytton's book, are described as having developed a super-normal psychic power, known
as the 'vril', which enabled them to produce phenomena which would normally be
described as miraculous. The upshot of this was that this race would eventually take over
the Earth.
The word 'Vril' is, in fact, an ancient Sanskrit word used to describe the enormous
energy which can be made available as the result of the awakening of certain dormant
faculties in man. The main ingredient that is required to do this, apparently, is a certain
esoteric 'knowledge'. Whether or not Lytton's account of the 'Vril' was, in his own mind,
fictional, the concept was taken up by many occultists in Germany and had far reaching
effects. The main protagonist of this concept in Germany was Karl Haushofer, the
celebrated professor of Geopolitics, of whom we shall hear further.
Lytton's stories about the coming race, along with Blavatsky's doctrine of the
'Hidden Masters' had their effect in England, as well as Germany. In the late eighteen
hundreds, two gentlemen, who were interested in the occult and Freemasonry,, were Dr.
Woodford and Dr. Wynn Westcott, a London coroner. These two respectable gentlemen
mysteriously acquired some manuscripts which, they maintained, described certain
magical rituals. Along with the manuscripts came the name and address of a certain Anna
Sprengel, of Nurnberg. (3) The manuscripts were written in a strange script, which a half-
century before would have probably been described as 'Reformed Egyptian'. Westcott
wrote to Anna Sprengel, who replied, informing him that the rituals were associated with a
magical group, in Germany, calling itself 'Die Goldene Dammerung' (4). Apparently Anna
Sprengel, in 1888, authorised Westcott to set up an English branch of the 'Hermetic Order
of the Golden Dawn' in London. At the same time Westcott contacted Samuel Liddel
Mathers (5), a somewhat eccentric occult scholar to assist him in fleshing out the contents
of the Nurnberg documents to enable them to be used as practical rituals.

(3) Nurnberg (Eng. Nuremberg), a city in Bavaria in southern Germany. The city was immortalized
by Richard Wagner in 'Die Meistersingers', and was subsequently considered to be the spiritual home
of Nazism, being the location of the Party Rallies, which were held there from 1933 until 1938.

(4) This name has always been translated into English as 'The Golden Dawn' but it should be
noted that 'dammerung' can be equally translated as 'twilight'. A more unequivocal word for 'dawn'
would have been 'tagesanbruch'.

(5) Samuel Liddel 'MacGregor' Mathers, was born in 1854, the son
of a clerk. On leaving school, he became a clerk in his father's footsteps.
At the age of twenty three he became a Freemason, rapidly rising
through the craft's degrees. Through his interest in Masonry he met Wyn
Westcott and William Woodford, who introduced him to the Rosicrucian

As with Smith's 'tablets', it is reasonable to accept that the cipher manuscripts existed, as
many reputable individuals affirmed that they had seen and handled them. The cipher,
however was supposedly cracked by Westcott, or Mathers, or, possibly both of them. How
much of the documents they were able to translate, however, is open to question. It is
equally possible that Smith was unable to translate the Moroni 'plates', and relied on
Cowdery's inventiveness for the stories of pre-colonial America whilst obtaining his
doctrines from the mysterious Moroni. Equally Mathers claimed to be in contact with the
'Hidden Masters' who may well be the source of the more profound teachings which
Mathers ascribed to the 'Golden Dawn' manuscript.
In 1891, somewhat conveniently for Westcott and Mathers, Anna Sprengel died,
and all contact with the Order in Nurnberg, mysteriously, ceased. Six years later Westcott
resigned his position in the order and Mathers became the undisputed leader of the
'Golden Dawn' in England.
Despite its impenetrable secrecy, the Order flourished, establishing Temples in
Edinburgh, Bradford, Weston-super-Mare and, of course London. Surprisingly, people from
all walks of life joined the order, including many individuals of considerable eminence.
Such members included W B Yeates (6), Peck (7), Gerald Kelly (8), Moina Bergson (9),
Bram Stoker (10) and Arthur Machen (11), along with many lesser luminaries of the time.
Among those who were more single minded in their pursuit of the occult were George
Cecil Jones, Allan Bennett and, of course, Aleister Crowley.
The 'Golden Dawn', in its original charter, had received, according to Westcott and
Mathers, only the first five grades of the Order. These were supposedly described in the
Nurnberg manuscript. Apparently there were four further grades, which the parent order in
Germany refused to hand over. As all communication with the order in had Germany
ceased, the 'Golden Dawn', in England underwent a crisis, as the rank and file members
drifted away in their disappointment.
Faced with the possible dissolution of the order, Mathers was forced to act. In 1892,
at a general meeting of the order, Mathers announced that, as a result of certain magical
operations, he had been able to contact, not the celestial guardians as expected, but
instead the 'secret chiefs of the Third Order'. Mathers described these secret chiefs in
some detail.
To begin with, they were superhuman adepts. They were able to appear in ordinary
human form, and therefore either possessed material bodies or were capable of
manifesting indistinguishable counterfeits. Mathers stated that he had communicated with
them in their 'human' form, but on most occasions they had manifested themselves on the
Astral Plane.

(6) William Butler Yeates, 1865-1939. Irish poet and leader of

the Celtic Revival, of Anglo-Irish descent, he was born in Dublin,
the son of a lawyer, turned artist. In 1917 he married Georgie
Hyde-Lees, a medium. He was a member of the Irish Senate from
1922-1937, and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1923. Yeates,
himself, eventually became Master of the London Temple.

(7) The Astronomer Royal of Scotland.

(8) Subsequently knighted, he was appointed President of the Royal Academy.

(9) Daughter of the French philosopher Henri Bergson, who was awarded the Nobel prize for
literature in 1928.

(10) Bram Stoker, 1847-1912. Irish novelist who is best remembered for the horror story, 'Dracula'

(11) Author of 'The Great God Pan' and the mysterious 'Angels of Mons'.
When they had appeared to him on the Astral Plane manner he described them as appearing in
symbolic form, with robes and regalia. He made it clear that they were beings of immense power,
capable of causing those in their presence to experience feelings of intense physical depression
combined with a sense of suffocation and difficulty in breathing.

It is interesting to not that Joseph Smith records in the 'Pearl of Great Price' that,
after Moroni's visit to him he was overtaken with extreme lethargy and was unable to do
any work on the following day. Equally, mediums who conduct spiritualist seances usually
suffer from a period of physical and mental exhaustion after establishing contact with dis-
incarnate entities.
The general meeting, to which Mathers made the announcement regarding his
contact with the 'secret chiefs', voted overwhelmingly that the rituals which Mathers
claimed had been revealed to him should be accepted, and so the 'Golden Dawn' was able
to continue along a path which, it seems, was now being dictated to it from some other
Eventually Yeates, Mathers and Crowley clashed and the Order split up into a
number of warring factions, riven by scandal and lack of leadership. Its influence faded
after the turn of the century, and it was cast away by those who had created it. The
question remains, however; who created the 'Golden Dawn', which heralded in the golden
twilight ?
The Aiwas Manuscript

Possibly the most famous, or rather infamous member of the 'Golden Dawn' was Aleister
Crowley was born in 1875, at Leamington Spa, in Warwickshire. It was a
surprisingly prosaic beginning for someone who was later to be dubbed 'the wickedest
man in the world'.

His father was a wealthy brewer, who also owned numerous ale houses around London.
Despite the fact that he had made his fortune from drink,
Crowley's father, and the whole family, for that matter,
were members of the Plymouth Brethren, a Christian sect
which campaigned vociferously for 'temperance', in other
words, total abstinence from alcohol (1). Because of the
family's considerable wealth, and despite the reputation of
the Brethren for frugality, Crowley was spoilt as a child,
while at the same time he rebelled against the stultifying
morality of his elders, particularly after the death of his
father in 1887.
After a succession of private tutors he eventually went to
Cambridge, where he began to write poetry, somewhat in
the 'neo-pagan' style of Swinburne. On leaving
Cambridge he travelled in Russia and northern Europe,
taking up professional chess and also mountaineering,
which he later pursued in the Alps and the Himalayas. His
real interest, though was magic.
In 1898, while on a climbing holiday in the Alps, Crowley met a certain Julian L
Baker. On his return to London Baker introduced Crowley to George Cecil Jones, who told
Crowley about the 'Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn', which had been established ten
years earlier. Crowley, subsequently joined the order and made rapid progress through the
various grades. Shortly after Crowley became involved with the Order, a long running
dispute between Mathers and Yeates erupted, and Crowley took Mather's part. The
argument caused irreparable damage to the Order, which proceeded to fragment in bitterly
opposed factions. In response to the collapse of the 'Golden Dawn', which Crowley had
hoped to lead, he set up his own magical Order in 1907; the 'Argenteum Astrum'; the
'Silver Star'.
Three years earlier, Crowley had married Gerald Kelly's sister, Rose. Theirs had
been a whirlwind romance, followed by an equally hectic tour of the Orient. Whilst in Egypt,
Crowley and his wife spent a night in the King's Chamber of the Great Pyramid at Gizeh.
Exhibiting his usual recklessness, he proceeded to read the introductory invocation from
the 'Goetia'. According to Crowley, this resulted in the windowless chamber being filled
with a pale lilac phosphorescence, which Crowley identified as the 'astral light'. No further
manifestations occurred however, and by Crowley's standards the incident could hardly
have been described as a success.
On their return journey, the 'honeymooners' returned to Egypt, renting a flat in Cairo.
There they spent many happy hours conjuring up sylphs and other such entities. By this
time Rose was showing signs that she had mediumistic powers, regularly drifting into
trance-like states.

(1) The Plymouth Brethren were founded in 1827 by the Reverend John Nelson Darby, in Dublin.
They are extreme Protestant Fundamentalists, believing in the absolute truth of scripture. They are
violently opposed to gambling, drink, any form of entertainment or frivolity, and condemn any sexual
activity not associated with procreation or within the bounds of matrimony. In 1848 the movement split
into 'Open' and 'Close' brethren. The 'Close Brethren' do not allow themselves any contact with those
outside their sect. Crowley's father belonged to the 'Open Brethren'.

In these states she kept repeating a message, presumably from some spirit entity,
indicating that Crowley had 'offended Horus'. Initially, Crowley did not put much store by
these manifestations, but when Rose insisted that he should invoke 'Horus', and
proceeded to describe to him the form of the invocation, Crowley changed his mind.
Rose took Crowley to the Boulak Museum, close to their
flat, and showed him a stele, on which was an image of
the God Horus, along with certain pertinent inscriptions.
Rose, in a state of trance, told Crowley that 'they are
waiting for you', and, as a result, Crowley became
convinced that the 'Secret Chiefs' were attempting to
contact him. He therefore proceeded to make the
appropriate invocation on the night of March 19th, 1904.
Rose acted as the mouthpiece of the God and informed
Crowley that 'the Equinox of the Gods' was imminent,
bringing with it a new epoch in human History. Much to
Crowley's satisfaction he was also told that he had been
chosen as the intermediary between the Gods and
According to Rose these messages came from an entity
called Aiwas. The final message, mediated via Rose, told
Crowley to go to his study, at midday, on the 8th, 9th and
10th of April and write down all that he heard. Crowley
obeyed and the results of those sessions in his study
emerged as 'The Book of the Law' ('Liber al vel Legis').
The book takes the form of a long prose-poem, which has been variously described
as a literary masterpiece; a pathetic Swinburnian fin-de-siecle parody, and most points
The origins of the work are, not surprisingly, also the topic of considerable debate
and dispute. The most obvious view is that Crowley, seeking to outmanoeuvre Mathers,
and all other prominent occultists, for that matter, decided to cobble together some of his
own ideas, passing them off as a definitive communication from the 'Secret Chiefs' or
'Unknown Supermen'.
This would undoubtedly account for the considerable similarity between the purple prose
of Aiwas, and the equally mannered poetry which Crowley had been publishing,
unsuccessfully, since his youth.
This assessment, however, does not fit in with the odd fact that Crowley lost the
'Aiwas Manuscript' soon after he had 'written' it, and on recovering it, at a later date,
proceeded to loose it again. The fact that this happened a number of times, along with
written evidence, from Crowley, that he was both embarrassed and disturbed by the
Manuscript's contents, appear to weaken this initial argument.
A less jaundiced view suggests that 'The Book of the Law' is, in fact, a product of
Crowley's subconscious, and that Aiwas is a mask behind which Crowley can hide. Such a
view would imply that subconsciously he was still afraid of censure from his Puritanical
superego, created in the course of his Plymouth Brethren youth, and it was for this reason
that the manuscript mysteriously 'disappeared' on a number of occasions.
This argument is persuasive; but still leaves a last, and possibly least welcome
proposition. This view would suggest that such an entity as Aiwas existed, indeed may still
exist. Equally such a proposition would suggest that this entity telepathically
communicated with Crowley, in a similar manner to which it would have communicated
with Rose, and communicated to Crowley certain ideas which, because they would have to
pass through Crowley's thought processes, would, inevitably, be expressed in terms of
Crowley's own inimitable style.
In contrast to many biographers of, and commentators on Crowley, there are some
who would suggest that the contents of 'The Book of the Law' are far from commonplace
or trite. The central themes are remarkably fresh, and have about them the ambience of a
New Age, the 'Age of Horus' which Aiwas so emphatically ushers in.
That that 'New Age' looks to many of us, now, like a faded sepia vision is no fault of
Crowley's, for in its time his vision, the vision of Aiwas, would lead to a public outcry which
would charge Crowley, in all seriousness, with being the 'Wickedest Man in the World',
whilst politicians and generals, responsible for the pointless slaughter of millions, would be
feted and honoured the world over.
To what extent did the revelations of Aiwas have any bearing upon, or
correspondence with the revelations given by Moroni to Joseph Smith, or the spiritualist
revelations of the Fox sisters or Madame Blavatsky's messages from 'the Nine' ?
Smith's revelations came encoded in Biblical pastiches; the Fox sisters received
messages which were as trite as the gossip of teenage girls; Madame Blavatsky's 'Isis
Unveiled' is, antithetically, 'veiled' in Oriental philosophy and Crowley is given a message
from Aiwas which is particularly suited to the dawning new age. Each message partakes,
not surprisingly, of its time and its herald, but within each there runs a similar theme.
The most surprising correspondence between the Aiwas manuscript and Joseph
Smith's teachings is the Egyptian connection. The Gnosticism which pervades Smith's
Temple doctrines and Freemasonry is mirrored in the equinox of the Gods which refers to
Osiris, the brother of Isis, and Horus. Both systems involve Gnostic symbolism. Equally the
deification of man, and the overturning of certain accepted moral values are to be found
both in the teachings of Smith and the teachings of Aiwas.
The message of Aiwas, while clothed in
flowing language and metaphor, was sufficiently
'contemporary' to be able to be presented in a
series of 'headlines' or 'slogans' which Crowley
would continue repeating, until the end of his
life, and which would then re-emerge in the
counter-culture of the Sixties.
The Equinox of the Gods was the end of
one age, the Age of Osiris, the resurrected
God; and the opening of the New Age of Horus,
the son of Osiris. Horus (Horos) is represented
as a falcon or hawk, or as a young man,
dressed in a white loincloth, with a falcon's
head. He is the God of the sky, and is also
often given Solar attributes. Horus is not, as
some commentators have suggested, a God of
war. The throne of Egypt, upon which the
Pharos of the many dynasties sat, was known
as the Horus Throne, the back of which took
the form of a huge golden falcon, representing
the power and might of Egypt and her ancient
This new age required a new morality which
Aiwas carefully enunciated. The first precept of
this new age was, 'Do what thou wilt shall be
the whole of the Law'. What thou wilt, here
stands for the 'true will', and is not, as has often been thought, a libertine's charter. The
problem, of course, lies in establishing what is the 'true will', and it would perhaps make, at
this point, an interesting exercise for the reader.
The second commandment of the new age is, 'Love is he Law, Love under Will'.
Often, probably wilfully, misinterpreted by both the guardians of morality, ever since
Crowley penned the words, and the proponents of 'free love' from the sixties onwards, this
commandment, too, requires greater discipline than one might imagine.
The will referred to, again. of course, is the 'true will', and love is the creative principle, and
not simply its physical expression.
The third 'slogan' is not a commandment but rather an affirmation. 'Every man and
every woman is a star'. It is interesting that Crowley published this statement at the very
time that the concept of the media 'star' was coming to birth. The affirmation indicates that
every human being is unique, holding within themselves the vast, divine potential of the
'true will'.
Aiwas concluded with the contention that 'the word of Sin is Restriction'. Once
again, this is a statement that can easily be misconstrued. According to Crowley it means
that no restrictions should be put upon the 'true will'.
These, then, are the instantly accessible teachings of the Aiwas manuscript. The
document, however, is long and complex, and much of it is given to prophetic
pronouncements, describing the collapse of the Osirian Age in a frenzy of unimaginable
bloodshed and destruction, as there is an almost Nitzschean transvaluation of values
before the dawning of the new age of freedom. Not surprisingly, the document also affirms
the reality of magic, the existence of spiritual entities and the existence of the 'Unknown
Supermen', of which Aiwas is one. The book denies the values of equality, democracy and
the existing system of morality and values, and in particular, is rabidly anti-Christian. That,
in itself, was sufficient, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, to bring public censure
and condemnation upon the presumed author, Crowley.
It was not until 1909 that Crowley was willing to give the manuscript serious
consideration, as by then, to the astute, the event of war, as prophesied by Aiwas, was
slowly becoming a faint possibility. As there had been no war in Europe since 1871, and
peace had been accompanied by unprecedented technical and scientific progress, to the
vast majority, the prophesies of 'The Book of the Law' were as absurd as its morality, but
Crowley probably knew better. Aiwas certainly did.
By 1912, Crowley was still searching for a way of spreading the teachings of Aiwas,
and in that year he became involved with the 'Ordo Templi Orientis'; the 'Order of the
Temple of the East', usually known by the abbreviation OTO. In Crowley's time the Order
was headed by an eccentric German, Theodore Reuss (2). The Order had originally be
founded by Karl Kellner, who had since died, and Reuss was his successor.
Reuss visited Crowley in London in 1913, and proceeded to accuse Crowley of
revealing, in his published works, the secrets of the Ninth Grade of the OTO. Crowley
hastened to point out that he had not, as yet, been initiated into the ninth grade, and that
therefore it would have been impossible for him to have made such revelations. In the
ensuing discussion it appeared that Crowley's teachings about the sexual nature of some
aspect of magic, which had appeared in his recent publication, 'The Book of Lies', exactly
mirrored the rituals of the Ninth grade of the OTO. The fact that Crowley appears to have
come to an identical understanding, through his own efforts, undoubtedly points to the
remarkable abilities of that much maligned individual. Equally such an understanding might
have been communicated to him from some other source, possibly Aiwas; Crowley does
not say.

(2) Reuss was a journalist, music hall singer, and a member of the German Secret Service.
The upshot of Crowley's meeting with Reuss was the establishment of a branch of
the OTO in England, under Crowley's control, while at the same time Crowley's work
became widely known and influential amongst German Occultists. Undoubtedly, if the
Great War had not intervened, Crowley would have attempted to turn the OTO into a
vehicle for disseminating the 'truth' of the 'Book of the Law'. The War, however, which
Crowley had long anticipated, and Aiwas had prophesied put paid the Crowley's plans,
along with plans, and the lives of many others.

Russian Interlude

Early in his life, while still studying at Cambridge, Crowley visited Russia; St Petersburg,
as it is now, once again, known, which was then Russia's capital. He had, it appears, some
rather vague and romantic notions about entering the Diplomatic Service, and thought the
Russian capital might make an interesting spot from which to launch his career. Few
people would consider the city, once known as Lenningrad, with it food shortages and grey
bureaucrats, as particularly romantic today.
In Crowley's time, in 1897, however, it was the capital of a vast, mighty and
mysterious Empire. Ensconced in the elegant, white and gold Winter Palace, surrounded
by his inscrutable Cossack guards, was Nicholas Romanov, Tsar of All the Russias,
Supreme Autocrat; and around him was his glittering court, presided over by his beautiful
German wife, the Tsarina Alexandra Feodorovna, formerly princess Alix of Hesse.
The vast Empire, over which the chain smoking, indecisive Tsar (1) ruled, was
made up of many races and cultures. Germanic and Slavic peoples in the West, Moslems
in the South and Mongols in the East. As for religions, there were Russian Orthodox
Christians, Catholics, Protestants, Moslems, Buddhists, Animists and, of course, the Jews.
The Empire was also like a veritable time machine. In Moscow and St Petersburg one
could hear all the latest gossip from Europe, in the salons of the wealthy, whilst the
proletariat worked ceaselessly in the new factories, producing consumer goods on the
endless production lines. In the countryside, though, one could find serfs tied to the land,
and using farming methods from the Middle Ages. Cities like Samarkand and Bokhara still
existed in a world of a 'Thousand and One Nights', whilst in the East the Mongol and Tartar
hordes still rode the frozen Steppes, and shamans drummed themselves into oblivion.
Across this vast Empire passed commerce and armies, Imperial officials and the
odd tourist, and holy men. The 'time warp' that was Russia still allowed for spiritual
adventurers and the merely insane to exist beside 'normal' society.
As Crowley, and others, have pointed out, throughout history individuals have gone
away, often upon a journey, and usually into some inhabited region, and have later
returned changed. Often these people were nobodies; people with ordinary jobs, little
status and average education. On their return they may establish nations, write books,
found religions or reform society. People are captivated by them, and in some cases
worship them. Moses, Jesus, St. Paul, Mohammed and Gutama Siddhartha are just a few
of the most famous examples. Joseph Smith was alone in the woods, Madame Blavatsky
travelled across the the endless Russia plains, and Crowley received enlightenment in the
deserts of the Sahara. Gregory Efimovich, 'Rasputin' wandered the Steppes and the cities
of Russia and helped to destroy an empire.
Born sometime during the 1860s, Grigory Efimovich Rasputin was born in the
village of Pokrovskoe, near Toblosk, the illiterate son of a poverty stricken peasant. Rather
than work on the land, as a serf, he became a monk. This gave him the freedom he
needed; serfs weren't allowed to travel outside their village without their master's
permission. During his wanderings something happened to him. He believed he had been
touched and possessed by God. In retrospect, one might ask; which God ?
(1) On the day of his accession, in 1894, 'Nicky' confided to
his brother-in-law, Grand Duke Alexander, that he knew nothing of
the business of ruling.

Soon he developed a reputation for healing, and he

became widely known as a Holy man. In the West a
voracious and openly expressed sexual appetite is not the
usual attribute of a man of religion, and Church of England
vicars interfering with choirboys, or American Evangelists
resorting to prostitutes is usually frowned upon. Crowley's
sexual athleticism, in like mode, was responsible for much
of the censure he suffered during his lifetime. In Russia,
however, a rampant sexuality was considered, by many
people, to be evidence of spirituality rather than its
antithesis. In fact Gregory Efimovich's nickname,
Rasputin, means 'dissolute one' and was given to him as
a sign of approval, rather than censure.
That Rasputin had super-natural powers is beyond
dispute. Even in the few photographs that exist of him, his
eyes burn through the page in a hypnotic stare.
Apart from healing and sex he was able to consume staggering quantities of Vodka with
which his fawning admirers endlessly plied him. In addition he prophesied future events,
both mundane and profound. Significantly he foretold the coming destruction of the
Romanovs and the cataclysm of fire and blood which was soon to sweep Europe. He also
foretold his own down fall.
In 1905 Rasputin arrived in St Petersburg, his reputation preceding him. St. John of
Cronstadt and the Grand Duke Nicholas Nicolaievich provided both ecclesiastical and
aristocratic acceptance, and it was not long before Rasputin's name was brought to the
attention of the Tsarina.
Although the Tsarina was deeply religious, having converted from Protestantism to
the Russian Orthodox Church on her marriage to Nicholas, it was not Rasputin's religious
teaching which interested her, but rather his ability to heal.

Her son, the Tsarevich, Alexis, had been born with the genetic
disease haemophilia. This disease, endemic among the royal
families of Europe, while only effecting males, is inherited from
the female side. It is caused by a lack of the blood-clotting
agent, Factor VIII, which is normally present in the body, and
cause uncontrollable bleeding, often internally, which is
particularly painful when occurring around the joints. While the
missing chemical can now be supplied in the form of
injections, at the turn of the century, its existence was
unknown, and doctors were unable to successfully treat the
condition. Individuals who suffered from this condition often
failed to survive beyond young adulthood, and the Tsarevich's
prognosis was, therefore, poor.
Having dismissed the doctors, who were unable to treat
the condition with anything other than platitudes, the Tsarina
had resorted to prayer and faith-healers. Having decided that the latest candidate, a
French healer, was unable to alleviate her son's worsening condition, the Tsarina turned to
Rasputin in desperation. Amazingly, while he was unable to completely cure the Tsarevich,
he was able to control the symptoms sufficiently for the boy to begin to lead a normal life.
The Tsar and Tsarina were overjoyed. Their son, Alexis, was well and the succession was,
apparently, assured. The Empire was safe (2).
The Tsarina's gratitude was boundless and Rasputin could have had almost
anything he desired. Undoubtedly he did accept gifts from the Imperial family, and from the
noble and the wealthy who flocked to him to be healed and to hear his teachings and
prophecies, but, like a true holy man, he was not greedy, except, perhaps when it came to
Vodka and sex.

(2) In 1917, with the war going badly for Russia, the Tsar was forced to abdicate. When the
Bolsheviks toppled the Kerensky Government and took power, in November of 1917, they transported
the Imperial family to Ekaterinberg where the entire family was shot, in July of 1918.

The real reward he sought, like so many, was power. Now power, or powers, he
undoubtedly had; but the power he sought was the power over empires. It was an odd
weakness for an illiterate peasant, and for this reason, much to the Ochrana's disgust, he
couldn't be 'bought off'.
Rasputin's teachings were not complex, although they were controversial. His main
contention was that in order to receive God's grace it was necessary to sin and
subsequently repent. The forgiveness of God was, for Rasputin, essentially God's mystic
grace of redemption. As most of Rasputin's sins were those of the flesh, it is possible to
see a connection between his teachings and the sexually orientated 'magick' of Crowley,
along with Joseph Smith's doctrine regarding 'celestial marriage'. Whilst Rasputin's
teachings may seem scandalous today, it should be remembered that the fringes of
Russian religiosity held some unusual attitudes, including Rasputin's doctrine, which
attracted a considerable acceptance as it derived from ancient tradition, and doctrines
sufficiently extreme as to espouse the wholesale castration of male devotees. Equally the
Anna-Baptists in Germany, certain Christian Gnostic, and Buddhist and Hindu sects
were known to encouraged a similar attitude towards sin and repentance.
Rasputin's other main belief was in the God given right of the Tsar to rule as
supreme Autocrat, untrammelled by the interference of the Duma or any other liberal
Rasputin's politics were not in accord with the oncoming tide of events. Regardless
of his 'powers' he still only had a peasant's intellect. He was, however, astute enough to
realise that the one thing the Tsar could not risk was war.
Strangely enough, at the very moment when the Tsar was most in need of
Rasputin's advice, Rasputin was in hospital, recovering from an assassination attempt in
Pokrovskoe, which had occurred at the same time as the successful attempt on the life of
Franz-Ferdinand. If Rasputin had been at his master's side, at that time,it is unlikely that
Nicholas would have instigated the mobilisation which made the Great War inevitable.
Rasputin did manage to send a telegram to his sovereign, but this was as nothing
compared to his own presence. And so war could not be averted. In such manner do the
Gods use and judge those whom they 'favour' with their attention.
Two years into the war, unable to tolerate his interference in the affairs of state any
further a group of nobles, close to the throne, assassinated Rasputin. Undoubtedly,
though, the hand of God still touched him. In the event it required arsenic sufficient to kill a
dozen men to merely incapacitate him. Panicking, his assassins shot him repeatedly yet
unsuccessfully. It was only by immersing him in the freezing waters of the Neva, and finally
forcing him beneath the ice, that they were able to kill him. It was a lot of trouble to go to
over a man who's influence on history had been immense, but who was by then a
superfluous character on a doomed stage.
There was another individual in Russia, at the
time, who merits our attention. George Ivanovitch
Georgiades was born in Alexandropol on the Shiraki
Steppe. It is open to some debate as to whether the
town was in Armenia or Georgia. His father was Greek
and his mother was Armenian.
Early in his childhood it was recognised that he
was a boy of remarkable intelligence and ability.
Although his father was a carpenter, and had little
money to spare for his son's education, the Dean of the
Cathedral at Kars took the young Georgiades, now
nicknamed 'Gurdjief', under his wing, and provided him
with a first class education (3).

(3) For sometime Gurdjieff trained in a Russian Orthodox

seminary with Joseph Vissarionovich Djugashvili. Not
surprisingly, Djugashvili later changed his name to Stalin,
meaning 'steel in Russian.

Like Rasputin, Gurdjieff decided to travel. An account of his wanderings is given in his
book 'Meetings with Remarkable Men'. According to Gurdjieff, his wanderings were on a
far more epic scale than Rasputin's. They take in Egypt, the Sudan, Abyssinia, Palestine,
Crete, Persia, Afghanistan, India, Tibet, Siberia and, of course, Europe. Apparently, if we
are to believe his written accounts, these journeys lasted for over twenty years.
One question that remains unanswered is how he was able to pass through all
theses frontiers and countries so easily. Travel at the turn of the century was not as easy
or simple as it is today. In the areas of the world where Gurdjieff was travelling there were
few tourists, if any, and it was necessary to have a good reason for travelling if one wished
to avoid the attentions of the local police or military. We know that the British authorities in
New Delhi, in India, maintained an intelligence dossier regarding his activities, and that in
1900 he was probably held by the Darjeeling police for questioning. It is almost certain that
he had some connection with the Ochrana, and other areas of the Imperial Russian
Government, and that in this way he not only had the necessary papers, but also the
finances to support such a mammoth undertaking (4).
Regardless of what the original purpose of his journeys had been, when he came
back from them he was a changed man.
Whether that change had occurred in the King's chamber of the Great Pyramid, which he
too, like Crowley, had visited, or whether it occurred in the silent wastes of the Steppes or
the Olympian chill of the high passes of the Himalayas, in Tibet, or perhaps in the
wilderness of Sin we shall never know. Regardless, he returned, as so many have
returned, with the power to heal, to read the thoughts of others and project his own
thoughts; a desire to teach, to write and a certain sense of invulnerability which afflicts
almost all whom the Gods touch.
On his return he set himself up in St Petersburg but was soon forced to flee as first
the War, and then the Bolshevik Revolution, disrupted the society around him. He settled,
finally, in France, at Fontainebleau. There disciples flocked to him. Among them was
Crowley, although he didn't stay long. Fontainebleau was 'not big enough for the both of
them', so Crowley left to pursue his own aims. Perhaps Gurdjieff's most brilliant disciple
was Piotr Demianovich Ouspensky, who was originally a scientist, and who, therefore,
always approached Gurdjieff's ideas from a more logical viewpoint as evidenced by his
most famous work, 'Tertium Organum'.
There has been much speculation regarding Gurdjieff's links with German occultists.
Gurdjieff, it appears, visited Germany on a number of occasions, and after the Russian
revolution considered settling there. Through his travels in the Orient, and his links with
Eastern occult organisations it is also almost certain that he had close links with Professor
Karl Haushofer, the eminent Orientalist and Geopolitician. It is, after all, odd that such an
eccentric, anti-authoritarian, and 'racially impure' individual, living in Paris during the
occupation, would have been so studiously ignored by the German authorities.
Undoubtedly Gurdjieff's insistence on achieving an 'awakened' state found strong echoes
in Volkisch occult circles, and in the teachings of Crowley, which were influential in
Germany during the inter-war years.

(4) It is suggested by certain commentators that Gurdjieff had audiences with the Tsar, which would
have put him on a par with Rasputin.

Gurdjieff's system of thought bears little resemblance to Rasputin's simple peasant

faith. The 'system' and 'method' which Gurdjieff taught was as complex and torturous as
his books. The system quite consciously borrowed many of its ideas from Gnosticism and
other ancient Near Eastern traditions, including the Essenes (5) and the Sufis (6), and
although claiming to be allegorical, there are constant references, in 'Beelzebub's Tales', to
interplanetary travel and contacts between earth and extra terrestrial entities. Gurdjieff also
teaches of the existence of 'higher beings', responsible for the ordering and guiding
mankind, along similar lines to the ideas proposed by Smith, Blavatsky, Bessant, Lytton,
Mathers, Crowley etc.
That Gurdjieff was a man of his time is evidenced, not only by his by his concept of
man being basically a machine, but also by his development of 'sacred dances' as an
essential part of the process of 'awakening', which may be seen as a reflection of the then
fashionable interest in movement and dance pioneered by such individuals a Diagalev (7),
Nijinsky (8) and Isadora Duncan (9). His doctrine that work brings freedom, while not being
new or original, was also of the time, having its echo in the SS motto 'Arbeit macht
In many ways Gurdjieff's teaching can be seen to be a summation or a synthesis of
much that had gone before. It is, undoubtedly, the most syncretic of all the teachings that
we have so far encountered, and that is probably the very reason why Gurdjieff has had
such a profound influence on intellectual and artistic thought in the present century. Its
syncretic nature has, however, for many, been its downfall. Being all things to all men it is
a system, much like Theosophy, from which one may pick and choose; a sort of
supermarket of the occult. Because some of its concepts are based on little known
actuality, though, it can be dangerous to shop without due care, as many have discovered.
Having survived two World Wars, Gurdjieff's sense of invulnerability, in the end did
him no good, and his reckless driving around Paris and Fontainebleau precipitated a
number of near fatal crashes, which hastened his end. On the 29th October 1949 George
Ivanovitch Gurdjieff died, taking the many secrets of his strange travels, and his
connections with some of the great and infamous, with him to the grave.

(5) The Essenes were a Jewish sect which arose, in the First Century BC, in response to, what
they considered to be the abuse of the Jewish priesthood by the Hasmoneans, the Hellenised rulers of
Palestine at that time. Whilst claiming to be ultra-orthodox, they gradually became influenced by Greek
and Near Eastern beliefs, and developed a complex syncretic theology which became one of the basis
of Gnosticism and the Kabalistic traditions of the Middle Ages.
(6) An offshoot of Islam, which is strongly affected by Gnostic influences, and lays great store by
personal religious experience and intuition.
(7) Sergei Pavlovich Diagilev, born in Russia in 1872, he was
responsible for bringing contemporary Russian dance to the West.
He encouraged the talents of artists such as Pavlova, Nijinsky, Stravinsky
and Prokofiev.

(8) Vaslav Nijinsky, born in Russia in 1888, he became the world's

greatest male dancer, branching out into choreography at the height of his
He was renowned for the 'slow vault' which gave a genuine impression of
defying the laws of gravity.
At the peak of his career he suffered a 'nervous breakdown' and spent the
remaining years of his life in the belief that he was a re-incarnation of the
suffering Christ.
This disturbance abated in old age, and he died in 1950.

(9) Isadora Duncan, born in 1878, in America, she was a self taught
dancer who travelled to Europe and made her name in Russia, which was
receptive, at the time, to new concepts of dance. She toured ceaselessly,
teaching and setting up schools of dance. It was her aim to recreate the
dance of Ancient Greece, which she believed would bring about spiritual
renewal. She died in a freak car accident in 1927

(10) 'Arbeit Macht Frei'; literally 'work makes free'. On the orders of
SS Reich Fuhrer Heinrich Himmler this sign was placed over the gateway
of all detention camps maintained by the SS.
It is strange to reflect that at one of the most critical times in world history two great
world Empires were to some extent in the hands of mystics, who were not entirely
themselves; men who had been infiltrated by some thing or some one. Men whose
influence was abnormal and beyond the confines of accepted thought. In Russia there was
Rasputin and possibly Gurdjieff, and in Germany we find Houston Stewart Chamberlain.


An Englishman at the Court of the Kaiser

Elgar wrote his Symphony No 2 in E flat, in the year 1911, one year after the death
of Edward VII. The great funereal peroration of the second movement, written ostensibly in
response to the King's death, broadens out into a vast elegy, foretelling the dissolution of
an age. The seeds of that coming dissolution were endemic, and were to be found
particularly in the countries of central Europe, and
particularly Germany.
Gurdjieff's sometime rival, Crowley was not
the only Englishman to fascinate and influence the
German people at this time; in fact Crowley's
influence was insignificant when compare to that of
another Englishman; Houston Stewart Chamberlain,
Chamberlain was born in 1855. He was the
son of a British Admiral and also the nephew of Field
Marshal Sir Neville Chamberlain. As fate would have
it, he was not educated, as one would expect, in the
English public school tradition, which may well have
induced him to follow in the exalted footsteps of his
elders, but rather he was brought up in Paris, by
relatives, who engaged, for reasons best known to
themselves, a Prussian tutor to supervise his
education. As a result, he became fluent in the
German language and remarkably well versed in
German literature, poetry, music and philosophy.
By the age of twenty-seven, Chamberlain
had become so imbued with Wagner's music and
'philosophy' that he decided to take up residence in
Germany, permanently, moving to Dresden in 1882. In
that same year Chamberlain met Richard Wagner (1)
at Bayreuth, in Bavaria, during the Festspiel. They
were two men who were made for each other.
Chamberlain found in Wagner the father figure he
craved, and Wagner found in Chamberlain the
devoted disciple which he had sought, unsuccessfully
in Ludwig II (2) and Nietzsche.
Whereas Nietzsche had rejected Wagner's last,
and arguably greatest work, 'Parsifal', to Chamberlain
it was a summation of all his thoughts regarding the sacred role that Germany was to play
in the 'world historical process'. The Spear of Longinus, which is a central element of the
'sacred festival drama' came to fascinate Chamberlain, as it had fascinated many before,
and would fascinate many others in the future.

(1) Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig on 22nd May, 1813. There is some dispute regarding his
paternity and it is possible that he was the son of Ludwig Geyer, his step-father, rather than Friederich
Wagner. He was educated in Dresden and early on became director of the theatre at Magdeburg. Being
forced to flee to Paris for political reasons, in 1848, it was not until 1864 that his career as a composer
became established, when he received the support of the young King Ludwig II of Bavaria. He is mainly
remembered for his vast Tetralogy, 'Der Ring des Nibelungen', which depicts the conflicts between the
Gods, the dwarves and other elementals and men, as described in Teutonic mythology; along with
'Tristan und Isolde', a story of undying love in an Authurian setting; 'Die Meistersingers von Nurnburg',
a good natured depiction of the value of German Art and Culture; and his final masterpiece, 'Parsifal', a
'sacred festival drama' which describes how salvation is brought to the fallen Knights of the Grail, by a
pure 'fool' who recovers the spear of Longinus from the powers of evil. Parsifal was produced in 1882.
With Ludwig's help Wagner built the 'Festspielhaus', where his 'music dramas' could be properly
performed, in Bayreuth. In 1870 he married Cosima von Blow, the daughter of Franz Liszt.

(2) Ludwig II, 'the Swan King', was born in 1845. He succeeded his
father, Maximillian Joseph I as king of Bavaria in 1864. He, unwisely,
supported Austria in the Austro-Prussian war of 1886, but allied
himself with Prussia in the Franco-Prussian war. On 30th November,
1871 wrote the infamous 'Kaiserbrief', offering the Imperial Crown to
Wilhelm I of Prussia, thus inaugurating the German Empire, whilst
suffering from severe toothache, brought on by an unwise toffee
binge. He is now mainly remembered for building a succession of
dream palaces, in various out of the way, & inevitably picturesque
spots in his kingdom, the enormous cost of which beggared him
personally. In addition he gave extravagant financial support to
Richard Wagner. There is some documentary evidence to support
the contention that he maintained a homosexual relationship with
Wagner, [Wagner was married, with children, but so then was Oscar
Wilde] along with Joseph Kainz, the singer, Richard Hornig and
many other attractive equerries and servants. Along with his
predilection for handsome young men, he maintained an obsessive
desire for toffee, solitude, Wagnerian music and all aspects of the
Bourbon Monarchy. Ludwig was removed from the throne on the
grounds that he was insane. Shortly afterwards, in 1886, he
drowned in suspicious circumstances in the Starnberger See, near Munich.

In 1889 Chamberlain settled in Vienna, where he lived for the next twenty years, making
regular visits to the Weltliche Schatzkammer (3) in the Hofburg, where the original spear,
which was part of the Reichskleinodien, was displayed.
As in Wagner's music drama, the spear in the Hofburg is claimed to be the very
Spear which pierced the side of Jesus of Nazareth, as he hung upon the cross. Whether or
not this is true is a moot point; but the Spear is, undoubtedly, ancient and has long been
venerated. It has been suggested that the Spear, often somewhat dramatically referred to
as the 'Spear of Destiny', radiates powerful occult forces.
Having stood, myself, in the Weltliche Schatzkammer in the Hofburg, before this
talisman of power, in the footsteps of so many of the great, famous and infamous, I cannot
vouch for this fact personally, although something odd did happen to my camera.
Regardless of that, it is considered by some commentators that Chamberlain's communion
with the Spear may have, in some way altered his awareness.
In Chamberlain's autobiography 'Lebenswege' (4) he makes the revealing
statement that he was often unable to recognise his works as being the product of his own
thought. Chamberlain, it appears, was driven by daemons just as much as Crowley. His
books were written in a state of hysterical intoxication and trance, and owed, by his own
admission, little of their fundamental substance to that, admittedly, brilliant intellect.
Where, though, were the messages, which Chamberlain was relaying so elegantly
and successfully, coming from ? And, more to the point; what purpose did they serve ?
Later, Chamberlain married, but in 1905 he divorced his Prussian wife and married
Richard Wagner's daughter, Eva. In 1909 he moved the Bayreuth where he lived until his
death in 1927.
It was in 1899 he published his greatest work, 'Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten
Jahrhunderts' (The foundations of the Nineteenth Century), a volume of over twelve
hundred pages, in German. Despite its length and difficulty it eventually sold over a quarter
of a million copies, and, in the event, made its author a rich man.
The work was stupendous, both in its breadth of scholarship and its complexity of
thought. It was intended to present, and successfully achieved a union of disparate
artistic, philosophical, historical and racial theories which had be developing in Germany
for the previous fifty years.
Undoubtedly Chamberlain, at the book's inception, viewed it personally as the new
bible of the Pan-Germanic movement, but despite this, he was admittedly staggered by the
remarkable response the book elicited, from all levels of society. The final accolade came
when the Kaiser invited Chamberlain to Postdam and greeted him with an affirmation that
it was God who had ordained that Chamberlain's book should be given to the German
people and their Kaiser.

(3) The 'Spear of destiny' is kept in the Weltliche Schatzkammer,

which is situated in the Hofburg Palace, which was the Residenz of the
Austrian Hapsburg Emperors, in Vienna.
The phrase itself means 'Secular Treasury', and is the area in the Hofburg
where treasures which are not used in religious rituals are kept.
The Weltliche Schatzkammer is open to the public on a regular basis at
the present time.

(4) 'Life's Path' or 'Life's Way'.

'Die Grundlagen des Neunzehnten Jahrhunderts' is, essentially a grand synthesis of

numerous ideas which had been simmering in the German intellect for many years.
Essential elements of this synthesis were Hegel's concept of the 'world historical process',
Nietzsche's theory of the 'Ubermensch' or superman, Arthur de Gobineau's (5) and
Wagner's notion of the superiority of the Aryan race, along with various other ideas
circulating in Volkisch and Pan Germanic circles.
The fact that both Nietzsche (5) and Wagner (7) suffered from the same daemonic
creative possession as Chamberlain, combined with the fact that most of the
contemporaneous Volkisch and Pan-Germanic groups had strong occult leanings is,
undoubtedly, significant, particularly when one considers the cataclysm which was about to
break some fifteen years later.
It was not long before Chamberlain became an unofficial
adviser to the Kaiser. A total of forty-three lengthy letters,
from Chamberlain to the Kaiser, survive, in which
Chamberlain attempts to fill his sovereign with glorious
visions of the destiny which awaits the Aryan race, and
Germany in particular.
Such encouragement was, in Chamberlain's view
necessary as, contrary to popular belief, the Kaiser was not
bellicose by nature. The son of Queen Victoria's eldest
daughter Vicky, speaking perfect English, he was a devoted
husband, worshipping the Kaiserin, Auguste ViKtoria of
Schleswig-Holstein, known to her family Donna, and doting
over his large family. He was sentimental and lazy, and
painfully aware of his deformed arm. Like Chamberlain he
too was driven by a demon, but it was not of the
supernatural order. The demon that drove the Kaiser was
the endless fear that, because of his deformity, he was not
a real man, in a society which glorified militarism and the
heroic virtues; a society which he led. Under the influence of Chamberlain, and members
of the High Command his insecurity manifested itself in aggressive statements of foreign
policy. When war eventually came he feared its consequences as much as anyone.
When the war ended he was forced into permanent exile at Doorn in Holland.
There, strangely enough, he amassed one of the largest collections of occult literature in
the world. Perhaps his demons were like Chamberlain's after all.
Chamberlain was luckier. Unlike the Kaiser, who was punished for the war he did
not start or want, Chamberlain was left unpunished for encouraging the conflagration for
which he had assiduously provided the tinder.
Chamberlain continued to live peacefully and comfortably in Bayreuth. As he was of
no further use, his daemons had left him. They would return to him, however, in his last
years - summoned by another; for while the Kaiser had been the apprentice to
Chamberlain's sorcery, now Chamberlain himself would become the 'sorcerer's

(5) Arthur, Comte de Gobineau, was born in France in 1816. His

essay 'On the Inequality of Human Races' was published in 1853.

(6) In Nietzsche's case his 'daemonic possession' drove him to a total mental collapse in 1889,
which left him, literally 'out of this world' for the last eleven years of his life, during which time he was
'looked after' by his sister, Elizabeth Forster Nietzsche.
(7) Wagner admitted in his own autobiography 'Mein Leben', that his compositions came to him
from some outside source, when he was in a state of trance. Such statements must be taken at their
face value when one consider that, at the time that Wagner's autobiography was published, he was a
world renowned compose, well known for his inflated opinion of himself, who would have nothing to
gain by disclaiming personal responsibility for his own creations.

The Watershed of the Epoch

The new century lumbered towards war and dissolution not like a 'perfect fool', but
instead like a drunken fool. The age of rationalism, science and progress was about to
show that its greatest achievements could be put to use for its own destruction. The moral
majority, almost Christian to a man, was about to place, ten million lives; a whole
generation; on the altar of meaningless sacrifice, justifying their indefensible actions with
the slogans of a Christian morality; Right, Justice, Freedom and Liberty.
With regard to the origins of the Great War, it is possible to go back to 1815; one
hundred years before the event in question. 1815 was the year of the Congress of Vienna,
which followed Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. At that conference the victorious powers,
Britain, Prussia, Austria and Russia, carved up Europe, re-drawing the map, and
unknowingly creating injustices that would fester right up to the present day. The next
great conference designed to set a new European scene would be held at Versailles in
These conferences, of course, were designed to set a 'balance of power' which
would produce political, economic and military stability in Europe. Naturally, 'the great
powers' always tried to tip the balance in their own favour, and Britain, over the centuries,
had become a past master at this particular manoeuvre.
From the Middle Ages up to the recent problems with the Exchange Rate Mechanism &
the Single European Currency, it has always been central to British policy to regulate, in
Britain's favour, the balance of power in Europe. The Congress of Vienna effectively did
this, but by 1900 the system had broken down. Germany & the Austro-Hungarian Empire
(1) had reached a sufficient understanding to be seen as a major Central European
'power-block', and this was contrary to British foreign policy aims & economic
The supposed cause of the Great
War was the assassination of the Arch-
Duke Franz-Ferdinand (2) and his
morganatic wife, the Duchess Sophie, of
Hohenburg, in Sarajevo on the 8th June
1914, but in reality this was, of course,
merely part of an on-going quarrel
between Austria-Hungary & Serbia.
The circumstances of the
assassination were very strange, to say
the least. The Arch-Duke and his wife
were visiting Sarajevo, in Bosnia, in
order to inspect troops. Bosnia, which had a large Serbian population, had recently been
annexed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, much to the annoyance of Serbia and Russia. A
secret Serbian society, which some have suggested had occult connections, decided to
take the opportunity and assassinate the heir to the Hapsburg throne as a revenge for the
annexation of Bosnia and the persecution of the Slavs by the German speaking Austro-
Hungarians. This, of course, was no new crusade. Slavs and Germans had been opposed
to one another since the Dark Ages.
(1) The 'Dual Monarchy' of Austria-Hungary was established in 1867, by the Hapsburg Emperor,
Franz-Joseph. In 1910 it covered area of 100,864 sq. km and boasted a population of 51 millions.

(2) The Arch-Duke Franz-Ferdinand became heir to his

uncle the (Emperor) Franz-Joseph on the death of Crown Prince
Rudolf who, it is alleged, committed suicide in 1889, along with his
mistress Marie Vestera at his hunting lodge at Mayerling. On the
death of Franz-Joseph, Franz-Ferdinand would have succeeded
to the Hapsburg inheritance and the Imperial throne of Austria and
the Royal throne of Hungary. Not expecting to succeeded to the
throne, however, he had contracted a morganatic marriage to the
Duchess Sophie, who was considered to be an unsuitable match
because of her low status.

A total of six assassins were waiting for Franz-Ferdinand, when he arrived at Sarajevo.
Amazingly, either as a result of cowardice, incompetence or just sheer bad luck, all six
failed in their attempts. If everything had gone according to the official plans, the Arch-
Duke would have been safe, and perhaps there may have been no war, and ten million
lives would have been saved. The chauffeur, however, took a wrong turning, and realising
his mistake, stopped the Imperial car. As 'fate' would have it, he stopped the car right in
front of an amazed and terrified nineteen year old Serbian called Gavrilo Princip.
Screwing up his courage, which had previously failed him, for he was one of the six, he
jumped on the running board and, with only two shots, killed both Franz-Ferdinand and his
There was an immediate response from Austria-Hungary. Once it had been
established that the assassin was Serbian, it was a simple matter for the Koniglich und
Kaiserlich (3) Security Services to implicate the Serbian Government. Whether or not the
Serbians Government was involved is still an open question, although recent events have
made many aware of the obsessive concern for a 'Greater Serbia' which has gnawed
away at the Serbian soul for generations.
The Imperial response was an ultimatum to Serbia, which, if the Serbians had
acceded to it, would have completely negated their sovereignty and independence. As
Austria-Hungary knew, Serbia could not accede to her ultimatum. Austria-Hungary had
purposefully put herself in the position where her only possible response could be a
declaration of war against Serbia. The presumed scenario was that Serbia, realizing that
she could not hope to survive an Austrian attack, would capitulate, thus enabling Austria-
Hungary to swallow up yet another Balkan state.
Russia, the self styled protector of the Slavs, it was presumed would not intervene as she
was still smarting from her recent defeat at the hands of the Japanese.
The presumed scenario failed to materialize, however. The Austrians were forced to
declare war on Serbia, and to Austria's horror Russia proceeded to mobilise, in support of
Serbia. There was, however, a rather awkward problem with regard to Russian
mobilisation. The Imperial Russian High Command had always presumed that, if
mobilisation was ever necessary, it would be in response to a threat from Germany. As a
result all the Russian mobilisation plans involved sending troops towards Russia's borders
with the German Empire.
The Kaiser, Wilhelm II, immediately sent an urgent note to his cousin 'Nicky', the
Russian Tsar, warning him of the danger of the developing situation. There was nothing
'Niky' could do, however.
In Germany Von Moltke, for the Army, Bethmann-Hollweg (4), the Chancellor and
Houston Stewart Chamberlain urged the Kaiser to agree to a German mobilisation. There
was a problem, though. It was way back in 1891, that General Von Schlieffen had created
a plan for mobilisation of the German army. Its main aim was to avoid a war on two fronts,
which Schlieffen rightly believed Germany would be unable to sustain. The Schlieffen Plan
called for a rapid attack upon France, Russia's ally, through Belgium, with intention of
supplying a French defeat within one month. The slowness of Russia's mobilisation would
ensure that the victorious German forces could be despatched, by train, from France,
across Germany, to be in position to defeat Russia. Once Russian mobilisation had been
ordered, however, there could be no delay, if the plan were to work in Germany's favour

(3) All the official institutions of the Dual Monarchy were prefixed with the titles 'Koniglich und
Kaiserlich', abbreviated to KK, meaning 'Royal and Imperial.

(4) Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, born in 1856, he succeeded Prince Blow as Chancellor on
1909 and was dismissed in 1917.

The result of all this complex military planning was that Germany was forced to attack the
French, who were in no way involved in the original quarrel, and at the same time trample
upon Belgian neutrality. This forced Britain to declare war on Germany, in order to fulfil
her obligation to defend that neutrality, in accordance with the recently signed Treaty of
London (5).
The reason for this involved explanation is to show that in one sense the Great War
was neither planned for nor desired; particularly by Germany.
The argument between Austria and Serbia, begun by an almost senile Emperor,
who had come to the throne in 1848, could have been solved through international
negotiation; and even if Austria had annexed Serbia, it would have had little or no effect on
the balance of power in Europe, and the other European powers could, therefore have
permitted it. That Germany did not want war is self-evident. She was not party to the
original quarrel, and by 1914 it was clear to German academics and businessmen that,
barring war or revolution, Germany would be, in a few years, the dominant economic, and
therefore the dominant political power in Europe. The Kaiser, it is true, was bellicose, but
apart from the fact that his 'bark was worse than his bite', it should be noted that he was a
constitutional monarch, heavily restrained by a bourgeois Reichstag who were not seeking
foolish adventures.
Russia was, by this time out of control. Nicholas, the weak indecisive Tsar, unable to
rely on the advice of Rasputin, who
was recovering from an attempt upon
his life, allowed that strangely
stubborn petulant streak, which on
occasions would emerge from his
indecision, to override his better
judgement, in the case of Serbia.
France had no choice but to defend
herself; and even Britain was not
wholeheartedly for the war, as
Viscount Grey, the British Foreign
Secretary made clear in his famous
remark referring to the lamps of
Europe going out.
Who then wished for war. Strangely enough, the ordinary people of Europe; the
man in the street, seemed to crave war. In all the capitals of Europe people became
ecstatic at the proclamations of mobilisation were made. One very famous picture exists of
the crowds rejoicing as the announcement of hostilities was made in Munich. There is one
young man in the crowd with a somewhat familiar face. Recently film of this event has
been discovered, There, again is the young man, with piercing eyes, cheering with the
crowd. The man is Adolf Hitler; one of many 'moving with the assurance of a sleep walker',
to the abyss. He joined the millions who laughed and sang their way to the front. Europe,
and maybe even the world, was at a watershed in its history.
Art, music, literature, philosophy and the spirits themselves had foretold this terrible
day. Affluent Europe had developed a terrible malaise. Progress and bourgeois morality
had become stultifying, to the point of suffocation. A glittering adventure; great and noble
deeds were just beyond the horizon. At last the boredom of a mass-produced world could
be swept aside. The prophecy of Aiwas would come true.
Gurdjieff would dismiss the fact that millions of sleeping men were killing millions of
other sleeping men. 'At least we are awake'; to which Hitler would later add; 'Let the others
sleep !'

(5) That Britain had signed the Treaty of London in the full knowledge that any German military
intervention in Europe would involve the infringement of Belgian neutrality indicates that Britain had a
hidden agenda for dealing with the rising economic power of Germany.

The Spirits of War

When the Great War began there was a general consensus that it would be over by
Christmas. Infantry conscripts marched happily to war, and the cavalry rode forth, the
Chasseurs in their glittering Curiasses, and the Ulans with their lances.
The Schlieffen plan failed, much to Germany's surprise, and the German armies got
bogged down in the mud of France and Flanders, and the dreaded war on two fronts
became a reality. At Christmas the troops fraternized and played football together, and in
the New Year the 'War to end all wars' began in earnest.
The War, once it had begun, seemed to unleash the most appalling and demonic
forces. To the people of the Allied countries, particularly Britain and America, the Germans
were not simply the enemy; they were the 'Hun'. Atrocity stories abounded, particularly
with regard to Belgium, where, if the British papers were to be believed, most of the female
population had been raped or killed, or both.
Demands were made for 'unconditional surrender' on the part of the Central
Powers, and even the most respectable elements in society were baying for the German
Emperor to be hung. One Christian congregation, on the instigation of its minister, even
demanded that the Kaiser be boiled in oil. German shops in England were wrecked and
looted, and on one occasion a dachshund was Killed by an English mob 'because it was a
German dog'.
This was the first 'mass-produced war'. The technological progress, achieved over
the previous decades, which had been able to produce everyday objects in the hundreds
of thousands, around the clock, was now producing guns, shells, bullets and bombs in
those same quantities. As technology advanced, with the violent impetus of war, new
horrors appeared, as if the killing was not yet efficient enough for the politicians and
Fighter and bomber aircraft, tanks and the obscenity of poison gas made their
appearance. The Cornucopia of Progress had transformed itself into the Cornucopia of
That vast harvest of death left few untouched. Most families lost someone in the
carnage; some lost many. For those through whom the spirits mediated, however, the War
was a mixed blessing. Spiritualist 'churches' were never fuller, and mediums were never
busier or richer. Many, returning from the Front had their own stories to tell of Fate, and of
the strange and supernatural. Stories of how men 'knew' their hour had come, or men who
seemed to have been 'warned' of where or when a bullet or shell would land. There were
many tales of soldiers being seen by their comrades, briefly, only to be discovered to have
been dead or missing at that very time. Amongst those who were able to predict the time
and place of destruction was General Karl Haushofer. Numbered among those who
seemed to have a charmed life was an insignificant, but brave corporal, called Adolf Hitler.
One of the strangest episodes of the war was the
incident of the 'Angles of Mons'. We last met Arthur Machen
dabbling in the magic of the 'Golden Dawn'. As a result of
the dispute between Yeats and Mathers, he became
disenchanted with ceremonial magic and turned to
Christianity. His literary career took a downward turn and he
was forced to content himself with the uncertain income to
be derived from freelance journalism. By 1914 he had
become a full-time reporter for the London 'Evening News',
and his editor had required him to write a patriotic story to
help bolster moral on the 'home front'.
Machen's story described how St.George, accompanied
by a regiment of angels, had come to the aid of the British
Army in their defence of Mons. It was a romantic and
sentimental story typical of its time, and provoked a
favourable response from the paper's readership. What was
not expected. by either the editor or Machen, was a flurry of
letters from soldiers, of all ranks, at the Front. These letters were querying how the paper
knew of an 'event' which had occurred before the paper had been published. What worried
the editor and Machen most of all, however, was the fact that the event was supposed to
have happened before Machen even wrote the story.
The obvious answer is that the soldiers, suffering from the fatigue of battle, were
either romancing, (a nice word, in some people's vocabulary, for lying) or were confused.
After the war confirmation of the phenomena came from German troops, who were
obviously not reading British newspapers at the time. What the phenomena was, exactly,
is difficult to say, but testimony indicates that something inexplicable manifested itself upon
the battlefield at Mons, which some took to be angels, some thought were wraith-like
medieval bowmen, 'a la Agincourt', and others saw, simply, as a strange, luminescent
cloud. Perhaps Machen was a better magician than he thought, or perhaps someone was
interfering – again.

Volkisch Mysteries

Wagner had a profound influence upon German sensibilities at the turn of the
Century. The Kaiserbrief, signed by Ludwig II on 30th November 1870 had created the
German Reich. Just prior to this Wagner had completed 'Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg'.
By the time the Empire had been established he had completed 'Siegfried' and
Whilst the 'Meistersingers' painted an idealised picture of
Reformation Germany; its Art and culture, 'Siegfried' and
'Gotterdammerung' described a Germany of remote antiquity, in which
Heroes performed the mightiest of deeds, and the Gods intervened in
the destinies of men.

Both of these images were eagerly sought by the citizens of the new
Reich, who hungered for a past that would be the equal of their
exhilarating present. The problem they faced was one of identity.
Germany needed roots; a mythology, which was the birthright of all
great Empires. In response, and through his daemonic inspiration,
Wagner was able to summon up a sonorous, luxuriant dream world which would captivate
his own, and many subsequent generations.
The dramatic works of his later life were , in effect the tales of Smith, Blavatsky,
Lytton, Mathers, Crowley and Gurdjieff transformed into magnificent and seductive melody.
They told of a world in which higher beings, the gods, broke into human affairs, sometimes
exalting and sometimes destroying those with whom they had dealings. Wagner's works
revealed a world morality in which sexuality was a driving force, which took no notice of
conventional morality, but gloried in rape, incest and unnatural passion. Wagner created a
world where the 'true will' was absolute, and the power of the will was the measure of all
things. All the ideas that we have met with, so far, were encapsulated the Wagner's mighty
'music dramas'.
At the same time there developed a gathering tide of occultism and mysticism,
which took many forms. As has already been explained, the origins of the 'Golden Dawn',
along with the OTO,stemmed from German occultism of this period. Crowley was involved
with both of these organisations, and his 'Book of the Law' had a significant influence upon
German occult specialists of the time.

One of the most prominent of such specialists was the

Austrian, Guido von List. Born in 1848, he renounced his
Catholic faith in his teens, and in the early nineteen
hundreds established a Guido von List Society for the
study of Volkisch tradition. Within this society was an
inner circle, referred to as the 'Armanen Initiates', who
pursued the true aims of the society, which included the
re-establishment of a Nordic spirituality through
communion with higher spiritual entities. Much of List's
thinking was drawn directly from the Theosophical
writings of Madame Blavatsky; particularly those aspects
concerning cosmology and the origin of races. In
addition List, like Blavatsky, believed in the existence of
a race of super beings who were responsible for the
ordering of human history. List's society was particularly
known for its interest in Teutonic Sagas and the study of the Sacred Runes (1), which at a
later date, would also become a preoccupation of the SS. In common with Blavatsky's
teaching and those of Chamberlain and Wagner, List's followers were violently anti-
Semitic, viewing the Jewish race as missing, and inferior, link between the Root Races.

(1) From the Gothic runa, meaning a secret thing, or mystery, the Runes are an ancient
alphabetic script used by the Nordic races. Each glyph not only has a sound but also a
meaning. It is believed that they were discovered by Odin while he hung on Yggdrasil, the
World Tree, as a sacrifice to Himself. The Runes are used for divination and are believed
to symbolise actual spiritual entities. It is believed that by studying the Runes one can
unlock the secrets of all Wisdom.
List expressed these views on race, along with conclusions arising out of his studies
of the Runes and Sagas, in his major literary work, 'Rita der Ario-Germanen', published in
1908. The book, elicited much critical comment, mainly as a result of its blatant anti-
Semitism, but at the same time it established von List as a leading member of the
emerging Volkisch-occult movement in the German
speaking world. List died ten years later; denied the
opportunity of seeing his most cherished hopes
coming to fruition.

The only person to match List's occult knowledge or

charisma was Lanz von Liebenfels. Born plain Adolf
Lanz, in 1874, he underwent, like List, Gurdjieff and
many other remarkable individuals, a religious training.
Apparently he had aspirations to become a monk, but
was not considered suitable material by his superiors
in the monastery.
Changing his name to von Liebenfels, he proceeded
to pursue spiritual enlightenment by other means,
founding his own occult order, 'The New Templars'.
The order was by no means a charade, as it was able to attract to its membership no less
a person than the dramatist August Strindberg. Another significant member was Guido von
List. List and Liebenfels, early on, formed a mutual admiration society, and Liebenfels, not
surprisingly, joined List's Armanen Order.
Liebenfels published a periodical, 'Ostara', in which he propounded his pan-
Germanic and Volkisch views, which were, if anything, more racially extreme than List's.
The reason why race had become such a strong issue in occult circles was simple.
Occultist, such as Liebenfels, who believed in the existence of super-beings, also believed
that such super-beings could be bred.
The contention of Joseph Smith, that men could become Gods, along with his
obsessive desire to breed sufficient suitable individuals for that purpose, through the
institution of 'celestial marriage', had by now, in Germany and Austria, developed into a
concept that by-passed the necessity of death, by breeding Gods here and now. Mormon
theologians had declared that those who were not of the Anglo-Saxon race were ineligible
for the priesthood and ultimate deification. They had little contact with Jews, and so
concentrated their attention upon Negroes and other coloured races. List and Liebenfels,
along with Wagner and Chamberlain, however, had little contact with Negroes and other
coloureds, and therefore concentrated their attention upon the Jews. The principle,
however, was the same. The message had come through that there was a connection
between race and spirituality.
It was not a new idea. Any cursory reading of the Old Testament will show that the
idea of a chosen race, close to God, endemic to Jewish spirituality; and further inspection
of the New Testament will show that Christianity's much vaunted condemnation of the
racial principle was mainly motivated by the fact that Paul, failing to convert the Jews to
his newfangled 'mystery religion', rather than accept defeat, abandoned the idea of racial
exclusivity, much to the annoyance of most of the Apostles, who were the real bearers of
the message of the Jesus of Nazareth (2).
One of the most interesting literary works, published by von Liebenfels was 'The
Book of German Psalms: The Prayerbook of Aryan Racial Mystics'. Within its pages is the
summation of a long development of thought, which was, in the near future, about to erupt
into unforeseen disaster. Although the book was not widely read, it graced the shelves of
both the influential and the unknown.

(2) See Acts, Chapter 15, verses 1 to 35.

It was from the ranks of those who had studied the works of Liebenfels and List that the
founding members of the Thule Gesellschaft were
drawn. The Gesellschaft, or Group, was founded in
1918 by Rudolf Glauer, the son of an engine driver,
from Dresden. He had originally been a merchant
seaman, who had travelled widely, eventually settling
down in Turkey, where he worked as an engineer. In
his spare time read books on occult science and was
particularly impressed by the teachings of Madame
Blavatsky. He set about recreating her Cosmology and
origin of Races in terms of an anti-Semitic Nordic
mythology, transforming the legend of Atlantis, to be
found in Blavatsky's works, into the legend of Thule. In
addition to being a student of occult science, Glauer
also dabbled in astrology, and, like Gurdjieff, practised
Sufi meditation.
The Thule Group itself derived from an earlier
group known as the Germanen Order, which was
founded in 1912. This order was founded by Theodor
Fritsch, who was always reverently referred to as the
'old teacher' by the Nazi media, and Philip Stauff and
Hermann Pohl, who were both disciples of von List.
The Germanen Order broke up in internal dissent in
1915, and it was not until 1918 that some of its original members were able to reform as
the Thule Gesellschaft.
The Thule Gesellschaft had its headquarters in Munich, and superficially, appeared
to be yet one more society, intent on the study of Runes and Sagas. To an extent this was
true. The Group was deeply involved in Nordic studies which it combined with
Theosophical doctrines, and occult practices strongly influenced by methodology of
Spiritualism. The Group, however, had been born at a time of historical tumult, and unlike
previous Volkisch societies, it had a definite political programme along with close
connections with members of the Army and Freikorps (3).
It was during this period that a crucial link was forged between anti-Semitism and
anti-Communism. The Thule Gesellschaft, derived its anti-Semitism from List and
Liebenfels, and more particularly from Madame Blavatsky. It was, however, an undisputed
fact that many of the leading figures in the Communist uprisings, which immediately
followed Germany's defeat, were Jewish intellectuals, and that Marx (4) himself was
Jewish. It was, therefore, an easy matter for groups, such as the Thule Gesellschaft, to link
the two phenomena together, and to see Communism as a barrier to the emergence of the
hoped for 'master race' of super-human beings.
On the 6th of April, 1919 a Soviet Republic was declared in Munich, following the
fall of the Hoffman Government. The Communist regime was quickly overthrown by troops
from the Reichwehr which had been dispatched from Berlin. The Thule Gesellschaft,
seeing in the left wing takeover a Jewish conspiracy, was instrumental in assisting the
army it its task. As a result of this action the Army decided to offer the Thule Group both
financial and political support, assisting it in the purchase of a newspaper, the 'Munchener
Beobachter', which later won notoriety as the 'Volkischer Beobachter'(5).

(3) The Freikorps were private armies of ex-soldiers, usually commanded by their
former officers. They originated in the Baltic states, where they fought against Russian
Communists, Poles and Lithuanians who were attempting to take over areas formerly
controlled by Germany. They were secretly funded by the regular German Army and were
subsequently used by nationalist elements in the Army and Government to put down Left-
wing revolution within the borders of Germany. The Freikorps were dissolved in 1921.

(4) Karl Heinrich Marx was born in 1818 at Treves. He studied at Bonn and Berlin
Universities. Collaborating with Engles and in 1848 issued the 'Communist Manifesto'. A
year later he was expelled from Prussia and settled in London where he wrote 'Das
Capital' which proclaimed a totally materialistic and atheistic view of life. He died in 1883.

(5) The 'Volkisch Observer' was purchased with Army funds. It was originally edited by
Eckart, and on his death the editorship passed to Rosenberg. The paper was managed by
Max Amann.

The Army was particularly concerned that the military defeat of 1918 had turned the
working classes from their traditional support of the military and the Junkers (6), and had
encouraged them to espouse socialism. They hoped therefore, that the Thule
Gesellschaft, as an apparently independent group, might be able to organise a working
class movement which would bring the proletariat back to the nationalist, right-wing fold.
In 1919 the Thule Gesellschaft set up a workers organisation, which subsequently
amalgamated with 'The Committee of Independent Workers', headed by Anton Drexler, a
railway engineer. Independent, however, it certainly was not, being dependant upon the
Thule Gesellschaft, in the fist instance. The Thule Group was, of course, to a considerable
extent, dependant upon the military, through their intermediary, Captain Ernst Rohm.
The Thule Gesellschaft while having many members of little social standing, not a
few of whom were cranks, it was also patronised by the rich and powerful.
Counted amongst its members were lawyers and intellectuals, members of the Bavarian
aristocracy, the Bavarian minister of Justice, Franz Gurtner, the Police President of
Munich, Pohner and Wilhelm Frick, his deputy, who later became Reich Minister of the
Interior. In addition two mysterious, wealthy Russian emigres Skoropadski and Bishupski,
who had fled from the Bolsheviks in 1917 were also
involved with the Group.
Amongst the other members of the Thule
Gesellschaft was Alfred Rosenberg, who was later to write
'The Myth of the Twentieth Century', and Rudolf Hess (7),
a young student of Professor Haushofer.
The most enigmatic member of the Gesellschaft
was Dietrich Eckart. despite all the interest and
controversy that has developed around this period of
history, it is still remarkably difficult to discover any solid
facts about this mysterious individual, whom Hitler
described, in the final sentences of 'Mein Kampf' as 'one of
the best'.
Eckart was born in 1868. He had originally studied
law, but his involvement in student social life and his
heavy drinking prevented him from obtaining his final
Doctorate. Like Gurdjieff, he appears to have travelled
widely in his youth, visiting Spain, North Africa and Italy, and it was during these travels
that he first became interested in the occult. He served in the German Army, as an officer,
during the Great War, and, like Hitler, he was gassed, towards the end of hostilities. For
the rest of his life he suffered from respiratory problems which were eventually responsible
for his premature death. He was a poet and writer, having made a translation of Ibsen's
'Peer Gynt', which was critically acclaimed, while at the same time writing numerous books
and articles on Nordic mythology and other volkisch subjects.

(6) Junkers: the hereditary Prussian landowners and the aristocracy.

(7) Rudolf Hess was born in 1894, at Alexandria in Egypt. He

was the son of a wealthy German merchant. He served in the
German Army in the same regiment as Hitler during the Great War.
Immediately after the War he served in the Freikorps under Ritter
von Epp. He subsequently attended Munich University, where he
studied Geopolitics under Professor Karl Haushofer. When the
National Socialists came to power he was appointed Deputy
Fuhrer, and in May 1941 he made a mysterious flight to England,
on the advice of Albrecht Haushofer, with the intention of forming
an alliance between England and Germany. He was arrested and
charged with 'war crimes'. He died in mysterious circumstances in
Spandau prison whilst serving a life sentence. Hess like Hitler was
strongly influenced by astrological predictions and was a non-
smoking, teetotal vegetarian who only used holistic medical
techniques and herbal remedies.

In Munich Eckart published a weekly newspaper, entitled 'Auf gut deutsch', which was
similar in content to the 'Munchener Beobachter', which Eckart would later edit, after it had
been acquired by the National Socialist German Workers Party. Eckart's involvement with
the Thule Gesellschaft is difficult to pin down. On the one hand he appears influential and
yet, at the same time he often appears to act as if he were an outsider.
It appears, however, that it was Eckart who was responsible for the Thulist's
attempts to break through the veil of time, in a desperate attempt to discover what the
future held in store for them. They were living in desperate times and saw European, and
particularly German civilisation crumbling around them. After the defeat of the War, they
now faced the creeping threat of communism and racial disintegration. Their dreams of
completing the 'great work' seemed to be fading, and they looked to the future for
Eckart, in an attempt to divine the future, used an uneducated peasant girl, who was
apparently a natural medium. Through her, the inner circle believed that they had made
contact with dead members of the group, who proceeded to prophecy the emergence of a
leader who would lead Germany to both economic and spiritual recovery.
Perhaps it was wishful thinking on their part; regardless Eckart was on the lookout for this
'German messiah'.
The Gesellschaft can be seen as the product of along process of development,
beginning with the ancient Gnosticism of the Near East, and passing through many
convolutions which include many of the individuals be have considered so far. The Thule
Gesellschaft, however, seemed to be waiting for someone to transform it and give it power.
That person proved to be Adolf Hitler.

Hitler's Early Life

Some of List and Liebenfels's books lay on the dusty shelves of a neat bed-sit in the
middle-class suburbs of Vienna, the still dazzling capital of the
once great Empire, now weakened and reduced by the ravages
of a lost war. The room was shared by Hitler and a friend from
his school-days, August Kubizek.
Hitler was born in the Austrian Waldviertel region, near the
Bohemian border, at Braunau-am-Inn, in 1889. It was an area
steeped in poverty and well known for its inbreeding. It was also
a town which had produced a surprising number of spiritualist
mediums, including the famous Schneider brothers (1). Perhaps
something more sinister than simple peasant frolicking was
occurring in the woods and hills around the town.
Alois Schicklgruber, Hitler's father, was the illegitimate child of
Maria Anna Schicklgruber. In 1842 Maria Anna Schicklgruber
married Johan Georg Hiedler; the name was originally Czech. In 1877, Alois Schicklgruber
had his step-father's name, Heidler, inserted into his birth certificate, by the local priest.
The name, however, was misspelt as 'Hitler', and from then on Hitler's father was known
as Alois Hitler.
Hitler's father eventually became an Austrian Customs Official.
Deriving from farming stock, he had substantially bettered
himself, having risen to the lower middles class. According to
Hitler's later reminiscences, his father was strict and their
relationship lacked any normal warmth.
Hitler's mother, however, idolised her son, and in return, for the
rest of his life, Hitler kept her picture by his bedside. Hitler was
only six years old when his father retired from the Austrian Civil
Service and bought a farm in Lambach.
At eight years of age Hitler was sent to the school of the
Monastery of Lambach; Klara Hitler had hopes of her son
becoming a priest; where he revelled in the pomp and solemnity
of Catholic ritual. It was at Lambach that Hitler first saw the
swastika, which appeared on the heraldic arms which decorated
the Baroque choir stalls, where he sang in the Monastery Church
on feast days. Like Liebenfels, Hitler was not considered suitable for a religious life despite
the fact that he was top of his class. In 1898, the family moved
to Leonding, just outside Linz, and Hitler attended the
Gymnasium at nearby Steyr. It was there that the young Adolf
met August Kubizek; probably the only close, personal friend he
ever had.
In 1902, when Hitler was thirteen years old, his father
died. At school his academic work deteriorated and he became
moody and difficult. His mother, who had never been firm with
him, was now unable to control him, and although he was no
delinquent, he was self willed and obstinate. The only subject
which appealed to him at school was History. His History
teacher, Dr. Leopold Potsch, was a supporter of Pan Germanic
Nationalism, and was opposed to the multi racial nature of the
Hapsburg Empire. For Hitler he undoubtedly became a father figure, at a critical time in his
life, and he always retained fond memories of him.

(1) Willi and Rudi Schneider were born in Braunau. Their father was a Linotype compositor who
lived with his wife and six sons, close by his workshop. Willi, the elder brother, first went into trances in
1919, when he was sixteen. Willi's control was 'Olga', who claimed to have been Lola Montez, the
mistress of Ludwig I of Bavaria. Willi was capable of producing materialisations of spirits and despite
being tested under rigorous scientific conditions in Munich, Vienna and London from 1922 until 1927,
no explanation has been advanced for such phenomena. Willi's powers faded after 1927, but Rudi's
then began to develop. Rudi was also tested under rigorous scientific conditions in Munich,Vienna,
Paris and London and no evidence of fraud was ever forthcoming. After 1934 Rudi's powers also began
to fade, and he died in obscurity in Braunau in 1957.

In 1907, when Hitler was eighteen, he stayed with his godparents Johan and Joanna
Prinz, in Vienna, whilst taking his entrance examination for the Academy of Fine Arts.
Shocked by his failure to pass, he was further shaken by the death of his mother in
December of that same year, and who, as fate would have it, was being treated by a
Jewish doctor. His mother left a substantial sum of money and appointed a certain
Mayrhofer, as executor. Hitler was granted a yearly allowance and moved from Linz,
where he had lived since his father's death, to Vienna in 1908.
In Vienna he stayed with a certain Frau Zakrey at
Stumpergasse 29, with his friend Kubizek, who was nicknamed
'Gustl'. Hitler received a student's pension, because his father
had been a civil servant, along with his allowance from his
mother's estate and was, therefore, far from poor, despite his
protestations in 'Mein Kamf'. It appears that at this time Hitler
lived the life of a man of leisure, visiting the opera, to hear
Wagner, drawing and painting and producing detailed
architectural plans for the rebuilding of Vienna and Linz (2).
In September of the same year he applied, once again, to
the Academy of Fine Art, and once again he was refused. It is at
this time, when Hitler was living at Felberstrasse, that he first
came across the writings of Liebenfels and Houston Stewart
Chamberlain. At the beginning of 1909 he took the opportunity to
visit Liebenfels and at the same time caught his first glimpse of
the Spear of Longinus in the Schatzkammer in the Hofburg. At this point, without warning
or explanation, Hitler left Kubizek, and despite the fact that he had a reasonable income
from his inheritance, as well as savings, he disappeared into a world of tramps and 'drop
It is during this period that Hitler painted scenes, in watercolour and ink, of Vienna
which a drifter, called Hanisch sold in the streets, in order to provide money for both of
them. In 1910, Hitler moved to a Home for Working Men at Meldemannstrasse, and yet
again tried, and failed to obtain entry to the Academy.
Whilst living in Vienna, Hitler spent the time he did not allocate to his painting
reading voraciously. He was a regular customer at a bookshop owned by Ernst Pretzsche.
Pretzsche had been born in Mexico City, of German parents. His father Wilhelm Pretzsche
had been a chemist, who in his spare time had studied the occult law of the Aztecs. When
Ernst returned to Austria, in 1892, he retained his father's interest in the occult, and
proceeded to open a bookshop in Vienna. The relationship, which had developed between
Hitler and Pretzsche was not only a result of their mutual interest in the occult, but was
also a matter of business. In return for providing Hitler with books Pretzsche obtained
watercolours from Hitler which he sold. The paintings improved the shop's atmosphere and
often attracted customers, who as well as buying a picture, would often purchase books as
well. It was a good working arrangement.

(2) From an early age Hitler was fascinated by the art of architecture, and most of his water colours
had architectural subjects. Unfortunately for Hitler he was unable to gain entry to the Architectural
Academy in Vienna due to his lack of academic qualifications. Hitler's favourite existing building was the
Paris Opera House by Charles Garnier, although its style, Neobaroque, was not used in the buildings
Hitler commissioned, and in some cases designed, when he came to power. Hitler's favourite living
architect was Paul Ludwig Troost (1878-1934), a disciple of Karl Friederich Schinkel, the Neoclassicist
(1781-1841). Troost designed the Konigsplatz, the Braun Haus and the House of German Art in Munich
before his tragic death in 1934. Troost was succeeded by his pupil, Albert Speer (1905-1981) as Hitler's
leading architect. Hitler, Troost and Speer's architectural style was, not surprisingly, been bitterly
criticised for the last forty years. During the last ten years, with the emergence of Post Modernism,
Hitler's taste has been, rightly vindicated. Hitler collaborated with Speer in producing massive schemes
for the rebuilding of Munich, Nurnberg, Berlin and Hitler's beloved Linz. Sadly these schemes only exist
as plans and photographs of models.

Pretzsche specialised in books about history, philosophy, politics,art and the occult; all
subjects which were of interest to the young Hitler. In addition Pretzsche was an associate
of Guido von List, and was able to introduce Hitler to the occult groups active in Vienna.
It was Pretzsche who undoubtedly introduced Hitler to the possibility of expanding
the consciousness and contacting spiritual entities through the use of psychedelic drugs.
Pretzsche, through his father's researches had knowledge of, and access to Peyotl; the
active constituent of the psychedelic peyote plant indigenous to Central America. Despite
this,it was not Pretzsche, however, who was responsible for introducing Hitler to the world
of drug induced psychic awareness, but someone far more mysterious.
Near the town of Wachau, on the Danube, lived a herbalist called Hans Lodz. Hitler
had first encountered Lodz whilst he was in the country. In an attempt to produce a
spontaneous self awakening, Hitler had travelled to a remote country area, where he had
camped. It was there that Lodz had stumbled upon him. On discovering the purpose of his
visit, Lodz had taken Hitler back to his cabin, where he had prepared for him a potion,
probably distilled from the active ingredients of the mushroom Amanita muscarina (3).
Hitler's experiences with Lodz's potions, along with Pretzsche's peyotol were undoubtedly
responsible for opening his mind to the relationships existing between the Macrocosm and
Microcosm, and taking him on the first steps to an awareness of the existence of powerful,
and alien entities.
Despite such strange experiences, ordinary life still continued, however, and in 1911
Hitler received a substantial sum from his godmother, Joanna Prinz, just before she died.
Mysteriously, though, he continued to live in doss-houses, eking out a living by selling his
In 1913, possibly in order to avoid service in the Austrian Army, Hitler, who was by
then twenty-one, moved to Munich, the capital of Bavaria, and rented a room above a
tailor's shop, owned by a man called Popp, in Schleissheimerstrasse. Once in Munich he
used his occult connections in Vienna as a means of facilitating his introduction to similar
groups in Munich. and it was in this way that Hitler became acquainted with the Thule
Gesellschaft and Dietrich Eckart. Despite his involvement with the 'well-heeled' in occult
circles Hitler continued his apparently poverty stricken life-style, making money from
painting scenes of the city and continuing his studies of History Politics and Philosophy.
How long he might have gone on living like this if impossible to tell, but in 1914 the great
event arrive, for which Hitler may well have been preparing.
According to 'Mein Kampf', Hitler, on hearing of the outbreak of war, got down on
his knees and thanked Heaven for granting him the good fortune of being permitted to live
at that time. Although Hitler's description is somewhat melodramatic, he undoubtedly was
pleased that war had finally come, and in this he was not unlike millions of other ordinary
people. It is probable, though, that the motives behind Hitler's gratitude were radically
different from the majority of his contemporaries.
Not surprisingly, like thousands of other young men, he volunteered shortly afterwards for
the German Army, joining the 16th Bavarian Regiment.

(2) Amanita muscarina, also known as Fly Agaric is a fungus with a deep red cap marked with
white spots. Its common name derives from the practice, common in Germany, of crumbling pieces of
the fungus in a saucer of water which was used to kill flies. The mushroom was used by Norse warriors
in the Dark Ages, its effect being to give them exceptional courage and strength, causing them to go
'berserk'. Less aggressive individuals found that the mushroom would grant them glowing visions of
supernatural beauty and significance, and therefore the mushroom was regularly used by shamans,
witches and magicians, as the centuries passed,

Once in the Army and through his basic training, Hitler volunteered for the dangerous job
of Meldeganger or regimental messenger, and throughout the War refused to be promoted
above the rank of corporal.
He was initially posted to the front at Ypres. As a result of the First Battle of Ypres,
only six hundred men, in Hitler's regiment, out of an original total of three thousand and
five hundred, survived. Hitler himself was later wounded in the thigh at the Somme and
spent a short time in a military hospital in Berlin, recovering. Rejoining his regiment he took
part in the battle of Arras, and in 1917, visited Berlin and Dresden while on leave. In
August of 1918 Hitler was awarded the Iron Cross, First Class, for his exceptional bravery.
There is, in fact, evidence that he won the Iron Cross on two occasions; in one case in
recognition of his capture of four French soldiers single handed.
In October he was blinded in a gas attack at Ypres, and subsequently sent to a
military hospital at Pasewalk, a small town north-east of Berlin. In 'Mein Kampf' Hitler
describes, in detail, his physical pain along with the anguish and despair he felt when he
learned of Germany's defeat. While initially the effects of his gassing must have caused
him considerable pain, what he fails to tell us is that once the physical pain had subsided,
he found himself in a prolonged state of sensory deprivation; known to para-psychologists
as 'the ganzfeld effect' (4); confined to his bed, unable to see and in the hushed
atmosphere of a hospital ward. Compared to the living hell of the front, with its screaming
shells combining with the screams of the mutilated and dying, and the everlasting
thundering of the guns, Hitler's new environment was tailor-made for the psychic
experience he sought. On his recovery, in November, he was posted back to Munich.
When he arrived in that city he was a very different man to the one who had left four years
By the time Hitler returned to Munich the War had ended. During the next year
Germany was racked by internal dissent, and after the Kaiser's abdication, along with the
other various Kings, Princes and Arch-Dukes of the Empire, Germany became a republic.
On the 6th of April, 1919, in Bavaria, a Soviet Republic was declared at Munich, following
the fall of the Hoffman Government. The Communist regime was quickly overthrown by
troops from the Reichwehr which had been dispatched from Berlin. During this time of
upheaval & uncertainty Hitler was initially stationed at Traunstein, near Munich, as a guard
in a prisoner of war camp, & then later was sent back to Munich as a 'Political Officer' for
the Wehrmacht. During this time he successfully infiltrated certain Army units which had
gone over to the Communists. When the Communists fell from power, the army turned to
informers in order to root out subversive elements, and as a result of information, which
Hitler provided, many were executed during the vengeful days which followed.

(4) Since the end of the last War the effects of sensory deprivation have been studied intensively,
particularly by Dr. John C Lilly in the USA. It has been found that if all external stimulation can be
effectively reduced (the method used by Lilly was to immerse the body in a saline solution at blood
temperature in darkness with 'white noise' supplied to the ears) the brain would project its
consciousness internally and produce symbolic images of remarkable intensity, along with unusual
insights, which were remarkably similar to those experienced under the influence of the major

It is at about this time that Hitler became involved once again with the Thule Group. In
1919 the Thule Gesellschaft set up a workers organisation, which subsequently
amalgamated with 'The Committee of Independent Workers', and became known as the
German Nationalist Worker's Party. Hitler implies that he first came into contact with this
small party which was ostensibly run by the ex-railway engineer Anton Drexler, as the
result of an instruction from his superior officer, Konstantin Heirl (5).
Some years later, Hitler went to great lengths in 'Mein Kampf', to paint an innocuous
picture of his first encounter with the German Worker's Party. Hitler claimed, in 'Mein
Kampf', that he came upon the political group, quite by chance. He recounts, in
considerable detail, how he attended his first meeting at the Lieber Room of the
Sterneckerbrau in Munich. Hitler gives a somewhat dismissive picture of this group and
describes how, at one point, he apparently entered rather violently into the discussion.
Throughout his account he gives the impression of not knowing the names of any of the
members, with the exception of Gottlieb Feder (6), the economist. He implies that he was
pleased to leave, and had no intention of returning. When he subsequently received an
offer of membership he implies that he was both surprised and unsure as to whether to
accept. Of course, after communing with his 'droll little friends', the mice, in his bare
barrack room, Hitler did decide to accept this invitation to join, and, as is well known, the
German Worker's Party eventually became the National Socialist German Worker's Party.
The rest, as they say, is History.

(5) Heirl is mysterious by virtue of the fact that his date of birth is unknown, along with the fact that
at the end of the war he disappeared without trace. At the time he ordered Hitler to investigate the
German Worker's Party he was probably a clandestine member, although officially his membership
postdates that of Hitler. He subsequently became responsible for the long term planning of the NSDAP.

(6) Gottfried Feder, 1883-1941, joined the German Worker's Party in

1919. In 1920 he was instrumental in helping to draw up the famous
'Twenty-five Articles', which formed the backbone of the party's policies.
Feder was essentially an economist, radically ahead of his time, who saw
the inherent flaws in industrial society, and particularly its dependence on
the concept of interest. In his quest for power Hitler found it necessary to
court the rich industrialist, such as Thyssen and Krup, and thus Feder's
influence waned. Feder continued teaching at University level, but died in
relative obscurity.
The Sources of Hitler's Power

Hitler's account of his first meeting with the

German Worker's Party is undoubtedly, like much
else in 'Mein Kampf', a complete fiction. Hitler of
course was a member of the Thule Group, from
which the majority of members of the committee of
the German Worker's Party had been recruited.
Eckart, with the approval of the Army, had
appointed Hitler to the committee of the party with
the intention of him eventually becoming leader.
The Army considered Hitler to be an ideal 'front'
man. Eckart, of course, knew better. He said to his
confidants in the Thule Gesellschaft, shortly before
he died, "Hitler will dance, but it is I who have
called the tune !
I have initiated him into the 'Secret Doctrine',
opened his centres of vision (1) and given him the
means to communicate with the Powers. Do not
mourn for me: I shall have influenced History more
than any other German".
Returning to Hitler's political testament, 'Mein
Kampf'; the book, of course, must be understood as a pure piece of political propaganda.
The cruel and devastating lessons of War had taught Hitler that political power and the
destinies of nations could not be compromised by such bourgeois values as honesty and
openness. Any consideration of current political events, will of course show that Hitler's
appraisal is still widely practised by even the most 'respectable' of governments who are,
on numerous occasions, 'economical with the truth'.
Notwithstanding being economical with the truth, 'Mein Kampf' is a remarkable
book, which, because of the reputation of its author, has
been regularly described as verbose, confused and turgid in
style, by many commentators. It is probably significant to
note that it was only after 1945 that such criticisms of the
book's style and content became general.
The book itself was the result of a collaboration between
Hitler, Professor Karl Haushofer, Rudolf Hess and
Haushofer's son, Albrecht (2). The book was an immediate
success after its publication in 1925 and it not only made
Hitler enormously rich, eventually selling in excess of nine
million copies, but was also influential in convincing
intellectuals, academics and the upper classes of the
legitimacy and value of the National Socialist ideal. Unlike
the books of Smith, Blavatsky, Crowley or even
Chamberlain, there is no claim on Hitler's part, or anyone
else's for that matter, to divine or daemonic inspiration in its
creation. The book is simply propaganda combined with
political, economic and social philosophy.
(1) Eckart's use of the phrase ' Secret Doctrine' appears, on the face of it, to be a reference to
Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical teaching; 'The Secret Doctrine' being the title of her last book
published in 1891; particularly with regards to Race and the existence of 'hidden supermen'. Eckart
may, however, be referring to some esoteric doctrine of his own.

The 'centre of vision' are the the Sacred Chakras,

which are a central part of esoteric philosophy in
both the Oriental and Oriental systems of magic. In
Occidental magic, which has its origins in
Gnosticism and the Kabala, the Chakras are
associated with the Planetary Spheres and the
Kabalistic Tree of Life. There are seven Chakras in
the human body associated with various organs. The
lowest Chakra is associated with the rectum, the
second with the genitals, the third with the abdomen,
the fourth with the heart, the fifth with the thyroid, the
sixth with the pineal gland and the last Chakra with
the crown. Each Chakra 'vibrates' at its own rate and
acts as a 'gate' to the 'Kundalini Power' which
originates in the ano-genital area and, when
released, can rise through the Chakras, being
modified by each one; eventually reaching the Crown Chakra to produce a spiritual
'awakening'. There are various ways of causing such an awakening of power; the easiest
being a direct stimulation of the Kundalini through erotic or sado-erotic practices. Such
stimulation,rather than the slower and considerably more difficult meditatory path, often
results in a lack of control of the powers so obtained.

(2) Albrecht Haushofer, son of Professor Karl Haushofer, was born in 1903. An intellectual, he
wrote esoteric poetry and historical verse dramas. Remarkably precocious, he obtained his doctorate at
the age of nineteen. He involved in Hess's flight to Scotland in May, 1941 and in the attempt on Hitler's
life in July of 1944. He was arrested by the Gestapo and executed in 1945.

It is not the purpose of this study to document, in detail, Hitler's rise to power, or his
subsequent conduct of the War.

That Hitler, in common with the other individuals in this study, underwent a
transformational experience, which radically altered his outlook, and unleashed hitherto
untapped mental and psychic resources is without doubt.
In some ways Hitler is the most problematic of our subjects. Objectively, it must be
admitted that, out of all the individuals we shall be considering, his achievements were,
undoubtedly, the most influential, far reaching and significant. Most people, however,
would find it difficult to admit to such an assessment despite the fact that Hitler was,
almost single-handedly responsible for remoulding, politically, a country and its culture. He
then went on to impose his philosophical system upon the greater part of a whole
continent, causing, in the process, the outbreak of a conflict of world wide scope and
It is one of the mysteries of History that we can call Alexander of Macedon,
'Alexander the Great', despite of the fact that he crucified the entire adult male population
of Tyre and Sidon, castrating the youths and sending them into slavery along with the
women, whom his soldiers violated. Equally we can study the career of Napoleon the First,
dispassionately, despite his conquest of Europe and the enormous numbers of dead and
injured which these wars produced. In like manner the Genocide undertaken by the United
States against the American Indians in the second half of the nineteenth century has been
all but 'swept under the carpet', while the USA arrogantly swaggers around the world,
using force if necessary, to attack other countries it considers guilty of violating human
rights. Stalin, whilst often condemned, is still viewed merely as a historical phenomena
although he was undoubtedly guilty of causing the deaths of far more people than Hitler,
even assuming that the highest estimates of deaths in the Holocaust are accepted as
correct. Stalin, of course was our ally in the last War and this seems to interfere, radically
with our subsequent judgement.
In the forty-odd years since the end of the last War Hitler has been presented as the
'ultimate bogeyman' of History. The victors wrote a history, however, that was too darkly
coloured. Shakespeare warns us to beware of those who 'protest too much'. The victors
feared, and even today still fear that Hitler may strike at them from the grave. It appears
that they know something about this man, and his ideas that we do not. On the reasonable
assumption that Hitler and Nazism are essentially evil and repulsive they will surely
appeal to no one. It should not be necessary to destroy Hitler's mountain home, the
Berghof, at Berchtesgaden (3), along with everything else associated with him, and to
ridicule and condemn both him and his ideas at every opportunity if they are self evidently
unacceptable to right thinking people. Behind all this frantic and seemingly unnecessary
condemnation lies an enigma which involves, undoubtedly, the nature of the source of
Hitler's ideas and personal power.
Those who are now in power, and who inherited the laurels of the victory over
Fascism, know something of, and deeply fear the power that inspired Hitler, and through
him, a whole nation, a mere fifty years ago. That power is opposed to all our mundane and
bourgeois habits; a power capable of releasing us from this familiar world into a harsher

(3) When the Americans captured

Berchtesgaden, in Bavaria, in 1945, it was
decided that the Berghof (Haus
Wachenfeld), which Hitler had first rented
and subsequently bought with the
proceeds from the sale of 'Mein Kampf',
after his release from Landsberg Prison,
should be destroyed, along with most of
the other buildings on the Obersalzburg,
with the exception of the Platterhof and
the Hotel Turken. This reason given for
this wanton destruction of buildings of
historical importance, which included the
Nurnberg Stadium, (which resisted all
attempts such was the quality of its
construction), and many other buildings
designed by Speer and Hitler, was that
they would become 'shrines to Nazism'.

That Hitler has been judged a psychopath, a fool, a carpet chewing maniac, a crank, an
uneducated eccentric, a thug and much else besides is well known. Most people would
undoubtedly consider him an evil individual. The problem we face here, though, is that it is
only the victors who are given the privilege of writing History, initially. Hitler was well aware
of this when he made his famous statement that 'the Goddess of History would tear to
tatters the judgement of this court', during his trial in 1924, which resulted from the failure
of the Munich Putch.
Any objective assessment of Hitler cannot support the contention that he was
insane, stupid or lacking in personal qualities. The fact that he was highly thought of by his
superiors in the Army should indicate that he was self disciplined, reliable and intelligent.
The fact that he was awarded the Iron Cross on two occasions, should show that he was
None of this, however, explains how Hitler was able to bring his influence to bear on
the then President, Field Marshall Paul von Hindenburg, Crown Prince Friederich Wilhelm
of Hohenzollern, the Kaiser's heir, General von Mackensen, Baron Fritz Thyssen (4),
Gustav and Alfred Krupp (5), Professors Naumann, Bertram and Jordan, Wagner's widow,
Cosima and of course Houston Stewart Chamberlain, amongst many others.
It was in 1923 that Hitler met Chamberlain at Bayreuth, in Bavaria, and acclaimed
him, in the presence of the Wagner family and other celebrities, to be the 'new German
messiah'. The old man, driven once again by his daemons, was able, eventually, to die
content; happy in the knowledge that his prophecies of Aryan greatness were at last about
to come true. Hitler attended his funeral in 1927.
For a man who, whilst not being ugly or deformed, was not handsome, Hitler had a
remarkable hold over both men and women, which in the final analysis, came down to an
animal and almost sexual attraction. While it may be difficult for many people to accept the
fact today, Hitler came nearer to being revered as a God than any other individual in
modern times. Surprisingly, this adoration was not limited to the uneducated masses but
was felt by artists, intellectuals and academics; many of his greatest admirers being in the
military; the Junker aristocracy, and captains of industry and commerce.
Those who met Hitler after the War often refer, in their reminiscences, to his
remarkable pale, clear blue eyes, which many state, unequivocally, had a distinctly
hypnotic quality. Face to face, few could resist his charm, or his anger. and contrary to
popular belief, it was only towards the end that Hitler resorted to bouts of aggressive
anger, rather than to his winning smile and boyish enthusiasm.

(4) Fritz von Thyssen, 1873-1951. He was a multimillionaire who made his money from steel. He
became a member of the NSDAP in 1923, pouring huge sums of money into the party coffers. He saw
the National Socialists as a bulwark against communism. He was instrumental in encouraging Hitler to
remove members of the party like Strasser and Feder, who were anti- capitalist, from influential
positions in the party.

(5) Alfred Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, 1907-1967. The son and heir of Gustav Krupp, he was
an enthusiastic supporter of Hitler. In 1943 he was appointed Minister of War Economy. Shortly after his
capture and imprisonment as a 'war criminal', by the Allies he was released and his companies property
and fortune were restored to him.
Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, 1870-1950. A multimillionaire industrialist who was
mainly involved in the manufacture of armaments. From 1931 he was Chairman of the Association of
German Industrialists. Initially he distrusted Hitler but later, after meeting Hitler, he became a firm friend
and supporter of the National Socialists. At the end of the war he was not tried by the Nurnberg War
Crimes Commission because of 'ill health'.

Eckart implied that Hitler had special powers and communion with occult entities; 'hidden
masters'. Certainly, Hitler had an abnormal ability to sway people, both as individuals and
in the mass. Eye witnesses are united in reporting an almost physical transformation in
the Fuhrer when he spoke at public meetings. It was Egon Hanfstangl (6) who suggested
that Hitler, when speaking to the masses, 'had that ability which is needed to make people
stop thinking critically and simply emote'. Equally, Professor Alan Bullock (7) was of the
opinion that when Hitler spoke it was not as if he was using words but rather a case of the
emotions coming direct, with a rawness and power.
Many eye witnesses have equated Hitler's behaviour during his public appearances
with those of a medium. Usually they have presumed that Hitler was communicating with
the collective unconscious of his listeners. It is more likely that he was channelling power
from a more mysterious source.
The sheer power of Hitler's presence is now difficult to imagine, despite the fact that
unlike Joseph Smith, or Rasputin, who were also capable of swaying large groups, we
have both film and sound recordings of Hitler's speeches. There are, however, still many
witnesses of Hitler's rallies, alive today, who are prepared to honestly report their feelings
about Hitler, now that some fifty years have passed. Alfons Heck, a writer on the National
Socialist era, has stated, frankly, that when he came face to face with Hitler, at a Hitler
Youth rally, he felt he had come face to face with God. Eckart had obviously done his job
The key to understanding the exceptional individual, and particularly the individual
who has been made exceptional, is to be found in the Will. It is no accident that the film of
the 1934 Nurnberg Party Rally, directed by Leni Riefenstahl was called 'The Triumph of the
Will' (8). To Hitler the Will was paramount, as it was for Crowley, Gurdjieff and all others
who wished to control the powers of the occult. The focusing of the Will was of the
essence; once that was lost dissolution was inevitable. The Will, which must be focused
into a blazing stream of pure energy, is used to wield images and symbols as if they were
material reality. It is the source of Life; for the Creator is simply an infinite and all-powerful
Will, and death comes to men only through a weakness of Will.

(6) Ernst Franz Sedgwick Hanfstangl (Putzi), 1887-1976. He

was a Harvard graduate, with an American mother. He belonged
to an affluent family, which originally came from Munich and
dealt in fine art reproductions and publishing. Hanfstangl met
Hitler in 1921 and regularly lent and gave him money. He was
responsible for introducing Hitler to 'polite' Munich society. He
was a competent pianist who often entertained and relaxed
Hitler by playing excerpts from Wagner's operas. In 1937 he
inexplicably fled from Germany, convinced that Hitler was
planning to kill him. After the war he published a book entitled
'Hitler, the Missing Years'.

(7) Author of a major biography of Hitler.

(8) Leni Riefenstahl, 1902-. She was a documentary film
director whose first film, 'Sieg des Glaubens' ('Victory of Faith'),
was made at the behest of Gobbles, the Minister of
Propaganda. Her relationship with Gobbles was a difficult one
and she suffered a nervous breakdown while making the film.
Hitler personally convinced her to make a further documentary
of the 1934 Nurnberg Party Rally. This was the now famous
'Triumph des Willens' ('The Triumph of the Will') which is
considered, even today, and despite its subject, to be the peak
of the documentary film maker's art. She went on to make
'Olympia', which was a record of the Berlin Olympics of 1936.
She was imprisoned for a short while by the Allies after the war,
presumably for making documentaries, and has continued her
career in films and photography since then.

From Hitler's confidential conversations, including those with Heá, Heinrich Himmler (9)
and Hermann Rauschning (10), it is evident that he was far from being an ex-corporal
turned right-wing, bourgeois politician, made good.
One simply has to observe Hitler with someone like Neville Chamberlain to see the
difference between a politician and a religious leader. His statements show him to be a
person for whom, like Joseph Smith, politics were only a means to an end. He, like
Crowley, was ushering in a 'New Age', and like Crowley, and unlike our contemporary,
sentimental and woolly headed disciples of alternative lifestyles and green politics, he
knew that if this New Age was to be firmly established it would involve upheaval and
suffering on an immense scale. The tragedy is probably that we have had the suffering but
the 'new age' has been aborted by the free-market capitalists. That dawn is still awaited by
so many, but before it dawns more suffering is probably inevitable
Hitler made it clear that he felt that the world was at the point of a crucial
transformation which he would be instrumental in initiating. It was not to be simply a
political or economic transformation, but rather a transformation of moral and spiritual
values. In this, of course, he was echoing one of his favourite authors, Friederich
Nietzsche. In addition he saw the advent of a change in cultural perception, from the
dominance of logic and the intellect to a new consciousness of Will and magical
interpretation. Rauschning makes it clear in his book 'Conversations with Hitler' that to
understand Hitler one must realize that he believed absolutely that there was a magical
relationship between Man and the Universe. Although Rauschning was not aware of it, this
conviction on Hitler's part undoubtedly stemmed from his drug induced experiences with
Hans L¢dz in 1910 and the teachings of Eckart.
In common with Madame Blavatsky and Gurdjieff, Hitler believed that the creative
process, far from being over, was still active, and, if anything, undergoing a significant
escalation. Like Joseph Smith, Hitler believed that the purpose of material creation was the
deification of man, although Hitler, unlike Smith, believed that such a process could be
achieved in this life by essentially biological means. This was the rationale behind the
concept of the 'Herrenvolk' and the racial policies which have apparently so outraged the
'liberal conscience'. Perhaps Hitler's most perceptive and significant comment was that the
purpose of human evolution was to achieve a mystic vision of the Universe. It was also, by
inference, the purpose of National Socialism.
(9) Heinrich Himmler, 1900-1945. He was born at Landshut
in Bavaria, the son of a respected teacher and former tutor to
the Wittlesbach family. Himmler studied at the
Technischehochschule in Munich and became a laboratory
technician. He was too young to serve in the Great War, but
joined the Freikorps at the end of the War and took part in the
Munich Putch of 1923, acting as standard bearer, having joined
the NSDAP that same year.. After the Putch he set up a small
chicken farm near Munich. He was appointed head of Hitler's
bodyguard, the Schutzstaffel or SS,in 1926. By 1936 Himmler
controlled all the police in Germany, including the Gestapo and
the SD. The SS eventually became a state within a state,
having its own armed forces and producing its own weapons,
including the first operational jet fighters along with the V1 and
V2 rockets. The SS, under Himmler made its own laws, which
were administered by its own courts. It also had responsibility
for the concentration camps. The Ahnenerbe was a special
section of the SS concerned with the study of Nordic culture
and History along with occult matters. Himmler, like Hitler, was
teetotal and vegetarian. He was also convinced of the value of Homeopathic and Herbal Remedies.
The SS itself intended to provide the genetic material from which would come the superhuman beings
which Hitler saw as the final stage of Human evolution. Himmler committed suicide in 1945.

(10) Herman Rauschning, (1887-). He was president of the Danzig Senate in 1933. In 1935 he
disagreed with Hitler and fled to Switzerland. He subsequently became an American citizen.

Those killed in the war which began in 1939, an those who died in the concentration
camps were, undoubtedly, in Hitler's view, an acceptable price to pay for the 'Deification of
Man' and the 'Mystic Vision'.
Before we jump too hurriedly to a judgement on such values, however, perhaps we should
consider the 'assured mutual destruction' of nuclear war, which hung over the world for fifty
years, and which to an extent still does, which is not only contemplated, but embraced in
the defence of economic systems which are patently fraudulent, ineffective and
ecologically disastrous. Which is the greater price to pay, and which is the higher
objective ? The 'liberals' in the West and the one-time communists in the East, with their
fingers on the nuclear buttons are still writing History, but, it seems, fewer people are
prepared to believe them.
Of course, there was never any possibility of Hitler's vast vision of a transformed
future coming to pass within his lifetime. Shortly after the
beginning of the War Hitler began to lose control of the
powers he had acquired through the teachings of L¢dz, his
experiences in the Great War and his time with Eckart.
Essentially these powers found their energy in the release
of the sexual Chakras.
It is known that throughout his adolescence Hitler had
severely repressed his sexual drives.
In 1928, when Hitler bought Haus Wachenfeld on the
Obersalzburg, he invited his sister Angela Raubal to be his
housekeeper. She brought with her, to Berchtesgaden, her
two daughters, Friedl and Geli. By 1929 Hitler and Geli
were constantly in each other's company when Hitler was
in Munich or on the Obersalzburg. When Hitler acquired an
apartment in Prinzregentenstrasse, in Munich, Geli was
given rooms there. There is no doubt that Hitler either had,
or intended to have a sexual relationship of some sort with his niece, and was insanely
jealous of her seeing other men; at one point accusing her of having an affair with Emil
Maurice, his chauffeur and bodyguard.
In September 1931, Geli Raubal was found shot dead in Hitler's flat. According to
the Coroner she had committed suicide after an argument with Hitler. Hitler was
devastated, weeping publicly at Geli's funeral. It appears that Hitler had written a letter to
Geli shortly before her death, which had somehow fallen into the wrong hands. The letter
was eventually recovered by a priest who supported Hitler. Everyone who read the letter,
including the priest, disappeared as a result of Himmler's efficient and deadly actions. In
the letter it is believed that Hitler wrote frankly about his sado-masochistic attitude towards
sex, which was related to his manipulation of sexual activities for paranormal purposes,
although this was not explicitly stated in the letter.
It is possible that Geli committed suicide, but whether this was a falsification of the
truth, or whether Hitler or Himmler killed Geli is really immaterial. That Geli was a danger
to Hitler was an undoubted fact. She was certainly an electoral liability and, perhaps more
significantly and bizarrely, she would have been a drain on the psycho-sexual powers
which Hitler needed in order to produce his mediumistic performances of mass oratory.
A year later Hitler met Eva Braun (11) at the studio of the photographer Heinrich
Hoffman. To begin with Hitler provided her with a flat in Munich, but later she moved into
the Berghof. She remained hidden from the public, although she acted as Mistress of the
Berghof, entertaining Hitler's eminent guests. There has long been controversy over the
nature of Hitler's relationship with her.

(11) Eva Braun, later Eva Hitler, (1912-1945). Born in

Simbach, in Bavaria, close to the Austrian border, she had
a limited education but was physically attractive, with a
pleasing personality. She had two sisters, Ilse and Gretl,
who often stayed with her at the Berghof. In 1945 Eva
committed suicide, after marrying Hitler in the
Fuhrerbunker in Berlin.
Of those who were close to Hitler who are still alive,
Reinhard Spitzy, von Ribbentrop's secretary, and a regular
visitor to the Berghof, suggests that Hitler and Eva had a
normal sexual relationship, whereas Putzi Hanfstangl
suggests that Hitler was not interested in 'normal' sexual
activities. The mystery remains.

Once Hitler had consolidated his power he began, apparently, to develop bourgeois tastes
and attitudes which he would have probably rejected in his youth.
He liked to relax in an informal atmosphere, indulging in his passion for cream cakes,
decaffeinated coffee and mountain walks, in his mountain home on the Obersalzburg. His
para-normal powers waned but his daemons did not desert him. Often he would awaken at
night, screaming. He would rush into a corner, and stand trembling, sweat pouring off him,
pointing at some invisible entity, while he mumbled and endless stream of meaningless
phrases and words. He would repeatedly declare that 'he' or 'they' had come for him. After
some considerable time, and a great deal of reassurance from his aides, His breathing
would return to normal, the vision would fade, and Hitler would finally be put back to bed.
The question remains, who or what did Hitler see in the shadows ?
Eventually, his powers deserted him completely. The bomb plot, arranged by some
of his disillusioned generals was the final blow, weakening his physical & spiritual resolve
on which his 'will' rested. He had failed, and was cast aside to be reviled by History. 'Who'
ever or 'what' ever cast him aside was seeking a new strategy; a more subtle one.


Adamski & Co.

George Adamski was not the first of the modern contactees, although he was
undoubtedly the most famous. Adamski's contacts began in 1952, whereas Howard
Menger's first contact was in 1932, at the time when Hitler was on his way to power in
Germany. Menger was only ten when he made his first contact, which is unusual in itself.
Even Joseph Smith was in his teens at the time of his first contact, in the forests of
Vermont, with two shining entities whom he took to be God the Father and God the Son.
Menger made contact with a beautiful woman, in a wood near his home in New Jersey.
She told him of an important mission that he would have in the future and promised him
that he would be visited by 'her people' on numerous occasions in the future,
Despite this rather strange childhood experience, Menger apparently grew up quite
normally, serving in the American Army during the War in the Pacific. During his period of
service he was contacted by entities on a number of occasions, although such visits never
came to the attention of his fellow GIs or his superiors.
In 1945 Menger left the Army and worked as a self employed sign writer, supporting
his wife and young son. As time went by the number and duration of his contacts
increased, and he found himself involved in helping alien entities, whom he believed to be
Venusians, to establish themselves on Earth, incognito. In 1956 he attempted to
photograph one of the 'saucers' which the aliens were supposed to use when travelling to
the Earth. The pictures were of a disappointingly poor quality, which was explained by the
Venusians as being due to radiation from the ships propulsion units.
During this time Menger met entities who claimed to come from Saturn and Mars.
All these entities could pass quite easily as normal inhabitants of Earth. As a reward for the
help and assistance that Menger had given to the 'space people' he was invited aboard
one of their 'spacecraft' and given a trip round the solar system during which he visited
'Saturn', 'Mars' and 'Venus'.
Not surprisingly, Menger wrote a book describing his experiences. In it he noted the
remarkable longevity of the entities whom he contacted and points to the fact that this was
achieved by a diet which consisted entirely of organic vegetable products. This concern
about food, and in particular, vegetarianism, is to be found in the teachings of Smith,
Blavatsky, Gurdjieff, Crowley, Hitler and other prominent Nazis, along with current New
Age disciples and, of course, almost all contactees and abductees.
Another significant contactee, who pre-dates Adamski was Arthur Henry Matthews.
Matthews was a wealthy friend of the enigmatic scientist, Nikola Tesla. In 1941 Matthews
was living at his four-hundred acre country property just outside Quebec, in Canada. One
night he met two entities who were similar to those who contacted Howard Menger. They
also claimed to be from Venus and asked to see the work Matthews was engaged on with
regard to an invention which Tesla had bequeathed to him on his death. Satisfied with
Matthew's work, they took him to their craft which he was allowed to inspect. Again
longevity and a vegetarian diet were emphasised. After this initial contact, Matthews was
visited by 'Venusian' entities on a number of other occasions, spanning a period of twenty
years, and on one of these occasions was taken on a trip to 'Mars'.
Adamski, himself, was born in Poland in 1891. When he was just two years old his
family emigrated to America to escape the crushing poverty and
political uncertainty. As a young man he spent some years in the
American Army although little is known of the details of his early
life. By 1944 he was calling himself 'Professor' Adamski and
lecturing on Eastern Religions. He and a group of followers had set
up a small colony near Mount Palomar, in California; site of the
giant two-hundred inch reflecting telescope. There they ran a
tourist's café and Adamski indulged in his hobby of amateur
astronomy with his six inch Newtonian reflector.
In 1946 Adamski observed his first UFO through his telescope
but it was not until 1952 that he was able to successfully take his
first photograph of a UFO through his telescope. In that same year
he experienced his first contact with alien entities. Again they identified themselves a
'Venusians' and appeared to be humanoid, looking very similar to Nordic earthmen.
Adamski was able to communicate at a rather deeper level than some of the other early
contactees and soon established that these entities believed in a Supreme Being and in
life after death. Like many messages in the fifties and sixties from alien entities, Adamski's
entities were concerned about nuclear testing and the threat of nuclear war. At the end of
Adamski's initial meeting the visiting entity asked for one of Adamski's photographic plates,
which he promised to return. Once the alien 'craft' had left, Adamski took a cast of the
alien's footprint as evidence of the meeting. The footprint, along with the returned
photographic plate bore symbols or glyphs which bear a striking resemblance to the
transcribed examples of Reformed Egyptian which were taken from the Moroni Plates of
After his initial meeting Adamski met 'Venusians' on numerous occasions in Los
Angeles, rather in the same manner as Howard Menger. The aliens appeared in
conventional business suites and attracted little or no attention from passers-by, who were
unaware of their origins. Later Adamski was taken to a 'Mother Ship' in orbit above the
Earth. Here like Menger and others, he met similar entities from Saturn, Mars and, of
course, Venus. On another occasion he was taken on a visit to the dark side of the Moon,
which he was assured was inhabited. Once again the entities were long lived and
Despite the bizarre nature of many of Adamski's pronouncements, he quickly
developed a larger following than any of the other contactees of the time, and in 1959 his
disciples were able to raise sufficient funds to finance a world tour. In the process of the
tour Adamski was able to visit New Zealand, Australia, Great Britain, Switzerland, Italy and
Holland, where he was granted an audience with Queen Juliana and Prince Bernhard.
In 1965 John Reeves was contacted by alien entities who not only left 'Adamski'
type footprints, in this case leaving a trail stretching at least a quarter of a mile, but also
fragments of Titanium, a metal often associated with UFO encounters. I addition there was
'Martian' writing which proved to be very similar to Adamski's 'Venusian' script and Smith's
Reformed Egyptian.
There is an enigmatic twist to Reeve's story, which was provided by a Dr. Berthold Eric
Schwartz, who reported in 1957, (eight years before Reeves had his alien contact), that a
nine year old girl had received thirteen identical symbols in the precise order in which they
were found in Reeve's communication, whilst she was undergoing an experience of
automatic writing. This connection between apparent UFO contacts and psychic
phenomena is extremely significant, as shall be subsequently shown.
The connection with Joseph Smith and Mormonism, through 'space writing' is also
noteworthy, but equally the fact that so many space entities are described as being almost
identical in appearance to Joseph Smith's Moroni should also give cause for comment.
There is, in addition, one other significant connection between Smith and recent
experiences involving UFOs and alien entities.
This connection has its origins in December of 1973 when a French racing-car
journalist called Claude Vorilhon was contacted by entities who emerged from a 'space
craft' which landed close to an extinct volcano near Clermont-Ferrand, in France. The
entities explained that they came from 'far away' and knew all the languages of the Earth.
They asked Vorilhon to obtain a Bible and a note-pad and then proceeded to describe their
apparent involvement in the history of both the Old and the New Testaments. They
appointed Vorilhon, who up till then had no interest in either religion or outer space, as
their representative on Earth, and required him to raise money in order to establish a
centre from which their philosophy could be propagated. Vorilhon successfully carried out
their requests, setting up branches of what he called the 'Raelian Movement' in France,
Switzerland, Belgium, Canada and Britain. One of the main ideas of the movement is the
espousal of a doctrine of free love, which is remarkably similar to Joseph Smith's concept
of Celestial Marriage. When asked their name, the entities who contacted Vorilhon
described themselves as the 'Elohim'. It should be noted that the name Elohim was given
by Joseph Smith to the Demiurge from Kolob who was responsible, according to Smith, for
creating human life on Earth. Was the contact with Vorilhon perhaps an updated and
modernised re-run of the contact made by 'Moroni'? If it was it must prompt a
reconsideration of many other accounts by contactees of alien entities.
As time passed, the Adamski case resurfaced during the same year as the Reeves
case and some years before the appearance of the Elohim.. This new contact occurred in
England, rather than America, and involved a certain E A Bryant, a retired prison officer,
who lived at Scoriton on Dartmoor, in the county of Devon. On the 24th April, 1965, at
about five thirty pm, Bryant encountered a UFO whilst walking on the moor. The craft
hovered near him and three humanoid figures emerged. They informed Bryant that they
came from 'Venus', and one of the entities identified himself as 'Yamski'. They assured
Bryant that they would return in a short while, with proof of 'Mantel'. Some time later some
metal fragments, possibly from an aircraft, were discovered at the same location. Bryant
was not familiar with the cases relating to either Adamski, who had died on the 23rd April,
1965, or Mantel, and therefore may well have misheard Adamski as 'Yamski'. As for
Mantel, Bryant was also unaware that Captain Thomas Mantel, of the United States Air
Force had died when his plane mysteriously disintegrated, in 1948, over Godman Air
Force Base, Fort Knox, Kentucky, whilst he chasing a UFO.
If the entity involved in this encounter with Bryant was Adamski, then the incident
could be of immense significance, in that it associates certain UFO sightings, strongly, with
spiritualist phenomena, in that Adamski was communicating after his death; and at the
same time, it links up with the mysterious statement made by an alien entity to Whitley
Strieber, during his abduction, that 'aliens' 'recycle souls'.
As time went on the entities whom contactees encountered no longer claimed to be
from our Solar system. Perhaps the evidence which the moon landings and space probes
to Venus and Mars had provided made the claims of 'Venusians' and 'Martians' seem
somewhat untenable.
Now alien entities claimed to come from such unlikely places as 'Clarion'; which is,
apparently, a planet in our Solar System which is permanently, and probably conveniently,
always hidden by our Moon; or the planet Aenstria, or the Galaxy of Coma Berenices,
which is not, in fact, a galaxy but rather a constellation.
Another unknown planet was Lanulos, apparently the home of an entity who called
himself 'Indrid Cold'. 'Cold' first introduced himself to Woodrow Derenberger one evening
in November, in 1966.
Derenberger was driving in his van near Parkersberg in West
Virginia when he came across an 'alien craft' parked in the
middle of the free-way. Derenberger pulled up on the hard
shoulder and was approached by a humanoid entity, who
looked to all intents and purpose like an ordinary person. He
gave his name and explained that he came from the 'planet'
Lanulos. Significantly, like Adamski and many other
contactees Derenberger received his communications from
Cold telepathically. Cold made light and rather pointless
conversation with Derenberger, for about ten minutes, and
then, rather strangely, suggested that Derenberger report the
matter to the local police.
Like most contactees Derenberger had practically no
previous knowledge of, or interest in UFOs. Unsure as to what
was going on, he therefore decided to go to the police as Cold
had suggested, and found, to his surprise, that they were prepared to give him a
reasonable hearing in view of the fact that there had been numerous UFO sightings and
close encounters in the area over the previous twenty-four hours.
Derenberger's contact with Cold continued, and the following day Cold, whilst not
appearing physically, gave Derenberger a considerable amount of information,
telepathically, about his home 'planet' and his family, which consisted of his wife, two sons
and a baby daughter. The 'planet' Lanulos, it appears, was in the galaxy of 'Ganymede'; a
statement which, typically, is completely meaningless.
As is the case with many contactees, Derenberger's life was totally disrupted by his
contact with alien entities. Apart from the inevitable psychological disorientation caused by
his belief that he had been contacted by 'spacemen', there was also the inevitable social
disruption which affected both Derenberger and his family once the details of his
encounter had been made public knowledge. Derenberger was a salesman and he soon
discovered that his notoriety as a contactee was not good for business. His children were
bullied at school and, because his business was failing, he soon found that he was short of
money. The family moved to central Cleveland, but Cold soon followed Derenberger. Cold
would either contact Derenberger as a drove along some isolated free-way or would
simply be waiting at Derenberger's back door when he arrived home in the evening. At the
same time Derenberger and his friends began to receive a succession of strange 'phone
calls consisting of odd electronic noises, along with visits by mysterious and threatening
'men in black'.
These two phenomena are strongly associated with UFO contacts and sightings.
The UFO phenomena appears to express itself most commonly through electro-magnetic
phenomena which range from causing the electrical systems of cars to cut out, to
interference with radios and televisions and the disruption of phone systems. At the
extreme end of the range, sightings of UFOs have been connected with extensive
disruptions of the electrical power grid, involving large scale power failures, particularly in
America. Reinforcing the theme of electro-magnetic phenomena, many contactees and
abductees who have been shown round the interior of alien 'space craft', or who have
been taken on 'space flights', have been told by their hosts that their ships are powered by
electro-magnetic forces, and in some cases, including that of Strieber, contactees have
been given plans of electro-magnetic 'motors'.
Electromagnetic disruption, whilst being a nuisance, is not usually threatening.
The UFO phenomena, however, appears to be able to interfere with phone systems in
such a way that un-traceable, anonymous and threatening 'phone calls are often received
by individuals who have reported siting UFOs, or have reported contacts with alien
entities. Equally 'men in black' are often reported to have visited contactees, sometimes
warning them not to 'go public' about their experiences, but in many other cases, simply
interviewing contactees and their associates in a somewhat odd manner. The 'men in
black' or MIBs are an intriguing phenomena, as they often arrive in old cars that look and
even smell 'brand new'; often large black Cadillacs; wearing 'brand new' but slightly out of
date clothes, and behaving in an odd, often socially inept manner. They usually state that
they represent a particular Government agency or newspaper, but when enquiries are
made they are unknown and un-traceable.
These then were some of the problems that beset 'Woody' Derenberger, despite his
attempts to lead a normal, quiet life. Indrid Cold continued to contact him and, not
surprisingly, 'Woody' ended up taking the inevitable flight to the Moon combined with a trip
round the Solar System in the entity's 'spacecraft', before eventually flying to Cold's home
'planet' of Lanulos. There, he was entertained at Indrid Cold's luxurious home, where he
discovered, to his surprise, that the people of Lanulos were nudists. Along with his
interplanetary flights Derenberger also produced, like most other contactees, a book which
he entitled, rather unimaginatively, 'Visitors from Lanulos'.
Derenberger's story may seem to be just another contactee fantasy were it not for
the events which occurred on December 10th, 1967. On that date a young college student,
from Adelphi, Maryland, called Tom, was driving home along Interstate Highway 70 just
outside Washington DC, when he encountered a large white object on the road ahead.
Being curious, Tom pulled up and saw two figures standing outside the large spherical
object. The two 'entities were fairly ordinary looking, and were dressed in blue overalls.
One of the entities approached Tom and explained that his name was Vadig. After a few
minutes of rather mundane and pointless conversation, Vadig and his companion left with
the cryptic farewell,'see you in time'. On arriving at the campus, Tom told his three room-
mates about his encounter, but as they were not prepared to take him seriously, Tom told
no one else.
Tom had a part time job as a waiter, which helped him to pay his college fees. He
had not mentioned this to Vadig, during their brief conversation and he was therefore
surprised and shocked when at the beginning of February 1968, Vadig entered the
restaurant where he worked. On this occasion Vadig was wearing a lounge suit and dark
overcoat. Vadig asked Tom to meet him the following Sunday and then left, after drinking a
cup of coffee. After work, the next Sunday, Tom was picked up by Vadig, who was driving a
large black Buick. It was an old model but Tom recalled that it looked and smelled brand
new. After a thirty minute drive they arrived at a remote spot where Vadig had 'parked' his
space craft. Tom was placed in a small grey circular room, equipped with a seat and a
video screen. The screen showed the earth receding to a tiny speck as the 'craft'
apparently travelled through space. Eventually another 'planet' appeared on the screen
and the 'craft' landed with a thump. Tom rejoined Vadig who proudly announced that the
planet was Lanulos. After a brief tour of the 'nudist planet', Tom returned home in the same
manner that he arrived, and was dropped off from the Buick at his front door. When he
recounted this adventure to his room-mates his excitement and emotional involvement
convinced his friends that he had undergone a genuine and significant experience. This
puzzling case was thoroughly researched by John A Keel, author and UFO researcher,
who was unable to find any connection between Derenberger and Tom, other than their
identical encounters with entities professing to denizens of the unlikely world of Lanulos.
The inhabitants of Lanulos, according to 'Woody' and Tom were nudists, but not
particularly sexy nudists. Sex does, however, 'raise its ugly head', eventually.
Star Magic & Sex Magic

There is a considerable amount of informed speculation which

suggests that Dietrich Eckart used a form of Arabian 'Star
Magic' when he initiated his protege, Adolf Hitler.
Arabian 'Star Magic' is one of the most secret, and
reputedly powerful, forms of magic in existence. It is practised
rarely now as few know the true rituals. More to the point, 'Star
Magic' derives its power from the unleashing of sexual energies
released through violent intercourse, or through sadistic or
masochistic actions which are capable of arousing sexual
excitement to the point of orgasm.
Many people consider that UFOs and their occupants
come from the Stars; the so called 'extra-terrestrial theory'.
Surprisingly, the occupants of UFOs also appear to have an
interest in sexuality to a degree that is not normally associated
with space exploration. They seem to take a schoolboy's delight
in peeking into bedroom windows as women undress or
disturbing courting teenagers in the back seats of automobiles
in deserted lover's lanes. If they abduct people they do it at night, often from their beds.
Once abducted they obsessively examine their captive's sexual organs & on occasions
copulate with them.
The remarkably unlikely case of 'Woody' Derenberger does not enter into the
category of sexually motivated contacts, but it does share a common characteristic with a
case which undisputedly points the way to this interesting predilection on the part of
entities. The Derenberger case, referred to previously, was corroborated by an
independent party. Probably the most famous abduction case of all, that of Betty and
Barney Hill, also received a certain degree of corroboration, & that from a surprising
Nearly everybody who is reasonably intelligent & can read is aware, to some
degree, of the case of Betty and Barney Hill, apart, of course, from Whitley Strieber, if we
are to believe his remarks in 'Communion'.
The Hills were a conventional, middle class couple who were actively involved with
the local church. The only unusual thing about them, for 1961, was that Barney was
coloured and Betty was white. Despite this, however, they were well integrated into their
local community, in their home town of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where he was
employed by the post office and she was a social worker.
The Hills were driving on route 3, just
South of Lincoln in New Hampshire,
returning from a holiday in Canada,
where they had visited Niagara Falls and
Montreal, when they noticed a bright
object in the sky, ahead of their car. They
were in a National Forest area in the
White Mountains of New Hampshire and
there was little other traffic on the road.
The object which they had sighted was
sufficiently unusual for them to stop their
car in order for them to observe it
through binoculars. The object
subsequently made various manoeuvres and ended by hovering a couple of hundred feet
above their vehicle. The Hills became alarmed by the proximity of the object and re-
entered their car and drove away at speed. Whilst driving away from the object, the hills
heard a number of strange electronic 'beeping' noises. After this, the object seemed to
disappear, and they continued their journey. When they arrived in the vicinity of Ashland,
about thirty miles down the road, they heard the mysterious electronic sounds once again.
The bulk of the previous account has been condensed from a report made to the
Pease Air Force Base, in New Hampshire, by Betty Hill. It was subsequently revealed that
the Base had made radar contact with an object at the same time and in the same area,
sharing the same characteristics as that reported by Mrs Hill.
There the matter might have ended were it not for the fact that the Hills were left with
thirty-five miles and two hours of their journey unaccounted for in addition to which they
were plagued with nightmares and a general sense of lassitude and unease. Their
symptoms were sufficiently worrying to cause them, a year or two later, to seek
professional help. Although neither party had ever suffered from any psychiatric problems
before; Barney did have a recurring stomach ulcer which was probably psychosomatic;
they decided to consult a local psychiatrist, Dr. Benjamin Simon. He felt that the best
approach would involve hypnotism. Their sessions of hypnotic regression began in
December of 1963 and terminated in June of 1964.
The results of their hypnotic sessions were remarkable. The Hills, who gave their
testimonies separately, revealed repressed, and practically identical memories in which
they stopped their car and subsequently were 'abducted' by alien entities. The entities
appeared to gain control over the Hills by pointing a small cylindrical object at them; the
nearest thing to which Betty could compare it was a pencil. This is a detail that is repeated
in numerous contactee and abduction recollections, including those of Whitley Strieber.
The aliens, now in control, took the Hills aboard their craft and subjected them to some
kind of medical examination. The 'examination' appears to have been performed whilst the
Hills were fully conscious, the aliens assuming that their memories of the process would
be completely blocked by some form of 'hypnotic suggestion', which was not, apparently,
very effective. Rather than a normal, legitimate examination, Betty and Barney's
description seems to indicate some form of gene sampling related to cloning. They were
examined separately, and Betty had specimens of skin taken and a probe inserted into, or
in the area of, her navel, which may have been used to obtain specimens of ova, whilst
Barney had a type suction device place over his genitals which presumably was used to
take a sample of semen. The suction device left visible scars on Barney's groin which were
subject to medical examination by the Hill's own doctor.
The beings who were responsible for the Hill's abduction were somewhat different
from the tall, blond Venusians of Adamski or Menger.
The Hill's aliens were fairly short, with dull greyish skin, pointed faces with vestigial lips
and elongated, 'wrap-round' eyes. They appeared to communicate by telepathy, although
there does seem to be some confusion about that point. Although the Hills were taken and
examined against their will, the beings who they encountered seemed, on the whole, to be
friendly, or at least not antagonistic to earth people.
After their 'examination', the Hill's spent some time in the 'control room' of the craft.
Whilst they were there Betty was shown a three-dimensional 'star map', which she was
later able to describe and draw in some detail.
The map was subsequently 'reconstructed', by an amateur astronomer; a schoolteacher
called Marjorie E Fish from Ohio; who had become interested in the case. The map was of
a sector of our galaxy, approximately forty-eight light years across and thirty-six light years
in depth. Within that area there are approximately 200 known stars. Of those two hundred
stars, only twelve are considered by astronomers and exobiologists to have characteristics
consistent with the existence of life sustaining planets. Betty's map consists of twelve stars
in the appropriate configuration. The odds against such a coincidence are, appropriately,
The result of this research, which lasted six years, suggested that the entities who
abducted the Hills originated from a planet orbiting Zeta Reticuli; Reticulus being a
constellation in the Southern Hemisphere. A less convincing alternative interpretation,
however, suggests Epsilon Eridani or Epsilon Indi. In 1973 the Reticulus theory was
presented in an article which appeared in 'Saga' magazine. The following year a further
article, written by Terence Dickinson, was published in 'Astronomy', a professional
magazine with a formidable reputation.
These articles, and the research upon which they are based form the most convincing and
compelling evidence for the 'extra terrestrial theory' of UFO phenomena, and by inference,
establish links with Joseph Smith's extra terrestrial cosmology and the celestial
components in Gnosticism, which has been an influence on most subsequent theories of
Five years were to pass before the Hill's story became public knowledge. The story
was leaked without their consent and so, to put the record straight, they asked John Fuller
to write on their behalf 'The Interrupted Journey'. Some time later Barney died
unexpectedly, at the age of forty-six, from a brain haemorrhage. Betty continued to write
and lecture about her experiences, and eventually she developed into a full blown
contactee 'personality', receiving messages from Barney, who, it appears, had passed
over into an extraterrestrial style heaven. In one of the seances, Barney suggested that
they had been let off lightly with regard to their abduction experiences and hinted darkly at
the fate that had befallen many other earth people at the hands of some less well
intentioned aliens.
Like the Adamski case, and so many other contactee cases, the Hill case, as time
went on, transformed itself, imperceptibly, from science fiction into 'star magic, as occult
and spiritualist aspects began to predominate.
The case of Betty and Barney Hill is not the only modern case which has an overtly sexual
content. Almost as famous is the case of Antonio Villas-Boas.
This incident took place in Brazil, in October of 1957, a number
of years before the Hill case. The case was thoroughly
researched at the time by Professor Olavo Fontes of the
National School of Medicine, in Rio de Janiro.
On the night of October 5th, 1957, Antonio and his
brother had gone to bed at about eleven. As the night was
warm, Antonio opened a window, and in doing so he noticed a
bright light in the corral. Waking later in the night, both the
brothers observed the light for a second time, before it passed
over the roof of the house and disappeared. Some days later,
on the 14th of October, Antonio was ploughing with his tractor
when he noticed an area of bright light at the northern end of
the field in question. When he tried to approach the light it
moved away from him, and this happened on a number of occasions. The whole incident
was observed by his other brother, who was some distance away in another field.
The following evening Antonio was on his own in the same field, with his tractor, at
one o'clock in the morning. Why he was there at such a strange hour we are not told.
A large white, luminous egg-shaped object approached Antonio at great speed and
landed close beside him. Jumping from his tractor, Antonio tried to escape. As he was
running away he was grabbed from behind by an alien. He was able to push his pursuer
away, but was then overcome by three other aliens, who dragged him back to their 'ship'.
They forced him up a ladder into the vessel where he found himself in a small, brightly lit,
square room with polished metal walls. He was then taken into a larger, oval room,
containing a metal column in its centre. The room was sparsely furnished with a table and
several swivel chairs, all fixed to the floor. After a brief discussion between themselves,
which was unintelligible to Antonio, the five aliens began to forcibly undress him. Once he
was totally naked one of the aliens applied a liquid all over his body with something
resembling a sponge.
He was then taken to another room which contained a large upholstered couch. In
this room one of the aliens took samples of blood from him. At this point he was left alone
and began to feel nauseous. After a short while the door to the room opened and a woman
entered the room. She was shorter than Antonio, with pale skin, high cheekbones and a
pointed chin. She was slim with well developed breasts, full hips and generally good
looking. Antonio was shocked by the fact that, like him, she was completely naked. Her
hair was very fair but Antonio noticed that her pubic hair was red.
She began to rub herself, suggestively, against Antonio, and immediately he became
almost uncontrollably sexually excited. They proceeded to have intercourse, which he
subsequently described as being completely natural and normal.
Once intercourse was over the woman left the room. One of the aliens then entered
the room and returned Antonio's clothing, gesturing to him to get dressed. He was then
taken on a brief tour of the 'ship' and later allowed to leave. The ship took off, leaving
Antonio in the field, by his tractor.
The case of Betty & Barney and Antonio Vila Boas are just the tip of the iceberg.
There is a vast catalogue of contact and abduction which hinge on a disturbing sexual
There is one case, though, which while it has startling similarities to the Hill case,
and has no overtly expressed sexual content, does have a racial slant which relates it to
these sexually orientated cases and the racialism to be found in Blavatsky's thought and
occult Volkisch mysticism.
The case is quite obscure although well researched. It also involves an interrupted
journey, although on this occasion the scene is set in England.
John, his wife Gloria, their daughters Natasha aged five and Tanya, aged three, and
John's sister, Francis, were travelling from Reading to their home near Gloucester. They
were returning from a family funeral and their journey too place during the late evening on
Monday 19th June 1978.
The full story, having so many witnesses, is not only remarkably consistent, but is
also exceptionally detailed. Sufficient to say that they were intercepted on a deserted
stretch of road by what was apparently an alien space-craft in much the same way as the
Hills were.
There was the same problem with the car's electrical system and the same rather
gentle abduction. Once aboard the adults were subjected to a medical examination.
No reference was made by the participants to any sexual aspect to these examinations,
although this cannot be ruled out as many of the memories were retrieved by the use of
hypnosis as in the case of the Hills, and the Streiber case, which we shall be looking at in
detail later.
The occupants of this 'space-craft' were surprisingly talkative, and gave what
amounted to an illustrated lecture on their planet with the assistance of high definition
The Ufonauts purported to come from a planet which they called Janos. If one letter,
the 'o' is exchanged for a 'u' we have the name Janus. Janus was one of the most ancient
gods of the Romans. His origins were in the mysterious Etruscan religion, from which
many ancient Roman religious concepts were derived. He was depicted as a figure with
two faces; one facing forward and one facing backwards. He was the God of beginnings
and endings; a God of time. This concern with time is reminiscent of Vadig's comment,
'See you in time.'. Equally many entities have given names which are Greek Latin or
Celtic; names which usually have some religious significance.
The people from Janus had suffered an ecological catastrophe brought on by the
use of nuclear power. To paraphrase Douglas Adam's Golgafrinchams, 'their planet was
A series of Chernobyl-like accidents had hopelessly irradiated their world and they were
now looking for a new home to colonise. It is suggested in Frank Johnson's book, which
describes the encounter, that the people of Janos might have originally come from the
earth, and that is why they were looking to it as a possible new home. The odd point about
the book is that the Janos people are described as being Nordic in both appearance and
temperament, and it is suggested that land in some northern latitude might be put aside for
their use, should they wish to settle here.


This document is still subject to revision