Main parts in our system are

(1)RFID reader (2)RFID tag (3)AT 89C51 (4)RTC (5)LCD (6)Keypad (7)Max 232 (8)EEPROM (9)Power Supply RFID is the radio identification its an ADC(automated data collection) technology which uses : 1. Radio frequency waves to transfer data between a reader and movable item to identify categories and track. 2. It is fact and does not require physical sight or contact between readers/scanners and tagged item. 3. It performs the operation using low cast components. 4. It attempts to provide unique identification and backend integration that allows for wide range of application. Overview: Other Automated Data Collection technologies

1.Barcodes It is a leading ADC technology. First barcode patent was issued in 1934. In 1970’s the UPC standard was adopted by grocery industry. More than 250 barcode schemes exist. It is one of the most accurate ADC method error rate is 10000 time lower in manual keyboard entry. Use to encode numeric or alpha numeric character. As it is having so many advantages its good idea but the main thing is it needs line of sight between the reader and the bar. 2.Magnetic Stripes It is a thin plastic film containing small magnetic particles whose pole orientation can be used to encode data. It is widely used in financial applications. Advantages: Large data storage capacity. Data can be altered. Disadvantages: Stripes must be in contact with the scanning equipment for reading. It is expensive. 3.Optical Character Recognition Specially designed alphanumeric characters machine readable optical reading device. Both horizontal and vertical features must be analyzed during decoding. Advantages: Character can be read by humans and machine. Disadvantages: Manually operated scanning required some skills.

First read rate often less than 50%. High substitution error rate. Near contact scanning required. Lower scanning rate.

4.Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) It is a considered as one of the best alternating to other ADC. It uses RF technology. Communication occurs in two directions. HOW IT IS: An identification tag with electronically encoded data is attached to the item. This tag is a transponder. It is a device capable of emitting a signal of its own. When it receives a signal from an external source, consist of microchip antenna. The reader transmits low level RF magnetic field that serve as the power source for the transponder when it is close enough. When activated the tag sends data to reader through RF. The reader decodes and validates RF signal before transmitting it to collection computer system. Advantages: NO need of line of sight. RFID SYSTEM COMPONENT DIAGRAM:







RFID COMMUNICATION: The following diagram simply explain the communication between tag and the reader. There is a communication channel between the tag and the reader.

The RFID reader continuously emits radio waves up to certain rang. The passive tag receive energy form the

radio waves and get activated. The reader then gives command to the tag. Tag receives command and gives response to the reader. It can be easily understood from above diagram. LIMITING FACTORS FOR PASSIVE RFID 1. Reader transmitter power. (Govt. limited) 2. Reader receiver sensitivity. 3. Reader antenna gain. (Govt. limited) 4. Tag antenna gain. (size limted) 5. Power required at tag. (silicon process limited) 6. Tag modular efficiency. DETAILS OF OPERATIONAL FREQUENCIES FOR RFID


Frequency Ranges Typical Max Read Range (Passive Tags) Tag Power Source Data Rate Ability to read near metal or wet surfaces

LF 125 KHz
Shortest 1”-12”

HF 13.56 MHz
Short 2”-24” Generally passive tags only, using inductive or capacitive coupling Moderate

UHF 868 - 915 MHz
Medium 1’-10’ Active tags with integral battery or passive tags using capacitive storage, E-field coupling Fast

Microwave 2.45 GHz & 5.8 GHz
Longest 1’-15’ Active tags with integral battery or passive tags using capacitive storage, E-field coupling Faster

Generally passive tags only, using inductive coupling Slower

Better Access Control & Security Identifying widgets through manufacturing processes or in harsh environments Ranch animal identification Employee IDs





Library books Laundry identification Access Control Employee IDs

supply chain tracking Highway toll Tags

Highway toll Tags Identification of private vehicle fleets in/out of a yard or facility Asset tracking




MATERIAL Cardboard

EFFECT ON RF SIGNAL Absorption (moisture) Detuning (dielectric) Absorption Detuning (Dielectric) Reflection Complex effects (lenses, filters) Reflection Absorption Detuning(dielectric) Reflection

Conductive liquid (shampoo) Plastics Metals Group of cans

Human body/animals



1. Readers are devices which continuously emits radio frequency up to certain range depending upon the type of reader used. 2. It is a trans-receiver which can transmit as receive an information using radio frequency. 3. These devices can be hand-held or portable depending upon the application. 4. The typical reader has an antenna to communicate with the tag. The size and the form of the antenna depend on the application and frequency used.

5. There are two main classes of RFID readers: (a)Read only Reader. (b)Read/write type of reader. A. Read only reader: These reader are capable of only reading the information on the tag. We can not change the information on the tag. B. Read/write type of reader: These reader can read the information on the tag as well as this have capability of change the information present on the tag. REDAER FUNCTIONING: It is used to power up the tag. It established bidirectional data link. It can communicate with network server. Inventory tags and filter results. It can read 100 to 300 tags per tag. These readers can be fixed or mobile type.

READER’s GENERAL ANATOMY: A typical reader generally has following parts 1. Digital Signal Processor. 2. Network Processor. 3. Following Radio modules a. 915MHz b. 13.56MHz c. 125KHz


Probable PCB mounted diagram for RFID reader with RS232 Interface



The above shown is the probable PCB mounted diagram of typical RFID reader for understanding purpose. There are two processors these are DSP and N/W processors. DSP deals with the radio frequency signals. The other circuitry is also shown in the diagram. There is a coil antenna which is quit big in size with other components. This antenna is used for radio wave transmission. There are also four pin outs as follows: 1. VCC: This is for providing required voltage to circuit. 2. GND: For grounding purpose. 3. Sout: Signal out pin to interface with RS232. 4. En : This is kept at ground level. Readers can also be categorized as follows: A.RS232 READERS 1. These readers provide raw data on the RS232 port every time the tag is read. 2. Data is not stored insight the reader and will be lost if controller or PC connected to it does not read it. 3. Controller can offer many features regarding RFID readers as per their requirement.

B.READERS WITH TCP/IP & controller 1.These readers have TCP/IP Ethernet LAN controller as well as inbuilt controller with limited functionality. 2.These readers can be connected to the LAN network and can be configured to send data to the server. 3.These are efficiently used over many systems. RFID READER VENDORS: PRINTER ENCODE Zebra Printronix Datamax Sato FIXED READER HAND HELD READER TI Symbol Intermec Intermec Matrices Hand Held Products Alien PCS AWD PSION TEKLOGIX Thing Magic



Specific functionality & tag support optimize for supply chain applications Maximum performance for read rate range. Middleware require for application integration.

Embedded feature in another product. Optimum performance given cost space and power requirement. Single, Intuitive application interface native to reader.

1. RFID Tags are made of a small silicon chip having a rotating coil type of antenna. It is a very small circuit. 2. Tags can be attached to almost anything i. e. items cases , pallet of product, high value goods etc. 3. Vehicles, assets, livestock or personals. There are two types of tags: a. Passive tags b. Active tags A.Passive tags 1. These tag do not contain internal battery that is why these are known as Passive tags. It draws energy from interrogator field.

2. It has lower storage capacity. 3. Shorter read range (4 inch to 15 inch). 4. Usually read-ones-write-many/read only tags. 5. Cost about 25 cents to few dollars. B.Active Tags 1. Battery Powered. 2. High storage capabilities (512kb). 3. Longer read range (300 feet). 4. Typically can be rewritten by RF interrogator. 5. It cost around $50 to $250 There are two main components present in the RFID tag. Firstly a small silicon chip or integrated circuit which contain unique identification number secondly an antenna that can send and receive radio waves. The antenna consist of flat, metallic conductive coil rather than protruding FM style aerial. These tags can be quit small, thin and increasingly easily embedded within packaging, plastic cards, ticket, clothing label, pallet and block. RFID TAG internal Block diagram


A. Read only Tags Tag Id is assigned at the factory during manufacturing a. It can never be changed. b. No additional data can be assigned to tag. B. Write ones, read many (WORM) tags Data written once that is during manufacturing a. Tag is locked once data is written. b. Similar to the compact disk or DVD. C. Read/write Tag data can be changed over time a. Part of all the data section can be locked. In our system we are using passive tag. These tags do not contain their own power source or transmitter. When radio waves from reader reach the chip antenna, the energy is converted by the antenna to electricity that can power up the microchips antenna (parasitic power) then the tag is able to send back any information in it by reflecting the electromagnetic waves. RFID TAG’s LOOK LIKE AS FOLLOWS


The unique ID that will be serially transmitted to the reader as 12-byte printable ASCII has the following format.
Start byte(0X 0A) ID Digit 1 ID Digit 2 ID Digit 3 ID Digit 4 ID Digit 5 ID Digit 6 ID Digit 7 ID Digit 8 ID Digit 9 ID Digit 10 Stop byte(0X 0D)

The start and the stop bytes are used to easily identify that the correct string has been received from the reader. The baud rate is configured as 2400 bps. It is a standard communication speed supported by most of up’s or PC’s and cant be changed.


The face of the tag should be held parallel to the front or back face to antenna (where the majority of RF energy is focused). If the tag is held sidewise (perpendicular to antenna) you may have difficulty getting the tag to be read. Only one transponder tag is held up to the antenna at a time. The use of multiple tag at one time can cause tag collision and confuse the reader. TAG COLLISION PROBLEM 1. Multiple tag simultaneously respond to query which results in collision at reader. 2. To avoid this problem, some of the protocols or approaches are used. These are as follows a. Tree algorithm. b. Memory less protocol. c. Contactless protocol. d. I-code protocol. READER-TAG Coupling Types A. INDUCTIVE COUPLING



MULTIPLE TAGS IN THE RANGE AT SAME TIME When multiple tags are in range of reader, all tag will be excited at the same time and make it very difficult to distinguish between tags. This is one of the main problem regarding RFID systems. There are some tag collision avoiding mechanisms as follows 1. PARABALISTIC In this mechanism the tags are return at different time. 2. DETERMINISTIC In this mechanism the reader searches for the specific tag in a group of tag. EPC & PML The EPC has following main contents a. EPC- Electronic Product Code b. Header- It handles version and upgrades. c. EPC MANEGER- Product manufacturing code. d. Object class- class/type of product. e. Serial no. – Unique object identity.

PML- Physical Markup Language a. Representation of tagged object information. b. Introduction of logged object information.


Microcontroller AT89C51
In 1981, Intel Corporation introduced an eight bit uc called 8051. This uc had 128 bytes of RAM, 4K of on-chip

ROM, two timers, one serial port, and 4 ports (8bytes each) all on single chip. At the time it was also refer as “System on Chip”. 8051 is an eight bit processor that means CPU can work 8 bit data at a time. The data more than 8 bit is broken in to 8 bit data and then processed through CPU. The 8051 became more popular after Intel allowed the manufactures to make and market any flavor of 8051 they pleased with the condition that they remain code compatible with 8051. This has led to many different versions of 8051 with different speeds and On-chip ROM. It is important to note that though there are different flavors of 8051, all of them are compatible with original 8051 instructions. It means that if you write your program for one, it will be used for all other flavors.

Basic features:
Features ROM RAM TIMER I/O Pins Serial Port Interrupt Sources Quantity 4k bytes 128 Bytes 2 32 1 6

Basic Architectural block diagram

AT89C51 from ATMEL Corporation
This popular chip has on-chip ROM in the form of flash memory. This is ideal for fast development since flash memory can be erased in seconds. To use AT89C51 to develop a uc based system requires a ROM burner that supports a flash memory; however, a ROM eraser not needed. Note that in flash memory you have to erase it entirely to reprogram it. This erasing is done by PROM burner that’s why separate eraser does not needed. To

eliminate the need for the PROM burner ATMEL is working on a version of AT89C51 that can be programmed from the serial com port of IBM PC. There are various products of ATMEL but we are interested in AT89C51 only. Actually it is “AT89C51-12PC”. Here the ‘C’ before the 51 is for CMOS technology, which has low power consumption, ‘12’ indicates 12 MHz, ‘P’ for plastic dual in package, ‘C’ is for commercial (‘M’ indicates military). Often AT89C51-12PC is useful for student projects.

AT89C51 Details

• Compatible with MCS-51™ Products • 4K Bytes of In-System Reprogrammable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1,000 Write/Erase Cycles • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Three-level Program Memory Lock • 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 32 Programmable I/O Lines • Two 16-bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Sources • Programmable Serial Channel • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes

The AT89C51 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8bit microcomputer with 4K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry24

standard MCS-51 instruction set and pin out. The on-chip Flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

Pin Configuration of PDIP (i.e. using in our RFID System)


Block Diagram:



Pin Description
VCC Supply voltage. GND Ground. Port 0 Port 0 is an 8-bit open-drain bi-directional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as highimpedance inputs. Port 0 may also be configured to be the multiplexed loworder dress/data bus during accesses to external program and data memory. In this mode P0 has internal pullups. Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming, and outputs the code bytes during program verification. External pullups are required during program verification. Port 1 Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 1 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups.

Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2 Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pullups. Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and during accesses to external data memory that use 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this application, it uses strong internal pullups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external data memory that use 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2 Special Function Register. Port 2 also receives the high-order address bits and some control signals during Flash programming and verification.

Port 3 Port 3 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pullups. The Port 3 output buffers can sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to

Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pullups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pullups. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89C51 as listed below:

Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification. RST Reset input. A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. ALE/PROG Address Latch Enable output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash programming. In normal operation ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency, and may be used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE

pulse is skipped during each access to external Data Memory. If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set, ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution mode. PSEN Program Store Enable is the read strobe to external program memory. When the AT89C51 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data memory. EA/VPP External Access Enable. EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however, that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset. EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12-volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming, for parts that require 12-volt VPP. XTAL1 Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. XTAL2 Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier Oscillator Characteristics

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator, as shown in Figure 1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed. Idle Mode In idle mode, the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the onchip peripherals remain active. The mode is invoked by software. The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hard ware reset, the device normally resumes program execution, from where it left off, up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event, but access to the port pins is not inhibited. To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is terminated by reset, the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory.


Figure 2. External Clock Drive Configuration

Power-down Mode In the power-down mode, the oscillator is stopped, and the instruction that invokes power-down is the last instruction executed. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the powerdown mode is terminated. The only exit from power-down is a hardware reset. Reset redefines the SFRs but does

not change the on-chip RAM. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize. PROGRAMMING THE FLASH The AT89C51 is normally shipped with the on-chip Flash memory array in the erased state (that is, contents = FFH) and ready to be programmed. The programming interface accepts either a high-voltage (12-volt) or a lowvoltage (VCC) program enable signal. The low-voltage programming mode provides a convenient way to program the AT89C51 inside the user’s system, while the high-voltage programming mode is compatible with conventional thirdparty Flash or EPROM programmers. The AT89C51 is shipped with either the high-voltage or low-voltage programming mode enabled. The respective top-side marking and device signature codes are listed in the following table.

The AT89C51 code memory array is programmed byteby-byte in either programming mode. To program any nonblank byte in the on-chip Flash Memory, the entire memory must be erased using the Chip Erase Mode.

Programming Algorithm: Before programming the AT89C51, the address, data and control signals should be set up according to the Flash programming mode table and Figure 3 and Figure 4. To program the AT89C51, take the following steps. 1. Input the desired memory location on the address lines. 2. Input the appropriate data byte on the data lines. 3. Activate the correct combination of control signals. 4. Raise EA/VPP to 12V for the high-voltage programming mode. 5. Pulse ALE/PROG once to program a byte in the Flash array or the lock bits. The byte-write cycle is self-timed and typically takes no more than 1.5 ms. Repeat steps 1 through 5, changing the address and data for the entire array or until the end of the object file is reached.


RTC DS1307 (Real Time Clock)
1. First of all, a real-time clock (RTC) is a computer clock that will keep track of the current time. You can find RTC in almost any electronic device that needs to keep accurate time. 2. Due to the low power consumption and free the main system for time critical tasks, the RTC is the favorable choice and always being applied into electronic device. Beside that, RTC often have an alternate source of power, and this to allow it to keep time accurately, even though the primary source of power is off or unavailable. 3. The alternate source of power is normally a lithium battery in order systems, but some newer systems use a supercapacitor, due to they’re rechargeable and can be soldered easily! In addition, the alternate power source can supply power to battery backed RAM too. 4. Today’s PIC project uses a 12C Real Time Clock IC (DS1307) and four digit seven segment display to create a standard desk clock. The DS1307 (RTC) Real Time Clock IC is an 8 pin device that using a 12C interfaces. 5. It has eight read/write registers that store some important timing information! By the way, there is a

Clock Halt (CH) bit which is bit 7 of address 0. You need to reset the CH bit to zero to let the chip operate. 6. In this way the real time clock can be used in many embedded projects where the time measurement is an important factor. Simply we can say that It’s a device which keeps the record of each second, hour, day, month, year in this manner. FEATURES OF DS1307 1. Real time clock counts seconds, minutes, hours, date of the month, month, day of the week, and year with leap year compensation valid up to 2100. 2. 56 byte nonvolatile RAM for data storage. 3. 2-wire serial interface. 4. Programmable square wave output signal. 5. Automatic power-fail detect and switch circuitry 6. Consumes less than 500 nA in battery backup mode with oscillator running 7. Optional industrial temperature range -40°C to +85°C (IND) available for DS1307 and DS1308. 8. DS1307 available in 8-pin DIP or SOIC DS1308 available in 36-pin SMD BGA (Ball Grid Array). 9. DS1308 accuracy is better than ±2 minute/month at 25°C. ORDERING INFORMATION a. DS1307 Serial Timekeeping Chip;8-pin DIP

b. DS1307Z Serial Timekeeping Chip c. 8-pin SOIC (150-mil) d. DS1307N 8-pin DIP (IND) e. DS1307ZN 8-pin SOIC (IND) f. DS1308 36-pin BGA g. DS1308N 36-pin BGA (IND)




TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION DS1307 The DS1307 Serial Real Time Clock is a low power, full BCD clock/calendar plus 56 bytes of nonvolatile SRAM. Address and data are transferred serially via a 2-wire bi-directional bus. The clock/calendar provides seconds, minutes, hours, day, date, month, and year information. The end of the month date is automatically adjusted for months with less than 31 days, including corrections for leap year. The clock operates in either the 24-hour or 12-hour format with AM/PM indicator. The DS1307 has a built-in power sense circuit which detects power failures and automatically switches to the battery supply. The

DS1308 incorporates the DS1307 chip with a 32.768 kHz crystal in a surface mountable, 36-pin ball grid array package (BGA). The close proximity of the embedded crystal to the high impedance crystal input pins on the DS1307 minimizes capacitive loading and noise injection problems associated with many other oscillator designs. The total area required for installation is less than that of one United States dime: thus, minimizing PCB space required. OPERATION The DS1307/1308 operates as a slave device on the serial bus. Access is obtained by implementing a START condition and providing a device identification code followed by a register address. Subsequent registers can be accessed sequentially until a STOP condition is executed. When VCC falls below 1.25 x VBAT the device terminates an access in progress and resets the device address counter. Inputs to the device will not be recognized this time to prevent erroneous data from being written to the device from an out of tolerance system. When V CC falls below VBAT the device switches into a low current battery backup mode. Upon power up, the device switches from battery to VCC when VCC is greater than VBAT +0.2V and recognizes inputs when VCC is greater than 1.25 x

VBAT. The block diagram in Figure 1 shows the main elements of the Serial Real Time Clock. BLOCK DIAGRAM DS1307

SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS 1. Vcc,GND: DC power is provided to the device on these pins. VCC is the +5 volt input. When 5 volts




is applied within normal limits, the device is fully accessible and data can be written and read. When a 3-volt battery is connected to the device and VCC is below 1.25 x VBAT,reads and writes are inhibited. However, the Timekeeping function continues unaffected by the lower input voltage. As VCC falls below VBAT the RAM and timekeeper are switched over to the external power supply (nominal 3.0V DC) at VBAT. VBAT- Battery input for any standard 3-volt lithium cell or other energy source. Battery voltage must be held between 2.0 and 3.5 volts for proper operation. The nominal write protect trip point voltage at which access to the real time clock and user RAM is denied is set by the internal circuitry as 1.25 x VBAT nominal. A lithium battery with 48mAhr or greater will back up the DS1307/DS1308 for more than 10 years in the absence of power at 25 degrees C. SCL (Serial Clock Input): SCL is used to synchronize datavement on the serial interface. (Serial Data Input/Output): SDA is the input/output pin for the 2-wire serial interface. The SDA pin is open drain which requires an external pullup resistor. SQW/OUT (Square Wave/ Output Driver):When enabled, the SQWE bit set to 1, the SQW/OUT pin outputs one of four square wave


frequencies (1 Hz, 4 kHz, 8 kHz, 32 kHz). The SQW/OUT pin is open drain which requires an external pullup resistor. NOTE: X1, X2 are not applicable for the DS1308 or DS1308N. X1, X2: Connections for a standard 32.768 kHz quartz crystal. The internal oscillator circuitry is designed for operation with a crystal having a specified load capacitance (CL) of 12.5 pF. For more information on crystal selection and crystal layout considerations, please consult Application Note 58, “Crystal Considerations with Dallas Real Time Clocks.” The DS1307 can also be driven by an external 32.768 kHz oscillator. In this configuration, the X1 pin is connected to the external oscillator signal and the X2 pin is floated.

RTC AND RAM ADDRESS MAP The address map for the RTC and RAM registers of the DS1307/DS1308 is shown in Figure 2. The real time clock registers are located in address locations 00h to 07h. The RAM registers are located in address locations 08h to 3Fh. During a multi-byte access, when the address pointer reaches 3Fh, the end of RAM space, it wraps around to location 00h, the beginning of the clock space. CLOCK AND CALENDAR

The time and calendar information is obtained by reading the appropriate register bytes. The real time clock registers are illustrated in Figure 3. The time and calendar are set or initialized by writing the appropriate register bytes. The contents of the time and calendar registers are in the BinaryCoded Decimal (BCD) format. Bit 7 of Register 0 is the Clock Halt (CH) bit. When this bit is set to a 1, the oscillator is disabled. When cleared to a 0, the oscillator is enabled. Please note that the initial power on state of all registers is not defined. Therefore it is important to enable the oscillator (CH bit=0) during initial configuration. The DS1307/DS1308 can be run in either 12-hour or 24-hour mode. Bit 6 of the hours register is defined as the 12- or 24-hour mode select bit. When high, the 12-hour mode is selected. In the 12-hour mode, bit 5 is the AM/PM bit with logic high being PM. In the 24-hour mode, bit 5 is the second 10 hour bit (20-23 hours).



MAX 232
GENERAL The MAX232 is an integrated circuit that converts signals from an RS-232 serial port to signals suitable for use in TTL compatible digital logic circuits. 2. The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver and typically converts the RX, TX, CTS and RTS signals. 3. The drivers provide RS-232 voltage level outputs (approx. ± 7.5 V) from a single + 5 V supply via onchip charge pumps and external (typically 100 nF) capacitors.

This makes it useful for implementing RS-232 in devices that otherwise do not need any voltages outside the 0 V to + 5 V range, as power supply design does not need to be made more complicated just for driving the RS-232 in this case. 5. The receivers reduce RS-232 inputs (which may be as high as ± 25 V), to standard 5 V TTL levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V, and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V. FEATURES 1. Meet or Exceed TIA/EIA-232-F and ITU Recommendation V.28 2. Operate With Single 5-V Power Supply Operate Up to 120 kbit/s 3. Two Drivers and Two Receivers ±30-V Input Levels 4. Low Supply Current . . . 8 mA Typical 5. Designed to be Interchangeable With Maxim MAX232 6. ESD Protection Exceeds JESD 22 – 2000-V Human-Body Model (A114-A)





DESCRIPTION The MAX232 is a dual driver/receiver that includes a capacitive voltage generator to supply EIA-232 voltage levels from a single 5-V supply. Each receiver converts EIA-232 inputs to 5-V TTL/CMOS levels. These receivers have a typical threshold of 1.3 V and a typical hysteresis of 0.5 V, and can accept ±30-V inputs. Each driver onverts TTL/CMOS input levels into EIA-232 levels. The driver, receiver, and voltage-generator functions are available as cells in the Texas Instruments LinASIC library.


LOGIC DIAGRAM (Positive Logic)



STANDARD KEYPADS (GENERAL DETAILS) 1. Standard keypads allow users to press keys or enter codes to control equipment and machinery. They use several basic switching technologies. Direct membrane keypads consist of a membrane painted with conductive ink, a spacer, and a substrate. Holes punched in the spacer are arranged so that pressing a key deflects the contacts on the membrane to complete the circuit on the substrate. 2. Indirect full-travel membrane keypads mount keys above three layers of punched, flexible polymer sheets that are sandwiched together. Circuits are silkscreened with a conductive silver ink on both the top and bottom membrane layers. 3. A middle spacer separates the two circuits and holes punched in the top spacer are arranged so that pressing a key deflects the top circuit to connect with the bottom circuit. Carbon pill keypads contain protruding, pill-shaped covers that are molded over the top of each key. When a key is pressed, the conductive pill actuates a pad trace. The average life for a carbon pill exceeds 5 million actuations. The contact resistance is usually less than 200 W. 4. Standard keypads mount on the front or rear of panels and are made from a variety of plastic, thermoplastic, and metallic materials. There are four standard keypad sizes: 1 x 4, 3 x 4, 4 x 4 and 5 x 4. For each keypad size, the first number indicates the

number of columns and the second indicates the number of buttons. 5. The example of above explanation: let 1 x 4 keypads have one column and four rows of buttons. 3 x 4 keypads are telephone-style devices with three columns and four rows of buttons. 4 x 4 keypads have four columns and four by rows of buttons. 5 x 4 keypads have five columns and four rows of buttons. 6. Electrical switch specifications for standard keypads include maximum current rating, maximum alternating current (AC) voltage rating, and maximum direct current (DC) current rating. Standard keypads with X-Y outputs are matrix-style devices. Devices with a single pole or common bus outputs require the same number of pins as buttons. 7. Standard keypads are often backlit and include light emitting diodes (LED) to indicate process status, system functions, machine interlocks, and alarm conditions. Embossed switches have graphics or alphanumerical characters that are raised from switch surface. 8. Switches, panels and keypads that are designed for outdoor use are water resistant or waterproof and can withstand both ultraviolet (UV) light and variations in temperature. Standard keypads that are used in medical and electronics applications provide protection from electromagnetic interference (EMI),

radio frequency interference (RFI), and electrostatic discharge (ESD). 9. ESD protection may be accomplished with staticdissipative or conductive elements in the switch material, or through special electronics grounding.

FEATURES • Quality, Economical Keyboards • Easily Customized Legends • Matrix Circuitry • Backlit and Shielded Options Available • Termination Mates With Standard Connectors • Tactile Feedback to Operator • 1,000,000 Operations per Button • Compatible With High Resistance Logic Inputs



EEPROM (also written E2PROM and pronounced e-eprom or simply e-squared), which stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store small amounts of data that must be saved when power is removed, e.g., calibration tables or device configuration.

When larger amounts of static data are to be stored (such as in USB flash drives) a specific type of EEPROM such as flash memory is more economical than traditional EEPROM devices. MODE OF FUNCTION There are different types of electrical interfaces to EEPROM devices. Main categories of these interface types are: • Serial bus • Parallel bus How the device is operated depends on the electrical interface. Serial bus devices Most common serial interface types are SPI, I²C, Microwire, UNI/O, and 1-Wire. These interfaces require between 1 and 4 control signals for operation, resulting in a memory device in an 8 pin (or less) package. The serial EEPROM typically operates in three phases: OPCode Phase, Address Phase and Data Phase. The OP-Code is usually the first 8-bits input to the serial input pin of the EEPROM device (or with most I²C devices, is implicit); followed by 8 to 24 bits of addressing depending on the depth of the device, then data to be read or written. Each EEPROM device typically has its own set of OP-Code instructions to map to different functions. Some of the common operations on SPI EEPROM devices are:

• Write Enable (WREN) • Write Disable (WRDI) • Read Status Register (RDSR)

• Write Status Register (WRSR) • Read Data (READ) • Write Data (WRITE) Other operations supported by some EEPROM devices are: • Program • Sector Erase • Chip Erase commands Parallel bus devices Parallel EEPROM devices typically have an 8-bit data bus and an address bus wide enough to cover the complete memory. Most devices have chip select and write protect pins. Some microcontrollers also have integrated parallel EEPROM. Operation of a parallel EEPROM is simple and fast when compared to serial EEPROM, but these devices are larger due to the higher pin count (28 pins or more) and have been decreasing in popularity in favor of serial EEPROM or Flash. Comparison EPROM and EEPROM/Flash The difference between EPROM and EEPROM lies in the way that the memory programs and erases. EEPROM can be programmed and erased electrically using field emission (more commonly known in the industry as "Fowler–Nordheim tunneling"). EPROMs can't be erased electrically, and are programmed via hot carrier injection onto the floating gate. Erase is via an ultraviolet light source, although in practice many

EPROMs are encapsulated in plastic that is opaque to UV light, and are "one-time programmable". Most NOR Flash memory is a hybrid style—programming is through hot carrier injection and erase is through Fowler–Nordheim tunneling. PIN DIAGRAMs AT24C04 DIFFERENT PACKAGES


FEATURES • Low-voltage and Standard-voltage Operation – 2.7 (VCC = 2.7V to 5.5V) – 1.8 (VCC = 1.8V to 5.5V) • Internally Organized 128 x 8 (1K), 256 x 8 (2K), 512 x 8 (4K), 1024 x 8 (8K) or 2048 x 8 (16K) • Two-wire Serial Interface • Schmitt Trigger, Filtered Inputs for Noise Suppression • Bidirectional Data Transfer Protocol • 100 kHz (1.8V) and 400 kHz (2.7V, 5V) Compatibility • Write Protect Pin for Hardware Data Protection • 8-byte Page (1K, 2K), 16-byte Page (4K, 8K, 16K) Write Modes • Partial Page Writes Allowed • Self-timed Write Cycle (5 ms max) • High-reliability – Endurance: 1 Million Write Cycles – Data Retention: 100 Years

• Automotive Devices Available • 8-lead JEDEC PDIP, 8-lead JEDEC SOIC, 8-lead Ultra Thin Mini-MAP (MLP 2x3), 5-lead SOT23, 8-lead TSSOP and 8-ball dBGA2 Packages • Die Sales: Wafer Form, Waffle Pack and Bumped Wafers

Pin Description



SERIAL CLOCK (SCL): The SCL input is used to positive edge clock data into each EEPROM device and negative edge clock data out of each device. SERIAL DATA (SDA): The SDA pin is bidirectional for serial data transfer. This pin is open-drain driven and may be wire-ORed with any number of other open-drain or opencollector devices. DEVICE/PAGE ADDRESSES (A2, A1, A0): The A2, A1 and A0 pins are device address inputs that are hard wired for the AT24C01A and the AT24C02. As many as eight 1K/2K devices may be addressed on a single bus system (device addressing is discussed in detail under the Device Addressing section). The AT24C04 uses the A2 and A1 inputs for hard wire addressing and a total of four 4K devices may be addressed on a single bus system. The A0 pin is a no connect and can be connected to ground. The AT24C08A only uses the A2 input for hardwire addressing and a total of two 8K devices may be


addressed on a single bus system. The A0 and A1 pins are no connects and can be connected to ground. The AT24C16A does not use the device address pins, which limits the number of devices on a single bus to one. The A0, A1 and A2 pins are no connects and can be connected to ground. WRITE PROTECT (WP): The AT24C01A/02/04/08A/16A has a Write Protect pin that provides hardware data protection. The Write Protect pin allows normal Read/Write operations when connected to ground (GND). When the Write Protect pin is connected to VCC.







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