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The Variety Resources On Earth

4.1 The different resources on earth

List the resources on Earth needed to sustain life
List resources on Earth used in everyday life
Since the beginning of life on Earth, every living thing depends on
Earth’s resources
such as energy, plants, animals, air, water, soil and other living
things to stay alive.
Imagine what will happen to us if Earth is without the essential
resources below.

Air , Living things, water,

energy, soil
What is Matter?

Since the beginning of life on Earth, every living thing depends on

Earth’s resources
such as energy, plants, animals, air, water, soil and other living
things to stay alive.
Imagine what will happen to us if Earth is without the essential
resources below.
Discuss what your life would be like if Earth’s resources are lost.

All resources on
Earth are classified as matter except energy. Why?
What is matter made up of?
Various resources

Is needed by all living things to survive.
Air is a mixture of gases. It consists of :
Carbon dioxide
Water vapour
Inert gases
Dust and microorganism
The layer surrounding the earth is called ATMOSPHERE

• Covers a total of about three quarted of the Earth’s surface
Various resources

Sources of water include:

All living things need water to survive. 70% of the human
body is water.

Is the habitat for many types of organisms
Various resources

Soil provides support for plants and ensure proper growth

for plants
There are various types of flora and fauna on Earth. These
flora and fauna are natural resources that sustain life. They
provide us food, clothes and building materials.

Are inorganic substances found naturally on land and in
seas. Examples:
- iron - Silver
- lead - gold
Minerals are required by our body to ensure proper
functioning of our systems.
Various resources

Minerals are also required by plants for healthy growth.

Fossil Fuels
Formed from the remains of animals and plants that died
millions of years ago
Fossil fuels include petroleum natural gas and coal
Petroleum is a hydrocarbon that can be separated into different
components by fractional distillation

Living Things
The living things consists of plants (flora) and animals (fauna).
Living things provide us with food, clothes, fuels, building
materials and medicine
The Variety Resources On Earth
4.2 What are elements, compounds, mixtures
State what elements, compounds and mixtures are
Give examples of elements, compounds, mixtures
State differences of elements, compounds, mixtures
Carry out activities to see the differences of metal and non
Classifies elements as metal and non-metal
Give examples of metals and non-metals
Carry out activities to separate the components of mixture
Matter on Earth is made up of elements.

An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into two or

more simpler substances by any known method.

More than one hundred elements have been discovered or synthesized

by scientists. Most of the elements occur naturally while the rest are man-

Hydrogen and helium are the most abundant elements in our universe.
Oxygen and silicon are the most abundant elements in the Earth’s crust.

Most elements are solids at room temperature except for bromine and
mercury which are in liquid form. 11 elements are gases including
fluorine, oxygen and helium.

Molecule of element

An element is made up of 1 type of

molecule only
All metal elements are solids at ordinary room temperature except mercury
To find out whether an element is metal or non-metal, we have to identify and compare
the properties of the element with those of metals or non-metals.

The table below shows the general propeties of metals and non-metals

Metal Non-metal
Shiny Appearance Dull / not shiny
Good electric conductor Electric conductivity Poor (except graphite)
Good heat conductor Heat conductivity Poor heat conductor
High melting points Melting points Low melting points
High density Density Low density
Hard Solids Soft
Ductile / easily molded Ductile Not ductile / snap easily
Malleable (easily malleability Brittle (easily break when
shaped) beaten)
Uses of Metal Uses of Non-Metal
A compound is a substance formed by the chemical combination of two
or more elements. Every compound is represented by a chemical symbol.

Water is a compound because it is made up of two chemically combined
elements, which are hydrogen and oxygen. Have you seen the symbol

These particles combined chemically in a fixed proportion.

Compound can only be separated by chemical methods such as


Some examples of compounds are common salt, water, sand and

carbon dioxide.
Molecule of element
Element X

Combined together chemically


Element Y
Examples of Compound
Molecule of element
Oxygen Atom
Water is made up of two types of
elements: Oxygen and Hydrogen

Hydrogen Atoms

Ammonia is made up of two

types of elements: Nitrogen
and hydrogen

Hydrogen Atoms

Nitrogen Atom

Mixtures are substances that are made up of two or more types of

particles which combine physically.

These particles do not combined chemically and they are mixed in any

Some of the examples of mixtures are blood, sea water, air and soil

The components of mixture can be separated by physical methods such

as evaporation, filtration, using separating funnel and using a
Element X Compound X

Element Y
Compound Y

Element Z

Mixture of elements Mixture of compounds

Element Y

Element X


Mixture of elements and compound

Comparison of compounds and mixtures
Compound Difference Mixture
Formed using Method of Formed using physical
chemical methods formation methods

New substances Formation of new No new substances

formed substances formed
Heat is absorbed or No heat is absorbed or
released during Energy changes released during
formation formation
Ratio of components is Composition of Ratio of components is
fixed components not fixed
Properties of
New properties are Properties of
components remain the
formed components
Components can only Components can be
Separation of
be separated using easily separated using
chemical methods physical methods
The Variety Resources On Earth
4.3 The importance of the variety of Earth’s
resources to Man
Explain the importance of the variety of Earth’s resources to man
State the meaning of preservation and conservation of resources
on Earth
State the importance of preservation and conservation of
resources on Earth
Practice reusing and recycling of materials
All living and non-living
things on Earth are
interlinked.You can perceive
things on Earth as a giant
spider web.The threads of the
web are the relationships
among the plants, animals,
water, temperature, light and
other living and non-living
things. Do you think the basic
needs of life are also related to
the Earth’s resources?
For drinking, cooking, AIR
washing and bathing.
Oxygen is needed for Minerals
About 70% of the human respiration and
body weight is made up of combustion Needed by man,
water. animals and plants for
Carbon dioxide is
Dissolves and transports healthy growth.
needed for
food and oxygen to all photosynthesis Metals are used in the
parts of the body. construction of building
For generating electricity. and bridges
Resources On
For recreational Earth Soil
Fossil Fuels Construction of buildings
A very important source of Making ceramics, glass,
energy. cement and bricks
For generating electricity Habitat for many living
Fuel things
Preservation and Conservation

Is the effort to maintain natural resources in their original state

Is the careful use and management of natural resources so as
to minimize loss, wastage and damage

Preservation and conservation of natural resources are very

important to prevent:
a) Destruction to the natural environment
b) The extinction of animals and plants
c) The loss of economic resources
d) Pollution of air, water and soil
e) Health problems
f) Natural disasters
Effects of pollution
1. Air pollution causes green house effect and acid rain
2. Water pollution reduces sources of clean water and
threatens the habitats of aquatic life
3. Soil pollution results in the infertility of the soil and
natural habitats of living things being damaged

Ways to reduce pollution on Earth’s resources

1. Recycle waste materials
2. Use recycle papers
3. Practice reforestation
4. Practice selective logging
5. Use unleaded petrol
6. Use biodegradable substances
7. Fix filters to factory chimneys in order to filter
poisonous gases
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