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PRE-LAB ACTIVITIES/QUESTIONS Instructions: Complete the following pre-lab activities/questions before coming to lab. The instructor will check the pages for completion at the beginning of the lab. Students who do not complete the prelab instruction may not complete the experiment in a timely manner losing a substantial portion of their lab grade. 1. ___ I have read the Introduction to the experiment and watched the video clip and provided my answers to the video questions (attached to this sheet).
2. Clearly describe two methods (based on what you have already learned) that you can use to find the volume of an object.
3. Describe the Law of Conservation of Energy in your own words and provide an example from your every day life experience.
4. You have three metals pans (Cu, Fe, Al) that you want to pre-heat on the stovetop to cook. If the metal pans were all the same mass, which would get hot (have the highest temperature) in the shortest amount of time? Explain your reasoning. Metal Specific heat capacity (J/goC) Copper 0.385 Iron 0.449 Aluminum 0.903
5. Calculate the amount of heat (in cal) needed to raise the temperature of 560 g of water from 22.7 °C to 98.5 °C.
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DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT Revised: 3/20/12 Page 2 of 11 .
Specific heat capacity refers to the amount of heat required to heat up 1 gram of a substance 1oC (common units of J/goC or cal/g oC). Depending on the nature and shape of the substance.835 J/goC) has a lower specific heat capacity compared to water (4. abbreviated as Cal that is found on food labels.0oC (at sea level). Review the last experiment on measurements of volume. it is measured using a balance. The volume of a solid object is commonly measured in two ways in the lab—the formula method and the water displacement method. with units of grams. the identity of an unknown substance can be determined from a comparison of its properties with those of known substances. Its chemical properties include the following: polar liquid with a mass composition of 11. along with the type of equipment available in the laboratory. Substances vary in their ability to absorb heat. For instance. For example. INTRODUCTION Matter is characterized by physical and chemical properties. Some substances can absorb heat quite easily and raise its temperature quickly while others take a while to heat up. colorless.8% oxygen and undergoes a violet. thermal energy. It is defined as the ratio of mass (m) to volume (V) at a specific temperature. Density is one of the physical properties that are easily measured in the lab. Volume is defined as the amount of space occupied by a substance at a specific temperature. Some substances expand (takes up more space) when heated while others contract (take up less space). exothermic reaction when it comes into contact with reactive metals such as sodium and potassium. In this experiment. An important property of matter is its ability to interact with energy. one method is selected over the other. if you leave a cup of water and a cup of sand (equal masses and at the same initial temperature) in the sun for the same length of time. In the lab. water has the following physical properties: a clear.2% hydrogen and 88. it is measured in calories (English system) or joules (SI and metric system). you will find that the temperature of the sand will be higher than the temperature of the water. Revised: 3/20/12 Page 3 of 11 . m D = V Mass is defined as the amount of matter found within a substance and independent of the pull of gravity. Here are some common conversion factors between the different energy units: 1 cal =4.18 J/goC). Since pure substances have distinct characteristics. This difference is due to the different specific heat capacities of the two substances.DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT OBJECTIVE Design a procedure to measure the density of an unknown solid Measure the specific heat capacity of an unknown solid Determine the identity of an unknown solid from density and specific heat capacity. odorless liquid with a density of 1. and electrical energy. sand heats up quickly while water takes a while to heat up. we will focus on the thermal energy of different substances and measure the flow of thermal energy (heat) from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature. In the example of sand and water. kinetic energy.0 g/mL (at 4oC) and a boiling point of 100. In other words. Energy is defined as the ability to do work and can come in a variety of forms such as potential energy. In lab. sand (0. This calorie is not to be confused with the nutritional Calorie (note the uppercase “C”).184 J 1 Cal=1000 cal 1 Cal = 1 kcal Matter can give off or absorb different forms of energy under different chemical and physical conditions.
heat always flows from hot objects to cold objects. along with measured values for the mass and change in temperature of the metal. Thermal energy can be transferred when an object with a higher temperature (therefore has higher thermal energy) comes into contact with an object with a lower temperature (has less thermal energy). Heat can be calculated as a positive or negative quantity depending on its direction*. the ΔT and q will be both positive (>0) since energy is absorbed (endothermic process). never the other way around. joule (J). nestled inside one another and is known as the coffee-cup calorimeter. at which point. By using Equation 2. when temperature is decreased. The symbol“Δ” is a Greek symbol called “delta” which is used to show “ final – initial” *Pay attention to the energy sign convention: When the temperature of a substance is increased. Once the metal is hot. We can then rearrange Equation 1 to solve for the specific heat capacity of the metal since we have the heat lost by the metal. In other words. -qlost by the metal = qgained by the water Equation 2 The heat gained by the water can be calculated using Equation 1 since the variables (m and T) are easily measured in lab and the specific heat capacity of water is already known. there will be no more heat flow. gram (g) specific heat capacity. it will then be transferred to a container filled with room temperature water. The container we will be using consists of two Styrofoam cups. we can determine the amount of heat that was lost by the metal. mass of substance. (may be positive or negative*).DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT According to the Law of Conservation of Energy. but can be transferred or changed from one type to another. we will heat up a metal cylinder to an initial high temperature by placing it in boiling water. We can measure the amount of heat (flow of thermal energy) that is lost or gained during these transfers using the following equation: q m C T q: m: C: Equation 1 heat absorbed or released. In this experiment. On the other hand. J . ΔT and q will be negative (<0) and energy is released (exothermic process). it will prevent heat from escaping into the surroundings and we can take advantage of the Law of Conservation of Energy and assume that the heat gained by the water in the calorimeter equals to the heat lost by the metal. Heat will flow from the hot metal to the water until both end up at the same final temperature. energy cannot be created or destroyed. since it is equal to the heat gained by the water. also written as J/g °C or cal/g °C g C ΔT: change in temperature (final temperature – initial temperature) . Since Styrofoam cups are good insulators. the identity of the metal can be determined from a list of possible metals (see your instructor for the list). Revised: 3/20/12 Page 4 of 11 . Based on the values of density and specific heat capacity of the metal cylinder.
Density of an Unknown Metal Procedure: Obtain an unknown metal cylinder from your instructor and record its number and any observable physical properties. draw a line over the incorrect value (3.DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT Solids Unknown metal cylinders Liquids DI water Equipment/Glassware Styrofoam cups and lid Metric ruler Centigram scale 250-mL beaker 400-mL beaker 50-mL graduated cylinder Thermometer Weighing paper/boat Test tube Test tube holder Procedure: Note: After you make a measurement. write your own DETAILED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE (be sure to number the steps) to determine the density of the metal cylinder (do at least 2 trials). Obtain your professor’s approval before performing the experiment. Part I. Record all measured quantities in your data tables in permanent ink (black or blue). If you need to make a correction. record the measured value in your data tables using the proper number of significant figures and units as determined from the measuring device. Clearly label and record your data in the table.20 cm) and write the corrected value next to the line. In the table below. Measurements and Observations: Unknown Number Observable physical properties: ____________ : Professor’s Approval: _________________________ Revised: 3/20/12 Page 5 of 11 .
Calculate the density of the metal for each trial. Trial 1 _______________ Revised: 3/20/12 Trial 2 _______________ Average_______________ Page 6 of 11 .DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT Procedure: Measurements and Observations: ANALYSIS 1. Show all your work. Then average the two densities.
DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT 2. 5. 6. Explain why it is important to verify your answer from question #2 by measuring another property. Be sure to tare the weighing paper/boat first. Nestle one cup inside the other and measure the combined mass of the cups and lid. 4. Add about 50 mL of DI water into the cup. What is the expected specific heat capacity of your metal? Part II. Record the unknown number and mass of the metal cylinder. Proceed with step 4 while you wait for the water to boil. heat for an additional 10 minutes. cups and lid. Place the metal cylinder in a test tube and set the test tube in a 400 mL beaker. 3. Set the beaker on a hot plate and heat the water to boiling. Once the water starts to boil. Obtain two clean and dry Styrofoam cups with a lid. Set the calorimeter inside a 250 mL beaker Revised: 3/20/12 Mass of 2 Styrofoam cups + lid ____________ ____________ Unknown Number ____________ Trial 1 Mass of cylinder ____________ Trial 2 ____________ Mass of 2 Styrofoam cups + water + lid Initial temperature of water in calorimeter ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Page 7 of 11 . Fill the beaker with tap water so that the level of the water in the beaker is above the metal cylinder (about 2/3). 2. Measure the mass of the water. what is the most likely identity of the metal? Explain your reasoning. This is your calorimeter. Identity of metal: ____________________ Percent error: ________________ 3. such as the specific heat capacity. Calculate the percent error for the density of the metal. Specific Heat Capacity of an Unknown Metal Procedure: Measurements and Observations: 1. Based on observable physical properties (such as color) and density. Do not fill the beaker to the rim.
clean up and put away the beaker and hot plate. Empty the water in the calorimeter and dry the metal and calorimeter and repeat steps 4-10 for a second trial. Put the lid onto the cup and gently stir the water with the thermometer. Styrofoam cups. Record the highest temperature observed. Once the metal has been sitting in the boiling water bath for at least 10 minutes. q = m . Measure the temperature of the water inside the calorimeter. 8. Once everything is cooled. C . 9. Place the thermometer through the lid and set it aside near the calorimeter. and lid to your professor. You may place the thermometer underneath running water to expedite the cooling process after you air cool it for about 1 minute. Take care not to splash any water out of the calorimeter.DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT so that it is stable. We will first find the amount of heat gained by the water in the calorimeter from the hot metal using the following equation. Be sure that the thermometer is immersed in the boiling water but not touching the beaker. 10. Allow the thermometer to cool back to its initial temperature (see step 6). Be sure the thermometer bulb is in the water but not hitting the metal. Final (highest) temperature of water in calorimeter ____________ ____________ Temperature of boiling water ____________ ____________ ANALYSIS 1. ΔT Use the heat transfer equation: Revised: 3/20/12 Page 8 of 11 . measure the temperature of the boiling water. 7. Show your work only for Trial 1 but repeat the calculation for Trial 2 and place your answer in the space provided -qmetal = + qwater Note: Assume 100% heat transfer from metal to water and negligible heat loss to the surroundings. 11. carefully remove the test tube from the boiling water bath and transfer the metal into the calorimeter. Return the dry metal cylinder. Using a test tube holder.
Calculate the percent error for the specific heat capacity of the metal. what is the most likely identity of the metal? Explain your reasoning. Trial 1_______________ Trial 2 ________________Average _______________ 2. Use 4. Show ΔT in terms of initial and final temperatures.DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT a) Combine the above equations into one equation and show each variable in terms of water (w) or metal (m).C for specific heat of water. Based on the specific heat capacity. Identity of metal: ____________________ Percent error: ________________ 3. which experimental property might be in error? Explain your reasoning. Did you arrive at the same conclusion for the identity of the metal based on the density and specific heat capacity? If not.184 J/g. b) Substitute the experimental values for each variable and solve the above equation for Cm (specific heat of metal). Revised: 3/20/12 Page 9 of 11 .
7-gram aluminum block is warmed to 53.3oC and plunged into a coffee-cup calorimeter containing 32. which one should you bring to keep you the warmest? Why? 4) A vendor claims that he is selling gold necklaces cheap. would you get a smaller. Assuming that no heat is lost. larger. You are suspicious about the “gold” necklace and want to verify that it is really gold.5 g of water initially at 24. Explain how you would determine whether it is really gold or not. both the rock and the water jug warm to about 38oC (100oF). or the same values for density and specific heat capacity? Explain. 2) If you had used a larger metal cylinder or a sphere of the same metal.DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT POST-LABORATORY QUESTIONS/PROBLEMS 1) Are density and specific heat capacity physical or chemical properties? Explain your reasoning.5oC. Over time. 3) (Question from text) Suppose you are cold-weather camping and decide to heat some objects to bring into your sleeping bag for added warmth. If you could bring only one into your sleeping bag. what is the final temperature of the water and the aluminum when to comes to thermal equilibrium? Ans: _________ Revised: 3/20/12 Page 10 of 11 . You place a large water jug and a rock of equal mass close to the fire. 5) A 15.
Revised: 3/20/12 Page 11 of 11 .DENSITY AND SPECIFIC HEAT Written by Jenny Leung & revised by Kamran Golestaneh. Spring 2012.