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Nadene Eisner Annotated Bibliography Proseminar WRD500 Fall Term Reading between the Lines !

sing Literat"re #rom Dea# Ed"$ation and Writing %enters to &n#orm Best Pra$ti$es in 'ainstream Postse$ondary %omposition %lassrooms with (t"dents who are Dea# and )ard o# )earing Browse thro"gh %omposition and Writing *o"rnals "sing the +eywords ,Dea#- and ,writing- and #ew arti$les relating to the tea$hing o# writing will appear. There are e/en #ewer Dea# or )ard o# )earing rhetori$ians. The most notable0 Brenda 1o Br"eggeman0 $"rrently the Pro#essor and Dire$tor o# the %omposition Program at the !ni/ersity o# 2ent"$+y0 has written se/eral Dea# (t"dies boo+s. Altho"gh she ta"ght brie#ly at 3alla"det !ni/ersity while $ompleting resear$h #or her PhD0 her #o$"s is on the rhetori$ o# Dea# $"lt"re and Ameri$an (ign Lang"age0 not the spe$i#i$ $hallenges Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents ha/e learning to write. &t is interesting that most o# the rele/ant in#ormation regarding Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents and writing $an be #o"nd in in the literat"re o# writing $enters. While neither Writing Center Journal nor Praxis: A Writing Center Journal has p"blished arti$les abo"t st"dents who are Dea# or )ard o# )earing0 The Writing Lab Newsletter has addressed this topi$ at least three times0 twi$e with in#ormation that $an in#orm %omposition instr"$tors. Barbara Day Bab$o$+4s boo+ based on her dissertation0 Tell Me How it Reads: Tutoring Deaf and Hearing tudents in the Writing Center 560768 is $on$erned with $omm"ni$ation between ,hearing- t"tors and Dea# t"tees0 and the in#ormation that the t"tors learn #rom their sessions $an in#orm %omposition instr"$tors who may ha/e Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents in their $lassroom. Do %omposition instr"$tors in mainstreamed postse$ondary 5or high s$hool8 $lassrooms need to be in#ormed o# the str"ggles Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents ha/e with writing9 E:$l"ding the st"dent enrollment at 3alla"det !ni/ersity and The National Te$hni$al &nstit"te #or the Dea#0 both $olleges e:$l"si/ely #or Dea# and )ard o# )earing "ndergrad"ates 5,hearinggrad"ate st"dents may attend 3alla"det80 a $onser/ati/e and $redible estimate o# the n"mber o# Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents in postse$ondary ed"$ation based on #ig"res by the National %enter #or Ed"$ation (tatisti$s 560778 is abo"t 6;0000. &n another st"dy "sing di##erent $riteria0 ($hroedel0 Watson0 and Ashmore 5600<8 pla$ed the #ig"re as high as =500000. At some point in their tea$hing $areers0 %omposition instr"$tors are li+ely to ha/e st"dents who are Dea# or )ard o# )earing in their $lassrooms. E/en i# the n"mber is high and dispersed a$ross the tho"sands o# two>year0 #o"r>year0 and pro#essional $olleges in the !nited (tates0 this does not mean that st"dents in all o# these $lassrooms are Dea# and $omm"ni$ating thro"gh Ameri$an (ign Lang"age. The #ew arti$les in %omposition *o"rnals0 s"$h as those by Wea/er 57??@80 who met a Dea# st"dent in a writing $enter and (eessel 5607<80 who had two Dea# st"dents in her remedial %omposition $lass0 $enter aro"nd the $hallenges o# wor+ing with st"dents who may or may not wear 5or bene#it #rom8 hearing aids and #or whom Ameri$an (ign Lang"age is their #irst lang"age. B"t the st"dents who do and will attend postse$ondary instit"tions are being e:posed to so"nd and lang"age in a di##erent way. The National &nstit"te on Dea#ness and Ather %omm"ni$ation Disorders 5607<8 estimates appro:imately 5;0000 ad"lts and <;0000 $hildren ha/e re$ei/ed $o$hlear implants. %o$hlear implants are de/i$es that are s"rgi$ally inserted into the $o$hlea. They bypass the

damaged parts o# the ear and send so"nd dire$tly to the brain0 o#ten res"lting in m"$h $learer $omprehension o# both so"nd and0 most importantly0 spo+en lang"age. %omposition instr"$tors who ha/e st"dents with $o$hlear implants in their $lassrooms may not be aware they are there i# the st"dent does not reB"est s"pport ser/i$es 5s"$h as a sign lang"age interpreter8 or $hooses not to sel#>identi#y. This ma+es the instr"$tors4 role more $ompli$ated when they are $on#ronted with writing that does not $on#orm to the grammati$al str"$t"re o# that typi$ally written by ,hearing- st"dents. 'y e:perien$e as a s"bstit"te tea$her 5who is also Dea#8 in a 2>76 Dea# and )ard o# )earing program shows me that this learning pop"lation $ontin"es to str"ggle with writing. (t"dents in the program who are )ard o# )earing "s"ally bene#it #rom hearing aids. &# they are Dea# they almost always wear a $o$hlear implant. 'any st"dents now wear two implants. 'ost st"dents "se spee$h to $omm"ni$ate. (ign lang"age has be$ome a ,tool-C st"dents and tea$hers sign to s"pport spo+en lang"age. (t"dents are not learning Ameri$an (ign Lang"age0 whi$h has its own r"les #or phonology0 morphology0 and synta:. Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents don4t o#ten meet someone li+e me0 a Dea# person who $annot hear as well as they b"t has better spee$h0 and they ma+e #"n o# me be$a"se it is so "n"s"al #or them to ha/e a Dea# tea$her0 espe$ially one who "ses hearing aids instead o# a $o$hlear implant. & ha/e obser/ed both elementary and middle s$hool st"dents dis$"ssing me0 saying0 ,Do" ha/e to loo+ at 's. Eisner when yo" tal+. (he $an4t hear yo".- And yet these same st"dents0 who $an hear me when they are not loo+ing at me0 str"ggle daily with written lang"age. Their senten$es are simple0 "nadorned0 and grammati$ally in$orre$t. With open enrollment at $omm"nity $olleges0 this is the generation o# st"dents that %omposition instr"$tors will #ind in their $lassrooms. Why does writing remain $hallenging #or Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents9 E/en tho"gh $o$hlear implants may pro/ide st"dents with more hearing they ha/e not resol/ed their reading $omprehension and writing di##i$"lties0 and ed"$ators and resear$hers still don4t agree on the best pra$ti$es #or this learning pop"lation. Thirty years o# resear$h into how Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents learn shows that st"dents are not re$ei/ing an ed"$ation eB"al to that o# their hearing peers 5'ars$har+0 Lang0 and Albertini0 7;=8. 'oores writes that reading $omprehension has re$ei/ed more attention in Dea# ed"$ation than writing be$a"se writing is a m"$h more di##i$"lt pro$ess 5=68. &n my role as a s"bstit"te tea$her0 & am disappointed and #r"strated when & see how little /al"e is pla$ed on0 and how little time is allo$ated #or writing in the Dea# and )ard o# )earing sel#>$ontained $lassrooms. Resear$hers s"$h as Albertini 57??<0 7??E80 %annon and 2irby 5607<80 'ayer 57???80 and F"igley and 2ing 57?;08 ha/e st"died spe$i#i$ grammar iss"es obser/ed in st"dents who are Dea# and )ard o# )earing0 b"t their resear$h is not #inding its way to Dea# ed"$ators or %omposition instr"$tors. Ane arg"ment is that tea$hers do not ha/e time to read thro"gh doGens o# resear$h papers to #ind one that tells them how to tea$h writing. They want spe$i#i$ lessons showing them how to help their st"dents. An o/erriding iss"e is that resear$hers and ed"$ators in the #ield o# Dea# ed"$ation are not tal+ing to ea$h other 5(wanwi$+ and 'ars$har+0 66E8. An important dis$o"rse is missing. This bibliography will e:plore the literat"re that does e:ist as it relates to Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents and their str"ggles with written lang"age. &t will sear$h #or answers within the literat"re that might in#orm %omposition instr"$tors who ha/e Dea# or )ard o# )earing str"ggling writers in their mainstreamed $lassrooms and may help them de/elop a bene#i$ial writing $"rri$"l"m #or these st"dents.

Albertini, John A., Joseph H. Bochner, Fred Dowaliby, and Janette B. Henderson. "Valid Assessment of Writing and Access to Academic Disco rse." Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education !.! "#$$%&' %#(%%. Oxford Journals. Web. ) *o+. !,#-. Ane o# the iss"es $on$erning Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents who enter postse$ondary ed"$ation is their readiness to engage in an a$ademi$ writing $omm"nity. At the National Te$hni$al &nstit"te #or the Dea# 5NT&D80 st"dents were pla$ed in appropriate writing $lasses based on s$ores #rom the 'i$higan Test o# English Lang"age Pro#i$ien$y and the %ali#ornia A$hie/ement Tests. Be$a"se the $"t o##s #or these tests were high0 many st"dents were pla$ed in de/elopmental English $lasses. The NT&D Writing test was de/eloped to address this dis$repan$y by designing the test similar to those administered to ad"lts learning English as a se$ond lang"age 5E68. (t"dents who s$ored high on this test were able to mo/e thro"gh the de/elopmental English $lasses at NT&D more B"i$+ly to *oin their peers in the reg"lar degree programs. %omposition instr"$tors might wish to $onsider alternati/e entran$e writing e:ams #or Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents who s$ore low on entran$e writing tests b"t high in other s"b*e$t areas. Albertini, John. ".ritical /iteracy, Whole /ang age, and the 0eaching of Writing to Deaf 1t dents' Who 1ho ld Dictate to Whom2" TESOL Quarterly !%.# "#$$-&' )$(%!. ERIC. Web. !$ 3ct. !,#-. &n this arti$le0 Albertini notes that a higher n"mber o# Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents in the !nited (tates now belong to a $"lt"ral minority0 ma+ing them "nderrepresented in two areas disability and English as a (e$ond Lang"age 5@<8. Fo$"sing on tea$hing spee$h0 #orm0 and grammar to Dea# and )ard o# )earing $hildren lea/es little instr"$tional time #or writing 5@=8. Albertini ad/o$ates a whole lang"age approa$h to tea$hing writing with opport"nities to $reate a written dialog"e within the $lassroom. Albertini notes that in inter/iews Dea# ad"lts stated Hthe $onstant $orre$tion Io# the st"dents4 grammarJ negati/ely a##e$ts their moti/ation to writeH 5@;8. Tea$hers o# %omposition might ta+e time to learn the lang"age ba$+gro"nd o# their Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents0 as many are now growing "p in triling"al homes with limited a$$ess to any o# the lang"ages 5sign lang"age0 English0 and the #amily4s nati/e lang"age8. They might also $onsider a $"rri$"l"m that separates learning grammar #rom intera$ti/e writing opport"nities. .annon, Joanna 4., and 1 sannah 5irby. "6rammar 1tr ct res and Deaf and Hard of Hearing 1t dents' A 7e+iew of 8ast 8erformance and a 7eport of *ew Findings." American Annals of the Deaf #)9.- "!,#-&' !$!(-#,. Academic Search Premier. Web. -, 3ct. !,#-. %annon and 2irbyKs 607< arti$le #ollowed "p on F"igleyKs and 2ingKs 7?;0 st"dy. Earlier st"dies in $ogniti/e pro$essing o# Dea# $hildren has shown that when lang"age 5either signed or spo+en8 is not impeded "p to the age o# si:0 Dea# $hildren $an be$ome $ompetent in synta$ti$ str"$t"re regardless o# the $omm"ni$ation method "sed 56?68. The a"thors re#eren$e 'ars$har+0 %on/ertino0 and Laro$+0 whose st"dies #o"nd that Dea# $hildren rea$h lang"age a$B"isition milestones in the same manner as their peers 56?<8. %annon and 2irby tested the synta$ti$ str"$t"re abilities o# $hildren who were both Dea# and )ard o# )earing and who "sed di##erent a"ditory s"pports 5hearing aids or $o$hlear implants8 or none at all. (t"dents were tested "sing a

program that was m"$h #riendlier the one "sed by F"igley and 2ing and had a higher H#eli$ityH o# the tas+s0 meaning that the instr"$tions #or the test were easier #or "sers to $omprehend than F"igleyKs and 2ingKs test 56?@8. The res"lts o# the test s"pport m"$h o# the 7?;0 st"dy4s res"lts regarding di##i$"lties in ("b*e$t>Lerb>Ab*e$t agreement 56?;8. The a"thors also agreed with F"igley and 2ing that st"dents show impro/ement o/er time0 tho"gh at a m"$h slower rate than their hearing peers. %omposition instr"$tors might $onsider planning instr"$tion aro"nd the se/en areas o# grammati$al di##i$"lty that the a"thors #o"nd 5<0?8. .hannon, 7achel., and 4dna 4dith 1ayers. "0oward a Description of Deaf .ollege 1t dents: Written 4nglish' 3+er se, A+oidance, and ;astery of F nction Words." American Annals of the Deaf #)!.! "!,,%&' $#(#,-. Academic Search Premier. Web. !, *o+. !,#-. %hannon and Edith e:amined the mastery o# #"n$tion words by Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents who were enrolled in de/elopmental0 #irst0 or se$ond year 5b"t not honors8 writing $lasses at 3alla"det !ni/ersity 5?68. They re#eren$e 'ars$har+ 57??<8 who #o"nd written English by Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents to be ,$on$rete0 repetiti/e0 and simplisti$ ,5'ars$har+0 as B"oted on ?78. They also re#eren$e the synta: st"dies o# F"igley and 2ing 57?;08 to demonstrate di##i$"lties with ,passi/e $onstr"$tion0 s"b*e$t>/erb>ob*e$t word order0 and relati/e $la"ses- 5?78. Res"lts showed st"dents demonstrated ,an a/erage mastery le/el o# 5;M #or all words- 5?58. (t"dents tended ha/e o/erly long and r"n>on senten$es0 whi$h $ontradi$ted pre/io"s resear$h showing that Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents "sed #ewer words in their senten$es 5?58. This arti$le presents spe$i#i$ and well>organiGed data that $an in#orm tea$hers o# %omposition o# the $hallenges Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents may ha/e "sing #"n$tion words in their writing. ;arschar<, ;arc, .arol .on+ertino, and Doni /aroc<. "3ptimi=ing Academic 8erformance of Deaf 1t dents' Access, 3pport nities, and 3 tcomes." Deaf Learners De!elo"ments in Curriculum and Instruction. By Donald F. ;oores and Da+id 1. ;artin. Washington, D.' 6alla det >8, !,,?. #%$($). 8rint. Resear$h by 'ars$har+0 %on/ertino0 and Laro$+ shows that Dea# and )ard o# )earing $hildren $ontin"e to lag behind their hearing peers a$ademi$ally 57E?8. They agree with 'oores 560068 that the reason #or this gap in learning is not related dire$tly to being Dea# or )ard o# )earing. Best pra$ti$es to help this pop"lation are still o"t o# rea$h0 and 'ars$har+0 %on/ertino0 and Laro$+ s"ggest ed"$ators might best meet the needs o# their Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents i# they wor+ together a$ross the $"rri$"l"m rather than in the isolation o# their parti$"lar #ield. Among their re$ommendations0 whi$h might bene#it tea$hers o# %omposition0 is to de/elop a dialog with ed"$ators in other s"b*e$t areas and in the #ield o# Dea# ed"$ation. The a"thors also re#eren$e st"dies by 'ars$har+0 Lang0 and Albertini 5600680 whi$h s"ggest a ret"rn to whole lang"age tea$hing #rom the 7?60s thro"gh the 7?@0s 57?68.

;arschar<, ;arc, Harry 6. /ang, and John A. Albertini. Educatin# Deaf Students $rom Research to Practice. 3@ford' 3@ford >8, !,,!. 5indle File. The a"thors ad/o$ate a ,writing a$ross the $"rri$"l"m- approa$h to impro/e written $omm"ni$ation in Dea# and )ard o# )earing writers. They e:plain that some genres 5s"$h as a letter8 are easier to write than others 5s"$h as an essay8 5$h. ;8. The a"thors re#er to the str"ggles E(L st"dents ha/e in writing. %omm"nity $ollege E(L $lasses met their st"dents4 needs by en$o"raging them to write #rom e:perien$e rather than #rom a #ormal model 5s"$h as an e:pository pie$e8 5$h. ;8. 'ars$har+0 Lang0 and Albertini re$ommend a similar approa$h to tea$hing writing to st"dents who are Dea# and )ard o# )earing. They en$o"rage ed"$ators to thin+ o# writing as a so$ial a$ti/ity and $onsider an a"dien$e that rea$hes beyond the tea$her. (t"dents sho"ld be en$o"raged to wor+ in gro"ps0 peer edit0 and dis$"ss their writing. Writing a$ross the $"rri$"l"m e:poses st"dents to a /ariety o# genres0 s"$h as lab reports and *o"rnals0 and helps ma+e assessment o# writing more Ha"thenti$ and /alidH 5$h. ;8. %omposition instr"$tors might $onsider the #a$t that these re$ommendations align $losely with $"rrent best pra$ti$es in postse$ondary Writing $lasses. ;ayer, .onnie. "1haping at the 8oint of >tterance' An An+estigation of the .omposing 8rocesses of the Deaf 1t dent Writer." Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education B.# "#$$$&' -%(B$. Academic Search Premier. Web. -, 3ct. !,#-. 'ayer #ollowed two Dea# eighth grade st"dents enrolled in a Dea# and )ard o# )earing program within a $ity p"bli$ s$hool. 'ayerKs goal was to obser/e the thin+ing pro$esses st"dents went thro"gh when they $omposed. F"oting 'oores she as+s0 HWhat are the $ompensatory strategies dea# writers employ gi/en that they do not ha/e #"ll +nowledge o# the lang"age they are writingH 5'oores0 7?;E as B"oted on <;89 'ayer notes that in order #or st"dents to ta+e in#ormation #rom their $ontent spa$e 5what they mean8 and mo/e it into their rhetori$al spa$e 5what they say8 they need to ha/e the $ogniti/e ability to Hta+e on the higher order tas+s o# $omposing te:tH 5<?8. 'ayer obser/ed both st"dents mo"thing and #ingerspelling as they $omposed 5e/en tho"gh one st"dent was mostly oral8. 'ayer $on$l"ded that st"dents bene#it #rom dire$t instr"$tion and tea$hers o# writing sho"ld $onsider both top down and bottom "p approa$hes to writingC both are needed to ma+e lang"age meaning#"l. Tea$hers o# %omposition might ta+e #rom this arti$le that st"dents sho"ld $ompose "sing the method that is most bene#i$ial #or them. They might also $onsider that Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents may reB"ire more intensi/e dire$t instr"$tion. ;oores, Donald F. "8rint /iteracy' 0he AcC isition of 7eading and Writing 1<ills." Deaf Learners De!elo"ments in Curriculum and Instruction. By Donald F. ;oores and Da+id 1. ;artin. Washington, D.' 6alla det >8, !,,?. B#()?. 8rint. 'oores4 $hapter addresses the a$B"isition o# reading and writing s+ills by Dea# and )ard o# )earing $hildren. Ed"$ators tend to #o$"s more on reading than writing be$a"se Hwriting is more time $ons"ming e/en #or pro#i$ient "sersH 5=68 and Hto a large degree literate indi/id"als "nderstand more than they $an e:pressH 5=68. 'oores notes the dis$"rsi/e nat"re o# writing0 that it is H#"ndamentally a $reati/e0 #"n$tional0 intera$ti/e pro$essH and that Hwe write #or others0 not o"rsel/es 5578. Resear$h into writing as it relates to Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents #o$"ses

on Hstr"$t"re and te$hni$alH 5578 aspe$ts o# learning to write and the des$riptors "sed to des$ribe their writing is o#ten negati/e Hlimited /o$ab"lary0 $on$rete0 la$+ o# #"n$tion words0 bland0 poor mastery o# /ery in#le$tions and pl"rals... and simple str"$t"reH 5578. 'oores does not see one method o# tea$hing 5bottom "p analyti$al or top down holisti$8 ha/ing a larger impa$t in how st"dents learn to write and notes that an Hintera$ti/e>$ompensatoryH model wo"ld be the best sol"tion 5578. %omposition instr"$tors might #ind in 'oores4 $hapter a $all #or intera$ti/e writing0 whi$h might in$l"de so$ial media and online dis$"ssion boards0 to en$o"rage writing amongst st"dents who are Dea# or )ard o# )earing. *ash, /eAnn. "41/ in a Different /ight' .an Do Hear ;e *ow2" The %ritin# La& 'e(sletter -!.$ "!,,9&' #(). The %ritin# La& 'e(sletter. 0he Writing /ab *ewsletter. Web. !, *o+. !,#-. Nash *oins the writing $on/ersation as a (ign Lang"age interpreter0 Ameri$an (ign Lang"age instr"$tor0 and the wi#e o# a Dea# h"sband. )er perspe$ti/e in the writing $enter is "niB"e and ne$essaryC she e:plains Dea# $"lt"re and arg"es 5based on personal e:perien$e only8 that the lang"age learning o# E(L st"dents is not the same as the lang"age learning o# Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents. The distin$tion is important as it relates to the writing $enter be$a"se there is an additional lang"age barrier 5the ability to hear and $omprehend lang"age8 that does not e:ist in an E(L st"dent 578. Nash4s arti$le o##ers in#ormation into Dea# $"lt"re and the role o# the interpreter0 whi$h is important both in the writing $enter and in the $lassroom. (he re#eren$es Wea/er 57??@80 and says she o##ers writing $enter t"tors a ,/al"able e:ample- 5=8 o# her e:perien$e learning abo"t Dea# $"lt"re and lang"age when she wor+ed with her #irst Dea# st"dent in the writing $enter. Altho"gh this arti$le is written #or writing $enter t"tors0 tea$hers o# %omposition $an ta+e away a wealth o# in#ormation abo"t Dea# $"lt"re to in#orm their pra$ti$e. E igley, 1tephen 8., and .ynthia ;. 5ing. "An An+ited Article' 1yntactic 8erformance of Hearing Ampaired and *ormal Hearing Andi+id als." A""lied Psycholin#uistics #.,B "#$9,&' -!$()?. ERIC. Web. -, 3ct. !,#-. F"igley and 2ing $ompared synta$ti$ abilities o# Dea# and hearing st"dents. To be $onsidered #or this late 7?E0s st"dy0 Dea# $hildren had to be pro#o"ndly dea#0 dea#ened be#ore the age o# two0 and e:hibiting no other disabilities other than hearing loss 5<<78. Res"lts o# the st"dy showed pro#o"nd di##eren$es between how Dea# and hearing $hildren pro$essed s"b*e$t> /erb>ob*e$t senten$es 5<<?8. These di##eren$es were also apparent in $hildren learning English as a se$ond lang"age0 whi$h might s"ggest that tea$hers loo+ to E(L writing pra$ti$e to in#orm their own instr"$tion. Resear$hers also obser/ed synta$ti$ di##eren$es that $o"ld not be #o"nd in any gro"p other than Dea# $hildren 5<<?8. The st"dy demonstrated that synta$ti$ ability did impro/e o/er time0 b"t at a rate m"$h slower than hearing $hildren0 so tea$hing the r"les o# senten$e str"$t"re was bene#i$ial to Dea# st"dents. %omposition instr"$tors $an learn #rom the E(L #indings o# this st"dy while pairing it with the #ollow>"p st"dy by %annon and 2irby 5607<8. 1chmidt, 5atherine, ;arla B nse, 5yn=ie Dalton, *icole 8erry, and 5ayla 7a . "/essening the Di+ide' 1trategies for 8romoting 4ffecti+e .omm nication between

Hearing .ons ltants and Deaf 1t dent(Writers." The %ritin# La& 'e(sletter --.) "!,,$&' ?(#,. 0he Writing /ab *ewsletter. Web. !, *o+. !,#-. Ane year a#ter Nash4s 600; arti$le0 ($hmidt0 B"nse0 Dalton0 Perry0 and Ra" $ontin"e the $on/ersation she began 5altho"gh they do not re#eren$e her8 regarding Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents in the writing $enter. Ane o# the most important t"toring strategies is ha/ing spo+en $on/ersations with st"dents to impro/e their writing. The a"thors and Wea/er0 whom they re#eren$e0 dis$"ss the $hallenges o# ha/ing to $hange their t"toring mindset be$a"se ,tal+ing- to a Dea# st"dent means 5#or these a"thors8 $omm"ni$ating thro"gh an interpreter or thro"gh pen and paper 5@8. The arti$le ser/es as a brie# b"t $on$ise primer #or t"tors and %omposition instr"$tors. The a"thors dispel $ommonly held belie#s abo"t Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents0 e:plain Dea# $"lt"re0 Ameri$an (ign Lang"age0 and0 most help#"lly0 in$l"de three pages o# the ,most $ommon IgrammarJ errors- 5;>708 and two pages o# ,how to4s- #or $omm"ni$ating with st"dents who are Dea# or )ard o# )earing 5?>708. %omposition tea$hers sho"ld +eep in mind that e/ery Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dent $omm"ni$ates di##erently0 and they sho"ld ta+e their $omm"ni$ation $"es #rom the st"dent. 1eessel, Jessica. "/istening for 1ilenced Voices' 0eaching Writing to Deaf 1t dents and What At .an 0each >s abo t .omposition 1t dies." TET)C ;ay "!,#-&' -$$(B#). ERIC. Web. !, 3ct. !,#-. (eessel0 a de/elopmental writing instr"$tor in a $omm"nity $ollege0 $hroni$les her e:perien$e wor+ing with a Dea# st"dent whose #amily did not spea+ English. (eessel4s a"dien$e is %omposition instr"$tors. (he in$l"des a history o# dea# ed"$ation0 an e:planation o# Ameri$an (ign Lang"age and a des$ription o# the role sign lang"age interpreters play in the $lassroom. (he re#eren$es 'ars$har+0 Lang0 and Albertini 560068 5=078 to "nderstand the lang"age de/elopment o# Dea# st"dents. (eessel arg"es0 as does Nash 5600;80 that altho"gh resear$h does show similarities in the grammati$al errors made by Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents and E(L st"dents0 Dea# and )ard o# )earing st"dents sho"ld not be ed"$ated with other E(L st"dents. The $ogniti/e pro$esses ne$essary to trans#er a /is"al lang"age s"$h as Ameri$an (ign Lang"age to English is not the same as the pro$esses needed to trans#er one spo+en nati/e lang"age to a se$ond spo+en lang"age 5=0?8. (eessel4s arti$le o##ers $onstr"$ti/e tea$hing strategies #or %omposition instr"$tors wor+ing with Dea# and )ard o# )earing writers. 1wanwic<, 7 th, and ;arc ;arschar<. "4nhancing 4d cation for Deaf .hildren' 7esearch into 8ractice and Bac< Again." Deafness * Education International #!.B "!,#,&' !#%(-). Academic Search Premier. Web. ) *o+. !,#-. The great di/isor between resear$h into Dea# st"dies and Dea# ed"$ation best pra$ti$e is the inherent la$+ o# dis$o"rse between two seemingly $onne$ted #ields 567;8. The a"thors e:plain that the role o# resear$hers is to loo+ at the $ogniti/e pro$esses st"dents go thro"gh when learning to write and synthesiGe this data with prior resear$h 56678. Resear$hers o#ten stop short o# $on$rete re$ommendations #or how to apply their resear$h into pra$ti$e0 whi$h is what ed"$ators o# Dea# st"dents want and need. (wanwi$+ and 'ars$har+ a$+nowledge that resear$hers are not always as+ing the right B"estions 566E8. To bridge the gap0 both dis$o"rses

need to loo+ #or their $ommon goals and tal+ to ea$h other to meet the needs o# their shared s"b*e$ts Dea# and )ard o# )earing $hildren 56<78. %omposition tea$hers might $onsider how they $an enter this dis$o"rse0 s"$h as by *oining a listser/0 to in#orm their own best pra$ti$es with st"dents who are Dea# or )ard o# )earing. Wea+er, ;argaret 4. "0ranscending ".on+ersing"' A Deaf 1t dent in the Writing .enter." JAC Journal of Ad!anced Com"osition #?.! "#$$?&' !B#()#. JSTOR. Web. !, *o+. !,#-. When Wea/er spo+e to the art history pro#essor a#ter the instr"$tor sent a Dea# st"dent to meet with her in the writing $enter0 the pro#essor told Wea/er that the st"dent *"st needed to be ,p"shed- to write better 56=68. Wea/er4s independent resear$h into Dea# $"lt"re and Ameri$an (ign Lang"age0 along with dis$"ssions with the st"dent0 helped her realiGe that the st"dent did "nderstand her assignments0 b"t was writing "sing her $ogniti/e "nderstanding o# Ameri$an (ign Lang"age 56=?8. By as+ing a lot o# B"estions and $lari#ying meanings0 Wea/er was able to help the st"dent begin to ma+e the transition #rom thin+ing in Ameri$an (ign Lang"age to writing in English. %omposition tea$hers sho"ld +eep in mind that e/ery Dea# or )ard o# )earing st"dent learns di##erently0 b"t be#ore ma+ing ass"mptions abo"t a st"dent4s +nowledge0 they sho"ld ta+e the time to spea+ with the st"dent to $lari#y meaning.

(o"r$es %ited

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F"igley0 (tephen P.0 and %ynthia '. 2ing. HAn &n/ited Arti$le (ynta$ti$ Per#orman$e o# )earing &mpaired and Normal )earing &ndi/id"als.H A++lied Ps$&holinguisti&s 7.0= 57?;08 <6?>5@. !R%C. Web. <0 A$t. 607<. Ra"e0 2imberley0 and La"rie Lewis. H(t"dents with Disabilities at Degree>3ranting Postse$ondary &nstit"tions.H National Center for !du&ation tatisti&s 560778. !.(. Department o# Ed"$ation0 6< 1"ne 6077. Web. 60 No/. 607<. Ohttp NNn$es.ed.go/Np"bsear$hNp"bsin#o.asp9p"bidP607707;Q. ($hmidt0 2atherine0 'arla B"nse0 2ynGie Dalton0 Ni$ole Perry0 and 2ayla Ra". HLessening the Di/ide (trategies #or Promoting E##e$ti/e %omm"ni$ation between )earing %ons"ltants and Dea# (t"dent>Writers.H The Writing Lab Newsletter <<.5 5600?8 @>70. The Writing Lab Newsletter. Web. 60 No/. 607<. ($hroedel0 1ohn 3.0 Do"glas Watson0 and Donnell ). Ashmore. HA National Resear$h Agenda #or the Postse$ondary Ed"$ation o# Dea# and )ard o# )earing (t"dents A Road 'ap #or the F"t"re.H A(eri&an Annals of the Deaf, 7=;.6 5600<8 @E>E<. !du&ation )ull Text. Web. 67 No/. 607<. (eessel0 1essi$a. HListening #or (ilen$ed Loi$es Tea$hing Writing to Dea# (t"dents and What &t %an Tea$h !s abo"t %omposition (t"dies.H T!T'C 'ay 5607<8 <??>=75. !R%C. Web. 60 A$t. 607<. (wanwi$+0 R"th0 and 'ar$ 'ars$har+. HEnhan$ing Ed"$ation #or Dea# %hildren Resear$h into Pra$ti$e and Ba$+ Again.H Deafness - !du&ation %nternational 76.= 560708 67E><5. A&ade(i& ear&h Pre(ier. Web. 5 No/. 607<. Wea/er0 'argaret E. HTrans$ending H%on/ersingH A Dea# (t"dent in the Writing %enter.H JAC: Journal of Ad*an&ed Co(+osition 7@.6 57??@8 6=7>57. J T"R. Web. 60 No/. 607<.