ACLU 2004 Remand Documents

CIA
OT.G

Le!çases

L.

TQOA

CIA OIG RePort

2. A7 March 2003 CIA business Plan díscussing RDI Program IOIG Vaughn #
Other-2 9 l

3. 31 January 2003 Draft psychological assessment of Abu Zubaydah IOIG Vaughn
Other-3 9 l

#

4. 2A November 2OO2 Spot' report díscussing interrogation of *l-Ntuhiri IOIG Vaughn
Other63

#

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5

. 24 ,July 2AOZ Draft psychological assessment of Abu Zubaydah IOIG Vaughn
Other7L

#

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6. Undat'ed certsifieatíon sheet used in ínterrogation lraíning toIç Vaugihn #
Other93

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T.Undatedblank.'EnhancedPressures',sheet used for waterboard training [OfG Vaughn
Other-1031

8. 17 JuIy 2003 intervÍew wíth a senior CIA officer regarding CIÃ' RDI Program IOIG Vaughn # rnterview-B3l

9. 22 January 2003 Email with att'ached spot rêport regarding interrogation of a1NaEhiri IOIG Vaughn # Emai1-L96l

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cfA toAN col'Y DONOTCOFY
Centr al Intellígence

"4gency Inspector General

SpscIALRnvluw

COUNTERTERRORISM DETENTION AND INTERRO GATION ACTIVI'IIES (SEPTEMBER 2001 _ OCTOBER 2OO3) Qaas-7723-lGl
7 Dl.fay 2A04

copy !

TABLE OT CONTENTS

Page

INTRoDucrION."""""""""""""""¡
SIJMM4RY..,.....,.....r"""""'

""""1 """""2
9

BACKGROUND T¡¡'¡¡¡¡'r"¡r'¡"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""'
DIS CUSsToN .'.......,.,"""""""""""'r"""r"'r """"r"r"""""""""
GT¡¡NS¡SOFPOST}IITAGENCYDETEI\rfiONANDJ.I.J1'ERROGÁfiON

1L

ACîNTI1.,S""""""""""t""r"."'r

""'i'r""¡""'

"""""17

TTTE.vAPTLTREoFÁBuZunnwattltN"DEVËLoPMENTorEITS,,.',,,,,,.'12

Dol

rccal.4.N'{LYsrs
"""""""""

"""^16

NorrcrTOAI.IDcoNstIlTÁrIoNwrrr.IExncurlwÁNDCoNGRESSIONÁL """"'23

OFFICL{LS

Gu¡p¡¡¡croNcrr-Iryu[RE/DETENnoN'^ANDINTERRoG'{floN""""'t"""'24

.......,.....,...25 ,..,.,,,,,.27

n
"

DCI Confinernent Guidelines"""" """" ""'29 DCI Interrogation Guicl'e1ïnes"""""""" Medical Guidelines """""""" """""""""""31 Training for Interrogatíons""
N a^,n arrrRJto

rrrxuo

G'{uoN

o

P

ER'4TI

o¡¡s A'

rf L-

TÕ'r-sÊeI{FT/

:::?',a.r'a.:ì i..:'.:.--ir::;.:.:..1

-;

I

,,.,..,.,.46

57 58
61.

65

67

Sp..iii. Unauthori

ze#,

orUndocumented Techniques ..,""',""69

TöFEÊeRBI/

õFsËsgr/

tL '\w ;itvnc

-.ã^\¡6 GATI oNs " " "' " " " " " " "' suPPo RT To INTERRo
¡ r r

t"t"t"'82

Errr,crwnllr.çs

""""'

"""t'Qr

aÉ.

PotrcycoNslDEfutTÏoNslr}II)coNCEItIvsREG.ARDIT\¡GrrrrDerrvr¡o¡l """""""""""91 ¿¡vu

frsreRnoc'afloNl)Rocrt'q,lr"' Policy Consideratione """""""""

""""""""'92
""""95

ConcerneoverParticipationintheCTCPrograrrr.,.'..'....,......'.'94

ENl:e¿.¡,tn,

CONCLUSIONS"""""""': RECOMMENDATIONS"""""""""¡"
APFENDTCES

""""L00 "" 106

A. Proceclures ancl Resortrces Events B. Chronology of Significant
C.

cene¡al coursel of the for Joh,¡ Rizza,Acting Menrorandurn î", lr'trätro gation of an Al-Qa',ida ceniral Intelligence A geircy, OPerative, L Attgust 2002

D.DClGuidelinesonConfurementCorrdirionsforCl,\Detainees,
28 JanuarY 2003

E. DCI Guideiines

oq!

ations

Cond,,tludPM

I á
:a

s

:

ÌõPsessr/

ffiH--Ë¡¡g;$¡'1g¡:;=:a..:.:.r.ffil|#.*sË:i¡it¡?$:i*-".**í-:.:¡I,:,i:ii::.,..:;.:-'','.:..,Ê=¿.:Égæ#:'¡,r.^.'**:-...¿...

TCTr,.sË$REt/

F. Draft office of Medical services Guidelines on Medical and Psychological tupport to Detainee hrterrogations, 4 September
2003

io%BBeRBr/

{*F*¡=x.W¡,|ff+Æl

Y:i.í;i{;!i,.i:+:r",;x:';r::'ti

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CTAR GEMER'AL OFNCEOF INSPË

SpgctAL REvIEw iü;titiö.anoNagY¡3t3,1 ER t #;äffi"tilt t1 : 9 g.t
B

sM couNTERTERRo RI
(2003-7123'IG)
7 MaY 2004

:J"l*t
2oo3

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N AN"

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(

INTRODUCTICIN

",*"Hl;Grrff îil*jikii:åîtrffi ñ ;ä;" i:::::i"';;.';; Til*"uc*u i: î:i
tnät tlt" Agency had estabusneq s.^T-X1lî Cent e r to de tain He isnatc

"'
o "

ubro^d ('the CTC

;;;;'^*').

:::"î

u

"*:qt:ï:13

triffi ;ä;;ä;**ätechninues,fff 1;f ';:'requested that uoot',.rJoreign site, ancl ,Abd
AI-Rahim ¿r-ÑåsÌ.riri, ^t

TursË$llsu

:#ì:i:rl::l ii;t:¡.ade:i.:î.:.:...::-.i l.ij;i.'i:.;.., .. _, :::iÉ;r::lË:i:ïl j_.t:.-;*ä:é.:'¿'rr'::.ii;'.i?.;...::i:..:i:&4-í:-,

i Ë:åï-r ii:#l%iTt¿_¿.ì*,:irr:i+1 ;i:1!!ål -i,#iìl*lã--ã¿:Ëã:¡:¿èììçiL:::!i:ii":

îõ%=ne*s-r/
oIG i¡rvestigate. Separately, oIG received in.forrnation emPloyeeswereconcernedthatcertaincovertAgencyactivíties.atan of
that Some

night involve violations overseas detention and interrogation site review of ABencY hrunari rights, In ]anuary 20A3,OIG initiated a
counterteirorism deteltion angj tion

and the incident rvith

activities!

Al-Nashiri.l T -lQ

SUMMARY
;igrr-td resPonsibilitY
fo

r
the

':1gnlf"i:-î"1f U'S' öti..iå, ä; $i'.;b Counterte'rorist Center (D/CTC). Wheit
ímplementi4g*p.--tGadetentiona-ufl

, -,- r^r^r*:--.i-.1ir¡{Árr.:le in Afc.hanistan affd at rrríIitary forces u"e* dçtgililg$$li9l3%iå Guantanatno EaY,

'lll
directly Agency

and i*terrogate

ññb-.t-"f

int rrogution of the firsi high value detainee' Abu Zubaydah'

suspät"á teriorists. The caph'e andjnitial

ro-\QAppendixAaddressesthePioceduresandResourcesthatolGemployedin
rendition^s condttcted by the Agency or conducting this Review. The Review does not address

2 (" epp*dixB is a chronology or6iriã"t e"."ts th^t occurred dqrÍng

the period of this

TõrsËe*sf,/
i4

TõÏ\:E$RETJ

with a presented the Agency inMarch2002'
additional terronst
believed that
a
^

;i*""*1-'* î'å'ö Ëi iil" ;s. ^:r *^, å'å'ä;*'*:
f

t'tf"'lÏ:t

dilernma'a

*'

l-l'I: ?*il"iår*ítui .o"r¿ not be obtaine$ ju,,.vc¡f icials "dÏîrîtîi'".äH:,tHIüiö#i.ä¡-.'ä".,n to elicit tlueat sentor "ttãt"*y *;;; robttst
i¡forrnatio"

ït-q"rã;

;,:ffi
ï'"ø,ri"
1: ::
at

hi gh value detainees'

from other "pP;tit;u' r'o^'eîîZ*"iatn *a fottiuly

:,,f:j;å:,Hïi'*'iiffi ::'""
rh

iå:ffiil."ä:Ëi:iäïä*f '"t;5-;;g#if;;'^ii' ¿ at A!
í. :ff il:,:ffi,ifl ;:ffi ;of á; e interrogation u'u
Qa'i d a

oersorurel tl"a uîå" äno ther .r.,, u.,ïJ"

""*ed îä,,. ra.y.¡r åìã'- u" rll: ï

in the

"iittance'techniques/

ltil"oJlii"l'.il

- r"

ffi ::Iåi:ffi
use on

]¡tflç$;t*ifu::f,*Ïm1".*
¡ön* r;:"':r':r."
research ted iìaËpendent
f omm'n*Y

ää'"nå-tot"',iîf.ä":ÅiïlË*;ä"'ra-"ti*tookplaceagainst
[tbuZt

m*kr#***;';k$
n*J :îiH:'?1* ii * ;iì;'"*u
the lead consfrainrs f år

6,*,t-ïi-"?åï-"å:'äïil;JtröiËä{d( in determiniug and
interrogations.'åää;fu

I

I
{

t.

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I

I

{i i,

{i

It_
t'l;
':' t=

ll

"l"i;i;iåg"
"f

to have u such threats' but

targets/detainees'

ii

;,

TæEËgEI/

i;:

hsne*su
and consuitecl extensivêly with Department of Ïustice (Dof and National security cou¡rci (NSC) legal and policystaJf. working with in inost DoJ,s Office of Lâgal Counsel (OLC), OGC determi'ed that instances rele'raníto the coqg!1!rror!n detention and lhe crimiiral prohibition interro gation activities againsitorh*e,18 U.S.C. 2940-n408, is the conholling legal the United States' In . const¡ai:rt on interrogations of detainees outside August Z1gZ,DoJ prõvided to the Agency a legalopinion in which it detãrmined that 10 specific "Enhanced InterrogationTechniques" (Ems) would. not'vioiate the torfu¡e protribition. Jhis workprovidecl the foundation for the policy and adminislrative decisions that guide Lhe CTC Progranr. By Novemb et 2002, the AgenSY had Abu :lr- value detainee,'Abd Al-Rahj¡t

Al-Nashiri, in custod

provided medical care to the detainees'

;ffikx
[""ãt*"
ãr autuLtes in ca]rles' deviatrons aPprovecl respect to two from aPProvecl Proceci tl^"j-,1-^ñr1%,"rv descriìred notable exception of one'Elt, the ^ at those slres/ Ltr'E upv "'^'detair-rees *d"r" óf tt',u technique as beyoncl th:,P:"lt:l-^., 2003, secu: nîuãl¡ourd, went #bvr'r-Jå"r ?e ^n describect to LJoJ' rrÌe 'u1v significant for ffi originally .t. der that ""t oral Do] concurrence ¡ef1l DoJ's legal oPinions' of

ro,tlsË

Proceaur.:re

with one

ä:ffi :r:;ffiåiñ:::ï"ï:,äJ"'q"::'¿?í:äîffiá*:
;;0.;t

Fåiîïå'"Hil::iüåiii'..^s*inïîf:Jif ï#íf."trifi

Agency efforts to provide systematic, to thoseinvolved inihe CTC. Detention clear *.a and Interrogatiori Program was jnadeqult_e at firstbub have the life of the Program as problems improved cãnsiderabfly have been id.entified. and. adclressed. cTC implemented fraining prograurs for interrã guto6 and. d.ebriefers.6 Ñf oreover, building uPon ãp"ätiot al a¡d legaiguidalce previouslysent to the field,the DCI
1-5.

ù*@

a*tg

The use of these te¡ms has terrns infezroga tion/interr'olgatüiÃa lnU"rf' gldebríeJer intercttang""Uly' A debriefer engages a since evolveã and, today,-C1C more cbárlf distinguishes their meanings' is a person rvho completes a detai¡ree solely througtr-questiott and aruruer. An interrogator and certif a lrvo-week interrogâtionsir**g program.which is designed to tfain, quali$r, Arüånrtator canadminjstãr EITs during an,interrogation of a pefson to adminis-terEnr: as äe!inee only after the field, in coordi¡iationwith I'Ieadguarte¡s, asæsses the detainee detainee from anon'cooperative to a rvitlrholcting inJormation. An inteúogator tlansitions üre cooperativJphase in order that a debäefer can elicit actionable intelligence throùgh a detainee techniques duringdebrÍefing sessionË. An interrogator may debrief

ror,-uggr.rrí.re

du_rin[ãn intenogation; howevei,

a

debriefer may not interrogate a detainee.

TÕPEEeB*TI

'

l:i:-'-' .:¡1, '7 -', -,. \V¿;'t-::' :t.::r'+-z:=:.'

,:''æ

'i-.êË

.#-.r,,É!=ë1,#î*iÆl
'i

on28Januarvzooas,q.,l*,,1#,î;Ir":î",irÎ'rf for ClA DrE
ñr'sUpporting interrogo*t'"- -r---

iffiåffi
of -tlie

ääJäî
oracÉce of

"óT;;"-î*i#¡f:ff
Guidelines are'an Guicleline,

r.qoffi,il

Headquarters fi"ld tg obtain specific

tu*t "'uttantïal room * 'n"iåJ';-"" misinterpretationPaïJäï";;;;'äÃ;'vcletentiona^d

;*

f

"

for

'¡,#fî*1":i:'ffi

lt tuttogãdon activities'

"r,.-tt, ffi

+lltx:u':ågï:itr ofi:iËi'r'" *or"¿ ¿ :fl* n:H îi t*,,#;;;;' th3usa'ds the supporting nr"g'"åîoî rhe crc
'ã'J'"¿ arrd ffi]õroclucis reports d military i*dividuaf irrr.ffiäï*u u's' p outy*uteis an
counte rteuo'i"ou"=rtã' commærders'

*''ir

I-nterrogatîon Pro Adminis E aÉon

tT

F#ffi
"ffi;
"'

#î',îî,'ål
ot aiu.,

ffitiffi ;'';'Pii
l
"^*

previous

# ** gency
A

*r*yandruresff;;"îäil""itrå'tri1¡"åfr
reputation', itself.

ïllllllllllllll:?,äiff"'

of the Agenry trSî'ff ïi#tr'å,::i':'.T'iilffi l#:î:'::ers'personar üilt;tPúo'i* í"d eÏfectiveness *"ü;

tA.

t

rar definitely if approPnâre

:*î'.1å.*';:"t':mî:ïiËî*i;i5i+5å'*å#iä
ÌõrsË$n'Eu

:fr:ri;il:ni"i'*",i,:iåi:ffä:in'î'öandamonsNsc'

i'.#=;i!ç--rt.¡¿.:îg:i:.:,,.i1.:i11t¡åìrî:.

j

j:,.::

j.,

îÕPsEeREr/

Defense Deparlmenf, and. ]ustice Deparlment officials, no decisions on any "endgarne" for Agency detainees have been made. senior Agency officíals see th.is as a policy issue for the U.S. Government tuth.t thun a CIA issue. Even wTth Agency inítiatives to address the endgame with policymakers, some detainees who carmot be prosecuted will likely rernain ín CIA custody indefinitely. The Agency faces potentially seriou.s long-term polìtical and legal challenges as a result of the CTC Detention anci Interrogation Program, particularly its use of EITs ancl the inabiliby of the U.9. Gover:rrment to decide what it will ultimately clo with terroristsrdetainect by the Agency. 19.

This Review makes anumber of 24. recomlnendations that are designed to sfrengthen the managenrent and conduct of Agency detention and intefrogation activities. Atthough the DCI Guideljnes were an in'rportant step forward, they rvere only designed to address the CTC Pro

.!+¡:'

:. ii:.

ir-*:*.,'

''#,

"

'á*#*i{*;*r"-'ft=¡

tt':*'-'-'&.'

TöT"sË$"ErJ

BACKGßOUND
inrcrrogation of i¡ rhe urúted states.

22 rq

q:

åråT*îiii"*:ä,,î'Ëidiä"å''äi:"* w;' Ag:"q pe¡sorrrrel vi"E
îi*
,l-"

"*

ii:ï*î#ä.*::*îîä*Tf#È*:iä{"*îil'ïöï'd-"
teachingi,lterrogoatiäiùl*'i""11t:îi:t"å31i.*i";ipãri*i'ur. liaison re

;"ìil;d;

sensitivitiesthe'r"îö6D*":iili"'#t.**ä:ru.:':Ëî officers from usmf
iotU^¿" AgencY haining Progra.:r1 cLe%r6'rrvu intero gãtion techniques'

T,;;ur¡i.rål*
" -

to foster foreign

tr'

I

I

{

I

I

i

I

q

à
Ë

,' rl
fr,.

bl

li¡
t.,

.--r

ffi

allegationt':f Tittonduct 23. lS) !í\ 1984' O19,j'*t'-1T1"U rt: -^-at ""t

on

å: år

Hea d'quar ters interr o gations, debrie f in gs, an d hum an rights issues' cable guidance sent officers to brief statiäns and Bases and provided to tlr.e field.

24. lS) In 1986, the Agency endçd the HßE-training Program because oi ailee"Uons of human rights abuses in Latin America'

which iemains in effect, e¡Plains policy:

Á-gency'sgeneralinterrogation

¡

.l

lr

l.ii:,:..,

.t.:

-. -'- .. '

:*13i,

::F1å++t::tææ:'":'-:"*rê¡

õp"sÊ$Rçr/
I

I

DISCUSSION
GTNESTS OF PO ST
ACTTVITTES
9I

11

N ¡IND T{IEXRO G,4TIO AON¡ICY DETEÑTTON

vernent

ffi¡ÏØg!*dd

impie men

iä:,':' ;¡"= i"u": ;*:; :;:; å::i J -er ät¿.#ij:i:il.!@
"

responsibiüry for zZ. [57f$R) The DCI delegated

*"

*''

A s encv

co

rnp onents'

inclucling OGC,

C

7 (u//Eouo) DoI takes thepositionth::::-c,:ffi1;i#;:Xl*ïJ,Ë'"i'$äìi'äli*-t to oraer n"äiå e-toJJ I cónstitrttional authoriry

îö%-sËÊREs/

28.

understand

the sco

1'.åiffit3ä%l
To assist Agut
çy.

offlçiulg

*

wrotè "draft" papellon mglg dísctrssions of

researchecl, analyzed, and issues. These included

n'

shared these

"draft" papers rvith Agency officers

Trrr c¿¡nrn¡ orá.ru ZwAw,+H

At:{D

DEwLoPME¡vr or EITs

The caphrre of senior Al-Qa'ida operative 30. Fqn) Abrr Zubaydah on 27 March 2002 presented the Agency with the opportunily to obtai:r actionable intelligence on fuh¡re threats to the United States flom the nrost senior AI-Qalda member in U'S. custody ent of an intenosation at that !ime. This accelerated CIA's deve

TöFsË${rgv

TörËaRsrJ

'Io treat the severe wotrnds.thatAbu 31. .dedhim rtrs {-avru*ii""lã"f.åËa Zubaydah,of f Zubaydah suffered upon his ouestioning å:äi¡iffi questior carefrom 9*":T^*, ,r'rro Aøencv *tJt utt.*uri i";åi"" meclical

."ãffih*iTÏî3:'i:f ä:.ffiïffiff1;xiJill"ff Jö"yrr::s:iî.hiåî:.,1 non a Ã9u
Ï":ï=ffi
tìît.*'ig"te
non-PhYsical elicitation
3ub

lTsl-."

*:::-

lvgil

vcl

ffi-rwithho

ffi

ent thrã at information'

#;;:*d;;;æ.

h"dJ,T"
rvrite a paper "^äöìä;;;sirtuo.å

iãrn¡l 'T"-"ã

Prosraln' io iritu"ogation teclmiques'l3

uo-rs'¿a--;'

i;lH^ r
-

ä##fififf r'oininsffi;:": ñ;i'ã;
Cor-nte¡meastlr( rechnïques: A

more aggressive åïtJ"Ped a[sÍof new and two psychorg"ì' ininterrogations'

j:'sequentiv' ElTs

the

that they

ru.o***áud

fär use

i:

"o#,ï11îî"'u.1o,,u,

o,

[tr]'.$:ìîiilT"3#ïìrJàï "rr*.a u,1ri"l1-^':ffi ,ll.i;1mnr;¡';çåq"H{i;,tïfly.fr î'*î:il',"iî}a
egency (rpRA).

lu,*,,ìî,îäì*'uÌ"'toi^i*'io*
hò* to sü¡vive invadous

onerations forces $'ho

;iriffi;;t"ught
äË;;;"1Ñ,
vJar.

terr

to preve' aird conduct themsel'es

:J-:il

ääl -¿1

!;í,.t¡r.î .,,, u,... ¿ì¡ê¡,i.-=iì :, :¡, i;g*í:j::åi::r:ssi:=ÉÉ.:Ë:;jr_iiri,.:ii'ifti :::::-:.:.
L=i_-V-zjt¡L;--;.¡'¡¡

rr¿.9:---:1'....

i

*

CIA,'_OTS obrainect data on tiæ use of the otential l ong-terrn P-sTchglogical ef fects on prCI posed from ãetai¡rees. OTS input waibased in part on information solicited in the area a number .of psyct oloSisæ and knowledgeable acaclemics of psychopathologY.

Ur. ÈgE)

Em#ãÌftili

P

sbudents' ",, SERE training aIlcl'aty subáequent psy,choiogical effects on DoD/IpRA cãnciudeá no long-terni psychological. effects resultecl from use of the EITs, including the most taxing technique' the waterboard, on SEIì,E students-.r¿ The OTS analysis rvas used by OGC in evaluating the iegality of teclrniques'

":,å;Hffi
35. tlS[

ä.':åïå

i:ffiiJå ?:3if il

Eleve. EITó were proposecl for adoption i¡ the CTC Interrffi%rogram. As proposed, use of EITs would be subject to a co*jpete^t eva'Íuadon of-themedical anct psychological state oi the d.etaineã. fnu Agency elirninatecl one proposecl

t.J*iqn.*rio

detay ti u t"fiGiãiliËfoilowing textbox identífies the l0 EITs the Agency described to DoJ.

t"ttttir.g rroT n9l mi.tfr::?::ld

to in<livíduals with authoritative knowledge of_the SEITE program, the waterl¡oa¡d waS used for demorshation purposes on a very imall numbcr of shrdents in a class' Excepl for Navy SERE training, use of thå wàterboarcl was discontinueclbecatue of its dramatic effect on the sh¡dents rvho were subjects. 14

l\lccorcling

.l:l-!í':: '':::.:.'

Enlran cecl Interrogation

Techniques

dlal H:åîi"i::ili#ïff åri:,'íi!'trfis ü^ïfr'trîx#ft:äf the detainee ag the grasp,
same motior,r

:;":ili:'

" :,--i:

firnrlY Pushcd into

#k**ig;u*¡**;;**t***,*It #
.r ^...r lhpn ouickly i

o

ö;Ïi*
ht

Places an oPen Pal

weu gettips are kept
rrre raciar

*ï.;"*'***'*"' awa)'
"o"u'p
onci in

*",lå,#iï:Ïäf':':{
-^..^.,r arrart. The

with

'iltr'åi iiiiïÎ"ru.tt'u
,rncrarnpe'r':*ï:ffi "
,äïlì "i no

"i:"*fflXt"'-i:Jîìffi"ri:,1f1..:tJ'".t"f'f"'Iiiiuuäut"i"""t rrob e'
s
ea

o

than insect ìn the box a hanrrless ''tore in'uolve placíng a confinementìrox Insects place{ in

r?'gt Plo'I.,ours and in une rarglr rw

lff "i'"',îiî:'itåjåÏüii'ï'f, t-piäùit"
:îfu

'Xj:î"$::ÏT;*
18

ta¡t uP to

hotus'

. ;T,iïii"*
cletainee is
.r

hìs feet sPread aPP

*'.1",#îï:ö:Ïåff ä";;ìli;' not allc
e a pp rica rionoiåiå.;J"ïljl ;i,h ñi' legs
h

*:ff

,.r,jft""ffi m,å***1""i't
oi
iuu

t the detainee sit

'T;o.d, i

+ "

leanl on the floor lvhile l-read or toreelin6

iii ä? ff ïì1*"l"ii clesee angle' extended:Tï::j,ä-"iir* il";t 45ff #jt
a

'

- -:

^ r'arrin ø

o*

the Jloor
ou u

tã ä'u

r'i'

wiJl not exceecl Sleep cleprivation

11' clays at a

tiare'
e

'

r d": ; :';.,:'iïtï;"';: 'rhe i"il;;::;,h:--i,î:r:rli:Tä:ì:il:[î:,î",]",ffiñ:Î :'^Ïob'íz arrove his n:i';.iä;.:;;:il*l.:13åffiXS; ;';:ïï:11 ffiTä:ì : ffi"iil; o1a ¡ççr --1n.", rã" erevated feet ele
a

cr

oencrr wlut ru% "llllli., ?'0 iÏiifi'ililt"' p-laces- a cìoth n*er tl¡e ".i:;;.:;",'....uo' rsrestricted for r, to ;ffiií,;ti*s - -ì^d, ovlr mumer' Airftow and an interrogator 1¡]:'l5:ììed 1ä:::'ïoi"*ir - r ^,'rr, a controlle" Û'e ctoth T;';ï oiîtu*il.'g and strrfocation' :iiffiä'"Jo the tecnniclue in ;îiäil1,"^îJ,'::i:]1:i';Tj:knf U"l,l;*"ordrownirrgands'lrrrocation produces " anci
rr.\$

p p t ic a tio n.o

i0

seconds

'""

I

Dal

rccaLlrNÁLYSIS
36,

CIA's OGC sought gtddance from Do] of EITs vis-à-vis indivicttrals detainecl The ensuing legai opirúons focus on an'd OtherCrttel' I'humane a*d Degrading Treatnient or Punishme.lt (T9rture. Convention) '2 2340' U.S'C' ^o esp"ecially"as iinplemented in the U,S. criminal code,lB

23404.

g7, (J / /FoUo) Tlre Torttrre Cor.rverrtion specifically prohibits "torture," which it clefines in Article 1' as:
any act by wlúch seaere painor suffering, whether physical or as mãntal, íí íntentionally inflicted on a pers.on for sucJ'r purPoses information or a confession, obtaining from hÍm or a third person or is punistrin-g him for an act he or a third person has comrnitted or coercing him or ä,rspectuã of having committed, or intimidating any a third Person/ ot f#t *y reasonbased on cliscrimination of by or ai the kinci, rvhen such pain oi suffering ís inflicted instigation of or lvith the consenior acquiescence of a pu6lic official u, oiiu, prrson acting i¡r an official ca¡''ädry' It does not ind'de pain or slffering arisfig only from, in¡ere.nt in or incide*ial tr: iawful sanchión. [Emphasis added']

A¡ticle 4 of the'Iorture Convention Provides that states PaIty to the Convention are to ensure that all actì of "tortalre" arc Offenses turder their criminal iaws. Article 16 adclitionaliy provides tl-rat each state parfy "shall untl.ertake to preveni in any territory utder its
h'eatment or iurisdiction other acts of cruel, inhutnan or degrading !lrtrittl**t lvhich d<¡ not amount to acts of torture as defined in Article 1."

is (U//FOUO) Adopted 10 December
'i-f--

Treaty l)oc. No. 100-20 (198S) 1465 U.N.T.S' 85 Convention entered into force for the United States (entered into force 26 June 1984. The Tolture on 20 November 1994.
1984, S.

i,'ai

t!:;'!:t!""

:,....+-:.::-l

1

.,)t=é:-t

;" "

oîJått withexplainecl States only in utt qu rt*:ii;än;.ti?l''1,4s macle by the u^it;,ffi;,;, "* Brancl-r prior to ratification: ã'àtoti"" to thr: Senate oy
U'S' broacler than existing Article 16 is arguably t o'äãäì,'å treaünen " cruel, inhu ma* str u iriternat ion al in

38.(U//FoUo)TheToritulConventionan'rriltotheUnitecl uod ut'attstandings the' re;;;;;;;

'nî

las''

'l'he pluase

"' ,'ää;ä ;;"'"' o rr
r

u^iversar

I^ä*ü"^a'.':.11i:i:ï;iî$*îllïXlfil",:l,l','J;".,''"

Decraratiol'"îiìïã* tug1]:_lï

i

l:liÏl:Iîii meÏüäilä"Î'i'^'n' cov #ou en
Intemati'onal

"'''unt

;' ::îitî :iTli:; i;trffi roughì{:1"1"åïh.'i,f,tt-, Ë:åltî,r l*ffiî-iïffål,"; be to uunrshment appears tvuji**ä E'ighth a^d uär.¿ in the united states i,ioirt*.',t, iiÏ;il;r A*u''d*u''ts' "De gradii g- :ïh ilffi ;ììühas been interpreted Tl'.9tttt:1i inclu cling h ea*nent c"îruttttion.

h'wever, ,iJ ;; ;'r

ñ robabrv "oi b' P':)l::Tii :L: ;;; i"d"'idua* s lXl+;+1,,i¡ifrii:rr:,lxä*'":L'U;m;t;,i1';i1i$"" to lrp
gerrcìer charrge

J.."îï

äake ctear that the

TB1,.^,,^^ qlâtêq corìstrues the pÌrrase

ffiäñiîñ"d;stancling

is

trre frm "rhe uniterl states rrncìerstands .tü^äü;eatme¡rt ": t

ilre Converrti<¡tr,

::ï::i"ll"ilTli-*s-r"ot**
eF

'1.;efitllì:iåi'"åt
iitution of tl'te

ffiphasisadded'l

#o"u'ntio'' on 16(U]viennaConventiorront]reLarvofTreiìties,23May1969,ll55UNTs'331(e¡rte¡edinto

ø,ìu)t lorce27
1? iu /

lä;;itü;;gärds
/Fouo)

JantLary JanrLary

1980). Ine urutur¡ urrr'"- - 1e80)' rte.unit:'f:1"','^11l;; iis provisiors

treaties' ìrut

lnrational as customarv r¡rtc

.i larv, ntiÏl':í$ii;;*a

100-20' at 15-16' s. Treaty Doc' No'

ji'

"".i:-Ì*i,".iÊ¡.rîi.:.:;¡

ln accordance with tl're convention, the United States criminaíized. acts of torture in 18 U.S.C. 23404(a),
39. (u

//Fouo)

wlúcl'r provicles as follows:
whoever outsicle the united states comrnits or attenrpts to comlnit torhue shall be fined under tlús title or irnprisoned not more than 20 years, or both, anct if cleath results to anyperson irol conduct pt.,hibitud by this subseclion, shall be punished by death or irnprisonect ior any term of years or for life'

The statute adopts the Convention definition of "torttue" as "an act committedby a person acting urder the color of law specificallyintenclec{ to infh#t sel'ere physical or mental pain or suffering (otl'rer than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanci-ions) uPon another purror. withjn his cuJtocty or physical conh-ol."l8 "severe physical acicled a !ain and suffering" is ¡roifurther clefined, but Congress ãefinition of "severe mental pain or suffering:"
from[T]he prolonged nrental harnr caused by or resulting
(A) the intentional infliction or th¡eatened infliction of severe physical pain or suffering;
(B) the achnfurishation or application, or tht'eatened tanc es or a ct ministra tton or' applica tio¡r, of n'Lin cl'altering sttbs other procedwes calèulatecl to disrupt profoundly the senses or the personalily;

(C) the th¡eat of ùnminent deathi or
ÇD) the

threat that another person ].ill imminently be subjected to death, severe ptrysical pain or sufferirrg, or the administration or application of rninct-aliering substances or other procedurescalctrlatecl to clisrupt profounclly the senses or pe.sonality. . . .19

T'hese statutory clefi¡ritions ale consistent rvith the ttncl.erstandilgs and reservations of the United States to the'llc¡rtLrre Conventio¡l.

18

(u//Fouo) le (u//Fouo)

18

US.C. æ40(1).

18 U.5.C. æ40(2).

nitr!-', ;ffig':!;!u¡1{#t

: -'ìií':El

ii'¿i-'-l':'-'" "'

'

îoTsÊeR,Er/
of the prosecuted' a violation

40.

(u/ /Fouo)

DoJ has

rorr're statute, ra

its provisio"'' oCäiltt*t-¿ issues under U.S.¡aïiffi.ä*ä**t

f.* 2002 J";i^ssified 1 August of 2aa,zurd receiväa preliminrrr:"*** "t *Fv the torture statute r'Jïoí¿ orc t ãndusions r.egarding tlt ':Ë:'* ot-c lesat *t*"":åãä;;i torture sìäit t"a conclucled that of the Droper interpretatän *a tr'n' ure specifically or isuô.io,.,2340A nï:::ä;'^.o "rit.,ì"ä, rvhethermental "extreme intencleci t" ¡''niti 'u"u'u Ptl :' :*""* äJItímust be of at.,
ohvsical."' AL:"oLä;;J"'I g: Uï true]' ¡u'tuTill or degrading' intensity to i-,uí.rru" and' thai "'certain ^to*uy of fl-t it'l:til" p1ilu"*t'trãiog bot still "ot p'oäott
f

ïls1i#äá+q' 1"a 'rL'á the'restrlts

"tu::

i'

1ìo

caset^ï

of its researc the suntmer tã DoJ's OLC in th:.:l:tttunts of the

fr:tä.Tå'.,

alrw'1rins""iäilsä04'spros*tåäffitr:tïH;;Jï*.' of intenoeo Po*" ",. ä;;itt* the reqrrisite level
plry

purelv to the paitt trcconp*y]"s':::":Ïi.i;i,;;;uJ" áuotb'.' For of bodíly t:läîï.,.i";ture uncter Secdon 2340' failure, impairment to aÑrunil:^i"il;;; gr oitig.,'ttfit'^"' nr o ment'aì pti''t o* suffering I :t " , R"v.t',oto gical har r,TT';i ri g", ri ;1fi years'" ,,.,r., r,, "r for mónths or even durah<¡n' ä;i;:ft

si

ca

rp

a

in

am o u n,iie

j"

::,

^',ï:ilîî:åïfräi ::l'l, Ë:1*
tt'

Section'331["":$::'llålTt' a violation of oLC determjnecl that ot t'l:iefendant's "Precls( * us ti [v irrfuctiorr "f o' äu- d ef eru e "úgl ä-u i'"'ttt tion 2340

J;;;;"
tr-,o

i

al

o concloata inrerr o garior., äu
s

opilion äääi;äã*tt.whether rhe Augrist zo;ä óic iî'i" J""111"' treatment' arrd

"ity ¿s rhar

*."ffi;il;*dtt

v iõt a tå sec

^'22 anv other

provision'
interro
ga

í;; ";ü;' 'i' 'i11"î flre Uiríted States'23 tio''t ãf ãtoi""uu ot't'iãu
Re:

20 tU¡ /fOUO) Legal \'lenrorandum' 2oü2)'

urcle¡ Conduct for lnterrogation $andarcls of

;; ù:J.å.äo-æloÃ

(1August

21 çu¡lFouo) Ibid-, P'1' 22 (u I /Fouo) Ibid', P' 39'
of L

:rîriirîî'f '*ïi*r' rsí*qï,î*"*n',+i'i*l*:***,ffi for victinrs tortltre'
To?sÊenssJ

::";Íi i##ï-:*'!*.':'-:¡¡r,:'--- r-¡;o

41..(s//FoUo)Asecondunclassifiedl.August2002oLC opinion aàclressed the international law aspects of such me lhods illt"oo gutions,24 This opinion concludecl that iirterrogation the Torhrre that clo not violate tg U.S.C .2g4}wou1d not violate of the convention an<i would not conre within the jurisdiction lnternational Criminal Corut'
Lr aclclition to bhe two unclassified opinions, orÇilffiã-*lother legal opinion :" 111ry::"??:'
42.

tff'"d;';
I

"f T]-" .?1dï::'^1 CIA's Acting General bottot*t, rliscussed whether the çr1gLs,:1Ït" et,l*t tUof EITs i:r interrog"ti"g Abu ZubayclahrvouJ'{.violate prohib i bi on on toitr¡r'u I ft,u opiniol conclude d ütul 1t : :{"TÏ::1 ibrr Zubayduh would rìot víolate the torh-rur-e statute.bei..lTt?:j11ilg other .thingu, Agur,.y pu.roo,tel : (1) woulcl l: t tq :tilitly ilf:1.1: . *ff.ting, and (2) rvould not Ìn fact inflict severe "i pain or suffering.
This oLC opiniolwas based uPol't 43. cIA con.ce*it g the marmer ínwhich EIl's specific ,.pr"ãæ/ ôodd be àpplied in the irrterrogation of Abu Zubaydah' For "no last example, Of.C rn¿as told that the EIT "phase" lvould,iikely The EI'Is ,,rore than several days but corricl lasf up ¡o thirty dl't." .. not necessarily basis" ancl ali would woulcl Lre used on "arr as+reeded "in sc¡me sort of be used. Further, the Eil-s \Â,ele expecteci to be trsecl not escalaiing fashion, cuiminating with the wateÏboard though the ElTs nu.urrurñy encüng with this te-chniqtte." Although some of

;a#IA.zs (Appendl c ;f \- r t.

ffi:

t'

l:

%sEl[

ol'c aiso noted that coults may of conduct, although a single incident coul<l constihtte tolttlre' the level of "severe pain and be willing to find , *ia" ,i"!u of physical p.T l.n rise to only acts "of art Ultima tely, f,å*J".r, öf.ê conåudecì fhat the cases show that renedy for tclrture"' lYhite House extreme nature have be!¡r reclressed under the TVPA's civi'l Counsel Memoranclum at22 -?-7. 24 p / lriouo) olc opinion by John C. Yoo, Deputy Assistant Attorney General oLC

rrffÃgi'

(1Ausust2002).

,utu*EN{e¡norandumfor}olrnRizzqActingGeneralCotrrrsetoftheCentral

fr,teìngm[ã-.Ç,

"Interrogation of ai Qaida Operatiye' (1 August 2002) at 15'

::.t-r

,;i'{''_-

.'

îÕp-s$e*år/
ar ter i" rnightbeusedmorethanonce'.'Tu'repetitionr¡'illnotbesuìrstantiaì l" J that: b e c ar', e tr''. t.'n'ii'q'åö;; 1q *utu'to*d' it rvas explained tr-tu repetidonr." witttî;;J;"
s

;il;;

ti"""'

ev er

a

I

is bouncr . ' . tire incrividuar ir,¿i"i¿''¿'s feet are

8:ne1tttg""ili;i,iin' ãi'i' t" ^ is then apli:'åiti.';t;Ïì:ä untir it forehead ""iï;;'-\i/^ter O 1'-""å;ä As this cont¡otied *unnu'' tää"t¡ is saturated ar"td ão now is sri ghtlv :Ïå: iî*"'Til"h i"î"' îr.I" i:ffiì#lï til P;tt:"" "l llå;:ilïöi io'u'on¿'.¿""'å
.

::'"fÏåi:ff:tr*iîi:t';;;'Ïìi

reshictecl

car*es

* '"Jöìå iì ã"ü"" ¿':ä:ÏJï:;5;ålllllÏ;;u .'n"
"'iJå'i

Iti::riilirïäij+r:ipåru***rf :Ì:iå-"å,: "suffocation and inc\:ient Poil? îrrngr. During
u-re indivic{rral does it 20 to 40 secónds'-wa'.":

::,11äi"-.tå,i'tå erro:/. io 2+j inclres' After this f

""lb':1t::;i;i;;;;il.¿

*.iår'i",i t",

those

rl.il l lreight of It2 tified' and thc

iî,Hif#llitr"g$:i::ä)åï ""'
w a ter
is

usuallv o pp-lild

ft

3-

""io*"ti "

'it'*ltt Finally,.theAgenqP':Ì:1ì::1:Jf#åhîi:î,îli':t;it'":-:::,,. *t-tol:'Ë;;"#;;
¿t ., /rtruy,tal-t
and rvitln

iåËiää'i'ff i$;ffii'ffi'*Håiîfr: tlr cirowning' [Ilt applicatioir'
is likelY that

than 20

¡'t u"y ott"

rhat the use of E1'fs the SERE program psychologi"î'î*ttted with oiC reliecl on these ot no iong æ'* woulci. cause no oirvsical lra¡n its cäctusion that on him.f the representutioï] toìîpport run.rraï."ii frorn t'e uit

*t"tii"h-;:
z¿

orotonged

j|.ir.,

r.ãiå

Ë;;;;itl"ding

ffi
as

tne waterboard'

'.*¡ ì"ìr* oLC opínion' 'ln retrospect' based on u ç -i.-ry arr or uÌ: "uit*llutu l. of t¡rs IT"äi.àtîn;iìnt ieportea sophisticationthe powerr-H'j EIT was aPPre.ra *¿ that
it retared to the warerliorå,

,i:i,':*îitîl:!:tlii*:!ï*:#Ë:,
ir* snnn !åyaorofistliruerrogators

ouurr,ored in rhe otr

ilËï;,ñimore,

exp olufs contends thatthe

-1:i-i-ii

i,lai.-.

oGC conrinLlecl to consult ivith DoJ as rhe 44. %Smj CTC Interrogation frogrâm and the trse of EITs expandecl beyoncl the interrogatioñ of Abu Zubaydah. This resulted in ihe producfion of or, ondutud and unsigneddocu:nrent er-rfitled, "Legai Principles Applicable to CIA Dãtention and Inte'rogation of Capture Aî--ea,ida persorur.e1."27 According to OGC, ihis analysisryas 91f coordinated witlr ancl drafted in substantial part by OLC. In adclidort to'reaffirmilg the previous conclusions regardíng the torhrre stafute, ihe analysís ånciúdes that the federal lVar Crimes statute, 18 U.S'C' 2441, does not appty to Al-Qa'ida because members of that grouP aÎ--e not entitled to ptito.t.t of war status. The anllysis adds that "the or [Torh:r'eJ Convention permits lhe use of [cruei, inh'uman, degfacling treaffirentl in exigent circtrmstances/ such as a national u*lutgut^t.y or waf." It also states that the interrogation of Al-Qa'ida tlu*b"rs d.oes not violate the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendrnents because those provisioru clo not aPPly extrater:rítoria!, nor ctoes it violate the Eighth Amendinent because it only applies to persons upon rvhom.ti*irrut sancLions have been irnpclsed. Filrally, the anatysis states that a wirle range of BITs a¡rcl other techniques rvould not ccxrstituie concluct of the type that woul.d be prohibitecl by tl-re Fifth, Eighth, or Fou¡teerr'ûr.Amencltnents evelÌ lvere they to be applicable:
'Iihe use of the

'

techniques cloes nOt violate any Federal statute or other law, s'here the CIÁ interrogators do uot specifically íntend to cause the detainee fo urclergo severe physical or mental pain or suffering (i.e., ihey act with the good faitl'ì.lreltef that their conduct rvill not cause such pain or suffering): isolation, reduced caloric infake (scl long as the amount is calculated to maintain the general health of the cletainees), deprivation of reading material, loud music or lvhite

following techniques and of comparable, approved

the waterboard v,¡as probably nrisrepresented at the time, as the SERË rvaterboa¡cl experience is so differcnt from the snbsequent Agency usage as to make it al¡nost irrelevant. Consequently, according to OM$, there rvâs ao a príori reason to believe thaf appllng the waterboard wiih the frequency ancl intensity'rvith rvhich it'r.r'as usetl by the psVchologist/irrterrogators was either eflicacious or med.ically safe.

,zhqm..LegalPrinciplesAppIicabtet<lÇI,¡!Qe!n!!onandlnterrogationof

aop*rffii

rersonner,

¿rracneu,o-ilffi*.r

u J ur is

¿uvJi.

bnspensv

level noise (at a decibei

calcullt-di

tle avoid damage t9

tlffñ$$,firåg¡5$ii#j*gr+-#diaPers, the ul
G

Acco r crirrs,g g

C' this

an

a

$

T-:it itî
wrfl

t?¿l

;åt:iîiäliiä: î^

f*äå:lg,::i;i:î'"1fi in that oPinion'
;J;;;.iried
OETTCTALS

fä#;ãJt,*i,r,econcritiorrsthat
Exncurwr¿'vo Co¡¡cREssIoNÂL

"

Norrcr ro /1¡lD colvsutrÂTloN
45:

üre legatitY of E
'

ï"î* ï^.r"*äîäiitv *1 brief ed un n, "n proposed*"'Ifr ioärulioruoo'"i*öi'"îÏ'{îå3:i"#iin"t Oversight Comrn
wìth NSc

p"uóä'ri
åiiå

ánd senio'

;äJ#tratioriof

the legal o f f icìals on

fiåiob' Tht

uct

Ïntelligerrce ãf tflu Congress'""^f and EITs' both standarcl iåtfrrliqots

*a of the G"ou'utffiill'
c
o

Fs#

early ?'90?' tury9 tontinueó to inform

F

tltgiîÎî,#;ïîf:it
e

officïals^^u*lîäilüor.r.îcã"g'essionalOversight Th i; tÌt; cT c ? r o g r am' t t"t"*'l ;;
mmitteu' " iuì t:tr''ä'''Conrmitre.,

CIA's actions' Agency'p"t'f'JuTy*uotø*ti''"î'uürattheseofficialsandthe Hotrse ir. u*ä. of and apProve åffir;J*
TTre Gener^r

#ä;iãigg^iî" rpîr. co'nser*d;ff;;,,¡äñsci:iiär;;.*l'-iiffiål?iîil'ir.u co*tr beøirning in Decern Detention and and offict ;;;i "f u"¿ u'u"¿'r1uJrlilu"crc's them on the "oit lnterrogation Prb granr'
.tt-??* L: EsE) *" pru,.,i..år*I"ui'.:::"",::_::ii##;i,ilrnterigelc:,-. ::i ;:i ñ;i' l:o" continu' ., õ;;;ùi

**l"twithwhite

Representatilel :f t'"t'""ï;;;;iÃfruiß and the General ¿2. e s ence o r,t\e P-r 'Co.u.wel, : 1i'ä bner *tt '"**;iltïTærd detentions1n I bo.o*el, corrtinued to . the use"J*'r"p deteptions.n February --^ ^for"n. o "ncl on t Comrnittees

,.ïË.1 iffiæ,æ:'":g:=l

rÊi1!.*-;:-Ér-rri

and. March 2003. The General Counsel says that none of the participants expressed any concem about the techniques or the

Prograrn.
On29 Jrtly 2003, the DCI anct the General Corrnsel proviclecl a-¿ãtaiied briefing to selected NSC Principals on CIA's deiention and interrogation efforts involving "lúgh value d.etainees,,, to include the expanded use of EIfs.2S According to a Memorandum for the Record.preparedby the General Counsel followin¡5 that meeting, the AttorneyGeneral confirmed ihat DoJ of the expanded use of various EFfs, including multiple ^pptonuà of theìvatêrboard.2e The General Counsel said he a!!hcations bãiieves everyone in abtendance was aware of exactly what CIA rvas doing with réspect to detention and interrogation, ancl approved of the effort. According to OGC, the senior officials were again briefecl regarcling the CTC Program on 16 September 2003, anc{ tl're lnieltigence Committee leactership was briefed again in September 2003. Ág.ain, according to OGC, none of those involved in these ìrriefürgs expressed any reservations about the! program.
48.
G

wn nN cnoru c/uÏruRr/ "ETEMrroN/,{ND

INTERRo

GrtrIoN

Guidance ancl traÍning are Éunclarnental 49, to the success and integrity of any endeavor as operationally, politically, and legalLy complex as the Agency's Deterrtion and Irrterrogation Program. Soon afterg /tI, the DDO issued Fuid of terrori the standards for

The DCI, in Janua.ry 2003 approved formal "Guidelines on Confinement Conditions for CIA Detainees" (Appenctix D). and "Guidehnes on hrterrogations Conducted
50.

(U//FOUO) Memorandurn for

the

Tü¡SE$RE.I/

-!-;..tirl r;.3::1--:::j';-'r:'

t-ì::E

-+:!t

^-"

Tõr,:st¡er+gl/

ffiH

;ï:ì"':Ï;'

briefings ancl eì r'-'c trt'** :: tieltt Håuaqi.^rters, to the

t .orrrr.rroi@

rroi-sr.etur;

I

I

I
:

:

;

I

I

i
I

! I

;;
manage detentior.

Tffi*'or,v

2oo?'

iõrsr-lffiFr-'

review
done so.

uideli.nes and si

'[hey urus[ grnerrt thattheyhave

Th* uCI Gricleli*es s^pcr:ifv legal "mirtimums" alcl reqtrire th¡t "dr.rc proi'ision ¡nrr$t be takcn to protect the health and safety ol'alì CIA clel¿rinees." I'lio C,r.rideli.nes clo not require ûrat conctittons ci f co rrf i rrt-:¡rrcrt t ;r t tirt: cle tr:¡r l i on facil.i ties conform to U.S. prison or other stancl¿rrcls. At a rni:ü¡nuur, itolvever, detention facilihes are to provicle'basit: levels of rrre.ciical care:
59.

.

!s¿El

Further, the guidelines ¡:ror,ide thai:

D CI

lnterrogation Guideline$

disseminatuag,,iåi;.Jïi^å^ur",:.äi|.,îffi ilf ;lå:ffi ;T{i"-" o g a dons äJ-to^u u' *', îS;ääitråi* A;;. *uã w ¿ i'.rsin terr o r urd,e too d' Ç"ttty *^i'19::" led qement *o"t *lv"il"J t"1 a,.No1 did the Agencv ;;""s" an atlÎ; *itÉ ti',. g*¿*'åT'åiTj"¿" comPlr
u

to 60. (È/Ê{'EI Prior Ianyat12003'

cTc

and

oGc

agreed to

rnaintâin"'"#:il:T'i:.i'-:T:"-ti"ái"i¿"^tswhohadbeen cedu'es' iìiätii"" i'iioi s gu tion pto

engaged

ã,,i¿.ü*.,,,.."Jî*offi:ilrr';ffi ffi:f; å;iff,i*entation' üle aPyßLqv¡Y *
and have completed

:;in::';fi*ffi'w * "'î'îi ï,iffi"',f
l#n::; J;ff'ä:' ä ::*:f,'åI"åf

6z (sfÊffir

rhe DCI

Ii:T^:îåf"åfäïöïn1;ff .,,
ana o ürer

personneiacrinsä;J'*ùl;-!*liliiiå:fäJ-:'iîiffi -".,
"i'rrhanced

EïtrE#REll

ìöpseengÏ/
Techrrtiques."33 EITs require advance approval from Headquarters, as clo standard techniques whenever feasible. The field must d.ocument the use of both standard techniques.and EITs.

rhe DCI Intenogation G*idelines define "standard interrogátioñtãcluúques" as techniques that do not incorporate significant physical or psychologicai pressure. 'Ihese techLrriques include, but are not iimited. to, alllawful forms of questioning employed by U.S.Iaw enforcement a-nd military interro ga tion p ers orurel, Amon g s tærdar cl interrogation tecluiques are the use of isolation, sleep deprivation not to exceed 72 hours,u reduced caloric intake (so long as the arnoturt is calculatecl to maintai¡r the general health of the detainee), deprivation of reading .material, rtse of loud music or white noise (at a decibel level calculated to avoid damage to the detainee's hearing), the use of for limited not to exceed 72 hours
63. moderate fion Guidelines do not Ps Pressure. specifically prohibit irnprovised actions. A CTC/Legal officer has saicl, however, ihat no one may emplgy any technique outside sp ecifically identified stand ard tecluúques without Headqu arters

h$,f

T

approval.
Efi-s inelude physical actions and are ."techniques tlrat do incorporate physical or psychological defined as pressure beyond Standard Tedmiquès." Headquarters must approve the use of each specific Em in advance. EITs may be employed only by trained and certified interrogators for use with a specific detainee ancl with appropriate medicai and psychological monitoring of the
Process.3s

0¿.ìæD

33

,u̡s[AccordingtotheGeneraICourrsel,inlateDecember2003,theperiodfor
sleep deprivation was reduced to48 hotus. 35 BeforeEffsa¡e

!¡fte

10

approved EITs are descibed in the textbox on pãge

15

of thls Réview'.

lrs¡[¡

ad

: tnr!-',F =)::: ':i¿ri;>{ j: :i'r: !:î,?::.1 ttíE-â!s. r" '

r';t "'^"'

- '

Meclical Guidelines
65.

medical a+d

,oororr-t@

OMS prepared.draft

idelines '"gutoeutrso for'

;ñFF)
gations Training for Interro
t

f:n
1

btroveinb:t

66.

11T"

fi
certifY

'-

!i

.

-:.¡

inclucling a for¡lrer SËRE inslrttctgr, clesignecì the crtrriculttnr, tr'irich i:rcluded a u'eek of cl"ìssroon'r instt¡lqtion foliorvecl "hancls-ott" hailring i.¡r EITs,

Onie certified, an interrogato¡: is .1u=gg4 ualifiecl to corrcluct 4nfnlgrrogalion

lovins EITs.

+F-.æ?i!rç{ftl

l!i¡tt::-:;:':"'.

comPly acknow te*$' tcr "'lttogutio" Guidelines' vs--rvith the DCI's lnterrogartu*

6s

course for Agenc deemed "comPlt

.üä;;.,-d:1,.ff)îft1'#il:+Ë"u'Ti"*li:å"li^*

#n";if i'ii*!,p
c

he,å a debriefing

är"'u*r'u

non-interr"s{"äti'åu"L'ti:L1|;:il'g1:ffif åft#*i:"' rhe cou* *" cp us to dv' i tr-,. I,s*",ï.f; i:ll*. o. t ää.i,.ã;

i:Ë*;;i'*:;;ilJil"f.ï::;
Interrogatio+ L

"rt

illiåiiiï¿^*+@

I

t

ÎõPsÊeFr{U
Ê

t.¡:,.';r.'è!3!i!ü"iì !;;t

ri-irrstgagJ

@ffi**rt'l{,W't

15

Notcrnìrer

alithori tïre lrecess¡rt¡ I le¡'lc'ìlt¡rtcrs

":'::'ll:i

1:.I1.

fP-\"c+Elr

îöPST!RËIJ
psychologist/interrogators began Al-Nashiri's intenogation Phg his itttr,idiately rrpóo his arrival. At-Nashiri pnovided lead other terronsts during ruq IISI oay or utler' inJor¡nation infor¡nation on otler terrorists dllrqg his first day of interrogation' On the fwetfth day of interrogatio"npsychologtstl interrogators adnijnistered two appGtions of the waterboard to Al-Nasiiri during two separate inierrogation sessions. ffig:^.g¡ tiuough 4 Decernber 2002f år Xr-Ñ"tr.[i.o"ut in

".d

Videotapes of Interrogations
Heaclquarters had intense interest in - r keeping ab¡eàst of all aspects of Abu Zubaydah's interrogationf compliance with the guidance provide{ !o ltte before ;ite to the uãe of Éns. Apart ftgE l$grlgguY.tl e cided ro äJ videotape the interrogation sessions. One initial purpose was to ensure a record of Abu Z;.fuayda'n's medícal condition and freahnent should he guccumb to his wo-unds and questions arise about fhe medical care provided. to himby CIA. Another puqpose was to assist in the pteparåtion of the debriefíng reports, although the team advised itCTfegal that they rarely, if ever, were gtgd for that pirrpose. There ireg2videotapes,L2 oÍ,whicS ínclùde EIT ãpp1icaUons. An OGC attorney revíewed the videotapes'in Ñovember and. Decembet 20t2to ascertain compliance with the August2002 Do] opinion and compare what actuallyhappened with what'çvas reported to Headquarters. He reported that there was n0 deviation from the DoJ grridance or the written record'

zz. tFs[¡ "'\'*-r

Üincluding ï"iffi äi ;:'åi;d,;

#i;öffi ï;;,äËË;

OIG reviewed the videotapes, logs, and ffi-.y 2003. OiG identifiect 83 waterboarcl cables alrlr]ications most of which lasted less than L0 seconds.rr
78.

ålJk"î,iii.Yï;î;;i*tifli""ål]'åi:nccnstit'lrtedeacrr
TCIr"sË!Rnt/

i=+;iå!ã'¿';';;ål

iüÌÎ:;i:"' "'

ît'-r--errl
gauon

'"ffii'r;ffi:ï:i fu*um::

fi*íl;:ilfïffi
&

ZI-ßuu¡¡ yvr¡v-[ffi3^":1"'.-waterboar"sessions' olr LrL!' Y^e-- l¡ed. on the videotapes. that was not captureo .flell YYeÙ rrvv Y-'-

*n*
"d;

*;,ffi :Hfr:ï"î'ffi gru*mç¿t*ä:îili"rrrru;tly;'xn*'#
o:"* ío'hu

á*ä Ë:Yoäff ':itr#ii #,"'-.

ïlå:ff ""í,tr#Jï..^rrqu,,ug*th"iotu"or"";ïå;îtrasltrr3^

r{ i:f#ffJi

iiå'

rur-;"nît'*.
*îïä"-ry' "tdö;
80.

Agency's olwater to a cloth,that-co::rr:1J:;räJ*g"cl that'the

:irffi:.'"5$ä use

ir.'"f'v"ry'?ri'J'ä:åå"å:'ff ïåï;;5EREï.o*'u"dis "ror it
ilÍ';*tbecause of the teclrniqut rn* explained tutd c'onvincing' 'àrrcl i* real" ^oiå"po!ant

f,Septembut

2003

a

ñ"-ftt-*-oClContinemeru"**I!å;t*"sspecif drat

icaily

äitÏ"*ã,

"oa

the addítional

îü'w#Rgil

ItlP-ffit,,
addressing reqrrirements ior OñfS persr-lmel. This servec! to strerrgthen the conìr)r<ìhrl .r.ncl conh'ol e:tercisc,J over the (lTC Program.
Baclcgro uud ¿lrci fJ e t,ri ne cs

T-OFSEGRST/

!

i

lorst!*Pr/

,l 4

i

--:

..

__

=

Torst*ErJ

.*-ä i#l*-ã-1Íå;Ërä*ìïi;"ä=:

l#i'.-:ês-':::,::.,..--

- ...i:;?::.¿t

t::.i:.:-'L.n:--...,...

îöTrñ!REri

Guidance Prior to DCI Guiclelines

nth.As"gEIJgg¡ briefings and cables

89.

¡g.viding legal and operational that contained HeadÇluartersl guidance and dÌscusseãEe toirure statute and the Dof legal opinion. CTC had alqo established a precedqnt of detailecl cables between and Headquarters regarding th9 inees. The written guidance did not address ihe fou¡ standard interrogation techniques that, according tCI CTC/Legal, the Agency had identífied as early as November20A2.sß Agency persorurel were authorized to employ standard interrogation techniques on a detainee without Headquarters'prior approrral. The guidance did not specifically ælSf+¡eUne
four standa¡d interrogation tecÌrniques ¡.¿ere: (1) sleep deprivation not to exceed 72 hours, (2) conhnual tae of light or clarkness Ín a cell, (3) loud music, and (4) white noise

ftackgouncihun),

of props to imprv " adclress the use

ÏHï:*$:ïÏî

i*ryi*-f

i¡f i#ffi*t;**Xnru"ffixl;",flms.'miäJu to enstue that'9er111
were in place
orr rhe existing
S

roinr*a poli.y guidance'

p ecif

ic Un authorize

d' or U ndocument

ed Techni ques

f"ffi

iÏi*?äoieïiiååff ä;*f;*iåruççïffi :'å:'"å'."f." durirrg the Revi

äîirfftryp'åff.",:r:;l:"

,**x***r*çgg$ffiffi"*ry;"e

'î::i:tr;#':iT#r,tr"l,TtrË:äry:*'['rlil"s11..,
\

I
\

ïij"
ryil..'

ra¡alraut separate tf-tãy aia not

u

".

Drill Handgun and' Power

t

I,
(

t
i

':
{i
I

ffiessAl-Ì'Jashiri'

;lh
ol-Yi$f;
between
u-^'

*.^fl

'I'he debrier"t-39:::¡:É
r

.)

''l

norl¡ ir L w -G. withholding in f orrna handcuJ
",.ì

i',re. and'

ffiffi.

Ë

4

* tz
i

EU.u

28 Decemb et2}02aIrd l January 2003,the debriefer used an unload.ed serrLi-automatic harrdgun as a ProP to frighten Al-Nashiri into disclosing informafion.¿+ Àfter discussjng thiJplan ctebi{efer entered the cell where Al-Nashiri sat shackled ancl t^ck"d fhe handgun once pr twice ciose to Al-Nashiri's head.as On rvhat was pr'obabty the same day, the debriefer used a Power drill to consent, the debriefer ente red frighter"r ei-i.ttasniti. the detai¡ee's ceil and rewed the clrillwhile the detainee stood naked. and hooded. The debriefer clid not touch Al-Nashiri lvith the power dri1l.

withE

WithEI

clebriefer clicl uot request authorization or reporl the use of these unauthorized bechniques to
93.

ìS!NRI

Theiland

ruï#îHïï'#Hif;
Threats

-Headquãrte?s. OIG investigated and refen'ed its findings to ihe Criminal Division of DoJ. O¡ LL septerfibet 2003, DoJ declined to prosecute a¡rcl tumecl. these matters ovet to CIA for disposition. These fircidents are the subject of a separate OIG Report of lnvestigation.a6

3,3illa:i*ä'.ï:åRå1i'*"

94, same Headquarters debriefer was present, tlueatened Al-Nashiri by saying that if he clid not talk,

in here." Th del¡ riefer reportedly wanted Al-Nashj.ri to infer, fot p@g"ìËsons, that tñe debriefer mightbil ElinieLiiÊenceofficer based on his Arabic ciialect, an¿ UraiRtNashiri was in custody because it was ividely beiieved in Middle East circlës-iñat interroga Lion tectur-ique involves

44 (S7fN¡FJ This individual was not a trai¡red interrogator and rvas not autho¡ized to we EITs' a5 {U//FOUO¡ Racking is a mechanical proceclure used wjth firearms to cha{r¡ber a bullet or
simulate
a

a6

pl/Nü)

bullet l¡eine cñambered.

unauthoiized lnterrogation ru.noit

r.rf,

29 october 2003'

'''.t.:t.

:)

i?il:È:.i':'¿r. :ti :

relativglin sexually abusing femaie he ias ctebriefer denjed ^l-l'l1i*;h;*ennis oruo debrierer ^ã'-'*31u0ï*''o ;;tt" from

fror-rt of the

**",***iffi
is or¡tn
c

,niîuîã

#ätÑ

detai¡ee' The familv' rhe

l're

ftffi

"'ii:i::Tiito ffi'; but let

Ai-Nas

tor, one

"l-th"-

iiffi-.

hacl been "*ãi"^,á-*hat the law

.

-t* of the

EffieatT

erePott ffiætt"T did not t¡uf .ePort

Ë

Srnoke

r Aiencl

ffiffi'ö"üiliî,,ïö'f,Ì:xxffi "åî;'ã; ,ã".o" il'ñ; ;ü T9"1l*3*:iJi:t
nrev clicl this to

r claime

c,

i'.térrogu*" ¿tqli":å
interroga,o' u¿"Iää

î;'t'**¡1 "iJJrt' *riatm'' d.o this aguirt uu'åiä

sarc This irttertogator ;

t{;nt

ut'o''äoîtJtiguts

turolher Agency du¡ine two sessrons

f ace wiihAr-Nashiritomaskry',11'{X$:i;;Ï;*u¿u:i*u¿hedid i,,,o,qr-srasrriri's

îå||fi#ïffi ;ï.;ili-"

'{iT'í

a?F¿

| i#-?ãgriår.ì*.-;-ir::.*î:Li

ti*j-¡:¡:-i:,i-::,:

:.;

Stress Positions

OIG received reports that interrogation team membeñìñ!To¡ !otentially injuriorrs sfress positions on Al-Nashiri. Al-Nashiri ivas required to kneei on the floor ancl lean back. On at least one occasion, an Agency officer reportectly pushecl Al-Nashiri backward whjle he lvas i:r t!js stress positio4.-On another occasl0l'ì sa.id he had to intercede afte xpressed concern the!:\I-Næhili's arms might be dislocated from his shoul<t"tt.Eexplainecl thai, at the time, the intenogators were attempting to put Al-Nashiri in a standing stress position. Al-Naslúri was re!ortedly lifted off the floor by his arms while l-ris arms were.bound behind his back with a belt' 97.

Stiff Brush and Shackles
terrogator reported that ashiri that the ínterrogator k¡rew were not specífically approved by DoJ' These includecl the use of a stiff brush ürat was intended to induce pain on Al-Nashi¡i and standing on Al-Nashiri's shackles, which resulted in cuts and bruises, VViren questioned, an interrogator who was al' nacknowledged^that they usecl a sliff ü'.rsh to bathe Al-Nashiri. He described the brush as the kíncl of brush one uses in a batlr. to remove sfubborn dirt. A CTC nranager who had heard of the incident atflibuted the abrasions on.Al-Nashiri's ankies to an Agency officer accidentally stepping on Al-Nashiri's shackles while repositioning hirn into a stress position.
98. l-re wibress

Waterboard Technique
The Revíew determined that the interrogators used the waterboard on Khalid Shaykh Muharnmad in a manner inconsistent with the SERE application of the waterboard ¿rnd the description of the waterboard in tl're DoJ OLC opinion, in that the technique was used on ]Cralid ShayldrMuhammad a large number of tinnes. According to the General Coursel, the Attomey 99.
-...r./

Genera,".*î'tf,îË,[ijiïì';åi';:î:ï'*;Ï{:'#i;J'i:" and tl
waterboard

u',ijî"u"1::lylå:å'*:ïå.:il"':$f:r*l:"1':$ii'sona lfttonrLtrcr rrr" "
Genéra] was single individual'
-- '

¿g|Tqtr)

ïhet:l-(.ürrn!(.',íi.1¡tt.JIÅuti¡riltr.ì1 s:.¡te¡.'¡cth-,'..'.ll:ì,r,ir¡.1\
etJu¡t" 1..ç¡terL.Lr.¡¡(ìl

informerl us ih¡t it is trl:rly rhat tiris in anv one aoolic¡tion."

',tculd ñrìt l,ìJt r'¡',ùie tit¡¡r lÜ

r:',rn,.¡tes

i= le_ t'

.iì;ìli
-.- ,

i-:.

Ei

i: L. tâ

E

r

t; I
t

l, :'
1'

ti

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53

paragrapìrs ó,i-03

hç.I

l'l.,e írrsr ses:¡on ¡:f the i¡',i*i¡..g¿rioìì cûirrs¿'regi:r in ì\-o'trni['tr ?i:02 :'t'tr

ü!+sdQI

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154.

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Specifïô Unauthorized

or

U"ry
.

,ou,tss

ti

as

brtt
'

that

out"tt't

165.

TL

investigations oIG opened separate

irtto

iffi¡*
In other

ata

fla-seql":

lffirx"ruiäí".ö,'i:î cases
"
Tiä"u.Jo*,
managernenthas

or ^g_t-l rakenby emproyees

äï:"lJ,t'åiååffi:il"re*Y:::,i:*'Ãå.*r.tå"J'ål,neacrions îãiC^**' "l tolffåïåï'å::iiiä'äo u:tio'ív' o"
Pressure ?oïnts 166.

õ¿

a "Prêsoute

detainee's dgta¡rrcc !

rr"v^r'-rF neck'

to restrict the det¿

tid artery,

ffiåIi."

tedlY

*

iåä**-:#;¿:ttl¡f{-ãËl

!ä?#j'.'.+::¡;,:+-r:=,'¿+''¿r lf-:t'" 'ii:i;':i.'L

ho was his eyes to the Point shackled detairtee, Llle facing the s¡(sv¿\wr taLAL! the that the detainee would nod anã s¡¿rt to pass ouf then, hook the detainee to wake hirn' This

t67.

td

of

tty": uP.Pli'11:".:
o

":,fl': ledgøito oIG that he laid \ands
he was going to lose

1:tÏl',';

noted"thatie

hafl

íecäntly haã never been instTi¡cted how to conduct interrogations'
js reportréd 16S. (!risg) c{c management now a\4¡are of this incident, the severiÇ of which rias disputgd' TlTT.of Pt:t:llT ., advised the is not, a.rrd had not beçry authorLed, and CTC has

Mock Executions

-

=-

--

ffib1T1o.j*.,1J:1" interrt fire handgun outside
a

was ínterviãwine a deteuee.l¡iho.was thought tobe withholding ta ge d the incident, which incl¡¡$$ *t"."^ Uor',. rt

the

ä:ää;'il"ffi ftn*

Es

ihe gu"ards moved the d.etainee from the'interrogation guard.s, íoo*, they passed ã grrard who was dressed as ahc¡oded detainee, tying motionless on úu gto..*d, and made toappear as if he had been shot to death.

äiü'";h;; ån ä¡r''ài" "

ap

r*irk it.
u?t"t

incident' L1"lli-1"äì,i"-n¿:e.*"q"e t9 indt

in fronr 'ru *-trrrir"d notify ffiil+s*ä',*äî:i Ïl
(rr

believe he rvas ret d mocr ;h; earuer¡ iuaePorte the eatlier' trLurv¡z---ä*:; :iting

to

.

^_^oorinn*

otfi.arG

-rHå
î:n#m*i'*'r**iåtrååJJ:i,!*^.:."^n
î:i,iiiüJ#"'ï:E-:*"1,^iåiffii1ffi:uii!/L'git'
and

rzz. ("¡/¡ffIJhe

o "T:11 admitted staging to the

ii"Ë';ãigor$s

,

ä..":ÈE¡ryof

showing'^":",iïìr^;äiõinterrogato'¡ii
it *.1:,
.

.iåffi;ut eorploving,i"lffi *"rd;i ã..rrrt"d. or ir ,'iãG--uo¡t¡ornlovtnsa'Y^';;tä;i.::":L:1;J.'jJ:y;Tur,.,o, ^.,
I
;

ä".*,*f
I

i;î'il:äffi'äåi'ä'lä;.';itecnvet

believable'

I

i
:

I

'I it
5i

.,:"ä i

1ffi5-.'":*::¡:-:+::G:i:r:Êi1

173.
o

were interviewed admitted

described staging a mock execution of a detainee. Repo ! a cletainee who wihessed the "body" in fhe aftermath of the ruse "sang like a bird.:' revealed th4t approximateiY stated he October or had conducied a mock ffiã discharged outside of Noverr.rbe r 2002, Reportgdly, rhd the building, and it was done because the detainee reportedly that he told poSgggqgd .;tical threat He stated that he has not heard not to do it a ince then. of a sirtila¡ act occturing
L74,

information+stated

Use of Smoke
175.

ctA
as an

cigarefte smoke was once
\,LL(JL,EI LVV¿-. I\'-T,'UILELLI-V,

interrogatíon teelrnique in
-'-

AL LILE IçL]LTgùL

ffie

frorn a thin cigarelte/cigar in the detainee's face for aboutfive minutes. The detainee stqrted talking so the heard that a different smoke ceasecl, officer had used smoke as an interrogation technique. OIG questioned numerous personnel whã hacl workedlFrbout the use of smoke as a technique. None reported any knowledge of -{he use of smoke as an interogation technique.

Emitte

176.

d that he has personally used smoke i¡halation techniques on detaine'es to make them ill to the point where theywould start to "purge." After this, in a weakened state,

iffiffi-*ri'.

ti:':';n\

thes e

informatioo/"
abusing detainees Use of CoId

detaineesgg¡|flS¡
o has'

Inlate

d.etainee*u''ilt"='*o*"0

**n**n+X*it'"ffiå*.ffigîffiï'npran period' The plæt
' VcI ab.v *.ä*o-week

lrtÇrLrçtç*

..'i

physi cal c omlott

Lev et D

eprivali::"äj|rï;.o,|:

*'

:TffiË#.1,ïiff:ïJ:H'ff
ä;;*î;'-P5,'5l:#äfiå:::
merltal/traine

í"äJ,ä"üui'*".rplrvsicar

î'îiË

crcLes'.fï:*"åäåiË:Ë^:î'î:iäî,äåf empl oying the "tïä'rä; r' ¡tev'--' ooil. o, dis.comrorr crtr'ço
detainee'sl
:

#f11i{:"

I

I
ì

I

ì

;*Êr#-'ær'ai:*æ:l;g+;

if##:t'::

;

:'"""'"";ëjæJ \iÉii¡¡"ai''r3-.

11'

j

r

the use of cold sht

ä:lir:*:ffi1¡fi:^ff;,
ö*"ti..*Tn_t*
a detaineewas

,æ.ffi
o, .e*o'^'f'{
784.
or ã

the ;ä;t"gttot't the ul cooperative, ;å' u't'o*ur with

u::^o:Plished two

'

soats

äl;il*ss

{î}"vg:*::$* cold showe¡'

1e

dtoom'

s

and naked,

;Ïtüi'.-uä;;' trut' d cooP
uuu,,j,î1

er

ätion'

#jm_
asked rhetoricat ct I-Ie stated that showers were administel*d

.iff;

:î.*?i:ïLTffi;i*ä
*
a

...

"

fuv^'r'

:ftf"ryffiç; fii
îÏå#.ii't*tins
-r¿o. a rnention cold as

the

äîä1ffio" ot-ffi*ation
s.pll*.t2ouc

feateo

,"frwas
e

left to its

or

the

is a cable

\úr¿rfl

#-*."

Guiu:]*1}Ío "ot Although the Dcr o'a¡r
'.-,1':;

.

_L

I I

ä,riautiou,o'l¡'r'åiJuìäansv'1*q$:ffi":',:i"ti'i:i"'"r\ ) F

i
:

I {

!

J

I
{i
I

*'u""' ("ppundix r*:#tr *:';;;Sl¡1t3i:ä'iJ'ì ature ranse when rheoMs"*0"'i'"i;':"f :::l*n'*:::1ï'Jl":'J:whena ffi ;;mp

I

#xr*#::'ïiJåi; ;;;t." wet unclothed'
is

er

a

or

i
ii

..'

iiãåÍtä:Ëå+:';=-..".-

:i:ç{+!

Water Dousing
187. others who have
ancl

ü..iffiõ;e

;Wutut d.*u¡tg" has been used ficer introduced to Lhe fäcility. Dousing involves 11{*q " **:Tuu L0 to down on a!hstic sheet anâpouringwater owerhirn for maintained L5 mir.ruter. ¿r..otfrur officerãxplain"ed that the foomwas at room atTA d.egrees or more; the gUards trsed water that was temperaîme while the interrogator questioned the detainee'
1BB.
rur

^y2O ¿Tfito

for a ntrmber of detainees' dorying'zz lnclucled. in the Uåt o? requested iechniques was water the techrúques by of Subseqrrent cables ¡eporie,t the use and du¡ation detainåe per interrogutiot session.T3 One ce¡tified interrogator' noting thät water dousing appeared to be a rnosj effective technique, rehrn ,uq.ruîtud CTC to confirm guidulit es On watef dousing' A or sheet, cable ,ci¡ected that the d.etainee must be placed on a towel may not be placed naked on the bare cement floor' and the air notbe dríecl temperature must exceed 65 degrees if the detainee.will

O

g,à;"ry
employ

TrgE

A

reviewnlllfiom

April arrd

r!ffiq"es

õu glìt p ermiss íon"l":l

1

immediately.

*,,",T3;ffi

Guid.elines, !owever, ider*ify "water dõusing" as one of L2 standard as the measures that OMS listed., inascending degree of intensity, Llth stand.ard measure. oMS did not further address "water dousing" in its guidelines.

:L:#ffi :i3;,ï"#än"J

water dousing as a technique wed, but in a later parâgrâp

'

::l-g¿#:1, ty''t#:>t':':' "'

t

:':: ii'':i ¿'::'':::

I

t\'':+'':

:

Harci Takeclorvn

'x3;*, * :nïw
a detainee to the

lïäp'äài1":ln

JHffiff"i'ï*'.",case

or

dfitr**,ïuËËËqÍffi î'ï{riåi,:".F.. ;;ätty t;
ùã

;ä;;;á

Ïux"dgrv 1 rçift

concrete'. The

ËT1;t
'¿ -.i

*n¡,11y1*'.iiff :ffi ií ;;ã h ar "o'i'*o. - . to ^.,,that ïr *uers ^ od
r

6turyolg$lgi E*""'uo;;.' used atffi;

mg åïål*:i:iiJåi"lo-

.:

t:i

he was going to do a harcl takedown, he mrrst report it to Headquarters. Although the DCI and OMS Guidelines address physical techníques and treat them as requiring advance Headquarters approval, they do not otherwise specifically address the "hard takedown."
tated that he was generally fasúliar with the technique of hard takedowns. He asserted that they are authorized and beüeved they had been r¡sed one or nrore times at ord.er to intimidate ã detaine;. that he would not necessarily know if they have been used a¡rd díd not consider it a serious enough handling tedmíque to regtrire Headquarters approval. Asked about the possÍbility that a detainee may.have !gq* dragged on the $ound during the course of a hard takedownf,respor"rded that he was unaware of that and did

192.

Ein

Estated

ffi"ndthepointofdraggingsomeone.aIongt1recorridorin

åfrîlffar

orher Locarions outside of rhe crc
not within the scope of the

Ç'I'U lrrogram, fwo other ínciclents 2003.

-

As noted above, one
Base76

i57lNilhr ]une z}Ïg,the U.S. milirary sought an Afghan citizen who had been implicated in rocket attacks on a joint u.s. A*y and CIA position in Asadabad located in Northeast Afghanistan. on L8 June 2003,this individuat appeared at Asadabad Base at the urging of the local Governor. The individual was held in a detention facility guarded by u.s. soldiers from the Base. During
194.
76

ì$,

For more than a year, CIA referred to Asadabad

nrruorf

'iã;,;;!:t¿i::-¿'

lf,l)::

?-'t: ::

iffiiffiææl*B:'pA

!#';i'i';'.';t:"'"' "'*'

''¿'t+!ì¡¿l r'

-

li!¿¿fi:'t"'i'''"-'"'i

i ¡ J-

'

individual Y?.'1:"*tcl' the four days the

an Agenc¿inde?endent

.

conÍractor,who#;;;;u*'rit"v;jf

;ffi

::il*::'-S;ererv
p er ro rme

irfr 'tr"1i:tr*!ffiiä:i*",frr:TËi:äîî:"å:ä,.his d' o't*t
;;
familY on

;tJ" ùtl' " ".1ït"* the totl

ín s date *it*'oit

* autop sy

#,r*-'ffiå!*'x$$ffffi5s¡1; ;"ï;;i;oo"
ufi"r
tt''e

incident'

L

.ä.tt*ithDoJ'zz
195.

InJulY2003

a

1:96.

A teacher being smiled 4¡51

*-':."1*F inaPPrÇ-riate$' nrayy,"t--'
lG

,< his rifle thebutt stocl of used

PTt rlús strike or "butts to r'i"*i'o' ""iî:JíT"'ioo'rv^ rorrowed uv ,"'uiÏä"ätn5' 'o

asttwice

torso'

x*îr*i:;"st4i*******'m:*n:'-'
@ignment'
,l

'i.
i

ji

¿,

t'cir

t'-i:Û'i

l:"-:': '¿::' -!

.-.t.lE-:\

.,..:;':ä.'

A¡'¡¿lvn c LL s [II]P o tìT' To lN'rtn

R

o c.{ I'f o Ns

zo+.FilL)irectclr¡ter:f]rrtelljqr:trce¡ltl"t]r.sts
assignecltocrcp'o'i.lea'talt'tic.lStr¡r¡rçr¡¡toiltterrLlqati(ltìti..'.ttllsin the lielcl. A¡ali si.s are l'esp(rrrsihle i1¡¡'¡levelo¡:t-n¡< retlLrireltrcrtL5 ior the quesiiorlti"rg o! çlutq!'',"àt ut t"ull ut .
some cases,

@tion

Analvsts, horvever. of in.terroga iion tr:cluriqltes'

dr:¡

noi

t,+.!:..,-:...

\,!llil:;r:.h,:"r:¿iÌ¡i!¡:|:.:':i'

...,:'-

--.-

-.'

**J:i'hä#'ll:.*ffJå'ä='î':;;"*1::9:S and initiation priorìo ".:it ttäö, *^1r.r
was limit"a

în;

*"1 #:üii:#inx'ftt'm ioãï ;' ui." ffir/*r: to'P @ Ied "*1:^1:,ÎT:iåäi"ii'ä-"fu

;s;.y

ti:Yd

the adequate

1'"slih^;oåi,iä"r" *.

experts

,tr:?t"wlecrse

åiffiåä"ilk"t@ know'
did

anarvsts

g

back

and knew

molT:-

q

.l

2[:8.

evidencerl in the final rvaterbuard sessiotl o¡ .'1trrr Ztrb¡r'dah. á\ccoI(¡.ulg ¿ì Selliot ulL oIilcef, trÌe llll-ettull(ttlult tuctlrtl Accortli¡ß to ¿r senior CTC ofiìcer, the irttr:Lrogatiorr teainl ;\L.u ZtrLrayctah to Lre conrplialrt ¡ncì t4';'rttetl Itorisiclerecl termlnate lllT*c elievecl Abu Zubat'clah coufinr¡ecl to withhold i n fornration,

ir:r

'

i'.1!

lr:Z::: ì,')-r'; '

-.1.

,.,.,.æ)

æËÉ

ZubaYdah'

2l

Errrcrrye¡vrss

ts has

prevented

rhen-,Jå.t
interrogation hat
thé
ts of EITs' however' without sorne concern'

;".
process and

i::#:î:lnn**c[$$:*åTç;ffiîg'çtu*,^ äffi:lå"t*"å::*n¡ç6;ç*g¡g*t,*tr'iäiË th.*ì;;; do"Pt rhat stogt?Ï^ñrïsuuiutti.,e not
ä;ä;;tss
ztz.
(

!rrorists, managemg! them off the sheets

Jå'd'J..Ju'*tn';r*M

When the AgencYbegan

caPtuling

:

i

e

i##Æl¡;*';.È'F.

J,#:;=i#:*{¿*d:::.=;"i,!*:'::

::a:ä; !

;¿Ë=í=1=jê-:*|¿+9r!..c¡¡_.r:

j:-rb

'

mucn more significant, actiOnable information, the rneasure of success of the Program increasingly became the intelligence obtainèd from the detaínees.
access to

Qúantitatively, the Do has significantly ineeased the number of counterterrorism intellígence repoftS with the inclusion of info¡mation from detainees in its custody. Betwee.n 9 /\L and the end of April 2003, the Agency produced over 3,000

zm.

"sf,

t

intelligencerepÓrtsfromdetainees,Mostoftherepoj1@
intelligenqe providecl by the high value detainees at

CTC frequently uses the inforsration from one d.etainee, as as other soutces, to vet the i::rformation of another detainee. Alttrrough lower-level detainees provide less information than the high value detainees, information from tlrese detainees has, on many occasions, supplied the information needed to probe the high value detainees fuuther.

214.

irtelligence "rovidesì fuller knowledge of AI-Qa'ida activities than would be possible from a single detainee. For exan-rple, Mustafa Ahmacl Adam al-Hawsawi, the Al-Qatda financier who was Agency's captured with Khalid Shayl<h first furtelligence pertaining to Ffawsawi's participant in the 9 /ll tercorist plot. frorn information to obtain additional details abon Khalid kh Muhammad
Detainees have provided

215.

attacks in the

i:ia!:'-- : - ;_,-::,,:-:.:l:ì :.-:' ;; i,

¡.:!¡;i;ii'',,+i:t

*d¡';

'.'1'Èi i&#¡ri?,ï¿i;+:#*;:; :''¿"

-'
tr iclentification of

'ffi;îäär,¡lped

;*'il Y*.#ñ5ffi ii'il:;:d"'Gltlro;'' uranium-toPPeo t'tffiiffiL'iiËi#$,f,:Ëa î*ü Ci'r, n*ay'ï'ä;*;+"
^a
of PrevioustY lecl to the arrest

lead to {he idennr'"ot

p*

todetonate a or New

*K;,;;1',31f iJãtt'A'"*',ïiË?:i::HÏimgÈllJ?;""
States' inside the Unite'd

TY

MT{::

iiîî:î;Ë¡¡r*'ï,îüy#ffiflifr
! i

ç'=trH'ir^,,

f åånY*Ëü'trx'i'Ttr"'rriii#.ffi f :#i'iåäî;
i:"'l3iåir:'."ö'r'å1lt:theuniteclstates;ï';;,^*ewho jtiöÏ{}:i",ïiXi'*5T:iä{','.'::ï1"^,.
sreeper"'"'*

i ¡

'äiiää;tt*v*traYf

Farjs, the truck
i.
-2

uiî*

in Ohio' *ttu"a i" ãutfy 2003

]t

*

Æ.

,Æ#'i:s:¡*"?i

217.

D etainees, b

ffi.y

oth Piarmers aware of several Plots

planned for the !E l4Élglg9gg
Pukistutt; hiiack ai¡craJt

to f1y into Heathrow AirPort traci< spikes in an attempt to derail a h?in in

iooser-t
tt're

United Sta

up sweral d f{Y an airPlane into the tallestbuilding intalifornia in a west coast version of F* W*fa tt"àe Center atiack; cut t¡e lines of suspensionbridges in New York in an effort to make thç* tollopt";

2lB,

ffitiotrrces

f

for the most senior policymakers'

In an intewiew,

.-r1:'3:. tziig¿¿-r¿:¿"

i#ií";¿;*rl:'
!---.1':l
l

t#i:
saidheberievesthe'se.",låi-Ï;i,i!:i'AÏ"t$fË'llJf any harrn from
in obtainlng enorl cletainees whohad ":lt^Ïo" of Americans'
safe

ililh*ds

"nt"å'J*åy;;t

2001 since August value detainee' th

råirt*f:!11i1p¿rt*t'*ii;;tr{ä'lrïÏ,ïuï'. whetheriiffiú;î L uuit'g applied l l^'iT'nr'.d oy th* results'

ï*äfff'*u.dglgffiiTffî: äõu' rlr. ;;.;;;;""'
tt rrr" of arl uti;"t*"iätîtt
"
EIT is imPortant which technique"
T"

"""=;;,"fu
i
ä,,r,
"rr.
apPücation of

have been taken

tg'Pi"tiä

risks' ttiat their use Poses

--

aa¡rr

"*ffii:¡1'155ffi ;ä"rd: It)ï,tË íì;'
9¡' 1*'îïîì-Ërc ',

:i::ä;; ;"'ã Ti

iitr.,tr#,:'Ë:'iqä::=*îff tlre lons' lvreas uring
äho;'-

::'ì"

iiil#.:i*"#:JåfiäHii#*.;**errosatorì-iovr'u"u th

ã*Ëïdilt¿El

i¡?!i??ë'irc¡ri-*¡.rr..::r-i*.*i:l i-::s:liit::.:.:;***i:-.!¡r+j:--,:;,;..l

t:'?i.::--.=-

different results;

detainees: Abu Zuba

possessed perishable information about inrnrinerrt th¡eats against the United States.

223, Prior to the usg of EITs, Abu Zubaydah provided informa tion fo intelligence repofis. Interro gators applied the waterboarcl to Abu Zubaydah atleast 83 times during ' August 2002. During the periocl between the end of the use of the waterlroard and 30 April 2}03,he provided ínformation for approximatelytadiitional repórts. It is not possible to say definifively that the waterboarcl is the reason for Abu Zubaydal-r's increasecl prqductiory or if another factor, such as the length of detentiory was the catalyst, Since the use of the waterb hówever, AbuZubaydah has appeared fo be cooperati

åffi

which the ps ydrolo gis t / interro gato rs dutet*i.ed However, after beÍ

*i'J;ff

'J;:,:iiî:Hm,,,.,
thu t

Al-N4rhiri

Al-Nashiri was thought to be withholding nnation. Al-Nashiri subs equently received additional EITs, but not the waterboard. The Agency then -Naslriri to be "compliant." Because of the litany of

It:::r.

:: .a:'-

.

'':";Et'w-ZíÉ-¿s"çsi,,;::;s:

i'ÉÌ;r'¿*':: :i'

:j"

,,:à.,â-l

t

trtt"

't

"fç-i.,,,-ii':'*':"'

.--ã

different in!rrogatäö -t y Al-Nashjrï tecru,iquesusedbvl*lî:ìÌii,i:iilr#:åîï';ü'îirÑ'J"*iLecluriques used.br¡
perïo d of time,

1íy*îl:i;3ffiym"l ryl:::; il:J [tit3"ç5;f$"$H;:ru;ru;;-**riäT:

trffi:ääîîtffii ö;;d;J*"'i:s"*|
Vrlr-I1a'u"clL' F¡-

lli:ni*rjmx"n* *æn:"u
225'
t

ffiil,.u" Erts
CLô11
o

-1

l*Ti AT:ïli;'i " Ïå,äu anarvs is ot inaccurate' :s priãr to tir'e ":ï:i;;^'î"'aottd' H$fiffill;;T"ffiiiii*1ì-Jäor*was"*,u^'.{'i1;'g;"r¡' ffItfr"Jifi ::iËiJt;*:ffii"resisrance,^:T:ir*ff :,
r

äi"trtrlåîî,ï.î':4åiï.itr*wn-¿æË
x#jii:áà1"*,nffiï'smi

ffigj:*^î:NcER^rs
I I

" vr nNrr o N ar GilrDrN o run

s¡rrlirtto' l-.--oolued wilh tire - I'u rtugrcr'ul ãk.rl regarding hurnanp ersonnel in' ;'sencv
It

I

iäi* :i*i "xi"iåi i""*;
Program'

Policy Considerations ?27. (U / /FOUO) Throughout its history, the United States has been an i¡rternational proponent of huna:r rights änd has voiced opposition to torfure and mish'eatrrLent of prisoners by foreign counhies. This position is based upon fundamental principles that are deeply embedded in the American iegal sbuctr.re and jurisprudence. The Fifth and FoUrteenthArnendments to the U.S. Conslitution, for example, require due process of law, wlúle the Eighth Amendment bars "ctrlel ¿ind unusual puúslunenb." 228. (V / /FOUO) The President advised the Senate wi"ren submitting the Tortu¡e Conveirtion for ratification thab ihe United States would consfrue the reqtrirernent of Ariicle '16 of the Convention to "tutdertal<e to prevent in any territory under its jurisdi.ction other acts of cruel, inhurnan, or degrading treatment or puníshment which do not amor¡nt to torhrre" as "xoughly equivaleni to".and "coextensive with the Constifirtional guara¡tees against cruel, unusual, ald i¡rhrrmane keatrnent,"8lTo this end,lhe United States sril:mitted a reservation to the Tortule Convention statrng that the United. States considers itself bou¡d by Arficle 16 "only insofar as the terrn'cruel, i¡hnman or degrading heatrnent o¡ purrishment'means the cruel, t-urusual, and i¡rhumane treatment or punishment prohibited by the Sth, Bth and/or L4th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States." Alfhough the Torture Co.nvention expressly provides that no exceptional ci¡cumstances.whatsoevery including war or any other. public emergency, and no order from a superior officer, justifies torfure, no sj¡ri.lar provision was includecl regarding acts of "cruel, inhuman or degrading treai'ment or pr:nishinent."
I I

See Messagc fronr the President of the United States Transmíttùrg the Contention AgajnstTortu¡e ancl Othcr Cruel, Inhrrman or DegraclingTreatment or Punishment, Sen- Treaty Doc. 100-20, 100th Cor g,, 2d Sess., at 15, lvfay 23, 1988; Senate Cornmittee on Foreign Relations, Execntive Report t01-30, August30, !990, at2s,29, quoting sumlnary anclanalysis submifted by President Ronalcl Reagarç as revised by Presideni George I-LW, Bush.

81 (U//FOUO)

:" t:..?;:t:'.\ t!:'i:i¡'
l,

ï.È:r

Annuar Y Pt":lii?reci Human Rightl bv foreign gov Reports on te chni q'e'''11'J''Jo ïó rl ¡] t'ãt' a' ä;;r' o s u ti o" issuect rn RePort'

zzs (l¿ / / Fo-uo)

lr'^lî,iîifåËff"Ï'íiffii

r

iliJ

",

:äffi;u''ãäooz

rrheunited-srareslh*äP::lìRiräff

äT1'î'J"üi ::
serl,e as

ffiinî:iift ,ïi#J iimry;'
; an<

:iiåîï"l*öfii"

i5ä:'i;ï:å1i"åî"Sì:iiä:ää i,,lÏÏffI"'nelv anct -, our internailon*ää* à-t"*,ts¡ [e u g";gu rot
Pointïng
to arãas of Progress

l

iootittoittg d;rallenges'

iôüüq;i*"ff ,:"ïil=i#åiîåi'îäï:f*îF'ä*:T:ï' Wehave t -"tiJ'iät"'t'o"
'r''u'n*o"ïiiet'''ï"1*"*::1,"1îto,"'iå:iif iHiål'i'"i**'

*Hr:åï

l,tn:xli

îlå:#ï,::rïff Ëiffi ;:Fffiil"J'î,,îlËi{lîi:'å:il" ;;;;;.,,*uiÏåîï'*:I"'ri:'ffi iliüi:,iïä''''"j,t'å.,fl., depr ivecl iilí stripping pr :Ï;;; nakecì :*l*; äiJ;T',"îi'ä'åffå
reports r'ut'J
zsa

äil.ä;änooaiog

uod

!îliïffiîf^i aid in p ar YJJ,:3il, i ratemen,'1:b ?:i Ti"":il i:' öïrîiiË Torturt ï; rïJu*u"t ä;ö"" oi vittinrs of
s
s

rtr

t

:

"

rrreunitedstates*"1::Ttr#;lîï:îËî";j'".'ffir1ffi t*Yt;;{.äìäottr¿t"s." * across the wortd' ar.e 9"Ï:*,J even/where' We ùy the rirle of law'
and P rights are resPected

i

:

l#!?l+**u"¿î-:3-!lL-#;jj;:1l*gäs;r';:.r:¿i)çtt"'=..*;.'.

''

:.?Æ'. i#-å-Ei:í';:':i

:

¡¿!-,r.:,"r

;

lil*.r

I

i;:!'i

?i

-

Freedom frorn torhue is an inalienable human right ' ' ' ' Yet torture continue¡i to be practiced around the lvorld by rogue regimes whose cruel methods match their determjnation to cIt$l'I
the hrrman

spirit.

..

.

Notorious hunran rights abusers . . . have sougìrt to shield their aliuses frorn the eyes of the world by stagíng elaborate deceptions and denying access to international human rights monitors ' ' ' '
The United States is committed to the worldrvide eliminaüon of torhrre and tve are leading this fight by example. I call on all goverrunents to join with the unitecl states and the community of la*-ubidi¡g trations in prohibiting, investigating, and'prosecuting all acts of tõrttue and in turdertaking to prevent other suel and unusual "unishment . . .'

.

Concems over Participation in tire CTc Program

Agency officers expressed r¡nsolicited concern about the possibility of reérimiration or legal action resulting fro¡n thei¡ pariicipation in the CTC Program. A number of officers ex"ressecl concern that a httman t pwsue them for activities tionally, they feared that the Agericy them if tl'ris occtlüed. not 2g2.ts-7r$.iEtOne officer exPressecl concern that one day, Agency gfficers willwind up on some "wanted [st" to aPPg3r before ttre WórU Court for war crimes steruning from activitiei! Another said, "Ten years frorn now wete goinæ be'sorry E æffig ilris . . . #ut] it has to be done." He expressed concem that the CTC Program will be exposed irr the news media and cited particular concern about the possibility of beingnamecl in a leak.

23'1..

è#¡FlRt Duiing the course of this Review, a nirmber of

.

-ii.
I

i-:+:r-r:-:.:'15å¿tæ':{iiÊi.:-it

'l'he numLrel of c{etainees m CIA ctrstody çvith those i¡r IJ.S. militaw custody. is relativety Nevertheless, the Rgency, like the I'rrilitarv, has an interest in thc disposition of detainees an,l parlicurlar i.nterest i-n those who, if not tcept in isolation, woulci likely cÌivulge jnformation about the

237.

r*ãi@p.risorr

circunstances of thei r

cle

Lenfion,

l:l;--:,

+'.::r.

t;=+¿+ '+

;
:

:,,:.'.-j:;.11:.
'::-'::a:

.:.'.1.::¡:,.,... '':l-:+, - ....¿"1:{; :::'"::.

t#:;;le*,?iæ'.,;Å

242.

243.

| I

.1't

'

option,

to prosecutiotì .ts ¡ r'i;rble pr'rssttr!ìit', .,ri ic.i:I f,rr ,.r,r't.r;l .lr'{.ìilt r date, hotn¡evt,r, lrr:r tleei¡iott lra¡ l.(.t,tr trr¡tle tr., l)r'titt,,-,ii r'.'lih tlris

93 rullrr:ui:, sscr.

i:.:--:.::;:a). []t;a:::'-

t:

1;-

:

'

"

.ígt:,
I
{

Turffi!*.lr

]=:-E

:ffi,,¡ft+ir+*-A+9,¡f¡,tæ. jfi=,:i¡:,,..'"

.... ):.i,t.t

i -ai3¡:;+,

CONCLUSIONS
rhe Agency's cletention,and 250j provided intellìgence that has enabled interrogdtíor, the identification ancl apprehension of other terrorists and warned of terroristplots planned ior the United States and around the world' The CTCDetention and hrterrogation Program has resulted in the issuance of thousands of indiviãualintelligence reports and analytic products supporting the counterterrorisrn efforts of U'S' of !oücymakeis and *itit*y commande's. The effectiveness that might !urti..ttar interrogation téchniques in e[citing information not otherwise havebeen obtained carurot be so easily measured,

ìrgll

o?ãñffias

however.
d"ividuals invested immens e time and Agency efiort to i*pi**ent the CTC Progrdm quickly, effectively, and lvithin fhe law, Tlie work of the Djrecto¡ate of Operations, Counterter¡orist center (cTC), office of ceneral cou¡sel (oGC),, oiice of Medica!Services (OMS), office of Technicut i.wiàu been especially. notable. In effect, they began wiih founctatiorì-/ as the Agency had díscontirmect virturally all involvement in írrterrogations after encountering dífficult issues with earHer interrogation progr4ms in Celrt¡al America and the Neal East. Inevitably, theie atso trave ùeur, ro*e problems with current

2sl.

.o*pffi

Fqu

Af!r

LL september 2001,

nume¡ous

thas ffio

tOfblff

activities.

. 252. (s7/Ntrl OGC rvorked closely withDo] to ctetermine the
legalify of the measures that.came bo be known as enhancecl interrogation techniques (EITs). OGC also cclnsulted with \^Ihite House and National Security CounciJ officials regarding ttré proposed techniques. Those efforts and the resulting DoJ legal opinion of L August 2002 are well documeutecl, That legal opinion was based, in substantial part, on OTS analysis and the experience and expertise of non-Agency personnel and academics conceming whether long-terrn psychological effects would result from use of the proposed techniques.

::)ti:

t*q:>")":

i.-;: '.

t;.

;:,:,'.i;i-.:'.'1;

ä*:låT#[Hî '#::;îtr*tr"'ilä:s::î**iî,ïäåiiifr1å"öry'v

!ff;i¡=f;-i
orohibitiott of toil* î.s.. tornue,nää,

zb3

!7Ê'[Er

:îtäËffi åi'å? {{

im:X'n:
de

:lï :ä",, i, Ëo;,,1, .ffi T.*tr#,':ffi?ä::iffiiil*i *l*r i,ï' *;an'r *'" ràr rure c"Îl':Ïl Ïi#ïåi'o"u;ätä Punishment
;;;;súon
wirh rhe
dur u,u u r e gar

*:

oppir_:^u_.nr

^,g

.''

grading

,- u

reaffrrmaúon

r*ffi"
t

J"ffi

åff-JfJåiî åfîffi '"i'il'

fåä*'J:'.:-?i:ffi

*xdAir:mxg'g#!'
'u*
of various
¿tÍì'o

äF

expanded^T:"i't'" ;ãnd''"t on the Agency's

ä".", J

1 AltgL¿"' *"_ffil scope of the

ärr'"'i''.¿

äiiåiiìå

sui

ïpi*o
-_

"

,

zss.

[r1i,ff-,

^t À crerìcv officers

rä år;¡i:ffi r;rïå:'Jffi ,l""il+'"m'"rltltn:*;

,.d with detenúon

Lrttslr-#-

ga*:îïriffi iäi,iå""*i,'H*.ï;ä*i*.*:,#',',ï
o gabon ou "' ãåi"r,uoo a*d interr år,i," upqt l,rl ir:iffi ^r Administranon o a.d review î *j;r;;å.:tï..,r,ent ofrïcers,- .. previous As:l:vlÎii* *älaw enfor':'l'it "jll'l*u'. rrom publtc uyu's' of State, and ir-,t"rrog*rior,' o1

jjf

*:tiääirrt**

î ):-*.J'

U'S' PolicY statements of

ff-tgh

iffi--#gx,çi,çl*ær

stateurenb by very senior U.S. officials, including the Presiclent, as well as the policies expressed byMembers of Congtess, other Western goverîments, intemational organizations, and human rights grot¡ps. In addition/ some Agency officels are aware of ilterrogation activities that lvere outside or beyonci the scope of the written DoJ opinion. Officer's are concemed that fufure public revelation of the CTC Program is inevitable and will seriously damage Agency officers'personal reputations, as well as the reputation and effectiveness of the Agency itseif.

rhe Agencyhas generally prov itled -256' good guidance and support to its officers who have been de

bs,E

In particular, CTC did a the intenogatiorrs of high value detainees at At these foreign locations, Agency persorrnel-with one notal¡le exception clescribed in this Reviêw-followed guictance and procedures and docurnented their activities well.
By disrincrio*, rhê Agency-especially in the.early months of the Program-failed to provide adecluate statÍing, guidance, and support t a:rd interroßation of detainees in

zsz,

ffs(n

dentwillb.e ihe

i

g¿;3¡:':i'.*:':a-'

:

"'

t'i-iií¿)

srr!ect of General'

a

rur. U.

tg, ::åi:iffi ;;;¡;:"*ili':"::ii: .^ f aia t äåî;ïårerroga.rionsatthaiioca'-*;@s,üainif tl d ;ffi inv
o ffi

xm'"rur;"år:öiil
no

olv cers ;?ä:åiåiä"-är^.reddmerv,a1åi:iÏ:if authortz ":f Y:ly'*ir:î'"isupervision'' or
e

exer cis e s

"xe*iseso'nd

experience, jud.grnent'

fr

r#*,Hil*:rff .f"}"tråfårftffiiffi qiäå' ffi:ï'fi äx,u:un:*::l*¡;'çgt*ttt,^*1 of the
trtrHiï#ä,1Ëîå::iåiiÏrtåî.tr*;rr*"'Jå'Jff nXns*:låîff Hiiîlrt":*:äîiry '*

îää;îH::If

f '+iä|:i"åål;3Ïii1,ffi'Ë':J'ïJ::

\vided to

-_z6a G{-,L , , .-l]l^ì,r.,ffi
.

ffi:;r*
it',itt t"t and Protec interrq

- -';lârì¡ê as d'oes exist to ager ta v r! ¡v- - und.ertaken by *'*---^ arrd interrogaqort" ,-^¿oortate. The ""tio*
õonhinq

¡

.t
I

:'îäåå':î1tr"Tffi that a*toi*.r, tt. * tu",^{]:iffffi rö;. ö.ir."a sÉpulated L Augt
:5:'
i

ä"':tïT*iuil*"

îti-;;õoJ

legal oPinion of

,.-,..':.:r.es:,,.1?*i

i#*,të:-:e-s-+.,æ+¡;::;:.:+i

its advice was based upon certain facts that the Agency had submitted to DoJ, observing, for examplq that "' . .yoo (the Agency)
have also o¡ally ínfonned us that althoughsome of these techniques may be used wíth more than once [sic], that repetition will not be substantial because the techniques generally lose their effectiveness after several rêpetitionà.'l One kuy êl to the waterboard at ieast 1-83 times uis' In this and another instance, the technique of application and volurne of water used ctifferecl from the DoJ opinion.
262. attention to de
OMS provided hensive nredical where EITs were

Edwasdenied

with

value detainees

did not issue fonnal medical guidelines tlre advÌce of CTC /Legal, the oMS Guidelines @r were thert issued as "draft" and remain so even after being re-issued in September 2003.

a'-ì

Agency officers report that reliance on analytical assessments that were uruupported by credible intelligence may have resulted in the application of EITs without justification. Some participanb in the Program, particularly field interrogators, judge that CTC assessments to the effect that detaineeb are withholding information are not always supported by an objective
264.

'

.1?;i

-'':¡':'

,ffi"t:e:-#i:::*:'at

î*Ï**ffi ås#ryffiry'l'-Ti**"'

ä*iffr;ä*tffi'rdäìi Biå:ïä'J;Tiffi;"p"u:r:î
u'*tainedby *"* ä"bilry vr the I :s, -G^",ilffiil*.,.."r' ilre inanurf,Y o r the Agency. do with terrorists

ii [.,:ffi:::.+,e¡+;ri.el..*æ

R ECO

\{i\'{

l: N D

Al IO N S

\l)
,Jl

,!t

l'

lu

t

t,

.

.^--..-^ô'.-r'

il'lr

-'1fií'11

d

.l
Y ./ rrt Ir

t,:.J!:

rüiri

Íiiiit.

illtr
.ifilìì

lijili

,,1.r

hjt.

f.:

ii

it
lr:l

¡¡

$ìtJütì rail.

.'i:d itì

:\

J

il[üir
''j'-*'S

lìi,ltf

tifiii
ii$*:
1,ti)tii

il:;i::i
lri

i::
l:i¡ ii

ulrü

iilll'

:,.iÈ
i 'J¡r'

i;:il;

ii.
,ì'

:lit¡'

'iil

Appendix A

.,, .....'-''-,.'...j.

,,:'#:, l:iæ,#---#*¿:*È*:;*':æ'¿

iif:Ì:iË'"Í:":';':"

'

.! .-s:Li:ÈJ

tt;:Æ':!""';':""

Ëì i#¿*græ:".',tii!!i]'*l

PROCEDURES

ÀN! RESOURCES

n",."år I¡ves$gations,
Review.

thr

rnvesrigari"^rstriiüä^æ1,rlue1^J'*úg^t""'T-? and a secretary Partlcll t n"'u'ir'"iäìti"lt' Auditor,

:î*îïrc jlTd"*"fr

â1

'^"

ä._
comPonents

orGconcructedJiî,ioiî'"*"-åTi1#ffi äî';J*ï;.ïiî'u of ãåi**uy relevant lnformatïo" .i"#i:ii* ö.p.wDirector jlï,i"%ïr#iåiffi''*

PY

ä#äT*ffiiiËr.1rËîi,îl "u* inrorm iä
une ueputy ûre Depuq,

"oåiåi ru"utär inclividuals' olG te-ínterview' isi'ts to the OIG personn"t.]1:dt ItTu-.,".*,uI ars o >*fl ^ orG pers o*er l"Î.t"t"Ë:ffÏàiiü;;' of ittttttogations I to review 9z vrdäåioput îisíted

"""".ä

:il*:X;å;

Appendix B

cttìGrralo.y: ccur{.,r'rË8rìcn6r*'efr'Tr'¡{A},f¡l¡rT.n'0G/ì1to¡i/¡trìu,rts

::j
I

.,-]

llìÊ lf¡ltr,úf¡ati4{¡

ftofl

r97,3r'taí .iß>J,:; ;¡,:¡tjil{¡¿ú f C

¡¡trr

Appendix C

isp,.#r,nfi /
'
Qfñce

U.S. IJePartrncni of JustÍce

of[*gal

Counsel

OllÌcé óf t¡c fu Jht¡'tt

Chr¡rf
^{o.ôcy

t?ahirgtu,D.C i0Sî0

August !, 2002

Mcu¡oranclum for Johu Rizzo

Acting Genernl Couoscl of ihc Cc¡tr¿l [otclligeuce Agency hlerrogùtion of al Qaeild O!eratírt¿
You have asked for itris Officds vicw's o¡t whcthe.r cerøjn proposed contluct would violaie the p¡ohibition against torù¡re íound at Seotion 2340À of title I 8 of the United Slates Code. \rou have askcd for this advìce in the coufse of conducting ínrenog:tfions of Abu Zubaydah. As we u¡lderstatd iq äbaydah is one of tlie highest ranlríng rnembers oitte 1l Qaeda tonorist organizøtion, wiih w'bich üle United States is currenfu cngaged in an inlcnrational armc¡l
conf'lJu following the actaùks on tle Wortd T¡ade Center and the Penle.gon oa Soptember I [, 2001. This letter lnemoÉaLiecs our previous oral a<ivice, given ou July 24, 2002 and July 26, 2002, that the proposed conäucr r',ould uot violate dús prolúbition.

I
Our advice is based upoa the foflbrvfutg facts¡ whieh 5rou havêprovlded.to us. We elso srldg¡srçrrrl lhst you do ¡ot have an1' frcts in your possæsion contrary to the ftafs ourlined,lære, asd this opinion i3 limíted to U¡csc facls. lf thesc facts were ro cbrugo. tlús advice would nor necessarily apply, Zubaydah is cuncntly beìng hcld by tbc Unitcd States. Tl¡e intenogation tea-nr is certaí¡ that he has additional hformelion that he reñrses to divutge, Spccifioárll¡', he is wittrltolding iuformation regar<üng renorist petwqdcs inrhe UnÌted Statai or ín Saudi Àr¿bia and inforrnation rcgarding plans to conduc! att¡clcs within the Unitcd Statès or ageinst our intiresis overseå.t. Zutaydah l¡as bccome accusùomed to a certai¡ level of t¡eatnxcût aud displays no signs ofu'ilfingncss to di-tctose fu¡iire¡ i¡forrnaliori Moreo,r,eç your intelligence i¡dieates tha¡ th-er-e is ctrrreltty a level of,"chatter" cqUal to that which prcccdcd the September i l,aftacks. In tíght of tbe informirfion you believe Zubaydalr hgs a¡d the high lsvel of ttueat you believe aow cxisis, ;ou rvish to movc tbe intcnogations into what you have dqscdbed ¿s an "increased l)ressuÉ phasc." As part of thís increased pressure phase, Zubaldah rvill h¡ve conrect only wirh a new iate.nogation speciaiisr- s.hogr lre h¿s nol nret prcviously, ancj tlic Suwir,al, "r,asion, R¿sistance. Escapc C'SERE') training psychologist rvho has becn i¡rr.t¡I,;ed rvìtl¡ t¡c inrerrogadon: since rirey hegan. ftis phasc will likely last no more tl¡an several days but could l¡-ct up to thirty da.vs. In this phasq you rvould like to employ ten rechníqrìes that you believe rvill dislocare lris

VÉ"*,
I
I

"rayølcnFl
ext:ectatiortsregødirrgth¿tre¿trnentìrebcl:,eveshervillreceiveanilertcowagehimtodisclose

/

H#,.,j'ffi#ru'ff{#fi#ruffi,
äåiJffi

iî:T}':ffi Ë."î";;i"''"ntisttuouehæ31å's3l;"å,iJ?ìi'i'i|''ï*iä**'.*

ri,ru;lit*-;;i;'S:nr.*'q¡Ëjffiî:'Jg,rä,+nilg.'..-fr*$fu
ii3l.,i,lf ïF";'*tl¡*ml'åi:lîi.*:Hr'ffrfir*H""i:l';;;ãä-ingr'is us u '.;i-ìJîn"tttíons' lravo also ì¡fonned
You

-

""0*t,

*tti"h

ís being

u!tȿ

sï:i:"î'i-iö
gras"; the iirdïviduat
i

Fj*få:r::"'*"r

Forwaring,anexibrcrarscwar*,f ;iii,1$hiîïJ,iîlìîL:î'ì:äå;ïliì,ï.,, 'h*rt,uoü'r"e*it¿iic¿u: T1rurx*Togtlp:li1ï:äär'ùã'sshoutde¡bladesrhethltth'c:vau' a into r}e rvall' it torvel that provides

i,äilË;;r".h.

indìvi<lual

"råii"îî,ù--.tïeci

hood.oi

Éï:*.,'"*i-tuçl';.*uu+åt****¡¡lli,6,î,5ç¡i,9..
indivíduat ís atlowet io creale a lou ïrit" t-"rf is in 1:art coust¡rrcrcd
ft ,rti,ershockor-tii,ät1f lmPact seem f'ar rvo t!.re accion.

¡flS*nåP"Y.*ru'J'ff iilåiläö;;ìi'J*tu*
eves'

side

;Jiät*Ji"*" of ürc in¿¡ri¿,iäî'i"ä;;11¡rgcrtint
with

n"'tlæ individualls Tlrcfacial}roldisusedtohgHosheadimnohile.oneoprnpatnrisplaöedon,eí*çr
staps,tÌreitdivid''ff"?trJlitíUml stap, tlre intenosaior ttie racial sta¡¡ or insult ore¿ dircctly
wiü
the

stiglrtly spread'

nîîäi;*Les

cÆntact

benvei^ä;;*viòal's
-"'

.*i ofttre facial slap s to ,I;rx t!i" ptrrpos" tniç n;gtq: *lt*r:***ttx,ri* t ,stca¿,
t

q:

r'*'e
clark'

Craropedconûncmentinr,olvesttreplaepn¡eutofthe'ol'.':::'inac¡nñrrecspaeæ,the eaceis usttellv
dimensions

"'r*hîiìïil"i'i.,"i"¿:"i¿"-Fiffii#iii''äî"à*q"'¿ 'rofcner

2

róPs
'lle

,/

Rsr

durafo.ri of confinernent var¡es bæed upón the size of the conta-iner. For the targer ørrfiaed spacc, thc individual can stand up or Sit Cowq the smaiter spaco is large enoug-h for tltesubjeci io' sit do'krl Confinement in dre larger space cen last !_ to cighteen hoursi for tlre smaller spaæ, conftnemeni læts for no morc th¿n nvo [rou¡s. Wall stznding is used to induc¿ muscle å,tigue. The indir"iciual srands aboui four to.five fcet ßoÈn a wall, wítlr his fcet spread approxiruatell, iq shoulde¡ r.¿idtl¡. His ¿nxj arc srrctched out i¡ front of lrirn" wittr tris fingers resting oa'dre nall. I{is hngers support all of his body r';eight. Tbc individual is not pcgnítted ro mov" or i#position liis han<ís o¡ f¿er.

A var{ety of stress posltions nay be uscd. You havc Lnformed us tl¡at fhese positions ase nol designed to producc thc pdn associated with contortions or isvl'sting of the bodl'. Rather, somervhat like rvalliag. the¡ arc dcsigncd to produce tàe physÍcat disco¡nfo¡1 æsoci¿fed wíil¡ r¡urcle fäfigue. Two pariicular stress positions aro likely to be used on Zubal'dah: ( l)'sitting on thc floor wíth tegs extcnded straíglrt out in Êoi¡t of him witlr his erm! nised abovc bí; head;;nd .(2) kneelfug on tho floor r+trile leaaing back at o 45 degree angle. You bave also orally informe<i tls titat tluough observing zubaydal in captivity, you hÀ'¡e nored that hc appears to be quite flexjble despite his rvound.

io psyclrological probf ems uray experíence abnonnal æactions to slee¡: deprivation. Even those cases, horvever, reactjous abate alîer thc indÍvidual is pa.rrittedio.sieep. ye¡sor.¿¡, personncl wiü medical trainirlg ere availablc to a¡d will i¡itervene in rhe unlikely eyenl of an abnororql r9action- You have g¡atly i¡fonnexl us tbal rcr¡ wonld uot deprír'e.Zubovdàh of .deep ior morc-dra¡l cleven days at a tr¡nc and that bave prcviously !<eot hiru aviakc for 72 hou¡s, ¡ou liom whích no mental or physicat harm resuirco,

asso#iãtèd'withlækofsleep;touotjvaib*rim'1ûroopcrere: The.efÈcíof*uclrslccp.dcprir.ation rdll generally rcruil ¡.fler onc or two nighr'of uniatcrnrpted slee¡. You h.eve iilón¡¡ed us ùat ¡,our research has revealcd tbaÇ in rarc in.stencss, sot¡io i¡dividr:¡ìs rvho a¡ealrcadyptedjsposed

. . Sl""p deprivador. may be used- Yoì¡ havc íDdicoted tbat your purpose in usiog this tæhnique is to reduê.e tbc individu¿l's abilifyto think on Iris feer an¿,ì¡rãugh the dìsõçmfort it

.

Tt¡e individual's feet are gcnerally clevaied, À cloth is plaeed'ôr,ei the iérche¿d andtyes. Warer

F'i1ally, you would iike to use a tecfinig.ue ca_lled üre ,,w¿r.crbo&d." It dris prcccdurq thc i¡dividual is bound securely t'o ¿s iliùlircdb.*.1l, wU.n is approxím.atctytour zut byseveo [ect.

,"É"*,

rop#ner '7the mouth isrhenappliedtotbeclcilrinacontroll¿dnì?nlel'Asthisisdone,the.cloùislowcredurltilit ü'eclothis åilä,J;;;à1nr'"1¡1'¡'ers tlæ clottu This prxence of covers bottr tlre nose *d ;;*rr"ö;; due to dre r", æ to 40 ii'it'incre¿se ln the c¿¡bon and nose, a.ir flow r. o,+ovï*"i.¡

iìåîïä'r"Lr i" u''".¡-åiti¿tiì';l;;t c¿uses Bo increase io t*r'îå äiilii;n oiot
dioxide revet srirhurcres
<!oes

;;;;;,

,iî.rrä ,r*

to

ursau

9:.:l:9

"t"duees

tbç

[.äårii1¡,'*I:ïtî,1i1'i,$iiå;:rï¿-¿ää'î;'ffi:itr'SÍ,iffiÏi,îJ and oot breatlie att¡t rvat *r-t'n*od. ihç ¿Íoth is:lirted'
anuried rrorn a height ltteb be *,i i¡diur¿u* i, ä'; jo *'' rr'" n*'"jy' nÈv "no*.¿'ilî;.Ä;;,üùø drowning ís ir',n"caeij lîüäö q.,: !1ü1.¡i ãufoi toruu *aterirrg canrvith a spcut' Ê"r,^ *,t *r of p¡y'sìological sensotion reDeafed. The w¡ter is usually applied proccdure o-iîso;L uu*onratic yåu i*fomed * if',"i't¡¡ is i¡ fact noi
hc *åou.ot wouid not last rhat trre in¿¡viäã dior,,nin* "uonoi U,r,iiiriä.Jy Oát U''i' pto"tdure dros,ning. you Ìrave 20 rninutes !n anv otre application'

"rî"åîî

äi;J'ù+"u,

i*üiiliä.,

m"il'.äii.'il-d'w-1E1.-tt'"

sensationor

navc oratty

;;;;;tËi

,,* årilr--t"*". *

r*-tii":;iËï.l1P""*:rhat

WeatsoundustandtbatamedicalexpertwittrSFR)1exger.iençc,rr.illbepresent iraryttl u:edic¿llv trecessarv ro "¡Jlit*itned tbis phase;iää;*;;rä"rj.*1u;il;en.a tiuoughour above' Z'Ubay{ah suftred
prcvenr sèvere me¡rral ar¡ iajury during tris

injury is not in

oot ú'witl'heal propcrly' adcntf on u'il l U. gfu en'to'";o"t

anv

*"vì*"t"'uuedby

u: g* * ensu¡e that this dl,,i:]îä;;;; i"i"*"¿",î,¡'i'äptîi[and thú adequate medlcal thc

;ö;ä

ñr* t. z"u^voö

"" "itü;;;Å;ds
[.

exceptton havc inforrne¿ or'tt"t'vJu üu"-ok"n ttå*t' These same teohníques' wi(h the so$s ..uout¿ t'"uJii äu6".ö;t techniqrrcs continue to be used on rp**, rr^u" ¡*n *ed and of the i¡seot ,o *" of,tbc use of these tlt"ir'õtsJRË truining' Because of our military personnel-during yqu ha*e consulted mernbers Êiliwy p"*oooäi"ìtlitt iiæ"oeutions) technlques' You bave orocedures io training ãui o,rn

Inrhispatt,rvetçviewtl¡scqEtextu,itlddç*¡ichtheseproceduresrviltbeapplied.You wtril^efll if ury' these

*"'io*.'tåptio g"uaii

.åîãäoär;

;iit"f

ivith various

indir¡d,jJr;;..t'i. Ñ"År".'J;.ti.;;i*tit*Jortn*e tlre use ofthese ;uld r¿sult frorn protonged done so ín onler * *r"r. rir"i oo ""fi;]];
proposed Procedurgs'
bavc have learnsd tLat thæs tcchniqucs

rluougrr ¡rcur consurtation

yithyrilus-':'Ï':,Ì*:::t:ii:i:iî;i*'lli,å'ül'üX alrY conduct without'
f tttq $ËRË school. during tbc seven' ,

sPent :'ear period that hc

iifi

.'J iJåïrii#åå:ffi jiti ñ ö ; ä";;; '

'

*i

n

g p raced ed æ lcsur t o r bci n

a'

,y#"*

/ rrcREr
corifineu'ìert box. Tl¡e orlrer inquirl involVed clairns tl¡t tlre SERI training c¿trsed tv¿o Índividr¡als to engûge in crÌnrinal bel¡avior, nafnely, fclony slroplifting and dorvrtloading child pon:ograpiry ônto amtlítary computer. Accordingto tlús official,

ffilt:,tl;H*:fiffi
Yoü havc infomred us fhar you

*"t "tt,î;;:l:rryå $iiiià','itrJ¿iåi:fr mlå;,,*,or*vrîõ-.

dropped oui of the traìoing follorving the usc of thesö tcchnigues. Alttough on rare.occasions sorne studënrs tcnrporarily postponed ihe reouinder ofihei¡ training and received psychological counseling, tbose stì.rdenrs være able to finish the program wiürcut any indication of subsequent lnenral health effccts.

ten"yeårs,

ins¡æEEë

adve¡s" arental health effêets.

tbetraining. Thatpersonexperienced'anadrerscmentäl.hotùth¡ea*tionihatlasted.oulyiwo

is ai'¡ar!, noir¿oiiåraiätii¡¡üù.'dl.$'*'1t6:èõñtplÈted.the program. suffe¡cd ¿rry I{c ìùfox4ed tou,ihat tb¿rewæ onc piri;04 wtiq ¿fid nat öomBleæ

hours. Afrer those hvo horus, ihe índividr:al's sylupto¡rls spontaneously.dissipáted wituout rsquiring hcat¡nent qr counseling and no other symptoms l{'ere or,ef repofted by tlris individual. According to tlrc i¡rformation. you trave provided to us, this asscssn:ent of the use of these
procedures irrcludes dte use of rhe rvaterboæd.

to üs.
a course of condnot,

of the insect i:r the confi¡ement bo:t and the waterbosrd. TLis ¡icn¡orandu: conñrms thaf tbe usc of these procedures has not resulted i¡¡ any reported. ürstanæs of prolonged mental furm, a¡rd

ff;:iläiffi

fr

p#'èholoeic{il reactions during raíning, Of thd 26,829 students trai¡ed fronr 1992 rt¡roqgh 200I i¡ the Ai¡ Forc¿ SERE taining, 4.3 pøcant of ü¡ose studehts bad conact with ps?qholo$/ services. of tl¡ose4.3 pe¡tcnq only 3.2 ¡lercent werc pqlld Éoq tbe,gro"saru'for Bsychological reâsons. Thus, out of the sodents traiued'ov.erat! d¡ûy 0.tÈ.æg[.we+gpullOd fqoin the pmgånl for psyclrological reasons. Fudrermorè, ihat snwe¡s of students having comple¡cd rliisraining uo pot done, heãË@-ffifidenæ flnt the fraining did not cause'anylong-ternr psychologlcai inrpact. I{e based.lris couclusion dn the dcbricfing of sbrdents tbat is done afi.cr tho rraining, Moire inrportantly, hebued üris assessmeil oB the fact tïra( althouglr training is required to be clfremety stræsñrl in or.der to bc e,ffeÁtivc, very fetv complaints havc beeir made regarding dre Eaining. During his t¿nure. ín whicb 10,000 students rvere lrained, no congressional conrplain{s här,e been made. V,,hilc thEre }vas one Impcctor Geqerat complaint, it waç oot due to psi'chological co'ncens, Moreovcr, he rvas awalc of only one latæ¡ inquirÍng about tbe loag-¡"* impact ofthcse teclniquæ ftom an iadividual tnined

i,lïåïi:*åffi i:ff l:is,:"äïf;

to'lhe'lrajni'g

;rrÉ*,

s

roy¡¿dnsr

fi:frïî
mi¡úmal."
rr/
i

iii:'$':ffirîi$i;54*xr:
oa
r

tr

r

res pe

cÌ r o t ìc
r

.,vere'b

d,

vo

u

:äi',f :ïä::[*#iîi,::iiì:ffiï#"i'ffi F-Tl"' nfjtï',|ffi ; ïKfl ffJ;'ff 'n*"' u"'l ti: Jntal Jr c¡û
iålî,

1": :li: ff :llåîÍil11gi', lìîiî
J^iìåä

ilîy.iöii
heal

ilri[; [**:,,,*l',:Hff"HîH:l*"¿tîittl*'ffiå,;'"HlårlË,',il,':rlii',"
"ä-t""""i
lr e a t

seq uerrc

e

s

n*Ï[::i*i*';*nU:,îË'äii:**',:'ffi ufft!tiu*
;ffi
;t

ufthu o'a"rboard ínNaq to tlro indicÀcd drat lte r'"¿ ouä"J'ñl"lu* ä'i'îåï."r' r" arv phlsicãl harur ,"r,1ìîi;î :;-";;;"ìt" o* ', dmes. Each tin,. ;r

*ñ;ro'ot

in produciog.cooPert

'hwT"ffi
uaining sq

srudent'
t"tirì.""
r,,'ho

''

"l

data on the effect

***J;i,fi ;:4älïtî:XËî'Ïi$:+:r,1g[^¿".,i.îffi * lhat is trot uncolurn'cn ror
i*"*t¡
qxpcrlencç
slecp deprliano*. flatteníng Dsvchosis, toosenrng of, tlroughrs, eleven-duys ãr ¿"p¡*a** tur", .ur^ after

iå1iäiËî;;*"v"d-ìü'. i:lÏ"JTrä"Ttrirrtï]il*1,trî1*Hrî*,äiJf suchepiiocïcs prior to (tre fîi''îJ-x1*a shó¡'ed ¡ro
*"lt P"';ilil ';toi:q'l'"t' ii"neiltí tl*p ttol'tlfoo *f."r*¿irit oi paranOid

*T*'*:**"lffi'
idqæ' irt
one

"f o' pt**ot Furùei' ii o"'*i' for up to 48 boun)' tnr,actrhc!¡rd.ividualï"0.,a"¿t"Jii"s.lrg¡¡rrr.ü,.non¡aîeft*oneniglü'ssleep' *tu"å'ì.,cît*tu ir it in¿*"¿deprivati on based on the exp"ri*r,'"'Jîr.Ï,iìä.G* *l
-vou fôund,r,ut

";""'ä"'iilä:åJ

*tü."t,

ãá-siorrs;

urah d4maged occurrec'

ru"å

discoirtinue¡l

good ìtit îtt""il t"ti' after a few ' "'urvlïîî"ä"Ãrã"i"¿i"

i"iäiil of q"'leep nighs
sÌeep'

is

*,ùî'.ï.'*,**;;;:L*ll;ffi; ãi."är,nv,-"-!i1äT*:fi¡3.giäri'ÏiÏt*î:lil:*t',i:,îioï;;îH:i:i-*å occu¡rc't us
odrer individu¿r, cithex seParateìY or I who reportcd tt''ut rcsult of theso tecbniqr¡es'

rvith tJ'S \\'âs step of consultirus 'inteÍogetions You havc ia'lien thc additional p,o...,'-Non'"or ttre'sc incividuâls

'"o"'o'

eiPcrts' ffid

utÑ"

uía\\'aro

"f ',.'

J;;;tí"

t"*go*

problems have

Moreovet,inconsulting*,itlranumberofmentalh¿a[bexperæ,youhaveleamedtbat
trre erfcct

.rrr*¡

orîrä;;;;;;i"""""'o' ãin""åì-i;""i:*::$"ì,üïi:lllli:it""" tt t)t cndq you lråvç rn history *oilitolo*ic'oit"ntle¡t¡*s'
or"nv

'rc}$'lõREr

royrdcRËr
ccnìpleied a Psychologicäl assess¡nent of Zubadyah, 'l'l'¡is assessn¡cnr is b¿sed on inrerviervs u.íLh Zubayda[ observations of hinr" and informationcollccted frorn odrcr sources zucb æ intellígcnce

,/

andpressreports. Ourundersra¡dingofZubayCah'spsycholôgicalprolìle,vihichrvesetiorth
betoiv, is b¡sed on that assesSrncnt. According . nrujahediu lerrcl

f ieylenant, tnstrume¡rt¿l in thc traíning ofoperarives for al Qaedr, tlre Eg¡pri-an Isliriic Jihati, a¡id otjre¡ rerroris! cfe¡ne¡lts. insidc P¿kisen ard AfglunisrÀ, nu ac!Jai ,hr orpury c"*p Conurralr.le¡ íor.al Qaed'a trainirtg carrip in .Afghanisul, per.sonally approviug ent,y iuigracuarion all nlilics <iuring 1999-2000. Frorn !996 u¡rij l999, heappror,e<l-allin¿iri¿üals going ofand in our of Afghalistan to thc training caalps. Fr¡rlherr no onû rvenr in and our of peshav.-ar', pakistan without his !olvledgc anci appror,al.. He also acted as al eaeda's coordinator of enernal conlaci.s and foreign communications. Âcldifio¡ally, he hæ acted æ al Qácda,s counre.r_ intelligencc offtcer arü r¡as i:ecn t¡trs¡cd to firrd spies wift'.'i trre øganiàion.

to this assessrnelt, Zubaydah, rhough onl¡;3t, cosequickj] ûom ve¡y lqç, ts rlrir<i or fourth man in aiqaa4¿ He hæ sorved as Ur"oíSirlì..d;;,;;;o, In ¿lur caFcíty, rrc bas mauaged i'ctwork of t¡aining carnps. Hi: has been

Zu!aydah has bee¡-i¡volved i:r evêry major tenorisr.opererion carrie<i out by al eaeda planner for the Millennium plot to anaot u,s. a¡rd kraeli targets durÍug the h4ill¿¡m.itun celebrãtions in Jo¡dan. Trvo ollbe."irt¡ ng,tt¿r Ínlhis plot who .a,eje aiferred havê plaitah as the supporer oi rheir ce[ and rrr"e pr.or. He aìso served as . pr";;; ;;; ide¡tiñed Ernbassy plot in 2001. I4oreovcr¡ l¡e wæ o¡e of the ptunners of th. t I attacks, prjqr in lils copture, he was cngagcd in praoning future tenì¡ist artacris against u.s. intcrerrs.

H!

t-veis a

S.;;;ìer

ilì*i, "'

assessrlent indicares. bar it is beljeved Zuba¡,duh \\,¡ote . al Qaeda.s tuao.ual ou resista¡rce techniques. you afso believe U.,ut irls eacda nrake hinr lì'ell-acquainted r*ith and qell-versed'in su"tr æobnÍqves. As part of.hís.role in al Qacda, Zubaydahvfsitedindívidualsinprlsollø.rrc!iãrr"rq"o¡rt"cirpe.le¿se.1ïuraughtùris.eonracr

Yotu'psychol<rgical

expci,.;J;

oitl¡e Russians and Érc Egyptíans.

and aqtivities with othct al Qaeda ruichedí4, you uouuu.',¡rt lr." knorvs nurny stories o.f cap.hue, interrogatÍon' aud ¡esisfancei..¡¡r.¡ iittr*og;úon, A.aaifion*fy, t,e tia, spokcn rvitlr nyman a[Zawalnn, ard you belíeve it Ís tik-ely rti¡t thã h\r

discussedzawalij¡i,s expèrieaces as a prisoner

ofjilrad as "siJl3''" He lras ind.icated rhat l¡is lrc¡¡1 u¡¡d mincl a¡e <{evoted rã se, ,io j Allah and Lsta-rn rluo\rgJì jihad and he has st¿tei tüat l¡c J:as no doubts u, ,"gr* al¡out cnnrnittírrg hinuellto jíhad.
7-ul.:aycialr l¡olieves t'h¡t the global islanis ine.ví,,rble. yor¡ have ínfornle.¿l us that lre 'ictoi.,,of cootlrtues to exprcss his unabatèd desirc to kiU A¡lerica¡s a.ld

Zubaydah siateci during ioterviews tluf he ihigks of an¡,aciirriry outsíde

Jrr*s.

ls hig.hly directcd índividual r"vrio prizeshis indepcncrence." I{c hæ ,.ua*-cissistìc fcacures,,, ,,vhich arc e"'ide¡ced in the aíeoijon !.re pa¡,s to ttis persãnal rpp.oun.. and his.,obvíous .efforts,
ro

,.

.hTi

psychological assess¡neot describes his pcrsonalìi1,æ follows. !-le

,.a

sel.i.-

roy¡¿dner

to&ss
ryârarher'rruú.i:i."i,

jiiil,J;:#:H:'ï'.',,ilf :|'*:i
u'tro

ï tilüani'e'

uis eníironment ana

|:sircs'^$;;i1ä';;}t;åuto'in"

i'

un

ïiL*î:.ffi Lîi}i:ifliin'ïiffi *-1ry*¡u.i.'*,****i
tha" ä:ii:',il:\i',ìIlÏii::Hi;J;,i, päi'i*'"'li:':'*i,'",'.1',ï:ii"'"Ëli'ffihlsizcsaud *t ú''' moods oneniog up to otners ffiiffi;;;o,ã"¿'rtout ¿ï';:;;ì'ir. i¿ Lr..'

låïlliJfl ï?:r#n*'*;.i:il{ï'"":'ii't'*i'ñ"'*"''*."lïïJîoo**iålo"' j""-

ïä;ä;ii;1*..'*1,0iffi Ïïfi :ffi:îåS:#ä';¿:f i';ff ¿nd e Qâedá safetrouses
-'ff ïäi"f rLï'$iT'å1'ü*"*.,ifr $ü15rfr
Accorrli¡g to t'oü
reports' Zubavd'dr

not havo any.pre-extstigg doemot;t:;ä3ffi;'äå menur iootptopo:*

c!ndirìons or

giîru*11*'*''Hi:ff i.i'i'å'J'iiöjr:åil;;i1;t='¡:'igïf ,*i:lTiå:i::"
and îîi:*:,"¡i;:ïgl"*;i*:ï,,:ffi lîfi ]::].îå:,iL'i=l.öï,ä,äå"*åï"o'' n. it. u1"itt-t]v sclf-sufficient *n*, ".,J".-iåur.rr.rrn.'.n.)iä;l* to hirn, and ttren rerieso*bisuna"*oåi,ää.on,i*.","r"'åÏijflffi i:*r"'m,yli:,iïÏ't"""

iu;r-ffii,r#;U,''**=

-:".,,ff

carna¡aderieorr*.-,iîïä*,ii.¡øi,,*.n,",;J,ïnî:ÍÌ#nn',*.LtîË:^ï*" ep You descri
i sIè

t{ffif iï*i",'ffi,,iffi n,lä;oì;;;il;.r,"¡4"*readcrs'aod

n ;¡" lã:: s)'srem : : *mrun: ; :iä$TJh:åiil;* signs of :':' s¡nip'athecic nervous fi;ff; f.'ffi *r,i,iJlä;;r;iiltã.1,, zuqllîJîowta thar in an inui.l r*,. Ar,b*ilr'i;i'"ri*:l'-o lli^ÏÍ¡il:il",'... ,", arousar, ,vhich you Jüî;';;;;iúiv ttt* his cornPosure' ttt i.gcn ce inronn oiii h-;ìt:aläË; 3ui:ly
b

e

i

iiitl'tt""g

nte

II

aìriiity to focus' goal. strengths as tlre foìlorvi¡,g. . you srunmarizs lús priuarl o\,erall, u: orsq'ize utd *u adapt unrler duress <!ïrr¿-(cd clìscipiì:re, n"a.Jli"nuìoî*" r"c"lll" oúten' ønd' abilir:; to peoplc, **,1'ïirit*"äi;üir, of nuedi ,'ìzrìàse .o *r.Jr*ulil;ì;i-,h" end rrittr minima! rcsources¡. "apa"íry lá¡ust goâIs to en'rcrging opportunities'

rcsolvd' rìot to reveal en* itfonxation'

'ìî"îî'"''*""*ãii"*.i'"'íil"öi'ä

'"t*"'

*

copervi,h,h:rï:ïî:ii:il',"î.Htr*,ïïiï;Jif

Youanticipatethatheruilldrawuponltisvastlgrorvledgeofineno.gtiontecluiiquesto

protecl rhe most tn betief tbat Or.,o *1,îi*ræîäorlioatg inioäï;; e.ive. provide o.,u .¡un".'ïrriiîï0.¡;;uìl

0,.ï.ät"¿ï* ;i

;ilflf fH:iliï:ïül'i'iï'i",'i';l

ntav this victor) is inevitable it sololv as a temporery raticnalize

roj¡dcn¡-t

,ur"{*, ,/
,Additionally, ¡'ou belíeve iie nray be wilting to disclose some infol'nlatiorl particularly inforn:a{íon he dee¡rx ro nor be critical, but rvhicl: may uliínare!,v be useful (o u.r rvhctr pieced logerher rvid¡ other inrelligence infon¡retion you have gainctl.
sçtl-.ac!r.
ü1.

Sectíon 2i40A rnekes it a ciimjnal ¿tTe¡:sq for any pcrson "ourside of thc United'Srates conrnritfl or e$¿erpt[] ro contrìút toíure." Section 2340(l ) defincs tornìrb asi [rol
a¡r act com¡niüed by a person actiug under 0re color ol'lirrv specifìcally intended to inr'ìict severe physícal or rnental pain or süffcring (othcr than pai¡r or suffriring incìdenlal to façárl sancdons) upon another person.uriiìrír' his custody ofphysicat conuol.

l8U.S,C.$2340(t). ,{sweoutline<í inouropiniononstapdardsofconductunderse¡ttion
2340¿", a violation of 23404 requiles ashovring úrsf: (l) tlie toinrre occu¡red ou'tside the United Sl¿les; (2) tlrc defcndant actcd. under the color of larv; (3) the ticb'.m was rvithin the defendaut's custocìy or control; (4) tire dcfeadanf specíñcally intundcd to innict seSere pain or suffering; and (5) tha (he ac{ed infiictcd sevure paür or suffedng. S¿e lt{eruorandum for Jolur Rizzo, Aering

Gcncral Counsel for rJ:e Ceatr¡l InreUigenee Agcncy, fr.onr J'ay S. Byber, ,{ssistant Attomey 6cncial, Ofüce oif.cgal Counsel, Re: Slandards ofCo*4uctfar húerrogarion under I8 L|.S.C. îî 2340-2340Å at 3 (¡,'ug$st 1.200?) ("Section23.l0A Me¡noraldurn")- You h¡ivc asked ui to as.cume that Zubayadah is being held outside tl¡e UniterJ States, Zuba¡adalr is rvíthjn U.S. custody' and the interrogators are acting under the color of larv. At issue is whethc¡ tlrc lasi nvo eìe meu[s rvould be ruet by the use of ilre prcposcd procedures, riamely. u,hcrher tbose using these procedures rvould bave tl''e requisire mental st¿te a.¡d rvhcther these prouidures \roul<l ínfìjct sevele pain or suffe.ring rvithin the nrernjng of the starure.
Seve¡-e Paj¡ or Suf.ering. In orier fur pairr or suficring 1e i'ise (o the level of torfure, tJre siatute requitcs tbat it be severe. .4s rile have'previously explainecl, tl¡js re¿clres only extr:erne acts. S¿etd,atl3. Nonetheless,dravringupoucasesr¡nde.rtlroTortureVicrimProtection¡\ct C|VPA), rvhjcl¡ has a dcfinition of torh¡re that is simila¡ to Scction 2340's deûnirion, we fbu¡r,J tlraL a single evcnt of :uffrciently inrorse pain may fall rvirhi¡r rlris prohibitioo. Sce id. al 26. .{s a ¡'esult, r.ve ltsve e oallzed each of these techniques separarel¡r. I¡r further drawitrg u¡ron ütose casest we ¿rlso bave found thqt courts tend to mlæ a totality-oËthe,ciîcurnstances approacir and corsider ar¡ enti¡e course of conduct to dete¡min¿ rvlrelher mm:re ba-s occuned, Eee id ar 27 . herefore, irl addition to coruidering each tecbnique separarell,, u'e consicicr them t'ogether as a

coursc.

ofconducr.
Section 2340 defines torture as the ínfJíction of scvere physical or mentel pern or

sufr'ering. v,re rvill consi<Jer physical pain and mcnul pain separately. .s¿e l g u.S.c. g ?j40{ I ). With respect ïo ph¡'5i¡;sl pain, rt,e previously concluded that'tcvere pain" wi¡hin thc rneaning åí

roj.gdRrr

akin to lbe attd is of an iutensity individtral to endure pain tùct is diffìcuit íor rhc section 2340 is

rcv,,dsr¡ /

öä;,;.,,*-::i:*1,ii;'1;iJ;ïT#:-'ffi f,',îlTåff,',ilii::i:öiËS anô tltc bunrilg of thc TVPA
uuon
Precedeut ,-årruie are, entotrg otîter,r;r"r,""t""

prisoners. see id. air*.
'"t¡in'

*î*nø. ú.to*î¡ut;rifiì;;;osea

t*"'ng'

*itriiffitt

t""lt

as cìubs'

t"ctuúquts itrllicts suclì

Ur roiito iuni"t r"ì.it'p¡ysical'pain oai* ir is obvious 0'., ,n., "^nroì -r*.r. i.,iöÏ.- È"J' i*ot''"t th¿ srrstailrcd nosirions an<r walr ,o,.,dhlg;"l;;,ì.îî"*ìir^ .horcÌingofaposition.

Thefac.ialhotr!stldtlteattetr(iorlgraspin.,,olvenophysical.pairi.lrt¡lrcabsenceoisuclrstress or sufiering' The

individua.t,s body sirrilg on the floor *itr, ro.,¿crine on the floor íarigue is nor of thc sizhrre. nor, dcspitc

rveiglrt'ffiää;;il noe., ,+..-iú siress rrej'";;;a.a r*rø¡ *i tr t.i.ìîär ¡"""0

r:,,iî"îi:;äJåg,ìtoi¡ru..r.,.iär,'gip"sitionir)':'il::',ltt"tn'irrcltrdc positions.will likelv
^*ãîs to an',orrn[

'orally informe,l us rhar Zu[raydaìr,srvound. i..'',åì"ø[,.,.ï=lo'nc-tudelhatträ"i."t^q*t¡¡"6tvcdisconrforttì¡slfalls pain' ät frif"tt ,¡" tluushold of sr:\'ere physical
sirnilarly, although the

tJ'i'î"" pftv=ícal pain or suffgiiig" undcr '"**ö*ã.ient ìr'foreovcr' vou Ìrave "'<iüre' oiìüJiåïli* iiúJ*r¿ ,. u. ãiñ"'üt it.i"ttrfcy *'11]r tre heatírrg of

*i';öï*u

¿"eråirgi.. A"r ¡t¡

ï:t:'jtd

i9¡ve rvi(h nru'se'le

the be¿d' artd rhe

* ä;t;[i"n

will be,usäìäi'".uì¿

confiner[cDtbo::t-,:t"$JJ":rlfifrtirtåir*'äiiå*.

;tr"i:ïift ;;¿;;;ucxlv11!vcarsåo'"irv iîî,îåi*Tl"*1\ì,i:ï'tr;ft Zubaylalr *t:;tö;tîtxiui"' *nu¡"rt wouìd substentiall'v hi* wouo¿,
infomrerl us that despitc no infonnalïon f¡om tbe otr*d i" ,hä";l-v"-h.uu. reduce zury poi,, the.indivldual ís kept irt tlì. l¡mt"i äui"r.^ i* *¡"it rn<lic¿l expcrrs yo" h"î;;;;;t,J,îår use of these pan. .cr u ,*uit, ,*e do tl:t llîI.tnt rhe bcxcs causes Ân.y subsantiel .oh.lsicat u'it' s¿rious p.vsical iajury'

.rro"ldäì;-îïñ

ùr"u

.uo be said ,.

""],liäi"",ilii;ïffitt**'ttitti"r'cd

ir, s.r.,r[y.h*;;frri;s*.1ntrr we discuss cssessmenr. *..u" ¡n ZuUa¡'aatr ¡r'Èicìt ". introduaUoîoiäir'rä**ygé¿"* o.r,iãitìon rhough üre puín' ir"ìoi"¡, ir certair-ly docs ¡rut crr:sc pbysiczl

.I.ìreuseofoneof(hcocboxesrr,itltthc.inr¡oductiorrofaninsectdoeslrotâIteithis u" ptlTd,io the box' Thus'

r.j"ïiriã

depríving.'-o.T*:tt of,tlïl As f'cr slecp deprivation' it is clear that sevcre plrysical p"i" e'\penenc¿
some ph¡'.sical

docs no( iuvolve

¿i"o*eo",

keeping one,s eycs we s,rè rhe tsots you have pro.rided us.

sevaepl'tvsical p"i"

pe¡-oiÉÈ'l 'oth dJ'.ï;;'r",r;, "n"tiì"'iråi"ì¿*r isit"t stcep deprivation "*i, *, .*"* tiäyltiã"no section 23404'

*Lhi";;'ïä";;i'h; 'ütt:, *t'l¡"'lï*ï'^t^ïå,ili,iäliìi,l.t as thà iatig're or tire riisconrfsrt

to sleep' Based on results i¡

;:i?";il' Ã;;'n'

¡tt

tt" ¿i"* not violate

Evenrhosctecluriquesthatínvotveplrysicelcnntactbcnçeentbeintcnrrgatoran<lÛg

rcr;#um

it)

rop

/ #p¡¡

inclividua.l do not result írr ser,ere pain. Thc facial slap and rvailir.g conmiu precau(ions to ensur:e rltat no p:ín even approechirg ïhis level results. The slep is delivered wíth fingers stightly spread. rvhich you havc explained to us is desÍgncd to be tess pajdul than a closed-lrund slap,

The slap is also deli',,c¡ecl to the fl*dry part of tlre facc, further rcducing any risk of physical daaragc or serious pairu The lacial slan does not producc paitr that is difr-rcult rs errdurc. Lilierv[5e, rvalllng i¡rvolvcs quickly putlíng lbe person fontard aod then tfrirsting hìm agair*xt

a

flexibtc falsc rvall. You bave informcd us tl¡¿t úe sound ofhining the lrall will $ct'ralty be trir \\'orse dl5r1 any possible inju-'y tn tl¡é. fndividual. '[1're usc of thc rolled towcl a¡ou¡¡d itrc leck also
rêduces any rlsk ofinlory. Wtríle it nray lruf to be pushed agahrst dre rvall, any paiu expcriericed is not ofthe inrcnsiry asscciated wi.th scricusphysi&t io¡u¡j,.

-4s rte ttttderstund it, u'ltcn the r,.,aterboaid is used, tlic subject's body responds as if the subject v¡cre drorvning-+vcn drough tlre subject may be wel!. arçire that heis iri fact not drovoling' You have inlbm¡cd us úat tlris prctcedure doæ nor inflict gc¡ual physical ìraror. T1rus, althouglr. t'he subject rnal, eq:crìence the fe¿r or pi¡rúc associatcd rvitb rhe fecling of drorr,lring, 'Jte q'eterboard does not inûict pbysical pain, As rve erplaincd in rlrc sectiou 23,10A ì.{enroraldunr, ,!ain and suffçríng,' as uscd iu Section j3+o is besr understood as r siigle concePtl not distinct corrcep3 of "pain" as dístinguÍsficd f¡qnt "zuffering," ,Íøo Sec(ion 2340L l'femorandum at ó n-3. Thc r'.elcrboa¡d, wlrich iuflicts ¡ro paín or actua-i trarir¡ rv[:arsoev.:r, ,cocs llot: in our r'iew ilrflict ""evefe pain or sufferíng." Even ifone v¡ere lo parse tlrc statulc nìorc ,o ê-llen1Pt to trcat- "suffering" as a dis¡iuit conccpt. thc ,v"rerboa¡d cauld not be said to iniìict -<eve rc strffcrirç. Tlte *,ateiboa¡d is sirnply & coiûolle,j acure epúode, lacking tlre cÒnnotatiolì of a proû.acred pciíod of tinre genèrally given to surTering.

lfly

È'inatly, as rvc discussgd above, you have info¡nrcd us rhar in detcrminíng rvlricb ¡>rocedul'es to use at¡ci hotr'you ri'ill use {.henr, ¡ou h¡ve selected fcchuiques ùat will not lrarnr Zuba¡'dah's rvound. You ha',"i'elso in,Jicatccl tir¡t numerous steps u,ill b. tak.n to ensu¡.c lhar none.of tlrese procedures ín ariy waf inibrfe¡eç with ihe proper hesliug of Zubayctah's *,oun<ì. Yotr laaçe also indic¿terl thaq shodà it appear.t roy tiæ ttrat.ZuUa¡,aär ís experiencing sewre pain or suffe-rirtg, tlte rnedicsl personncf.ànband will srop rbeuse oîaly technlque. Evetr whcn all of thesc methqds a¡e consjder'ed coml¡ined in an ovei-al.l coúrse of c.ooduor, ihey stíll tuould nor inftict scvere ph1'sical pain or suffering. As dircussed abör,c, a numbç.r oí dtesc acuj rcsult i¡r ¡ç. p[¡r':ical ¡:air,]otherr:prr.nluec only physicel dircomfuf,.you have itìdlc¿ted that (hcsc acts \\'ill not l¡c used rvifJt substanrial reperirion. scr t[¡ar tlrcre no possibititl' is tltat scverc physical uise from zuch repetirion. Accordingly- e/c oonclude
¿'cfs nejthcr separafely nor as pa-rt,

¡:airrcoul,S

rhat these

suffering withi¡¡ rhe rneaning oí tir¡ statute.

of a courss of cooduct would iofliã ievere plrvsic:-l pain cr

suffering v¿ithin the meaning of $ection 2i40. Secrion 2j<C <ieiures severe arenml pain oi sufcrîag as "theprolongcd mental harm caused by or resuiting Forir" onc ofscveroì predicate
TOP

We ncxt consider rvhether rhe use of ûlese techniqucs u'ould inflict severc r¡¡e¡-,¡ol pain oi

/

/ $ECR_ET

l:

ry#tr:

ffmtrfilnî*ïi'*l'g-*ffi*iffi
at 8. No other acts can
st

ïå*l;üî¡îr:":i.',,i'.'..r,:nlp-:qlçïiî¡ä'''u**'ffi "T]ilil';J*î"f"*l tf"*t
¡rotAeen -rquire'r',e,rt the plohibítiorr liæ

:::

n,*:m:.:l.ff i$,iitiå';;ï",,r,. i'*r u. ": ::::.';#:l: :ï],ilft , . " or. oî anY kir'd of dtugs' tr'"'" *t'' or l'llîîJ!å.*äit"l,t,u¡;fif['rt*: ;m;;. ä,îr] ,ì," q""stion i,,.**ä" '"i'

ffi

to-any'

;ì;î',

i,

p

t.

i

i

.r,;;i ;.,;".re p!sicar paiiì .îrJ.i,iiilå|;i:ï;ìffi l*n*rr,., .,'. *i: *t'ject's posltion ' , ,r'"" 1*t1:-îj"ìî of arcæÒni "rr*i"¡'* the skrdpoint ¡;iÏ':y#iJ r.'*t'i'ir,' ", ilil;*;;sed Ê'om

See

írÌ'

er

{)'

¡\o arBurncnr can be oradc

t}rar,

tbe

?,,1"f",.î3;::n".,iJ:ifü3rill,.lÏ:Ï|îÏ'Ë:.ït .
extent that thcsc

Ï.Tïvliîîiî*T,::iäi:iÏi*;*'ïÏ:' j:iä3:iilJ,lHr Jiäi'îlr,i:ï'å',f, dte usc of these'-ecluuqui us' ti;;;"J;m
il;î;;ttti"n¡¿ü
6¡ 5qu.,', phvsical

poin'i"îiit''i'g: T: ht

teh¡iqu":

úre-acts

'.}.rüliJiï:,f;J#itij"Srff.;l,'l:iÏ'i.,î,*llTtf sqve¡-c-¡ain or suffeÏius' ;;;;;ä;ilt"'i""-t11i""''*; ;
reasouable person in

jåT:".lä¡"i"'l"'e'"'l"¿'r'

'ñ;

Ac¿ordingly,tbcsetq'ot*l'"úqu"'arenolp*oiäËîÃ*itl'intl"io''ringofSection2340'
Thef'acialslaplikewísefatlsorrrsideÛresetofpre.dicatlacr;.,.rlr3lajnlyisnotai]uaarof

ü::îJJ."'J:ì,ï$.,l:än:ö*Ëf üdö'trilî'l'ïtî'üi,ï,i,:lif"{iliïJ,'ff:,,,

ïltiitl**fr trîîTiif üiïiî'ïffi
."I-.oóiatíon

dii*'ili'*'''*¿.'

l*',çxr'ili.îii:îî;'iåji'.1iLr-4i-ilir"*'"r*""J:i:"'disrodgeanv
o",

;îtlmiïi:",ffi iåiijiiy:ïf :ä"'f-Y-1f ru;*äuîËili;låli
nnml,'"'*r-î;l;ï::ilìffi
:ñ:lJäää:ilt'';ristorpredica'leacts

r"oî1,äîîå.il ü:1TfÏ'J;;"r",",:tr;::"î1ää*Jr^fiffi'å'i':iä:'

,"rr(r*

t)

rop ssdRÈr
Walling plainly is not a proce.durc calculare<l to disru¡:r profoun<ily ihe Scnsss or personality. While ualliug involves rvliat rnight be characreriaerl as roug¡h handling, it does rror itivolve Lhe ilueai of ímminenr d¿alh or, as discussed abovq ihe irliction of severe Bhysical ¡-.aj¡. N'foreover, once agaiu rvc undersrand d¡¿t usc of ihis technique rvil! nol bc accom!únied by atty s¡ecific vc¡.bal th¡e¿t tj¡at yiolence rvill ensue absenr cdopcraiíou. Thus, likc rhc facial slsp,
can oJily constiture a thrc¿t ôfsev¿r¿ phypícal pain

'

./

ualling

treått!ênf he l¡elieves he will rcceivc- Noùethelcss, ¡he character of tLe action ialls so ûr¡ sìron cf crr;;r;;t;ñ r,"J-,ú;;;oif he infene¿ tlut g¡eater aggressir'eness \\'as to follorv, rlrc ['pc of actious tli¡tcould be reasonably be entìcipate<! would still fall belorv arùyúing sufficie¡it to inilict severe "h¡,sicel paio or sutlering under ihe s(atute, Thus, rve co¡cludc ¡hat (his rccbnique falls oufsid; ihe proscribed predi.cs(e ocrs.

sucl¡dtlrreat&omtJreuscofùetechniqueitselC Wallingdocsnorilrandofítsclfinflicrscvcrc ¡:ai[ or sufferiug. Like the facial slap, ivalting rnay alter rho srrU¡ccts e*pcctarion as to rhe

iia

reesçnable pcrson vloùld Llfer

ínrliciing severe paín or suffering u,i-Jrin

^ Likc rYalling, sir*ss posìiions and wall-standiag are no( nrc.cedu¡es caleul:ltecl to clisnrpt ¡l'ofbrurdìy ihc scnses, nor arc lhe5, Lb¡csts of inuninent dcuh. Ìbese pr.ocedrrrcs, as ,Ciscusseà ubove, i¡¡r'olve (l¡e t¡se ol'muscle fatigue to encouragc coopcrariort and cio i'¡ot therruelves consiiù¡te the infliction of severe plri'sical pain or sufferini. lulor"o,,.r, chcre is no as¡æcr of viole¡:cc to eíther tcclnique tJtat.re¡uotelv iugg.rts furure icverc paio or suffcri¡rg fronr rvhich suclt a tlueal of futr¡¡c hsr¡n could bc ¡¡rfer:eJ. Ttrcy sinrply inr,,cil,c forcing the srrbject (o rèn-,ein ir uncornfortûble posirioru, rÁ'lúle ihcse acb may iiuticaie'tc flre subject tliat I:e may be irtacexi irr il:ese posítions again it'he clocs ¡ot disclosç infomrarÍoo, rhe use cf thæe tc.clìnjqrtgs wotilci r:or suggcst to a t'e¿sonablc persotr in ihe zubject's position rhai ite is being rhrea.t^-ned rviûr severe peln or suffering. ,À-ccordingl¡,, $,e concluda rhat these f,rn ¡r¡sçsdu¡#s do not constif ute any of thc prcdieate acrs sei ftrttr i¡¡ Scction 23.40e).
the olher tecbdques d.iscussed so far; crainped. ccnÍncnre¡¡l is not a threat oi i¡runülent deatlu It rna¡'be arguåd tlraq focusing ílrpart on ihe faci that tlre boxes ç¿ilt berviihour ligtrt, placcL:rcnt i.tt these,boxes would co¡rsrihrr;a procrdure ciesigned t" uisruii prorordì;ìd; in ou¡ recenr Tili -,ß we explain<ian exreme opinion, hola'èver" to "disrupt profrrundiy th" r"nr.ri' . effect in thc zubjecr, ,S¿s Secf.iin 2340A Ijfcmoranclu¡n Ilcluuquefiust produce ls-t2' We havc previousl¡'concluded that this ,.qúires tlal ihe procedu¡e c6use substantíal dt it:teÍftrence wit'h tl¡e individual's cogrilive abitiries or fi.rndamenr¿lly atttr his personaliry. See id' at ll ' h{oreover, the $atuie r"quir.s tlìat such p.rocc,lurcs rnust be ca]culatcd to produce rhis cífecr. ,5'¿e id at l0; tS U.S.C. g 2340(2)G).
spend ar nost (wo hours in ti¡is box' You lteve i¡lornrcd us {.b-et your purpose in using (he.se. bo>:es is ¡ot io i¡tterfe¡e with hie senses or his personalit¡', but ro cause trim physicst cliscoinfort rha rvill

' As rvith

W'ítlt rcspect to thc sm¿ll ccnft¡emenl [rox, yrnr l',ave infcrmed us rh¿Í l]s rvou]ä

elrcourãge him to disclose critical i¡¡folmalion. Moreor,cr, youi i:rrposition of tirnc limiratíons on the trse of cither of üe boxes ¿lso indic¿rcs üat lhe use of ùcse l¡oies ís oor cesígned or calct¡lsted t.o disrir¡t profounrll¡- dle senscs or pe.nonaliry. F,:r ùe larger box, in rvhicl: he can
t)

TO,,åfcREr
tirne bottrstandandsit"hetlraybeptacediritlúsboxfo.ruptoeighteerrhounal"atiine.whileyouh¿Vc in the smalrer box' 'Thesc rtti* u, ¡1¡¿1 !e rvítl rvere tt even informed seûsos or pcrsonelity' li¡nits furdlerensue that "r-** docs uo( corritilute a

,/

J:I;iì'";;tú

;

iìi"l

oossibtc, woutd resutr. lro.*,lu* caìculaled ,"

;"i:i"öi$ïrä"J"ni"*entboxes då;;;;¡tuodly ti't t"ntts or personality' ;ik;

ö"tft*ä;t"ptili

NordoestlìeuseofttreboxestltteatcttZubay*,.u¡ft5êverephysical¡lairrorsuffrr:irrg' al¡' accompanicd by n*y U. t¡iä',.i, ttu;, u'" itoot \\,ujte a<tdirional (irne #;;,ìil;;r., e¡d walling' tË suess
¡rosiiions or suffuing' express tlueats of severe pbl'sical pain does not rise to the íoit,i" tr.lt boxes iJpúli.^ùV un nrforto¡t" ptacenrent i* rhe perso.n í1 t'c subject's ffir¿¡pety, a ieæonabte tevet of seïere prrvri.¿ pi|'oî -.îîärtü: puysi*t Pa¡n is'the next srep thls oosiriou rvould not infer fn¡r¡ thc use of uS" åf thå confintm¿nt i^tenogator,r,trearncenr of hi¡n. Ttureforç, in predícatc acts' fa[¡'ithi'r tlrc staruters required ü;;tt 'is

*;:lY

t..l*qïib't

*iofrilã"ilidt

**

;;;

uslng üe cluur!úrue'¡ """* albr,svo-.*: In hr addition to using the confinemsnt botes -uäjrlåO¿ i¡ you ilanto ínfornr Zubaydah we insect into one of dre boxes rvith Zubaydah' .As -.^,. ..,¡r â^rrrâìlv nlace a harmless

";t

r;'l."lltlli::;1::tl':åi

:ä:îJiï:i:'i'1i;åi'":äiáäiä';Ç;ril{,'":::1¡:l:;*i1iJff :'ffi¡i; iìi:'ö:iö;;;ùillig*:""1:îïii:$:i::ifl
i#ïi;:JäJäi;,älåliJåä'.ä;:iäF,i;:*:i*.'"::,;:îÌ:o,H*illåb;;
lc¿d !J¡r to believe úat anY

;ii:Jiåî:äi:J,""i':f"äffi "'fi ä#å'iåÏi!'üi.i:iffi 'i^iä'il";;Ñili::.Y:;:*ï-."ä":,",ï!illftr :ålffi ':"#J;i,iiäff#,ïiä'i;ilä;lF::' j:i,:::îi:'$:*'å-ffi;iil
s'ould not conslitutc a threat inscct's rvehave :1":TÏ:î,"";;ïJ:i;.î""i-1iËffi;'ä;iö;ii;.e.;:1;1T:"T-'"ï::;fr,,"ïi.L::'"ïl"i['"" o[ severe plìystcal P[¡!Il or s'r!¡rclilrB ru o rç¡"v"ev'Y feel ttueatened rvith i".iã jn a l¡ox, a.'åo a,'t individual v¿ith afe¿rof insæts'v _0, ! !,.r.- r-^., r?¡rdh¡r vnrìra'e. ""jonabty

fiffiiãi

.?,Í"ÏihiìiilüJi, *:,ñ.'i,ä ol ;.:iiuar uru prnced l*l*::',Igl';äiii;:
iuformed us of aoy other factors úat
r..

¡nrorf:teõ us uar you 'i!rc rrtrl 'rr\qre luer ilJå:å'"ii:iläï;;;;ä;;'üñavdahrras*v"1î91-':::.1ï:::'.i*J"i,1i::i:' tO ánaUtc-perso' h that $me.si¡¡atiOn would cause a

hi''r severe ptrysical r',': l:lTllt:,.T1].Tl il:ltffiri;; ;Jä; irrse¿t would csusc thsconfinenr"nt-,^^r -^:ñ ^. bo* with zubavclah would 'ot i¡r ::Ï:iJritÏ'liliil"å;; oi,ro¡**r constitutc
a

ia¡t'

Thr(. we

predicate act'

severe plrysical pain or bp said to constin¡te a üueat of prodrrce5 p¡;nical ¿iscoriij, ii oould slecp "u*0, persoo in Zubaydah's posíúon' Nor suffering from ttre perspeJvå of a reasonable ¡Jre scn:es' so long as slcep o a¡*tpt profouodly deprivatic¡n ionstitutc inreon it uscd for tiníted pericds' beforc deprivacion (as you th" s.nses would occur. To be sure, sleep hallucinations or othe¡ p*ä*¿ ãrr*ptions of this is bis foet Indce<i' you indicate t¡at y to Aink uV r"¿u"* ii"-ri¡i"är-irt¡li

Sleepdeprir+tionz]sgclearlydoesnotjnvolve¿IbrÊetofi¡runin.er¡tdeatlr.Altlrougltit

";;o}[j;iÃtruø n*Ji"roî""¿;ò;;;

de¡:rivarìon n

li

ronffm /

i4

rop

/

s}lluir

tlre inteudcd result. His ¡ne¡e reduced abilily to evade you¡ questior:s a¡ld resis( alurveûng does not, hor{ever, ¡isc ro the level cf ilisniption leQuired by the stahrtc. Äs r"e explained ab0r'¿. a dist'uptíon vithiir tJre meaning of the stalure is an ex(renìe one, subsfeltially interfering with an individual's cognitìve ¿biliries, for exaruplc, inducing hälluclna(ions. tti driving him fo eogage i:r uncharactcrisdc seìf'4esrructivc behavior. See inf.a l3; Section ?3{04 l',{en:orandulir al | ì. Tl:¿r'eforc, úhe límitecl Lue of slcep dçrivation doçs not co¡rstiiutc one of thc required ¡rredicale
3CiS.

V/e fin,l that the use of rhe rrutsrboard const¡f utes â theât of imrniuent deåtlt. As you Itave explaincd d:e rvaæràosrd procedure rc us, it cieates in the subjecl the ttnconqotlable ptrysíologiql schsation t¡åt the subjcct is drorvni4g. Allbouglr ttrc pioccdure rr,ill be mo¡ritored by personnel wi¿h medical uaining and ex(eniive SbRE school oxpedèucc ivith this prqç-cdurc wlro u¡ill sllsurc dì.e subject's menhl and phlsícal safety, ibe subject ls not aça¡e of any of theso nrearutíons. Fron the vanlage point ofany reasørable penon undeigoing tliS procedure in suoh
circunrJtanc¿s, h.c rvorrld feel as if he is drowning at ì,sry notlìeli of iire ¡:rocedu¡e due to the uncontrollable ph.vsiological sensatio¡ he is experienoing, Tlius, lhjs procedwe ca¡utot be vicrve-d as too u¡:cerlaiuto satis$'the inmitence rcquír'ement. Accortiingly, ít constitutes a th¡:eat olimnine nt cicath and f.rliills the predicata acl rcquircnrenr uoüer th.e staltrte.

Althorrgh d¡e rvate¡boa¡cí constífirtcs a thrc¿t.of iru¡ninent deadu prolonged menfal harrn nlust noltetheless r-r,sult l.o violate ùe stanrory.prohibilion ou infliction of seve¡e mental paitr r:r suffedng- ,Ico Seoiion 2340Â Memor¿ndrun et 7, We.lra've prcl,iously coucluded..tbalprolongecl menta:l bann is menlal hasr of some !âsling diriàlÍou o,g,,. menßl ìrantr laSting rno¡rtlis or yeus. ,S¿e ld. Prolonged meutal harul is not simBly the sl,ress orpericnced in, íor examplq an interrógation b¡, state police. ,Sec dd Besed on your resegrch inrc tle wc of tlicse methods at the 'SERE school and cousuliation rvith others rvith er:"pcnisc in the ileld of psychotogy ancl inÍerrogation, you do not anticioate that an¡'prólonged nlerrt¿l bu:u woukj iesult tiom the use of tile \^'atêrboald, Indced, you lrave advised us thæ the relief is almost i¡rnlediate s4rcu rhe clorh is reruoræd fronr thc ttose and nlouth [n the abss¡rce of pro]ongcd menial lralnr, oo severc nresul ¡nin or rrrfl'r.ríttg trçrrld hnvc bncn inflicted, and tbc xc of heso proc¿durss worlrl uot const.inirc tortu;.c wítl¡in fhe rneaning of ihe statu.te. V/hen t"bese acts are cor,sidercd as a course of conduc! \Ì! ¿rc unsure whethcr thesc acrs n:ay constittrtc a [uest of severe pl:ysícat pain or suffering. You hai'e in<licsted to us thel ]'ou Itar'¿ nof deterrnined either the orcier or the precisc riming for implementing rlrcse procedules. lt is co¡:ceivablc that tbcse nrocedures cculd bc uscd ir¡ a coursc oíescalrtíng conduct, movlng incrementally and rapidll, from loast physicrlly in{nrbive, e.g,, facínl holtJ. to the most rrhysicai con¿¿ct, e.g., u'alling or the watcrbocrd. As ue undersund il bascri on his t¡'eatmenr so far, Zuba¡'dah hæ come ro expect rhat no plr¡sical hann rvill be donc to lúrn. By using these tecluriques in increasing interusity anci io rapid successier¡ the goal ç.nuld be to dislocige thls e>lpectadort' Based oo the faas you have provide<l to us, \\! caff¡ot say defìnitively that thc enli¡e course ofconductrvould cause a reasonable person to-belìcre that i¡e is beihg threatencci

royÃiwr

t5

./
roP*fcner
r,¡ i

rh sev c re

pc

in o r

su rrc

rin s

uiti'lÏì:

circumslanc< u ¡lder ccrt¡i n cnìminating in tl'' o'te'oãil

t l{ iîf åïî.}î.{:å.* J.:ii'å :: öiffi ("';;i'ì+'"k''::]::å'.Jiîil",î;;:;iiiåìålJ;1*¡'*u:':':
:
i

Ïl

i::d#.ï.X:,1'.'l'*,:..Í.I,i".f Qfi::-':{üiiJ[¡,ffi couduct tvou lï:"J;i'¿in whe(her ihc coutsc T40(2)'
';"Ëä;.'t
it \À.outJneverrhetcss--on
titc

:J"**Y;:,'J::iäi:i
'ltltv:t"t{:ttåî'îïTn:îi'

jiî: :îiålåïäl ñ;;Ëìi'"" {ro us1 11o procedure must ;ö;;;;;trtccoursc.'ffi'".;å\T,::J:',ili.iff 'åär"i"*'ìiå.""*,tl'-lî.ilJ;'#i:"i'' orlt .J3used ;:"j,iiyä;; protoo.gea nrcotal hanu'ilris *T* r *nru.aprociuces a*y,pt i' tl'rè exists that indiceli::g that no ewcnce ïä';åät"' and culnriuating that a cours¿ of con{u¡^t ¡rstttc
ïä;:.;.";t;clude 23404' .äåirr.*a t"ould not r'iolate $ecdon
sr:ecif

to pose a threat :f or crrnduct rvcre tltought crrndut! lr1u" tLt"C]1l ui"f^tioo of.S Even if ¡he coursc'' of

ìcrnten!roviorateti¡estatr:iq'an'å*;a;iJ:;å::ît$f*#;.tnmtí

in'tet :il:* ffi''to iniiui¿u¿ musietpresslv .ca:"t ä;i;; ;i -0Á Mcmo'sn'i a*' at t"::' *'T-1 'r.Ë;'ffi:fî::.äriä'J#J, tha( f defen<iant'
3 i

n8

c

r,''

Ï

ä;;"t*';itïnt'iog' he nas not *,'d l"1tl :q::l i;;;;. "fi;;'r' u' ii¿r'se' 2I8 F'3d.It'i'MI

iiät

-c

nlt*

f"und

i

fi,rffi$

.

*:äiliifu
ii
at 8.

Good iaith may

ndtirru;.tltl¡li;i ;'x***Èt*g**'
be

otlter esøl¡tishcd by' amolg

or suffering' Thc Basedo¡¡thqiEfoEtationloy-fryifr1o'videdus'v¡ebeli¿ve'(hatthosecarryingoutrhese or fr''v'i1"1 r"ut ¡i"tttte coß5tarr' Prescrce pioceduresv/"ur¿ n.ïiu'"îriu iäin" ro- oause Jr*i;;;i";ipulo' it a'pear inteilor¿.tion shoutcl of rhese *',,.,iqur. is nor o,ciecrive

io*,,iiä*'t".'*

pci.sorrncl ,,ui,t-, ii is merlica'y

ïìï!öi;r3:îgi:?å:r'ffi :tim:i;+î"Jff iï''i:îü:ñi'i'i:,i:iåi tttt use oithese tcchniques' SER-E school ualntr o. ¡is ,.."öit"päri 9v
Zubaydalr,s ioj.ry

*.¿iäiäi*ri"g'r-r," r,."" *"ãJln.ttni'iãì,ii,çsuse severe'physiool pain' I| (0 '¡" tltzl il i' nnivntì' iolÉnl "-.."r*î;ì*ni'*e¡ i:Ë;"î;.;rr"l,ä

Tlrird.asyouhar,edescribed.thcrntous,ùepropose<irecluriguesir,volvingplrysical

coniâ*f

to ¿uoaYqa¡¡. scrieus physical harm

]r rl..' ",**"n-"iËî"ïT:f 'l-ï,'i¡J#*,:U.'m:'."X*:ii,l":ïäliil*"
roPy'cner

./

!6

./
TOP8ÉCRËT wlriplasìl a¡¡d he *ill be permitted tg o¡ornlorir tfre fléxible wall to reduce thc likelihood of injury. Sinrilarly, in tl.re "facial ho!d,'t thc ingertips rvill be kept rvcll auray from tìæ bis eyæ to ensure that Tl¡ere isoo'injury to them. ihe purpose of that facial hold ís. uotinjr¡re hint but to hold rl're he¿d iuunobilc. Additlonally, whìle úre strcss positions and rvall saqding rvíll undoubte<ily result in ph¡'sical disconrfort by tiring rhc muscles¡ it is sbvíous tbet tbùsè positious aíe not íliendqd to produce rhs kind of exr¡eme ¡rain rcquircd by rhe stanrte.
l:urlhenrrore, no specific iiìtenl to câuse sevcrcnrcnr¡l pain ocs,.lffcring eppeals to bc PreseDI. Âs wc cxplaineiJ irt our rece,:ç st¡r'.* an iudividu¿l rnust luve the specifrc il.¡tent ro uruse prolonged rncrrtal h¡rrr¡ ín order ro h¿r,c the specific inient rù inflicr sevgr.c nrcntal paio or suffering' .See Section 23404 À4emor¿ndum at 8. Prolongcd nrcntal harnr is sul¡.stantial menpl
¡,ears a.frcr the scts rvere lntiac<J uPon the prísonor. ds rve indicated abové, ã good faith.bêliefca¡ negete ihis elemenl Accordíngty, if an íhdívidual couducriag rùe íntenogation bos a goodûith l¡elief th¿t drc ¡rfe$ues he will apply, separately ortofedrer, \.r,ôr¡ld Eot resuliín prolonged,mentaf b'arm, tbar iudividual lacks tltc requisite specifc !nre'lr. Ttiis conclusion .oo..*íng riøtio intent is d:nher bclsreled by the due diligence rliar h¿s be¿n codilucfed concemi¡g tlì¿ eft!;b of these

bsnn of a sustained duration, e,g., hae-l fasting uronth o,.r"n

inicnogadon procedures.

The arenal heatth oxperts úal you have consúlted have indicatcd that the ps),chological impact of a cotuse of con<iuct rnust be essessed rvíth reference ro &e subject's psycbologicãl

¡!¡C! !lis ca.pWq, and infn.m-eriorufrom

profile, yöur¡rersormcl drcw'o¡ düect intcrvicrvs, Zubay,Jah's diades, obsen'ation of Zuúnydah
nthp.r.cnrr¡.r:rq srr¡å a<'nlhar in+pllioen¡¡.aná nr¡co rana¿

oiany one ¡¡rocedure or sct of proccdurcs aJ a course of cooduet witl result in pr<llóngecl mental lnror A comprehensive psycbological proñtc of Zubaydalr lras becn crc¡lcd. in creJting rhis

histotl' arrd cun'ent¡neutal be¿lù stna¡s. Tl¡c hcalttier

tb¿

Lqdividual, rÀi tess lil:ely rhaittre usc

As we illdicatcd abovq ¡ou havq informed us that ¡,our propose,l iuterrogation ursrhods havc bcen use<l and conlinue to l¡e uscd in .SERE training. Ii is our und.ersending d¡at tbesc techniqucs are nol trsed one by one i¡ isolaiion, but a æ full course of conduct tô resÈnble a real htermgarion' thus, fhe iofonn¿tion <ierived frq¡n SERE eaining bears bott¡ upon the irlpact of tlìc us! of ilre individucl tech¡iques and upon tlicir use as a course of cor¡ducl you lravc'found ¡hat dle usc ofthsse metlrods toietüeror separately, including dr;r*"iùt" watcrboard, has oot re$l¡teg ìn aay negative long-term rnentsl he¿lth .ãns.q*n".s. The contiaucd usc of {hcsc ¡r¡ethods u'ithout meínl he¿ldl cu¡rsequencos ro rhe t¡ainees i¡dicatqg rl¡at it is triglrly improbablc

*Ñ*

t't

deten,ine

¡.tì", tî.
ê"",iån

2140À'

tnect ihs sPeotnc nJicve thai you 'ìo tlot

aione::ld¡il'$.{3;*".;ruS}îî:'ltl,t^i: rhar rr¡æe p.,"0,;*;r,r'er
tr
,

:uld result hert'

'ouff*' ltuu"

to thedue diligcnce yotr have conductsj

*'**'

subject' ^..--* lileñfllre on t.e

d**;çu¡tui[gl.u$**.ugnç*rl',1åuffi
indi cate!'À'cre uíaware

""'''oi]o'scribe<r-r,.îi::i*,ï*iiiir.ä*äî*[=1j:îiriîii,li,îiiîîffü'""'
imi:acl. if a'nY, these

äHit[i:'lr:iffi '.t:ïîi'üfi i: ";**i, il the rele*anl literautrc
ä'.îr*"
of the procedures, õ^ir¡. "r" ^no"i"*ta initudi¡rs

Pr<

*Ìl?li^f"dah *"'"tIî;î"";;ro;" ublÌ! e1.* and aboul rtre I íaittr

of

a good

ä*tîÏ,';t::r'ilrruruHr;:x*1'"*:iliiHill;n:;;ü-*,îùã*.*a,i'u'í rvíll resurl, tt'-o*äiîãi.¡oo"r:]"t{riliiir"u.,r.,r, prorouged nreural hanr
î*irciir.,"r
no

fåriiil,Y,î:î"ö.",'*'ffri'ylÏ*k*:*:l=r,*i:ll,lÌåi,tx;"n" tÌ:t1:: i¡rtent to tnflict prolosgeq
the srrecific ,f."in. intent to r"nriï

?ñ il tht

'î"å''- "'it''r methods case tbe use of tl:ese

poin

scpor

"1

:åïüîî

"1:i:Hå:i"iilîåîr¿-not

"tor't*

Section 2340,{'

'
as

:*;r:'J,"".,'åËllifi:$::îïli:iffi'iå{:åå'lj'î'JilJ*:'ii:î'l''Íi" there lru't this stamrc; just
;.ä;;Juing
Please let us knou'

ifwe

can be

of futfhel assistance'

,rø*,
,lrrîr'-i #

rg

Appendix

t-)

Con!ltlonrj ro¡ CIÀ'Detalnaes Gui!ellpos on Coaf,{:lenÊnts
conflnemenE, Eof

Ion

safetsY

of

"ue
a

Provl"l"l TY:l-b"

Eaken

to prolecl ilÎ-h:?lLh

anô

r''t#Leiûeütù39 P¡ocadureg

I

i

I I

Guídellnes

on Confinemenb

Condltíons

for

CIå De!aínees

responstble f,or each speclf,l.c, Det,enefon'rãóiiiev, lul ehaE, "" each R:"ponslble Çr.À offtcér has been provrãèã i¡ícir a c ç¡.tr vEr¿cetr nas ¡leen provtded wlbh copy oE :l:h ^:-yy..l+fr¡.r and has revj.ewed a¡d sicrne,¿i t-he a"ranl :::i E0ege cuidellnes Eo-ese GUidellnes a¡rd ãigned bhe attacheäl Àclnorrredçime¡¡E. and (c) Ehats eâch Respou;ibIê. crÀ officer a¡¡d ur¡au eãã¡ nesponãlbt..-ere-'otttcer an¿r gaq} çIA off icer. paiÉiciBacíng
wiEh a
and has
NE,

- Res¡tolelåle CI.ä. Off lcer The Director, DCI Count,erterrorisE, CenE,er ehalle¡-lsgre (.a) thaE, aE all- E,imes, a specific ¡gensy-st,aff enqrloyee (t¡e "Responsibte cxÀ orfi¿Ãi;l -rï=ãäãi"iàu*a (tåe ot¡i;år;l -rï-ãäJidàL*a
3

4.

Inbelligence

Date

rì¿t-lss

':

Detainees Condiuions for'CI;A on Confíneruent Guidelines
AçF¡o$f'EDs!æIgf

!r'of,ftcer for'

Ehe

'!e9aineest.-:.
ACI(NOI.ÙT,EDSED

I Dage

ñame

.

Appendix E

r,hê

of conduct of inEertogaEio¡is

ôoerations g¡rlda't tl: " }:X"T îãËäii ã éu: I óT : lil : : DO gur'o " "; "p: exisEing "i5::t';x consror'' Etä"å-'ci rãårittes s!all recbnl'ques .1- Be¡ætssíPla lulair"St"1"l

rhèdeeui.a:rfe]-"1g¡gr"l"'-åi:ïtrå"iË:ií:"""

tbe of

:i:;:" .'

"*:î"

.

unres

s' :iËii:É"?i:i"ii:ilîfrå*îg:äåä"

"" "

Ét*iî#t#it*ffi :å":åï"ãi"i*"=

ffi

ä:l:T"å:f ,^nËåi!iËi, -Fl^.1i"::å ?i

iåHi

medical and, çisychological ltãre ãt euu deb,åinee, 2. Medlcal a¡d Fsychoiogiåaf perEounel

bv ápBtövãe r'iÈ"ii"õãuãT"-ãåi PY !" cne spee.Lflc deEalgee, wiEh approBrlaLe. ñedlcal anduse wirh psychological participaEÍon Íir- tir'e process. These E,ecbnlgues 3Iî¡-Fg,at,uenuton gr"spr watlins, Èhe iåõiar-il;rã, È,he :::}ij :I1P (1nsu1c slap) i Ehe abd,onuihal s1ap, crar!ed ' wq,ll ::::}l1$rit',. beyond-?2 houris,stress po:sÍtlonsi "i¿¿; protonsed -sb?ndittn, rhe usè of diapers fo? ::*eiiYitlon use of. harmless inseçls, the perlod*ç, the wãter boarã, and-' sueh other rechnlqueF 1s may.b.e "éããiriäãrii-ãipIãi"a PUT:u3nE.eo paraglraph 4 belõw. rhe uqe of èacîr-"nhanced. x'ec¡trrrque is subjecE. bo- speilffc tem¡loral physical, rel.ated condítiois, rncruãinõ-ã-competent,ewaluat,ion and Ehe of,

r__- Enh.ary:ed:Teçhrlques are Eecl¡Fiques ghac do ost cal :l::Iryf"5e. ph¡rsicul eI_ psycho.tof each ¡ires sure' bayond Ëpeciflc sniranced :::*g?fd reêhniques. flre: úse Heaaquarbèrs 'ljecnffque .mrsE be apBroved in advance, and. !y *lplovga o$l-

1-Ly. available for consult,ation a¡rd travel co. f,he on sít,e durÍng. i::::. cì-tEffifn(errogaEion síte durÍn'g. aLl debainêe *..eçrrvséL¿ens employing 6tandard Technlgues, aad aBproprjrr¡cerrog'at.ions eñproy'.ng rieandård aBpropri-at,o esych#roõ:.cãr pài"ã"¡"r mù"iïÀ-å"ìieL durincr Tî9':1] ande- iå r, erroõãr iõ,ã -äo ù-;i"ä'ilhä lïÍ'::]_?ld-elvch#loõ:..ãr pài"ã"¡"i *. J¡ïÀ-å"ileå durins I îl eacn case, E.he medical and psychologlcal";ä ; å ä"ïä :ï: ¡rr ^l :.."ile personnel shal ffi".fl :loå: È:ffiiå tfr#"ä*r ;*I1. :::n:3i, :t: - {"rË"äåËiåå iiu,*-¿\sar çe rt;"r.l¿Ë irr.-EI¡e.¡.ncerroga.E,ron * not, suåBended. -- iilEïir:u,:liï1" 1 ti"-ili:1.æiru Ís å: trå:åö I! .:y such insb'ance, *¡à_ incãiiãàãclo" rãur-"rruii-å+.nqenr _,, &vr :X"*i: : :rï aÈ;reEorú" ;;. Ë ä- Ëääåõ;', ;;Ë' iäl ¡t¡4¿qgc4s¡¡u i_ deBerr¡r-ine wheEher Ehe interrogat,íõn nay ;:"_::y.:^rjrevier¿/ be resu¡ned, 3. Tnuorc¡çratiorr perbo¡¡,al

ti.t"

::::::

Direclor, . Ih" thar a3.1

-personnel dírecEly'""sãõ",i

DCI Count,erLe¡rorisE Cenber shall

:îe.meqrjca-t; IFIZcEõ:Fgical, and securiCy suãndpoines), have h¿ve received ,T-:vi.eït:d !hese Guidelines, have receiveä apBro!riate l-r¡ini training il. """".å"i^re 3å"ilË'ål;: ll,,Jl : -'*iã'ãi cu ei o; å"ä-ü"Ë ÀcknowledgnnènE

f

.

;

ïãil

"i:å

Gr.rideliue

o¡1

atlons

Condqg-ted Pur

.to

Ehô

4,.'ú¡Brovais
W'renever

is' regr:ired for in f,easible' a'dva¡ce approval

Re'sulred

:Ti
CTC

Tå:,s.::ÏffiÎJîHïHil!Ë-il;*!:l:¡'liÏhhGroP¡

*i-r-:uiÏ"çëli=[$$;51çsi Lega}
e:

3;ç''
"'i" "
.
"

rffi*imr +rLäï*¡*il$¡;:
+-prËv-

:åffi
BerEonn!

u

i::H*ir,"*,îä:'t**ltri'l;i"**::s+*i-, (d) the menb,al pialn pr-siËe"iiãs". o+d
Iã'
åËrà-àl'ãã-

bhe rlght Eo

a;:*g¡"¡i-*i
e

ri,* d'täãã¿'Ëå

; _.I?H;

"¡n

iqàiå L"U: ":"Xl .
"

å3i1"

!l ". t'

'' ""

5. Recordlrgei:Ing v¡hích an Enhanced In each inEerrogat'ion qqss'lon in ffi :åH.ii:f Ë : .iîf I i" : : ::H :s: tï,å" iH " å --'lr' I *:ååË# i.: I :ä;;:":i' ;ä ishalL be " : il'stH"; ;ã-; cable' inforrnacÍur,, *tti"h-¡nav be i" tËî;;; Provided bo tteadquarters '

äi'r;:iîi# *l"::fr}:;'

APPRQ\IE#:

i

larrla¡l¿er¿ÉôS
tncellfgence
Date

4(1SSOrrûEpCl@NE

, ' ., acki¡owleAsà Ebac I bave read a¡d .. I, uirderstand and t¡111 corqoly wiEh tbe .¡!gi¡!!!es og__

A,CK}IOV{LFOGED:

Date

.

Appendix F

M
.':'

DRA}.T OMS GUIDELINES ON MEDICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT TO DBTAINEE INTERROGATIONS . .September 4,2003
The foliowing guidelines bffø general references for medical officers supporting the detention cif tenorists caphued a¡d hrned over to the Cental lntelligence Agàncy for intenogation and'del¡riefing. There are three different contexrs i:r rvhicñ ttræe guiOeiinæ

.:
,'
.1

/¡ff¡'ÀBOGATION SUPP2RT

sai.ctiôned techniques, all of rvhich are also *.,i on U,i nitltzry Ìdd: pe¡son:rel in SERE training programs. These are designed to psycholbgically "dìslocare" the detainee, maxi.tlize.his feeling of vul¡erability anã helplessness, and reduce or
o

terrorists i . . Cep*ed legally hmed over to the C.I.A. for intenogation may be subjected ro ialge of

eljminatd bis rvill to resist our efforts to obtain c¡itícal inteiligence,

. ., _ . Sat ctioned interrogation techniqúes must be speci-fically approved in aclvance by thç Dírector, CTC in the case of each in¿ivi¿uat cæc. Th.y inctu¿e, in approximately as!ending degree of intdnsity:

i '; : I : . i : ì

Standard measures (i.e., rvilhout physical or substantial psychological pressure) Shaving

Srippiug
Dia"ering (generally fo¡ periods not gteater than ?2 hours) Hooding
Isolarìon White noise or loud music (at a decibel level rhat will not darnage heæing) Coùtiurous light ôr cla¡kness Uncomforrably cool enyi¡onment nesricted diet, including reduced caloric intake (sufficierit to mai¡tain general health) Shackling in upright, sitting, or horizonral position

'Water

Dousing

Sleep deprivatioo (up to 72 hours) 'Enhanced measures (wîrh physical or psychological prÊssure beyond the above)

Attention græp Facial hold krsulr (facial) slap

W

Abdomi¡ial itaP

kolonged diaPering
Sleep degrilati.on (over 72 hours) sEess n-iloffå,r, body slanted fonvard or backward with forehead on wall

-leaníng Walling IVaterboud

crampJo. côntin ment (Confinesie¡t box'es)
these techniques is a piychological impact' a¡d

;'dislolat¡ingl U¡ expeetations regarding nor some physical effect, õitll . spãciñc.goal of The more-pbysical techniques are tire neamæni he believes he will receive" limited to avoid seriqus physical harm' Th'e slaps for delivered in a ma¡¡er carefully ã*ig"r¿;a ioao." shock, surprise, aud/or hu¡qiliation" and "uota to i¡flict in p^io tnaiis severe or lasting." ro ihis end they must be delivered

In all inst¿¡ces tbe general goal of

""

".r*pf"ä úr"ä
mos.t

specifically circr:mscribed r¡anner, e'g', rvith iingtt*.Yt19: .Ydtgil"..*,19-"Ï,1 AII walung aoc *ipti"gUo*¿ designed to be löud and bóuncy (and cushiol the blow)' solid! suppoited witl a artention gr*p, *rì.-ii*t"¿ onty wi'fb'the subject'stread towbl to zivoid èxtension-flexiôn i¡jury'

'

that the detainees subject to 'ienh.ancecl" interrogation techiques, aitd for deternining cause selious or to au*rorizeA ufioioitt utioo of these tohùqu.t would. not be ex!ected t ;"¿i bui¿"lin"r " havq been issued formalizìn g these respons ibili ties, ;.*r"

oMS ís responsible for assessing and monitoriug thg he$th of all Agenry

;ä;;"ì
*¿

tn".e should be ieaddirectlY'

:

.

standa¡d measures; measufes a¡d is

on ãn-site medical anã psychological personnelz corofirming to "on¿iUo.if from dírect detainee examination that the enhanced technique(s) is not expected tbe procluce "severe physical ot mentai pain oi $uffering." As a piactical Oatter, be such that tbese interventions wili not have lasting äetainee,s physicdiondition.must

beyond whenever feasible, advance approval is required to use aly measures is required for all "etrIanced" it.noiqu.-tpecifiïadvanced approval

'!rolonged mental standatd usedby the JustiCe DepUtment for "rncntal" harm is duration, e.g., menbl harm lasting uronths 9r y"Ts'" harm," i.e., 'omental harm of såme lasting would have been "In the absence of pmlonged mental hm, no severe úental pain Or suffering p' 15' inflicted." Memoranduro of August 1,2002,

t

ïhe

Unless wc¡tcrboard requires the prcsence of a physician'

á physician o'r a P

4
effect, antl his psychologícal sute snonfenough that no severe psychological harm will result. Tbe medical implications of
General intakc evaluation New'detai¡.ees a¡e to have a thorough initial medicdl assessment, ivíth a complete, and nhvsical addressi¡e in
ttre

DCI guidetnes a¡e discussed

belov¿.

Documented

nedical rechecks should be

brief, the data should reflect what rvas checked irnd include

Meclical neatment

It is irnportant thaË adequate medical care be provided to detainees, even tliose undergoing enhanbed interrogation. Those règuiring cbionic uiedications should receive
them" acu

provide4,

Etrr*-t-If

.mosito¡ed and

nutition.

iloitot.¿
U

and recorded'

nconrforta!ly.cool envirorunents
Detai¡rees can safely
be-

plaped

inuc

r"nuùJJ,iti"*gt"sliomhourstooaY+

comfortablefor individuats.

If there is any possibiliw

ffi;ñdtå.@

that ambient lemperatures

a¡ebelowthttllermtry${

At ambient

White t¡oise or.loud music.
As a practical guide, there is no pennaûent hearing risk foi coutinuous, 24-hoursa-day exposures to sound et 82 dB.o¡ lower; at 84 dB for up to 1g.höirs a day; 90 clB for up to 8 hours, 95 dB for 4 hours,'aod 100 dB t'or 2 be provided to meæu¡e these ambient sound levels.

-

Shaekling Shackling iù non-sbessful positions rquFer only rtronitoring for the development !!¡e_qgres with appropriate [eab¡ent dnd a'diusment of the Jhackles æ requi¡ed.

4

IL.^, j*O.td_apnrov at f" is 72 hou¡s. Extenslcjnofsleep deprivation beyondiz continuãus hours is conslãereda¡ l.
^-L^--^¡----

NOTE: Exanìnations performed during periods of sleep depríviztton shoaliÌ"íncluile the current number Òf hours wîthout sleep; and, ìf only a bríef iei precedeil rhís.períod, the specifics of the pràtlouî deprivation also slnuld be recoided. '

Cramped

-cqlrñnement lConfineErent boxes)

4

V/ater-boafd

Thisisbyfæthemosttraumatico.f$eenhancedintenogationtecbnïques.'[he id SERE k""of.agu. of tlttìse of theíatsiboard m¡del contexr hsre äli,ot"d the historical .t *"1. In hundr;itffi;r**.rr*.ãit:åi"tylã**d evescoveted'with a cloth' 'ERE raining !everal
the subiect is A s'earq of water r- ¿fí."oä.iir,g lowered ro cover ,h"

fdti"äã imrnobiliäiähË#il*9lt''Ii;i;Ñ.ubjeõq

uplitln.
Utã

then bave the bloth

äH,f 'å3:::T*,tri,ffif
of ¡he cloih, tf..

"å-;;i*""tli;S

w*iãt continuei

to be

applie* fullY

dË;,

j;ir.-"púrüìöäù*,ú:yitråi.'i.";J":ffiüîi j"ri*iri::ï3. ru:nn:'t"."'1il:',:*'"iiïå:å:iï'ift äu'9''l'råùit''pô'*itv
* fif'*ffll'n*** it --_y
tbls wc.IuqutT' t'¡¡u uw ¡ technigue, a¡d deem

*uUp.ìirîå-"ai.triy.Ut.

$"ï$îf if î;itÏ;lit***.m:"ål"i*:"lvater Ut"athe, but cootïnues to bave
to

inesistible in

ttr.e

Eaining

---

I

The SERE trnining program hæ applied the water'board technique exposure) to tainees foryears, and re!orteïly there haye been thousands of alpücatíons wititout significant or læting medical conrplilations. The procedure nonetheiäs carríæ ¡oge.{sk¡, particularly wbel repeated a large number of ti-mes or when appiíed to a:r i¡dividuat less fit thaq a typical bEng rainãe- severd Àeaíc¿ ¿irc*ioü need ro be monitored to ensuxe the safety of the subjecf.

(single

:

! o* limited experience, extensiVe sustaiired use of the waterboard can intodúce new rislcs- Most seriously, for reaso$¡ of physicat fatigre.or psv.u"r"ãã ' the subject may simp.ry give up, ailowing äxiessive äiine .¡in unresponsive subjec[should consciousness. be righteä "r't¡ä imracoiltely, and the "f intenogator should deliver a sub.xypioid thnrsr ,h; If ttris fails ro resrore no:mal.brT9iog, aggressive meoi"ãt intewe4tion.is iequired. .{ny subject who has reached this degree of comFrömjse is not coasidered *äppràptiute candidate for the waterboard' a¡d the physician on the scene can. not approvä ñ:rther use of the waterboæd without specific C/OMS consultatjon ald approval.

Ã"iy, ill;:i

i*igr;ti;,

" "ü

;ier.

'

..E rigid guide to medically approved use.of ihe waterboa¡d in esseutially healthy individuals is not possible, a.s sai'ety wiu oepenc on how oi wuì., is applied and.the specific lesponse.each time iris used. The iollowi¡g g.o.r.ltgoidelines a¡e based on verylimitedknowledge, dra.wnfromvery few subjeõti wnos.jixperiengg *a,æpoÃ" was quite varied' Thise rèprese¡t oor/*it. medical guidelines; legai guidetines also a¡e operative and rnay be more'-resnictive.

medic allY accelt1b.l3

Aseries(withina"session")'l:"*'l'Î11'-'lt"ii:ii"Ï:'::iätåitJ¿i$." in¡ll
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ord.ertobest T

and'iecdmmendartons' f"ryfr'y:: y:.1::^ i"ogments doc¿nnented: ho'w lons

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SECTION 1.0- OVERVIEW

1.1

Overview

L

Efforts âgainst the Al eaeda tgrroris!-glgglizâlg! have usherecr h'urrclrèds of suspected and known group nrembers into custody.

I

Ma.ny of th.esq

detainees have proven to bq sgutggg._oJ_eclg¡e!lg$glti0elce d,ealin(ì w rqngqoJ counter tenori¡ls:t¡gS, A small number

of these cletai¡rees aro reco.<¡nizecl as well-placed ¿\l Qaeda operatives, v¡ho holcl secret consiclerable iníormàtion on

their crganization's past activities ancl future plans. These targets of higher value, or Hlgh Value Targets (Frvr), have beerr uncooperative
during crebriefìngs, ancl

resistant to our standard interrogation efforls. ln fact, extensívo experience with Al Qaeda prisoners lras made.it evicJent that certain cletainees
ha,¡e received fornlal

training in techniques to resist interrogations, and tlrat they are particularly adept using cultural cliffe¡'ences as both an interactive impediment
to the interrogation
hicle from

at

'

process anrj as a psychorogical support nrechanism r:ehincj which to interrogative efforts.

order to teams

effectivetyìeat¡1ill[lïIggg]fgqutarion,

Center tasked thel resístance, qnd

L*-_--*_Jto
inte

Dírector, e_unter Tenoríst
up and train Íntenogatiol

se_t

¡lembers have the skills and
strateqÍes to a

lncumbent to this approach is resistance technique identification, anci, when serviceable, ímpf ementatíon of certain speciarizecr
counterm easures.

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resiqt4nce t¡aining ls ?vailable to high+lsk Al Qae¡la operatives.

countormeasures.have been developed irl such a way nq! ig vlolats United,Statgg Federal aqd lltematlonal torture prohibitions.

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ãã -e*-ut¡P"tto Futr¡re #emand'
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pesulb from the first AlQaeda HW interrogated r\"oqrw rr-"' -'-r¡sw¡¡ -L-' -rr!.,r Trrhavcla- have "een outst techniques' !!gzg!ayo'a¡ IìäI' the ator"r*tltioned enhanced 2002' Since Apriì'
levJi Zubayda reached a satisfactorv

using the

interrosation team

i:iiii:ffiil
:::i:iil::iliï,
united United

9l9-oiTlia;Jin 'qugutt ìtttl[ggt* has qroduceat-_--- 'gøg!"blt

dl*'
th e u

At Qaeda at":',11"-t-ï:^t:T:-'1|;tî,ff a blo to neurra rize .c G ov e rn m ent be in s to the in operations harmrur capabiritios ro qnsase thoso ^ont ¡loc'isicrn mat<ers hgyg-4-Pos!! US p states' States. Because of this'

ìffiffi i*a''' "¿?'o*u

instances or

s

-

tr.'uóu

there is pressure view of the proglqlr, and

tcñcrease

Hvf

lntenogation

of additionr{H!¡T gxpecfg(l.tnat-llttË-Irgq,,v" that

it can'be

captures and

$e

fm for Uore HVLPToqE llkqG-e"crease in-demand

-'---""'

.

SefViC_eS.

n

2.g

OPeratlonal'Assurnptions resources willbe

and availa!le for

icted in sedeúr-lugtì

thd arecriü@

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prosram wiÍt provrde to,

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servfces by caretuity fncreasfng. fte ¡umber of

-:lpsychologlcal

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""*5;1,:$nlì[îäi,li:å;i',i,;:l '-:* ¡a nÉ F,^l1T ii:,fî:.,'å*i I,S require technisusg'--Peffn
o

:ïl; ñ.", *

|

---=---r-:=== F-eãõqua*ers approva plan.

?tiot- - ^ il:ffiånääiã.nnrqu"s provision ot ãã"tuiitd interrogation on thè

n?ïr11,.d.1,::i::¡:'f;li'j$[îî:å;i:s':J:+f; :lil+fr qrre r- t -'' -ll.fOfmS e¡¡rPrv)\ ã¡":;:ls¿'J,i.iii3å.tq;'iiìì#i!,ri:',x;l5åi:il"iä bY nOt inCOfpOÏaËe Prty!ruqr Of qUeSUOnlfig emploYed

[i]i

mitita'" '"""riåi, ll'l"i:l[lli:.".1,.çii'lå'Ji'ii'J"-'iu;üi;i':î,li:'::i:",[i;ilî'å.ä(so ü.Ë. ìu* enforcemirît änd iãär'.ãl.utoric intake in" (not tc exceed *o "',iåi'ií;;Ë; ;t;ipäp;riãüo. tnot::,:ï:-Î:1T,1l'"'"r.,n the eenemr neåitn or the ieîp ¿"ptlvatlon is calcutateo t" e.""ml health of "':;,;;'u* orloud rrroiõ-ui tro" amgYn.t i111l1]l:i9-1t3..,Slrtu', use ãf"loud noise (not tong ut the amount u¡ rrJr¡v reading materlat' us'

!iäriå"i;

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'damaging), 'dnd the use of "diapers,, for limitgd,periods ' ), and moderate psychologÍcal pressure'ãre authorized.

Ãccoitfinil, wileie sfã!'f{lesäFe rode e,rnp
_!_e_v,el

of the detainee's tieâ¿ to ãuorà

I

- --l

L__
I

I Please note that shackles may be used to keep a detai¡ree in a standlng position during perfods of non-enhanced sleep cleprfvation (shorter than 72 hours)-, so rons as rh; ;;å';iåËrui¡on, are fol.lowed.

.f.;;'.d,ô;ã

L,__ | Enhanced Techniques: tncorporate

techniques. All tecfiiti¡ties are d!slgnåo tô not.ngunãur lasung and :ever? niental or physical harm to the detälnee. it ls understqã¿ that ysical pressqrel---l ls not intended,-however, nee aclually severe physical or rnental "ain;

physica,l. o-r psychologlcal pressure beyond standard

In.volves techniqu.es that DO

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ln addition, appropriately trained T.:!

',i,"ållitl;.11J'liÎiåiiiölïîi[ii*:iî,inhltii:::lì:îXlilå5å'J to Lrt<' ''i'iurî..' ål:ïl':'ff iil:Ì3å:¡::.i:::ä'*Ibli"1l'¡"'if ',"'l'ïËkåi-li'eoräce analysls to tbe.legal aovtser .nà'tr ihe Crlminal ;iËü èouns"¡ãttne P.p1tf|Ï 3^ *u- prpqrrrenr nu, bãän ¡ri. as h;' been briered 31å:i.i :iTffi¿å::lå ?'.:J¿ü.i:iä ï:i'"'J*'i;i ;;i; rL-;ã Ànnanc"d.techntques iñclude:
Faclal slaP Faclal hold Attention grasp 'Abd.onrlnal slaP

^,+.^Fnê\,c r,^'rp.

o.rel"#J. ãut

fegaf

' WallingPositlons Stress

éiåãl,i"privation bevond 48 hours. õ.sïãr dläfers lor Prölonsed Periods
Use' of harmless.insects CramPed confinement

Water Board

I

-

to detainee ls dependent a competent inltuotng *";in. remporar, phystcal', un¿ r.'r!åi"äilìüo1't'of the detainee' prv.r,àjãgì"al staie evaluauon of rhe'medtcal and I

rhe use of èach technique for each

r__-lTheuseofeachspeciflc.enhancedtechniQuemustbeapproved onlv bY approved--Ev-H.ê-adouun"rl tî ;ffi.ääroïli'ü" ärpjòv"q mediea I
use w*h tnu rpuåii'iJ d"bï;; i nrérrosarors ror the process' ä"ã p.v"notogiCat participatlon in

*rtn

ì

pb to#ri

ate

issues î11^?::ddressed [-_laompliance tii'safety and legal ui us-9f the detainee' The L-ã!!-tÍcarion of physica.t prurrururä -ug-ulTt be ã prime consideration physiial and emotionuili.iu will detainee,s pressure' before any appllcatlon of physical

before any

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i.r.::¡;:e.ler.\r¡ii<)i¡s i;ii-t<xt!rr;.1. 'i'v,,o ceni,::¡ì t.i3:.iiru Âbir Zuba,"Cair is being the priirar;, slt¡rponer

cf ihi: pklt, ,:i:,..l*i

rr.:si.

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this cell :¡rtl ihe ¡r!rr.

fuíar:agrrÍ
#,-.

a

rk of trainûlg sanii;it, se&!luu$i:s,
o.nd .,iÍg.it*.irisla.u,

lni

mujuheti;tvtelaie.C

clices

il

money
ti'¡e

m¡iei:als

i.:r

s.ll!ri of vaiiorr.sjùcds

hssiried in orìicr e:<tregi¡i¡gigp¡!¡!agq¿!g:,-,+n.

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n'"]'rçlY-ãcoo. From i996-i'9Í¡'

traint ær,i saúuation c i {r:

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o,:i"**ttl
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tll oificer
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spie* i¡l it:¡ir nritlsi'

p.""'::'1 subìe.ii res¿,rced that H:

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an! prtilr.rit
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#-id;iÏlL"ålÏ::'il:iË;;tii;ili*:ìirc6¡ci:irrtr''co1içge i'ìrne passtdhe and i'arai¡ gurals' Às
'his lraditio:ial*'f itut'unîi' iÍbi rrr! ir speciai nicrro

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c

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begeri c bege'i

t'r ilìinu 1r n ri,int: ut

jihrx!.Iìe
dr,,v¡t:.rl

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lti

t.:,;ilrxl .;incc thq x:C' if)90's'

i:i:.;:iäil ; ; ä;.' i*,,,,'¡..i i,'s,

"'t öiv,;i:::i::::1;11î: Iäl ,i1ili;tìris ','v i:i;ili*.riT" ,.";i',g '-\llzùr .,¿'J Is'iam tbrt:uglr
0
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s

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i

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rt

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k;r.,'ii:ig his :i.r'.'ìfçl t'eiíEil''r:s
âl:rileAl'iinr:e

aa'J'r*gult
ar¡rå,¡;i

prìzts i¿¡iri uiirigiri¡- i'eif-dir¿ctc'l i"t¡¡f "vlrc ¿lj.1y: Sr.:'cje,:'. is his ,.¡r'¿¡l '¿ray í'^Ilc -e-il t,f, ,:1y.pÍÈgs ,o* *rå*pt'lC"ricr: ì:i'Joii3'$iilqs irecl¿* ..r¡ri.¡¡ ri,c snric.i,.ire cf ¡¿di'-'tii xr'iiitfrsi ..,,L* ,¡.r'f* c¿,ä ni:ê ,, tho ærrtt:c r:i his iitological it i' t¡ckes \\,-b.¿n ire "¡lrt"¿rr eri'rìcn: iil'l'¿is a'ttt¡tîis¡i i$ l¡i's n*;"iutl*dl?å'"*t tiut 'iç¡i¡ri1e. Íit h¡'s t:t1t he rv"iili; a rr¡'ih*r "huiuble xi in ì:is obvicr.ls "ulittn'litin "* ,' r:,, L: Á.^i .ìoa r.li; :r,lîsp.t-lt * ;t a-tft¿" t'.r'i.siìÊ,,'sri'

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cxio{s' iineoatiisa$l
tirail;;

skepiicel anrt lvni}'t¡i

c'ritîj:]ti:^-:i:'('

lits3tssrcl:(

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J

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tl:e dis*ip

qp.IU:ìg up rù t1!íi!.f.S). iUi{i iìÌ$ÍiV Ciìt)êliJ3 lír cperuilg ctfie:s fÌna.r a ,:arie.t¡' oibackgrlue,Js. ì\¡ôt slìnr:"isi;,gli'. i:rc pôs.iesse{; dri,'ie, crcaiivil,v ind pragnraiinn th,at cìta¡ai.t¿rii.:¿ cif.ectiv.: lelile¡s.
!

to recogni*c'.ind
¡Tt,3ií.,,àti

a.sse.ss

ibe

and.

sticng;!¡, îer:ìjsgE.
r.ieps:z:d'it:g

oihers, Iis'!s ah{¡t alrJ ke.eni5, o!:er:nient olotheys' irrtr,raciiolls. He is ne<! to calei¡:ii,v gspge a situ'¿lion beiì:re r,licing opl'.iu.ons ci ievceìiilg
is adept at cìrccsi!Íg ta ,:ence¿i or conr# a par'icui.ui etiiiutle u, ,*olj.** t?le ci¡¡ts>:i a*d ilhncrJi¿te i:tiiiiy. Sr:bjcll îêìids 10 ìre a';ery"rí.¿¿te pe.r::ol: ical of o'r-Iers' i¡rielition.s a¡cl alert íor ulterior n:riitor. FIe i
r

'¿'ho ;ls s

vicila¡f

üoi io tlusi

¡sue¿l{^i

hilloil" r:f
l,-n.:¡rvn i¡is

Over¡iii, iu b-ier:t's bachgn:ulrl æ Êrt:pc.rt {inr:ìr.riijg diaries ¿lirri in¡cr¡ie.*.) ioes;-r.ot i¡:uiicaie f,riì¡ he :d iiisli:rìra:i;e r"-r,:rthãr ilsilchiai;ic ;riuit.,!og';,. L:dresl" ,l!s il¡oit*C ani

i$

,1

¡ ii:dica.ir,:s

clst he ìs rtrratlnh.!- resiljciti and c,;lluC¿¡rg tilar hs c;rn

iì\:gri:r.ì¡ile

iÈr

lo':t'm(,ârì,

I:ioverer,
no

ibc occa.si¡.¡:ts thai !:e ir:(0i,¡iei:r:es ,¡:cr¿¿rs¿d $iîüss ?:í.ìíyçìr nta;t #sq:¡¡'ug .scir:r¿"r'iia{ ri:or.: w:rl:Ciewi:. n:eienchaì.v, ald r.elìeolrvr shj¡ì jn noo.j wi:ni tileiy last a rclatiteil,' sìiorr rinrc. ÏI¿ dsi;*s i:¡¡cì thc¡¿ is

sii:/. ûun:ig

application
;nt3
t>

¿¡ì(l

f religieus

tinrS

prublenx.

ps¡'{ìrohgical princip:les, intelligcnce. ¡tnd tïisci^oìine ro.uoíd
f¿ìúr, the bì*ssiegs of'religiou-s leeders. ¿¡<! can¡$ûd¿rie

I'T.is

like-mi

u,idrecljn brotìte¡.d havg

sisten.

prsvidñ hjm rvith a rrljable

ci

aud d*rable suppcrt

Õf

ia¡naæ has i:ten ;ui¡ect's abi.tiiytc fl,rôoagtr ius nocd eud äeug oiicur:iui,.v:i; ceinl corìiiollcd, a$i rie,liìietue is ii

ea.:ctices

gtifillìirô

trr?/^3

!R¡lFT./'

rclÉc28Î

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5q.9sTOIì

10

1

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(Í¡.no parii¿túar orrier): .. . :.¿ídoï:g. Sulriecr'dgdriary rnotivalir:l':s-ere liieUnrr'oair, se¡-'ingtrhr ¡"n'rp¡or*nd.nilai'r' iuhuelii, ser'i'lg pu:sütng

ï.;ìlIna.i"i

S"ur,

cott*tri*s,

otttli,t,ang toìlie est¿iiiisLimcii¿ of.'sh¡':i.t ,.,*u,""g ,o rlr*,'liilÍrrg up'. al t,Íuslìrns iilouBir,.''uili:$x$iid, 'rrum¡}:¡id' rt: iire ittii{iiaiian è,i" tl',e Faieslinial
f'Ôtt¡s,

iyit"1iì*t ¿nd

r$, fit¡.enç.t*!i. iìn {o pirr.icular orieri /ùility ic

goal'direuird

,t"¡¡*.r,*., -i*i*huî;c.si1ience,
penpla
az.ir.ì

,¡,

iu'i.=.t*g*,

street sawiû lbiiiiyio oig.æ:ize aitC nranagt a¡ticipaic task.j, keen o'ijr^0f,râtir.1t1 si.¡11$;ftd,l edrS,tabilir.v l.cnn
go¿lj.s
crtp.É'hlc of o:"tt¡¡i¡EgÊj¡SiSllilË tc emerging cpFlilrrt:ti'"s

adept

,á*,,

,l,,r.rî a*d ivitl n:inim¡l rts¡urces)'
a'irrlitv ru ,riliutt

¡$e n+eds

TÙ}{ECÏI'T

ns#r'

0ilù

i3??

#rgg/^y

Éoìdi
çuocess

crtlnrjairiJ
cl'

indnud¿ie
e<piainecl

lc i.eia5, rzir:!e¿tl, at¡j lic lr¡ rÍ'Ji¿ci ?,,tPJ is r,-tcsl crìiical to lhe \-^1r:sc. lit ¿ìstulrris iL'';J 'i'e int!.ergtai:'J iiiii:, Ti:i:s, 1¡* i.i nr-.'Î likt:!;z to::e rvea,\encri b_v ireiir'3 'ìåìt$hf" ìir lies. His;c i; :t: ìia. Diujrg ililertjetç !¡e
{s

personnel,
ii..r.

iìt jietJ :o ltis it:iiihioir, to sbop!*:i,'rrs, io hi¡ti;e;s. lrev':j ü¡¿cnt9, e illcii pa;ii, oîìiere iil ii¡Jt'i l{) tiL'teit ri* petiric'*ll¡] rct¡riÌie3. l'ie said' "ì lii:,

lie, lirr,

i,: c{.ì'¿i':i'i r ljnit*¡l Nl'iir¡ns i':ít:.tee i'j¿rli*cs,ti{,î: ct'IC L::.' fl !"îi,id <rf selrl:rl w*sks c'r r'lcf:t!¡s' lie lr:s ican:tC n;rlioi¡ uf :;kiilfitl ,it';eltitx .vrti l1.,irr3;;ürs i,lt.
!!ng; thrr

s¡nc lie'clcrr

ahoui ?:is is¡niTiar al

s has t:ìiÌ':e,l irj':li Ar':rrc: ¿rl-7.]:rwahiri ¿:rt,i, it it ìik:ì-" tlt:il Za )eíi'):'i.ir :is ..i í:¡lt;.Y:' oiii:* Ëg.¡1:irr:',s :l¡:ii iì-tssia::; ir. ;.ld:ljol:, err::jcct ìs prr.rtrai:li' '.rcii ','rrst'i! regartii.n¡ ll-Qr:'irìa's u;pii..":i;i ¿i;t! ¡tsisÌtircc trli::ìi:g
lì, r;0t) wr)t!.i(l sl:¡e¡:i lhxl .tultjo,r,tçotrìci .1,'r.Wl¡foltiiiisfu¡ltlo.f!;:o

malxiai,i.

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{2û2) 514-371s Fax: {202) 514-9207

Fr*rn:
Fhanel

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$se$sment of ?¿il a '.{ bei i-s ¿}- Å.h i.rleen Zubaydali) is hasa! uPon e resììits oi iilæt inÍffri'ï\f
L a¡d

i

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tb¡

ircn

wiúrîn ai¡ beiiefs.

rcnntl't::fcg1i:atit-..i1. Fov ât ie¿st adecâ'Je, suÌjj*ct ila¡ äv¿d and içorks$ h-ïcrtlulçd, ni.irtwe.C, in'.*;lslfieá, and rorvarc'ed his t¿diial

;rìrr**;*rã

pârtinrisr
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icliovi:ng ls apar$el üsr cf r*!on$hiîities er), .Su!:jec.i. is cufentiY 31 yeus

Zshit:

a \roíi(ús ron

'ay sourv) i:y ege u'rlv-level rctujohidir (calle¿ ct',"¿net ihlsrJ or fcuith nra:! in d-Q.¿'ìi* No one rise{ tc that le.\'e} iii such a s'litr¡ì
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t

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sul,jc:;t hss held. i:ro

i

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t of ti¡n¡'*iihoiu ifring de,:ieatérJ, tt:usìei, arg arong.
Aileged to
ive lyritten al^Qa'i,'!'s rn¿ri:ual cn rr..si.<tarce tltirrriques ¿nd iæfu¡¡d on ihe

'rl

j;rv.Jãtorj i

;very $Ìqìti¡ aiQu'i$a'i,.rrïcfisf ùF'3fÍltiotll s¿rvid as ¿hà í)ß)eretjcnâ! pl:r*ner e millsn¡iu¡ir ploc {icrr}u r, ilre P¡riç euibassi' (:CrO t ¡ al<t â "iæ*er of lhe i
xv:ber hijai:?Jrgs .råloh k:ller.!
e"'lt! lllili:,:ì,:r(: tht¡.¡sru':Ci

ti !?

I

'\trericzuls'

5¿¡r:*1

as

oÍh
¿he

,isr Usam¿ $in La$in iieui,¿ira.rr anil piayed afi:ay r:le in 'Jtç:;:c.¿t¡treilt lrrti rg .f opeialívee cri].l:;haif oí a!-Qa'íia, ætr E!.1r¡:'tian li:ianic i th¿cl. ¿;ri He vias a ke;; ¡:irii'or ir tenr^rist e.1,:n'ient$ ii:si<!e ?akiaten and

"{fghaif;st¡n. illei:nÌum rh¡eai iafu year and ailp'eâis tc he eirgagrd irr ongcing tenorí¡m ing against U'9 ir,rS**ts. Zu'caycah is rpa¡¡te<f in Jordan fol bis rr-ds ía the

¡nium¡ioE. $
"irer;ted
ìr:Iil

¡

râa$-ù? of a Bir. r-idin ceu in lordan thai i*a{disrultsJ ii¡ Ain¡:¡¿-r in nue¡ lç99 fiu ¡l,"rifiirg. renuist act$ ågåínst L! ,rn.! israeii tatgets d.iring'the irrn c¿le'rr¡iticn{.ia Jordan. 'lç¡cr e.s¡ìtr3i fi$:ties of tha plcti, under erest' orter of tfii, cell ând tht P!í't eC Abu fubaftl{ as beicg tie prieiaiy s
;:

ì'laraged',r

wsrk of uaini:rg {amps, safshi}'Jsei ånd
,as ä.ßC

i:ffic.es in

Afgha'iris$n, a.sri,s'ted in other eet arC rnate¡iaìs í:: {up¡rrin clf variaus jitilr

r¡ûç{JiÌiìt

'tî¿ilÍ],J!4

i,r. iti

I "{sec¡,st I * o*^r{, $ ii'.:
fairinJ.tntc

li: iä :¡+

,

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Sr-r''ed as

xirv flænc Ccr.n'rÀ+d¿r fcr al.Oai,ta

!n,{j¡ia:nìstan"

I-cjlclfljl-zcolF'sorn.i99''Lgno.o--*rn*,**'roouu cÍ ltffiõül'ot-^sJgb!istaa tc the tiaiailg cald:;. Nt-a û*0 can:e i¡ lnd ci:t
¡¡p^i,
#ris knorviulge ali appiovz!, Served (ìf exfcrnai c-Ì.:ctact$, cr l'oreigr ccrirmu!icatic.'es. Refc,r tí. ,

Paklsvir viith$ut

as

al'Qrrid,l's

,'i
t

?

,åcied as a

atla's Ci.lffíce.¡ aåd aas tr.Ìsid lo fisd soi+{ in thcir n'ri,ist.
¡ut l5i*tciy:: Subjeiit repored lhet tio persislxf lbi ¿ ferv ycrirs in h'.:ltling Suirje$ thet ¡rersisl bllity tbat Ìre cauì{ everiua},iy tansitiol l'roni i:harì lif+ hack into colleSe !liry

il

oaro lhe rin'j prasuit appoaru) to

lri¡ rarjiÍionaì

e.C'&ltio¡ral, career,

irri famii! gt:als.

.4s

tine

p:rrsseti he

jiharliit Íd
conlpâ!13'

ml a special *rchei'or himself. He i:ecar"e i',freai.ìngi1 i:ii*:gratsJ iltí* tl¡e ;gy xn'-i liÍest.vic. se peiicCicali¡¡ f'elt paags úJ iti¡resìct¡:ess, long*C for iha
r;nil.v, an.i{ tanasiz! al-.rrtit n fflti:r* es ê ccrnfl:.itr::r ".\írolt. c:r englai:er. st3m¿, ¡lle frøquel|;, and ìntsnsity úf th$e ,$ugh.ts *nd feeii:rgs e br.,gârr tc t¡\ink Çf e.:iy actiiit"v cufride jiha.l 3s ".tiil.y"'i Ev*ntullly, ite t ì;is i:iin;l arul he!r-i were devo[ed ia seri'ii:$ .Aìiefi u¡d Is]lnt thr'.ru,gh hrs te.d that ire hzrs l:*[l 'lr¡" dcubis or r.:.grets adcut c],ocsing to "uîsuo'¡rrc
'

Ho,"i,gvgt,

dÌmi.nisha!.
und¿rsmc¿:l

jihad.

lia

ri*t'c'te hi

tlr$ to.iiiiad since tlrirn:d-!990's. to jihad

rn:d-!990's.

i

'l¡:tJ,

i:av

ieiigious åfrFämiìcô ¡¡:d

Led:r,ìiu"ál r+iro p.rizes hls seliilratæd Led: his i:rdçer:..d*.ncr by ng tl':íngs liis arvn Nay and th¿ihe can witl¡lir iile stYlë io ihâ. nf railic¿l safafii.t Tvle,n he nr*.es o::s, it is irithin cc*texn r:f hís irleoli:gi'::ai ar,t1 íciir';¡ir. I'ie ires ndlciro'is:ic featir¡:es that ¡le vide,nt in bÍs alïention to hie he is leaiì;' e reiher ''Lunri;ie in bis obvious 'to d¿rnrnst¡sle Sut'rjv.:t ís aii;i1:i'il1i aì.i;j:¿i'¡l:¡

iiti,; ;
[Is

I

n'e¿ks

to

It

ed

{rot

he

still ws

o¡ld Trade Cen{Ér.
:s, skspiicaland
*,v.c¿.iierrt

wuy cf

' íateidirns,

pt]ssÈsses

is perfæ.:icristic (v¡¡y

Torrf"c8rr

ooy#

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TÉn3{*

pr}l'âiì9

C'pefilRg

tìt

l! oi'¿úr r
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ti¡e

ith c'th¿r; fioat dri.ve., creat-iuiiY

'ietv cf baukgruuitos'
I pru.gr,:atlsnr üzt

sur;:risi e gl;t'. he Poss ,i Cíecli'¿c lgadecs'
".e

eese- s

ie.4ê

ìflc

flIU(J\t!

othsis. lle ls
sncogåi'

fælingt.
rtbo !s vi

ir

co¡ice{ú ot {)or}TeY a adoçi at choosi e-lo

t+cueîuliY

and keoniY obsËÍvaJìl e Slirr.tlon.oeíi,re inrediate ut3litY' Stft'ject

t'rtl]'¿rs'

interactic¡'¡' il'+ ts

*rru -..

.

i¿.x ouirddPs ar
"rtYu:u,'a¡

iewliiLg
(:'i1'

peisin to beia vuy pti'id*

gtntitl ait',n:ée cr

{iril contexl',!ö 1 ,;f <¡ther;' i

s¿r¿ealed

hiotcrY of

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patht*oi$' dls:i:r'nance oi li*er osi'chie"rir aiá cu.fi'lent dra', fäI,J'i..1tJilt.*iiltnt ¡';;rCicaies

u te$singsr*b r. g:Íii'fJii -ir''d*ec' î:1 i]fi;i'üli l' n,, iu diariqe a'Iú inte¡ilgìÏJ -rept:ri ij.nciil¡ hie repoited æ'd
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çvohÌei:is, låis nrujahetlia

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rryit" ¡n¡re ps"'idtxl hir'r

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cq an¿ ¿is*Plir:¿ to a';citi
o-:d cÀmzlad¿'íie

Illii u¡¡q¡ill\ratç¿Éå È'-

cf

u n*lg
Beitg

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rub¡æt's ability tc'n ct, caln¡, cuüt¡oileii.,

c his m9'Y'; and emcii¿its ct$liberr.te

un

rr?fssuxlt'

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aCcìirioa ha

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hå.

resistæce c*), this e
i¡t

iteßogatjon t#,jiì
iËRíi,.)

wås oire

erj

quickly bor: c*nficlencq

bacii fro;;r i!:ese host riisc
.qiroBg r¿solve

i*not

pert!

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s

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pariicult: order): r':; prc¡;.het and À¿l*h. $harí'a r',iczg ltlusl¡$l ;t the'.rcrkl, f¡nd

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orceg åb ilì ry ld fcx,ri.o. gij ¡1 -diänisil r*síi:e;:ce, s$eet savv'¿. a.$ili.v rcr orgalize ¿rnd n-¡ana!,_, :g¡i observatitur skille, Ëu$Ì ailspiab.iìity (car; anrlcila-it,
i:riruaJ resou¡c¿s),
ã'i jcìi l ûî

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Practice:

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uert¡l¡cation

Refrqsher/ Requal Datc:

0000143

*rl"*

--

+,-¡,-q

L?,Iuly
I'CEMORÀbTDUM FOR

2003
(b)(1)

THE R#CORD

(bx3) (bxs)

SUB.JECT:

On 16 'JuI

2003, I met. wibh

in .Office of Inspector General spaees. meetLng was conducted as part of a revíev¡ of Agéney practíces regardíng the cuseocly and interrogaEion of indiwiduals f or countertrerroriÁm purBose's. Specíf !cal,ly, bhe meet,ing'rvas designed Eo gain ón ttre tnçã'!u of CTC's involïemenE. in deEenLioninformabÍon and in,LeriogaEion.
¿{"rtc(r ¡tew we. Jucr:Je trJre Euccess or .ilãiG the dÊtenLion and inEèrrogat,iorr prograrn, E 6E,ateÕ Ehat,'the value of the .program is Laking Ëhe Ler:rõìists ofi the streets, and.success is judged by thé qrualiEy..of the, Ínformation Lhey'provide. If eìrey gãt unique, .vãIual"I" informaEign_jqr-grn Ehe <letaine6s, "hen Ehey have done thei:: Lrslng cne quaiicy or cne ?ü-.__;rr*ElEl-vrew, Intel-Uigênqe as lhê'yardstick, Lhe program has Ì:een a¡r absolut,e success. . She sLat.eql furbher [hat Ehere v/as. no other way crc could have goEten "be infonnaLion t.hey have obtaineQ frorn the deLainees.

operandi

Àbu Zubaydah

of Àl-ea'ída,

e00047s

mn¡/cnmffi@E

üq-l

SUB,]ECT:

t.f

r:ct i.n

t.i:!r

t

I ed

: ii!i-r ¡. shi.bh

i:1 ¡r'.:iil'r;

rir,¡ ,:t"lO geu i.nco- Eì':e U

opef

ativ.es Lo

rão

zr:be.Y'3all
E

L-"r'ie

t to the

i clenti f i. ed
U.
S

as one. of Ll're ^ot¡ ì' ikelY Eo carrY ou t operaE ]"O¡'lS

-

9000476

'i

;. .-,,5 F.{-tì li''r'

1/of

.r

roP 96cRBrHEH$ffiffitffi
SUBüECT:

7. According e" FlE inf ormation from.detalnees has a].so provided a weaLLlr of informabion about ¡1-ça,.åda ploEs. These include t.he f o11-owing.:

r À pLob against the

U,S. CoirsulaLe Ìn Karachi, .FakÍstan. The Heathrow,/Canary Wharf plo[., which invo]-ved hijacklng aircra.ft tci fly into and dest,roy boLh 'locations.

ll.e train track'p1ot where Ehe operative .would J.oosen Ehe splkes i1 an attempt,,Eo d.erail a trafn.

?be gas staE,ion plo! where several gas stations were to. be blown' up Eo creat.e paníc 'and ñavoc:
Tovrer plot v¡here the tallest bu.ilding in Jhg.l3ibrarywas Calif!rn'ia to be atEacke<l similar to Eh; WorlA

Trade CenEer.
a

The suspension bridge plot where the lines of the bridge were to be eut, chus inaking it collapse

xoer*{caBrfuilElH

9000477

ï

/o{'3

'

r;v

t

jrnuKE'j,.ËEl8tEt¡EgüËg[

Procso-o-o"=rr"r*r"1a"eurEf äperatives involved in niñfl of ùh.e above plots had been airested, 'they have, in efiect,, bhwartçd the operatigt: f olLowíng capt1trefl 'Eerrorists were associated. with !Iob's:

.uÈ'¿¡¿çqu¿¡qL's*¡¿eee'¡Y

o I'fajid Khan, whose father owned a gas staLion, was asãoeiacedj with the gas stat,ion'plot, as v¡eLl as the
poison óperaLion.'

o

.Iyman

Faris @

on Ehe s

" nhåtad bin ÀEtash involved in the Heathrow'Plob,

ration.

.Cal-ífornia. Zubair was also invol
Àmar

IN

e Library

Tor¡ter

plo
as

hÍs barget.

aI Baluchi had the

u. s. Consulate

in Karachi

e000+?B

wu!euaç@

f,lot-{

l' .

^,/.-:' F

'.;'BFKæ¡Ëæ

:,:

GEFFüIËË

,.'Dl-5

0

019

6

(bx1) (bx3)

8000sÊ?
1-.

!

rop 'sgfRr¡rr/ lxt

uu5403g93 '¡' *Senú on Z0 November 2002 at 06:54:55 pM

8g.0oEPE

yov

's/:*ø\

/

/xt

-_

"-_lo

UUf,¿{UJYYJ
¡t

DaEe:

STTB'TECT:

cTC's lÍqf IneêrïogaE,lon 3f forÈ,s

2.

ht

À1;NashLrL
À,1

,i

- r{lth the recent
tive
À1-Rahínr

capture of Àf-Nashiri

a

s Intrerroga one responaible for pì-anning admitted a role in Lhis) ln
È,he

Cole atcqck (which he has and ÊuL.ure aEEqcks on US intseresEs
Lhe USS

-

HVT I'nEerrogaco-iã' iisirtg-f-land ÀL-Nashiri ís becoming mo?e'cornplian-C añA-îs' !tõ''ñfüîngjó r i onab I e in L e Ì i. i g ence .

inEerrogaEion w:ith Ehe

J ÀL

-tlas

-

s0t8 B2s

TOP

S

0t'.t0009

I

¡

I I t I
i

\

slrol;u uo;1e6o::eeur

J.1¡H

u'"'[-

.f,Da-esos t-q'qÂq
:

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