Design of Plate Girders

9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

Design of Plate Girders 4 9.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners. Figure 9. As mentioned in the previous section. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment.

Consequently. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. It will then be able to carry additional loads. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature.7(a). bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. however. the instability of the web plate panels.7(b). 9. In fact. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. will not result in its failure.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. . after the web panels buckle in shear. 9. In this truss. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig.7(a). the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. She/he should. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. 9. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. after the shear instability of the web takes place. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. a redistribution of stresses occurs. As shown in Fig. 9. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). The Pratt truss of Fig.

we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). however. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. However. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. In design of plate girders. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. the final design can be achieved quickly. As a general guideline.12).1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. 9. Of course. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6.2) (9. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem.

The web plate should carry all the shearing force. the depth of the web plate will be known. After the h/L ratio has been selected. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. Figure 9.12. In this book. 2. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. however.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. our approach is interactive design. which is presented in Sec. In calculating the shear strength of the web. The next step is to choose the web thickness. 9.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders.

as shown in Fig. 9.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.8. the compressive force F1. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. according to ASD G1. . the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. To satisfy this requirement. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3.

5)]1 / 2 (9. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.9. 9.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. 9. Fv = Fy C v 2.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2. For high-strength steel.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate. To satisfy the second criterion.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig.9. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.5h (9. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9.6) where .000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4.89 ≤ 0. α2 is much larger than α1. h 2.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

11

Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =
152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <
h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9.16) and (9. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling.4.18) By equating Eqs.1 in the text). we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange. tf is the thickness of the flange plate. (9. 9. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5. .17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.19) In this equation. Aw = tw h is the web area. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9.18) and solving for Af.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5.

However. for example.22) into Eq.46 (9.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required.23). and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. as a fraction of 1/16 in. . we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . in many cases.. (9. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. Therefore.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. (9. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. (9. (9.22) Substituting Eq.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate. we find the required flange width bf from Eq.19). this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates.19) and solving for tf.

17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. as discussed in Sec.24) In this equation. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. 5. The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange.5. & # A .0 − 0.4. (9. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1. Aw is the web area. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. 9.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. When h/tw < 970 / F y . Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support.

a more complicated analysis is required.0.26) 9. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. Equation (9. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. fb = M max S < Fb' (9.0. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . Otherwise. For nonhybrid girders. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. α= 0.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 . Re = 1.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.0 ! ! " (9.

17

Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10
Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)
(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS
According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. Figure 9. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. 9. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener.11). 9.11).Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. Therefore. fcb.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. Thus.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . For end bearing stiffeners. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9.

the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.75. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure. r. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. 9. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. Figure 9. As a result.7. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. .

which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9.2). 5.

If we denote the length Figure 9.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0. as shown in Fig. (9. (9. (9. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. 9. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate.36).23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.36) Substituting for value of q 1 .13.36). intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. and q 2 = w into Eq. from Eq.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld.

414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1.12)].39). respectively. (9. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. at least equal to .40) .35) and (9. L1. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. a minimum amount of welding is used. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. and ww.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs.7.36). When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9. As a result. (9. however.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. (9.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. According to ASD G4. 9.

40). 9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig.15) Figure 9. Furthermore. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs.707 Fv 2. respectively.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side .14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9. 9. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. (9.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9.41) When single stiffeners are used.

Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.707 Fv 1.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.43) Similarly.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.44) Figure 9. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. 9.16. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0. for the case of single stiffeners.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2. as shown in Fig.

Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. 9. In fact. 9.16). (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. 9. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4). Moreover.17 is covered in this section. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure.16).8. 9.1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig. (9.8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.

Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: .8.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466.67 = 633. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. assume that it is restrained against rotation.17 9. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load. 9.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig.18. at the point of application of concentrated load. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A. Lateral support is provided at supports. 9.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig. Figure 9. For welds.

the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load. .67 = R A − wx1 = 0 .4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.x1 = A = = 116.67(100) . 9.29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. Therefore.19. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 .18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C. Mmax = Mc = 466.

2). .4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333. or PL150 in.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.3): h 150 14.000 ≤ = 322.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.45 in. Eqs. In other words.t w ≥ = 0. (9. (9.t w ≥ = 0. (9.3 . 12 12 From Eq. that is. when a ≤ 1. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners.8.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16. Try tw = 0. (9.5 in.19 Bending moment diagram 9.5 in.x0.4) yield values close to each other.47 in.3) and (9.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners. tw 333.0 .5 d. from Eq. for the web plate.

22). 9. 970 h = 300 > = 161.46 for h > 70 tw . (9. kc = 4.24).2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. can be computed approximately from Eq.667)(12) 75 − = 94.05 (h / t w ) 0.60Fy = 22 ksi. The required flange area. tw Aw = 75 in.8. (9.19). say. to Fb = 20 ksi.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 .60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat.17 in. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. we may decrease Fb = 0. (9.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. Af. Af = bf t f = (26.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.

294 (300) 0. Try PL38 in.05 = 0.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9. 9.20 kc = 4. The girder section is shown in Fig. for each flange.34 in.17): .x2. Af = 95 in.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.5 in.2. 294 $ tf = (94.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 . (9. From Eq.20.

9.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2. 5.5)(75 + 1.396 in.5) 3 = 1.5). (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.46) 38 = 10. M1/M2.333. .6 in.17 and 9.396 = = 16. 9.245.19).687 Region DC is the critical region. is zero (Figs.4 S= I 1.069.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.667 = -0.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.31 in.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9.5/26.245.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.

39 ksi 16.75 + 1. 102.K.55 ksi 3 1 . & .2 < * * ' rT Fy 10. 102.24). 75 ) .55 = 20.069.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128. . 510. 000 ( 1 .667)(12) = = 19.687)+0.75+1.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.000)(1.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102. 530 . 530 .3(-0.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 . 000 C 3 1 .55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.05(-0.39 ksi 21. (9. 510.17 < 2.687)2 = 1.91 ksi < 20.6 S O.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.30 . 150 − Fb' = $1.05(M1/M2)+0. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( .5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .0 − 0.000)(1.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.

34 45.6) and solve for Cv.8 36 Fy From Eq.14)]. (9.8): . (9.89)(6.89 Fv (2.22) = = 0.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.000 kv = = From Eq.67 = = 6. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.000 (36)(0.22 ksi in Eq.8.35 Design of Plate Girders 9. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .5 ∴ Stiffeners are required. Cv = 2.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9. 2. (9. At the left end fv = R A 466. (9.5 < 0. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. a.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.

678 < 0.345(150) = 51.Design of Plate Girders 36 a .678)(300) 2 = 48.8 in.44) = = 0.81 − 4 ( = 0. 5.3 in. 5. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.000 1/ 2 a .89 Fv (2. At the right end fv = RB 633. 5.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.89)(8.41(150) = 61.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. b.81 > 9.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .33 = = 8.44 ksi 75 Aw 2.345 in. 5.34 45. Tentatively. from the left end A.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.34 ) =* ' + 48. Figure 9. amax = 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .41 amax = 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .

(9. Bearing stiffeners at A.10) controls over Eq. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. 3. x 1 /16 in. Web: PL150 in. from the left end B. (9. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. Equation (9. 3 Figure 9. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. x 12 ft 6 in. x /16 in. x 12 ft 4 in. x /16 in. 9.22) . x 2½ in.5 in. x ½ in.6 in. 9. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. 2 2 amax = 112. so the latter need not be checked. B. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig.11).22).6 in.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. a.22 Final design Tentatively. x 12 ft 4 in. From Eq. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. and C: 2PL18 in.

207 36 & $0. (9.0 + = 14.000)(14.7 ) " = 2.34 = 4 .04 = 9. Fv = # 1 − 0.34 5.90) = 0.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.0 + 5.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.22).02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .K.67 − 12 (4) = 450. 9.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. 9. . and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.02 ksi O.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.67 = = 6.62 ksi > f v = 6.67 − 12 (4) = 451.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.207 < 0.89 % 1.3 are satisfied.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.58 + 7. (Fig. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.15(1 + 0.7) 2 = Cv = 45. to 45 in.90 2 (a / h) (0.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.

39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.0 + = 13.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. to 50 in.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.66 = = 8. 9.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.93) = 0.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0. b. (9.12): . 9.000)(13.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.193 < 0.0 + 5.93 2 (0.34 = 4.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8. (Fig. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.34 5. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.22).733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.33 − 12 (4) = 620.33 − 12 (4) = 616.

45 ' (36) = 21.K. Check combined shear and bending in the web.193 36 & $0. 9.33 = = 5.825 − 0.40 + 7. 4.825 − 0.245.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26.05 = 9. ' ' F y = * 0. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point. fv Fb = * * 0.733 ) " = 2.396 I O.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. (9.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq.15(1 + 0.K. (9.45 ksi > f v = 8. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.44 ksi 1.30)].78 ) . 9. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.19).30)]: .667)(12)(75) = = 19.22. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig.18 and 9.375 F v + ) 5.27 ksi < Fb = 21. . fv = VC 433.89 % 1.375 9. The critical section for this check is either at point C.22 ksi O.

Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in. (Fig.47) .8ts in Eq. Also.7 2 (150)(0. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. 9. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C. and between C and F is a = 110 in. (9.90 is considerably less than one. Select the intermediate stiffeners. (9.27): Ast = & #. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. From Eq.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.5)(1 − 0.27).29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. (9.207) $0. 6.78 in. a.22).56 in. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced. (9.62 ( % = 5. such a check may be necessary.7 ) "+ 9. because fb/Fb = 0. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. For region EC.56 / 2 = 2.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners.2 bs t s = 5.02 ) 1 0 .2 From Eq. (9. 5.

94 / 15.89 in.5) = 148 in. . 4 > 81 in. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.5)(1 − 0.5 × 2 + 0. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0.5 in.7/16 in.419 in. = 12 ft 4 in. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in.8)1 / 2 = 0. 9. Try 2PL6½ in.7 in.2 bs = 15.45 ( % = 7.2 bs t s = 7. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). x 7/16 in.28).733 ) "+ 9.193) $0.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.89 / 2 = 3.78 / 15. x 7/16 in. 8. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig.27): Ast = & #. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).733 2 (150)(0. .8)1 / 2 = 0.5) 3 = 89. b. Use 2PL6½ in.22 ) 1 0.8t s Minimum t s = (3. From Eq.K. 9.94 in. For region CF. = 6. (9. h ) .

and the thickness of the web is 0.2 .8. 9.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in.2 = 1. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig.5 in.8 16 Try 2PL18 in. x 9/16 in. From Eq.22).31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C).6. (9..5) 2 = 45. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. 9.2 b.67 Kips. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio). Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466. 1. Abs = 21. = in. x 13/16 in. for the left support. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18.375) + 12(0.75 in.375 in. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC.14 in. 15. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15. Moment of inertia check is not needed.

26 r .5) 19 16 3 = 4812. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.96 ) 1 . = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.96 10.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.75 = 10.1 ( 8 + 126. 10. KL 0.S.96 ) 2 # . 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29. 9. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .1 ( = 1.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.1 > KL r F.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .S.699 ( % % = 21.06 / 45.75(150) = = 10.1 ( " ! + 1.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36.26 in.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126. 10.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.11 ksi Actual axial stress: . 10.06 in.

67 = = 10.75 Aeff O..11 ksi 45. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. P = 500 Kips.11 ksi Aeff 45.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. x 13/16 in. less than the depth of the web plate.20 ksi < 21. 2.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. and the effective area (Fig. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support.75 O. 9.84 ksi < Fa = 21. The bearing stiffener. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. Use 2PL18 in. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners.K. is less than RB. x 13/16 in. x 13/16 in. 3. Use 2PL18 in. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly. the same as for the left support. fa = RB 633. x 12 ft 6 in. however. x 12 ft 6 in. say ¼ in.21) is larger than that of the end .33 = = 13.K.

48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. x 12 ft 6 in. L1min = 1.8.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. Substituting this value into the previous equation.33) 2 (95) 2 . 2 & (633.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. Try ww = 5/16 in. (ASD J2b).) and 1. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 . we obtain a1 = 2.5-in. flange plate is 5/16 in.396) L1 ww % = 1. (9.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load.5 in. the length of weld segment L1. we can use the same 2PL18 in. x 13/16 in. Vmax = RB = 633.3. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.39). (Sec. 8. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. .5 and ASD Table J2.51L1 (9.25 in. 9.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0.4).Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1.5 in.245.

36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1. (9.04 in. 9. Use 5/16-in.02 ) * ' = 3. (9. From Eq.62 ( We use intermittent welds. Try 5/16-in.43): .5 in. From Eq.02 ksi. long. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0. 10-in. weld. long.22) f v = 6.62 ksi . 9. 4 in. a max = 12 in.23 ksi + 9.40): Fv = 9. 6.8. (ASD D2). 4 in. For segment EC (Fig. From Eq. weld. spacing.48). Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . (9.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in.8. we obtain a1 = 10.

36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( . 10-in.5 in. (9.22 ) * ' = 4. = 1. long. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.23 = = = 0. spacing. .90 in.22) f v = 8.828(21) (9. Use 3/16-in.0 in.-thick plate is ¼ in.5 in.5 ksi + 9.22 ksi. Fv = 9. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. 8.45 ( (9.5 in. For segment CF (Fig.0757 a1 2.50) L1 ww 4.5 in.49) we obtain L1 = 2. L1min = 1. 3.50 = = 0.45 ksi 3/ 2 .-thick plate is 3/16 in. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in. a max = 24t s or 12 in.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10. weld.05439 a1 2. 9. a max = 12 in.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in. From Eq.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. 2.828 Fv 2.

49) = 96. x 13/16 in.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.707(16 = 4.89 Kips . From Eq. Try ww = 5/16 in. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. 12-in. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. fillet weld = 0.64 K/in. Use ¼-in. spacing. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4. long. for each pair of bearing stiffeners.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. 4 in. > Vmax = 633.64) = 2784 Kips O.50) = 675 Kips O. Use 5/16-in. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. 9. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. x 12 ft 6 in.9.50) we obtain L1 = 3. (9. weld.63 in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.8.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. 3. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in.K.K. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in.

Selection of the Web Plate .19).8. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.9. 9. 9.49/123) = 9.5)( 16 )(148.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.26 + 9.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.9.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.Design of Plate Girders 50 . The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same. 3.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6.2.73 = 145.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148. 9.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.49) = 38.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.1 is desired except that 1.0)](0. 36 ksi). 9.18 and 9. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length. 2.

.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. i.8 For closely spaced stiffeners. x 9/16 in.5)] 242. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.375 in.62 in. (9.5d.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137. when a ≤ 1. we have h 800 = = 266. for the web plate. (9.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.53 in. from Eq.67 . or PL150 in.000 150 ≤ = 242.5d.8 .4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.e. From Eq.24). (9.18 < 9 ) = 84. tw 282.t w ≥ = 0.8 . taking into account the reduction of the .t w ≥ = 0. For the selected web plate.9. 9.3 Selection of Flange Plates First. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.3): h 14.

53) Combining Eqs. . (9.52) (9.72 < 1.72) − 0.54) In this example: α = 0.55 in. (9. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.51) where β = 1.667)(12) (0.893 Af = (26.5(0.6(36) / 30 = 0.51) and (9.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.893)(84.5α 3 From Eq.24). (9.2 (0.60 Fyw / Fb = 0.5(0.0 β = 1.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.22).72) 3 = 0. (9.375) − = 58.53) and solving Af.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.5α − 0. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.

31 = 15.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.363 I = = 11.893(1.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.310 0.05 = = 0.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.46 (h / t ) (266. (9.60Fyf = 0.980 6 + 1. (9. Try PL30 in.363 in.406 .056.98 in.2 Check Eq.31 tf =$ (58. for each flange plate.406 60.05 4.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1. x 2 in.375 = = 1.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.24): Aw 84.406) = 0.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0. Af = 60 in.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.67) 0.7 in.

Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. (9.8 in.980) + 60.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .935.1 in.125) = 65.0 O. 84. x 21/8 in.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.875 in.0 − (0.76 ksi S 11. Try PL31 in.056.125) 3 + 2(31) (2. 4 S= 920.492.K.0005)* '(266. for each flange.67 − 138.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.667)(12) = = 28.375 = = 1.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.G.76 )! (0. Aw 84.7 N.281) = 0.281 . (9.94 ksi > 26.2 = 920. A f = (31)(2.981 6 + 1.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.8 = 11.76 ksi fb = M max (26.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.0 ( % " = 26.893(1.281 A f (31)(2.24).492.

84. 9.375 . and we must use Eq.9.67] (150) = 142.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266. 1.5d = 1.5(150 + 4.17).67 = = = 5.875 ( % " = 27.53 ksi < 0.667)(12) = = 26.0005)* '(266. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.67 − 138.6) for the allowable shear stress.K.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. from Eq.02 ksi fb = M max (26. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.76)! (0.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.5(h + 2tf) = 1.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required. Also.935. Af = 65.60 in. Use PL31 in.1 O.4 in.40 F y = 14. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.875 in. (9. (9. for each flange. x 21/8 in. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.981) + 65. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig.55 Design of Plate Girders & # . fv = Vmax R A 466.2 9.25) = 231.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.0 − (0.

2 in.444 < 0.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. between A and C (Fig.26 > 9.444)(266. 5. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B. (9. fv = Vmax R B 633.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.40 F y = 14.34 ) =* ' + 25.67) 2 = 25.6): Cv = From Eq.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.501(150) = 75.53) = = 0.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.89 Fv ( 2. 2.603)(266.67) 2 = 34. Use a = 75 in.30 > 9. 5.89 Fv ( 2.34 45. (9.89)(7.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .89)(5.33 = = = 7.000 .34 45.000 2.603 < 0. 9.000 (36)(0.501 amax = 0.51) = = 0.51 ksi < 0.23). (9.8): a .000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.375 2.

55) . 5. First. Use a = 60 in. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. let us consider the case of single stiffeners.30)] is not required for hybrid girders.57 Design of Plate Girders a . Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. between C and B (Fig. 3.34 ) =* ' + 34.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . the combined shear and bending check [Eq. 5.42(150) = 63 in. 9. In other words. (9. Selection of intermediate stiffeners.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.42 amax = 0. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary.28) and (9. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action.29). (9.23). We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners.

375 (9. B.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0. and C: 2PL15 in. x /16 in.56) Finally. x 21/8 in. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0.29) into Eq. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.375 (9. (9. x /16 in.55) yields I st = 285. (9.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.000727 h( F y ) 0. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.56) by 2. x 12 ft 3 /4 in. equating Eqs.57) In the case of double stiffeners.56) and solving for ts.5 in. (9.28) and (9. Figure 9. Web: PL150 in.000865h( F y ) 0. x 1 in. x 12 ft 6 in. (9.55) and (9.

9. = 12 ft 33/4 in.K. 9 ). x 12 ft 3¾ in.50 in.5 in. x 9/16 in.000865(150)(36) 0. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. Try PL7.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8.5 Bearing Stiffeners .5 in.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. for stiffeners on one side. < 88.375 = 0.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners.3 in. x 9/16 in. From Eq. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( . (9. t ) 1 . 4 4 3 9. for stiffeners on one side. O. h) .3 in. Try ts = 9/16 in. + 16 ( Use PL7. 9 ) = * ' * 7.75 in.90 in.5 + ' = 88. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.

however. x 1 in.25 Kips )(0.75)](0.49)/144 = 67.6. 9.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders. The answer: Use 2PL15 in.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110. Eq.2b and covered in Sec.9. 9. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.8.9.3. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.875)(150)(0.32 + 8. 9. x 12 ft 6 in.07 = 118.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.39 Kips .5)(147.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.49/123) = 8. (9.25 + 43.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.07 = 110. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load. needs to be used.49)/144 = 43. 8. as given in ASD J2.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.

x 0. Consider bending only. 9. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.75 in.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in.61 Design of Plate Girders 9.24. Figure 9.24 . The length of the span is 150 ft.

8(50 + 17.4.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33. 9.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0. .Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.95 − 4.760 in. I x = 934 in.739 in. 4 = 340.24. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340. 9.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.8 in.3).739 = = 5014.5 in.3 50 + 17.95 67.18 0.69) = = 177. A = 33. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.8 > = = 137.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.01) 2 ] + 12 (0.26 in.60 F yf = 0.

1 ) .26 = 0.75) = 101.84 ksi + 20.75)(0.23 + 0. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.1 in. 133.26) = 20.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.0 − 0.72 − 0.1) /( 20.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .1 / 20.47)(1.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.0 − 0.490)/144 = 0.115) + (100)(0.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .2 4 α= 0.75 in.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .952) = 25.0005* − '* * ' ! (0. 101.952 12 + 2(101. 9.75) 3 × 0.75 ( + 0.8 − 20.

Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore.25): W = 3. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.35 + 0.5) − 0. Figure 9. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight.49 = 3.49 = 3. .84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.84)(5014.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig. 9.

4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.6) and solve for Cv.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.8) 2 = 5. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 k= = Now. a max = 2. (9.89)(2.7).000 (36)(0.79 − 5.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.40 F y = 14.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.89 = fv 2.229)(177. ) =* ' + 5.229 < 0.89 f v (2.5 in. = 33. (9.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2. (9. a .85) = = 0.98h = 2.10) and (9.8).34 45.34 ( 1/ 2 4 .98(2)(66.69) = 397.1 ft . Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq. (9.85 ksi < 0.11).4 ksi Aw 101.79 < 9.

9.77 ft.22 in. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.5 ksi. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . the governing limit is amax = 23.38) = 285.1 in.Design of Plate Girders 66 and . 260 ) . Use a= (150)(12) = 257. = 23.8 ' (133.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore.

26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 . t w = 0.7): Cv = 45.34 + = 8.08) 2 h = 100 in.77 2 (a / h) (1. Find Cv from Eq.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. a = 1.197 < 0.000k = = 0.000(8.77) 45. (9.5 in.8): k = 5. (9.34 + 4 4 = 5.

068 F y + 0. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.61 ksi < 0.12).068(50) / 8.068 F y / f v = 0. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.733(11.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .825 − 0.55 F y ( .89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27. 9.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8. fv Fb = * * 0.5) = 425. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.61) = 8.89 $ 1 .3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.51 = 0.733Fv = 0.232 F y = 11.4 + 2. (9.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.5 ksi = 0.51)(100)(0.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.

when the design is without the tension-field action.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.5 h h = tw .000 F yf for a > 1.5 h (9.11.11.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5. 1998).59) If this requirement is not satisfied.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.60) for a ≤ 1.10.5)]1 / 2 2. 9. In particular. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9.10.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.

(9. 1. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. Note that these equations are similar to Eq. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9.61) is the hybrid girder factor. Limit state of tension-flange yield.0 12 + 2a r (9.11.62) .4) for the ASD code.61) Coefficient Re in Eq.9 is used for the resistance factor φb. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders. At the present time a constant value of 0.3) and (9. 9. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. (9. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn.

(9.3. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB).24) of the ASD code covered in Sec.6).71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .64) corresponds to Eq.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. (9. and web local buckling (WLB).3. In general. flange local buckling (FLB).3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. 9.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. Note that Eq. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. In Eq.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9. the limit state of WLB does . Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. (9.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. there exist three limit states of buckling.4. 2.

(9.000C b (9.63).67) λr = (9.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9. a. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq.65) λ2 The quantities λ.68) C PG = 286. λp.10. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. 3. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. and λr.66) λp = (9. λr. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. However. F yf Fcr = & 1 . λp. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately.1 for beams.69) .

Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.72) kc = (9. We will derive an approximate but explicit .70) λp = (9.74) (9.61) and (9.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.35).4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9. b. (5.71) λr = (9.763 (9.0 (9. 9.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.11.

18) into Eq.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.61) and (9.76) Now. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange. (9. (9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq. (9. (9.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.

81) For the limit state of FLB. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: . In Sec. For the economical design of plate girders.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value). and (9. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9. we must have [Eqs.13. we must have [Eqs. the requirement of Eqs.80) Substituting for rT from Eq.82) often cannot be met simultaneously.70). . (9. (9.81) and (9. (9. (9.46) into this equation.65). (9. (9. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. 9. For the limit state of LTB.66).82) Note that for a given required Af. and (9. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. and a compromise must be made.65).71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf.

85) . the design shear strength is φvVn. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.11. where φv = 0. kv 0.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.9 is the shear resistance factor.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.6 Aw F yw for Vn = .

11.9.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.84) Equation (9. (9.87) 44.6.86) 0.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1. where the resistance factor φv is 0.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq. as well as when relation .86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.0 ≥ Cv > 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. In these cases. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.

15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9.85) holds.7.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9. the tension-field action is not allowed. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.11.88) 9. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1. When transverse stiffeners are required.90) (9.89) In Eq.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads. For design based on tension-field action.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9. (9. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .90.91) . Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0. φv is 0.90).6 Aw F yw C v (9.

2. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.11.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).9.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .3) 3 I st = at w j (9. 9.92) where & 2.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.625 u ≤ 1.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.94) In this expression φ = 0. 9.375 φM n φV n (9. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.5. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. . The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.93) 9.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.

2(3) + 1. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.6(1) = 5. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.2w D + 1. Eq.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.12.2(400) + 1.2).Design of Plate Girders 80 9. 2.28.12. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.6 w L = 1. 9. respectively.6(100) = 640 Kips 9. 9.2 K/ft P = 1.7. (2. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load.6 PL = 1.12.2 PD + 1.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.27 and 9.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .

(9. Vmax = Vu = 816.333.27 Shear diagram Figure 9.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.28 Bending moment diagram .12.000 K-in.3 K-ft = 412. 12 12 From Eq.67 Kips 9.60) Figure 9.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.

for the web plate. 322 322 Try tw = 0. h tw = 300. (9. We find an approximate flange area from Eq.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.50 in.79). 2 9. from Eq.47 in. Selection of the Flange Plates 1.5 in.3) = 45.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0.000 − = 72.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.0 333.5h for a ≤ 1. (9.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. x 0. Aw = 75 in.9(150)(36) 12 (9. or PL150 in.3 for a > 1.12. (9. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.96) .4.0 in.2 0.3 in.

. Therefore.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50.95). the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling.74 in. based on Eq.064. (9.87 rT 10. based on Eq.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1.064. (9. try tf = 2 in.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.829.82): t f ≥ (72.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1. 2.838 = = 13. only the latter needs to be checked. Af = 80 in. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.83 in.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.1 in. (9.0 .4 Sx = I x 1.97).838 in. try bf = 40 in. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders.97) To begin with.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0. Then. (9.

10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.0 − 50.551.5(34.551.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.624.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.5(34.5M max 12.333.87 − 50.17) is the critical segment.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.1) = 1.00 )# = (1.5) 2 = 27. 9.3) 2.33(87.885.9) + 4(30.2)(87.00 (" = 38.5) 2 = 32.3) + 3(27.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.33(62. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.7 ft-K = 603.624. (5.885.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.7) + 3(32.35). 55.2)(75) 2 = 30.2)(62.333.1 ft-K = 603.9 ft-K = 603. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 . MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.

9(0.000 K-in. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.633 K-in.K. If the section were not O. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10. b.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + . x 2. ) .85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi. we would have to increase the area of the flange. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.0 in.1)(36..83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .829. and PL40 in. is acceptable for the flange plate.00) = 408.912)(13.

(9.000)(5) = 0.27).98) We can use Eq. 9.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44. Check Eq. 9.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0. 2. (9.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44. (9.67 tw F yw 36 b.6(0.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig.9)(75)(36)(0. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required. .12.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. a.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9. Check Eq.

84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25.4 in. (9.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.000 = (300) 2 (0. .6(0.9)(75)(36)] = 0.8 From Eq.47)]1 / 2 = 0. b. At the left end: Vu = 603.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.4138)(36) / 44.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in. (9. At the right end: a max = 55.7 in. Tentatively.443 a max = 0. (9.87 Design of Plate Girders a.443(150) = 66.4138 < 0.443h = 0.33 /[0.88): C v = Vu /[0.000 = 30.9V n Kips From Eq.47 From Eq. Tentatively. from the right end B. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in. from the left end A.

Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig. (9.000(15. (9.86): . similar to Fig. a. a . We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values. a/h = 0. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0.22.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. (9. From Eq.. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners. As in the example of Sec.87): Cv = 44.5 in. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).7.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.Design of Plate Girders 88 3.75h = 0.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq. 260 ) . Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2.20 36 = 152.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15. 9.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq.20) = 0.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44. 9. 9.22): Try a = 105 in.8.20 2 ( 0 .75(150) = 112.

9. Similar to case a. M n = 465. M u = 412.0 Kips. Check shear and bending interaction.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig.6)(0.33 − 12 (5.206 = 0. .6(75)(36) $0.6φVn = (0.000 K-in. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.K.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. 9.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0. we find a = 110 in.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0. Vn = 1230. C v = 0. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. b.22).206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1.487 K-in.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603. a very small distance to the right of point C). Vu = 795 Kips 4.15(1 + 0.2 Kips..22. an interaction check is not necessary.194.9)(1230) = 664.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0. to be satisfactory. 9.2) = 583.83 Kips < φ vVu O. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.9(1250. Vu = 556..

69 in.100) and (9. Select intermediate stiffeners.93): j= 2 . 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15. (9.15(1..91): 583. (9.14 in.Design of Plate Girders 90 5.8 ts 36 (9.101) The area requirement of Eq.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0. (9.7) 2 ( a / h) (9. a. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs. 2 bs t s = 0. From Eq.10 ≥ 0.5)(1 − 0. Region EC: a = 105 in.5 2 .206) − 18(0.07 in.5) 3 (3.101). The . C v = 0.100) (9. 2 From Eq. 36 ) & Ast = $0. (9.83 #.5 −2= − 2 = 3.0)(150)(0.99) a/h = 0.7.206 From Eq.10) = 40.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.5 2 (0. (9. Therefore.99) is minimal.

Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in. x 3/8 in. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C.5 in. Bearing stiffeners at supports. Try 2PL5.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B.5 in. a/h = 0. From Eq. for all bearing stiffeners. Use 2PL5. (9. 4 O.67 Kips. (9. x 3/8 in.12. 1. 4 ≥ 40.. Region CF: a = 110 in.5) 3 = 47.K. b.101): bs ≤ 5.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.92 in.6.375)(11 + 0.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1.5 in. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have .101) is ts = 3/8 in. (9.53 in.733 The answer is the same as for region EC.. x 3/8 in. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. Use 2PL5. From Eq.100) and (9.5 in.100): 1 I st = 12 (0. and the thickness of the web is 0.69 in. 9. RB = 816.

116 )(36) = 35.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.85 KL .5) 2 = 50. Use 2PL19 in.9) = 1536.20 in. (9.37 r 10. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.658 0. 95 Try 2PL19 in. x 1¼ in. 36 = 10..50)(35.658 λc ) F y = (0. x 1¼ in. x 12 ft 6 in.5) 3 = 5944.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1. 2. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 .K.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.116 < 1. Abs = 23.85 in.17 Kips O. KL (0.4 / 50.80) = 1807.75) + 12(0.7 Kips > R B = 816.75)(150) = = 10.50 = 10.85(1807.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0.75 in.37* * 29.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.4 in. .50 in. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.

0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5. . output window and control window (Fig. Therefore.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs. Use 2PL19 in. 9.3 = 120.8.8 = 128. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.5)( 8 )(148)](0.49) = 81.49) = 38.0 + 8. This applet consists of three windows: input window.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. x 1¼ in. x 12 ft 6 in.7 + 38. at the location of concentrated load.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. 9.49/123) 4 = 8.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.12. 9.29).

Width. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. Span length. thickness. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. Stiffeners panel.11).31. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. . The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. and Welds Panel. However. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. respectively. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. 9.30a). the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. for example. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. Flange & Web panel. 5. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. For impractical values.29). 9. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters.30b. 9. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. To design a hybrid girder.

29 .95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.30 . the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

32). and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. i. the applet provides only one segment selection.32a). For example. width. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. and thickness.e. 9. Initially. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. By default. 9. Figure 9. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). the place of the 1st stiffener. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.31 . thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.

Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.32 .

34). Figure 9.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig.33 Figure 9. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. and welds panels in the output window. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners.34 . sections. 9. and elevation. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. Depending on the selection made by the user. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment.33. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. 9.

Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .

continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. 9. length. and size. 9. . and size. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. 9. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. But.35b.32a). The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.35a). length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners.32b. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. 9.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web.35). and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9.

ASD and LRFD. SFD (shear force diagram) panel.37 The output window consists of loadings panel.29). BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel.38). Similarly. Elevation panel. Loadings panel displays the loadings. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. and the web depth-to-span ratio. Sections panel. 9. 9.36).29 and 9. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig.37).Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. 9. They are the method of design. .39). supports. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders. Figure 9. 9. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. 9. Welds panel.

43). and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9.39 . It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig.42). The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. 9.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. 9. 9.41. 9. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.40 and 9. respectively as shown in Figs.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.

The example data used in Figs. The results shown in Figs. The hybrid girder presented in section 9. 9. 9. 9.49.9 also has been solved by the applet.29 to 9. 9.37 to 9.44).8.45 to 9.41 .Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. The results are presented in Figs. Figure 9.40 Figure 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9.44 are for the same problem also.

44 .43 Figure 9.105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.42 Figure 9.

45 Figure 9.47 .Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.46 Figure 9.

9.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.48 Figure 9.14 PROBLEMS 9. as indicated on the figure. and F.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners. as shown in Fig. Use A36 steel .50.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support. E. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D.49 9.

9 of the book. plate is selected for each flange. Based on a preliminary design.5 in. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. check the adequacy of this preliminary design.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate.50 9.75 in.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. 9.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments. Figure 9. plate is selected for the web. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only.x1. . and a 40 in. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. 9.x0. a 180 in.

10.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.50 in. single stiffeners b. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.10. x 0. 9.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. double stiffeners . using a. 9. 9.10. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in. 9.109 Design of Plate Girders 9.

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