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Mass Animal :
• Amoeba
• Mass is the quantity of matter in an object.
• Paramecium
• SI unit : Kilogram (kg)
• Plasmodium
• Lever balance

Weight Multicellular organisms:

• Weight is the pull of gravity on an object Plant :
• Spirogyra
• SI unit : Newton (N)
• Sea weed
• Spring balance
• Grass
Basic physical quantities & S.I.
Animal :
Physical quantities SI Unit
• Eagle
Length Metre (m)
• Squirrel
Mass Kilogram (kg)
• Ant
Time Second (s)
Temperature Kelvin (K)
Electric current Ampere (A)
Cell organisation
Cell → Tissue → Organ → System → Organism
Measuring tools
System and function
Length : Skeleton system:
• Measuring tape • Protects internal organs and gives support to
• Metre rule the body
• Calipers
Blood circulation system:
Measure area of irregular shape: • Transport dissolved food, gases, and waste
• Graph paper materials
Measure volume of liquid: Nervous system:
• Measuring cylinder • Conveys nerve impulses and reacts to
• Burette stimuli
• Pipette
Reproductive system:
CHAPTER 2 • Produces reproductive cells

Structure of cell and its function Respiratory system:

Chloroplast • Enables the exchange of gases with the
Nucleus Produces chlorophyll
Cell control centre surroundings
Cell membrane
Controls the entry and exit
Contains water and Excretory system:
of materials from the solute
cell • Removes wastes materials from the body
Cell wall
Cytoplasm Maintains the shape
of the cell
Digestive system:
Stores dissolved materials
• Breaks up food into simples form to be
absorbed and used by the body

Muscular system:
Unicellular organism • Moves the parts of the body
Plant :
• Chlamydomonas
• Yeast
• Euglena

• Separation method :
o Distillation
CHAPTER 3 o Filtration
What is matter?
• Matter is everything that has mass and Contents of air:
occupies space • Nitrogen : 78%
• Matter is made up of tiny particles • Oxygen : 21%
• Carbon dioxide : 0.03%
Matter exist in either: • Inert gases : 0.9%
Solid: Liquid : Gas : • Microorganisms
• Water vapour
• Dust

Properties of oxygen:
Particles vibrate Particles move Particles move
in their position gliding among fast and randomly • Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas
each other • slightly on water
• no effect on litmus paper
Density: • supports combustion and respiration
• Density is the mass per unit volume of a
substance. Confirmation test for Oxygen:
• Unit : g/cm3 Glowing wooden splinter:
Density formula: • Presence of oxygen causes the glowing
Density = ____mass of substance (g)___ wooden splinter to ignites.
Volume of substance (cm3)
Properties of carbon dioxide:
• Colourless, odourless and tasteless gas
CHAPTER 4 • Slightly soluble in water
Basic resources of earth : • Very soluble in sodium hydroxide
• Water • Changes moist blue litmus paper from blue
• Air to red
• Soil
• Living things Confirmation test for carbon dioxide:
• Minerals Limewater test:
• Fossil fuels • Carbon dioxide turns the limewater cloudy

Classification of matter: Respiration

Matter is classified into: Carbon dioxide
1. Element Energy
Non - Metal
• Substance which is made up of one type of Glucose
particle only
Glucose + oxygen water + carbon dioxide + energy
2. Compound
• Substance that is made up of two or more
types of elements. Comparison between inhaled and exhaled air:
Inhaled Exhaled
• Chemically combined Nitrogen – 78% Nitrogen – 78%
• Separation method : electrolysis Inert gases – 0.9% Inert gases – 0.9%
Oxygen – 21% Oxygen – 16%
3. Mixture Carbon dioxide – 0.03% Carbon dioxide – 0.03%
• Substance that consist of two or more
substance Combustion:
• Joined physically
Carbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide

Hydrocarbon + oxygen Light E. + Heat E. + carbon dioxide + water

Renewable energy sources:
• Solar
• Water
CHAPTER 6 • Wind
• Biomass
FORMS of energy: • Geothermal
• Potential energy • Wave/tidal
• Kinetic energy
• Heat energy
• Light energy Non-renewable:
• Chemical energy • fossil fuels
• Sound energy • radioactive substances
• Electrical energy
• Nuclear energy CHAPTER 7
• heat is a form of energy
Potential energy: • heat can be produced by the following ways:
• Energy stored in an object due to its position o rubbing two objects together
or condition o burning objects
o electricity that runs through a
Kinetic energy: coiled wire
• Energy stored in any moving object • heat causes solids, liquids and gases to
expand and contract
Heat energy: • differences between heat and temperature
• Is a type of energy that rises the temperature Heat Temperature
of an object. A form of energy The degree of hotness
or coldness of a
Light energy: substance
• Energy that enables us to see Unit = Joule (J) Unit = Kelvins (K)

Chemical energy:
• Energy stored in chemical substances Heat flows in three different ways:
• Eq: Food, battery, fuel
1. Conduction
Sound energy: • is the flow of heat through solid
• Energy that is produced in vibrating object
2. Convection
Electrical energy: • is the flow of heat through fluids such as in
• Is produced by an electric charge or current gases and in liquids
Nuclear energy: 3. Radiation
• Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom • is the transfer of heat through vacuum
(Heat flows from hotter area to colder area)
SOURCES of Energy: Land breeze:
• Fossil fuels
• Biomass fuels • At night
• Wind • Sea is warmer than land
• Water • Cool air from land flows to the
sea as land breeze
• Sun
• Radioactive substances
• Geothermal energy Sea breeze:

Renewable & Non-renewable energy sources • During day

• Land is warmer than the sea
• Less dense hot air on land rises
• Cool air from the sea flows towards
3 the land as sea breeze
Defects of vision:
1. long sighted
• Can see far objects clearly
• Image formed behind retina
• Causes:
- eyeball too
Physical process that involved in the change of small/short
states of matter. - lens too thin
• correction – Use convex lens
2. short sighted
• can see near objects clearly
• image formed infront of retina
• causes:
- eye ball too big/long
- Lens too thick
Liquid Gas
• correction – use concave lens
Absorption of heat:
• Durk and dull objects absorbs heat better Properties of sound:
than shiny objects • is a form of energy
• produced by vibrating objects
Gives out heat: • travels in the form of waves
• A dull, dark surface, gives out heat better • can be reflected (echo)
than white shiny surface. • can be absorbed
• can only travel through medium
• cannot travel through vacuum
FORM 2 Stimuli and responses in plants:
Sensory organs: • Stimuli – Light
Skin: • Response to obtain sunlight
• sense of touch
• Stimuli : hot, cold, pain, pressure, touch Geotropism:
• Stimuli – gravity
Nose: • Response to root itself firmly in the soil/to
• sense of smell obtain mineral salts and water
• Stimuli : Chemical substance in the air
Tongue: • stimuli – water
• Sense of taste • Response to obtain water and mineral salts
• Stimuli:Chemical substance in the food
Ear: • Stimuli – touch
• sense of hearing • Response to obtain support and light
• Stimuli: sound
Eye: Classes of food:
• sense of sight
• Stimuli: light Carbohydrate:
• supply energy
Properties of light:
• light can be reflected and refracted Protein:

• needed for growth Starch glucose
• produce new cells Protein amino acids
Fat Fatty acid + glycerol
• insulator of heat for the body
• supply energy

• helps transport excretory products from cells CHAPTER 3
to excretory organs
• helps the digestion of food Animal kingdom:

vitamins: Vertebrates: Inverertebrates:

• maintain good health Have backbones No backbones

Minerals: Mammals
• maintain good health Body covered with hair/fur
Breath through lungs
Give birth to young alive
• helps in peristalsis Birds
• prevents constipation Blooded
Body covered with feathers
Breath through lungs
Have wings

• a few drops of iodine solution is added to Body covered with dry scales
food sample Lay eggs
• +ve result = It turns Dark Blue
Glucose: Live on both land and water
• Benedict’s Solution is added to the food Breath through lungs & moist
sample and heated Have moist skin
• +ve result = Brick red precipitate formed Lay eggs

Protein: Live in water
• Millon’s reagent is added to the food Breath through gills
sample and heated Body covered with slimy scales
Have fins
• +ve result = Brick red precipitate formed Lay eggs

• A little food sample is placed on a piece of
filter paper Plant Kingdom
• +ve result = A translucent spot is detected.
Flowering plant Non-Flowering plant

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Monocotyledons Ferns

(Plants with only one cotyledon)
Mouth Oesophagus Stomach Duodenum Leaves with parallel veins Mosses
Have fibrous roots
Rectum Large intestine Small intestine Eq: Paddy,oil palm, maize
Dicotyledons Conifer
(Plants with two cotyledon)
END PRODUCT OF DIGESTION Have net veined leaves
Have tap roots
Eq: beans, hibiscus, rubber trees

Biological control
• is a control of pests by the introduction
of their natural enemy

Food web
• Producer (Selalunya tumbuhan)
CHAPTER 4 • Primary consumer (Yang memakan
Species : • Secondary consumer(Yang memakan
• A group of the same kind of organisms Primary consumer)
with common characteristics • Tertiary consumer(Yang memakan
Secondary consumer)
Population :
• Decomposers (pengurai bahan atau
• a group of organisms of the same
organisma yang sudah mati)
species living and reproducing in a
defined area
• merupakan process membuat makanan
Community :
oleh tumbuhan hijau
• is made up of different populations of
organisms living together in a habitat Carbon sunlight
dioxide + Water glucose + Oxygen
Ecosystem :
• consists of plants, animals and the non- Conservation
living environment interacting with
each other for living • means proper management on the use of
natural resources to maintain future
Habitat : accessibility
• a place where an organism lives
Interaction between living organism: • Measures taken to maintain living
organisms and the natural environment
1. Prey-predator in their natural balance state
• Predator : animal that hunts other
animals for food
• Prey : The animal being hunted CHAPTER 5
(hubungan pemangsa-mangsa)
Physical characteristics of water
2. Symbiosis • water can exist in 3 states : Solid,
a) Commensalism liquid, gas
• satu pihak mendapat faedah dan pihak • Colourless, tasteless, odourless at room
yang satu lagi tidak ada kesan –ve atau temperature
+ve • Freezing point of pure water : 0oC
b) Mutualism • Boiling point of pure water : 100 oC
• Kedua-dua pihak mendapat faedah
• Density of pure water : 1 g/cm3
c) Parasitism
• Satu pihak mendapat mendapat faedah Test for presence of water:
dan satu pihak rugi • Cobalt chloride paper changes from
blue to pink
3. Competition
• interaksi antara organisma untuk Composition of water
keperluan yang sama

• Water is a compound, made up of 2 • Can’t remove dissolve substance &
atoms of hydrogen and 1 atom of microorganism
• H2O 2. Boiling
• Strengh – kills microorganisms
• Can’t remove insoluble particles & dissolve
• is a process by which liquid changes
into water vapour at any temperature
3. Distillation
• Factors affecting evaporation:
• Strengh – removes insoluble and dissolve
o Surface area substance/ removes microorganisms
o Humidity • Tasteless
o Movement of air
o Temperature of surroundings 4. Chlorination
• Strengh – kills microorganism
Solution & Solubility • Can’t remove insoluble particles &
a) Solution dissolved substance
• a mixture of solute and solvent

b) Solvent CHAPTER 6
• Liquid that dissolves a substance
Kinetic theory of gas
c) Solute • gas particles move freely in all direction
• A substance that is dissolved) • Gas particles collide with the wall of the
container and bounce back
1. Dilute solution • A force is exerted by the particles onto the
• a solution that contains very little solute wall
2. Concentrated solution • This force produces a pressure on the walls
• Solution that contain a lot of solute of the container
3. Saturated solution
• Solution that contains the maximum Factors affecting Air pressure (AP)
amount of solute and cannot dissolve Volume Temperature
any more solute Volume ↑ = AP ↓ Temperature ↑ = AP ↑
Volume ↓ = AP ↑ Temperature ↓ = AP ↓
Factors affecting solubility
• Nature of the solute
• Nature of the solvent CHAPTER 7
• Temperature of the solvent
ACID • Is an act of push and pull
• Taste sour • Cannot be seen
• Corrosive • EFFECT can be seen or felt
• pH less than 7 • Has magnitude and direction
• Change wet blue litmus paper to red


• Taste bitter and soapy • Frictional force
• Corrosive o Occurs when two surface in contact
• pH more than 7 o Always opposes the motion of the
• Change wet blue litmus paper to red object
o Acts in the opposite direction to
1. Filtration o Can slow down or stop moving object
• strength – Remove large insoluble solids

• Gravitational force SUPPORT SYSTEM IN PLANTS
o Force that pull objects to the earth Buttress Root
o Causes all objects to have weight • thick and wide roots that grow from the stem
above the ground
• Electrostatic force • e.q: Angsana tree, durian tree
o Force of attraction or repulsion
between charged substance Prop roots
o Enables charge substance to attract • Roots which grow from the stem or
neutral substance such as small pieces branches
of paper • E.q.: pandan plant, maize plant
o Same charges repel each other
o Different charges attract each other Prickles
• An outgrouwth of the epidermis and can be
• Magnetic force easily removed from the stem.
o Enables a magnet to attract magnetic • E.q: Rose
substances like iron, nickel and cobalt
• Work is said to be done when a force moves Tendrils
• Curly string-like structures modified from
an object over a distance in the direction of
the force stems and leaves
• Equation for calculating work done: • Curl and twine round parts of other plants or
objects to help the plant to climb
Work (joule) = Force (Newton) x distance (metre) • E.q: Cucumber plant, bitter gourd, pumpkin

POWER Stilt roots

• Power is the rate of doing work, which • Roots that develop from the main stem and
means the amount of work done per unit grow into the ground for support.
time. • E.q: Mangrove tree (Bakau)
• Power can be calculated using the equation:
Clasping roots
Work done (joules) • Roots that grip onto other plants or structure
Power (watts) =
Time taken (seconds) to get support
• E.q: betel vine (sirih), orchid

CHAPTER 8 Thorns (duri)

• Sharp modified branches that cannot be
easily removed
Vertebrates have • Act as hooks to hold on to supports.
1. Endoskeleton • E.q: Bouganvillea (Bunga Kertas)
• also known as internal skeleton
• Made up of bones and cartilage

Invertebrates have
1. Exoskeleton
• Made of cuticle or calcium carbonate The point of equilibrium
• is the point where the whole weight of an
• Examples animals: centipede, ant, crab
object appears to act on.
• It is also the point which an object can be
2. Hydrostatic skeleton
• Consist of a muscular wall which encloses a balanced on and it is present in all objects.
• It is also known as the centre of gravity of
body cavity that is filled with fluid
• This body fluid pressure gives support and the object
shape to the animal
• Examples animals: earthworm, leech,
1. The position of the centre of gravity.

• the lower the centre of gravity, the more
stable the object

2. The base area

• The wider the base area, the more stable the

• is a simple machine
• makes work easier
• have 3 parts :
o F = Fulcrum
o E = Effort
o L = Load
Notice the middle part of the lever

L F E = 1st class

F L E = 2nd class

F E L = 3rd class


• The SI unit for moment of force
= Newton-metre (Nm)
• Formula for moment of force:

Moment of force Force X Perpendicular distance from the

= pivot to the force
(Nm) (N)

• when a lever is in equilibrium, the sum of
the anticlockwise moments is equal to the
sum of the clockwise moments.
• The principle of moments can be
represented by the following formula:

Load X Distance of load = Effort X Distance of effort

(L) from the fulcrum (E) from the fulcrum