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9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design
Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building
Design of Plate Girders
Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder
Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates
Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections
Figure 9.5 Welded box girder
Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder
of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:
Design of Plate Girders
1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).
the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. Figure 9. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners.Design of Plate Girders 4 9.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. As mentioned in the previous section. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior.
7(a). This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature.7(a). acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. The Pratt truss of Fig. the instability of the web plate panels. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. 9. after the web panels buckle in shear. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. In this truss.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. It will then be able to carry additional loads. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. will not result in its failure. In fact. 9. As shown in Fig. 9. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. however. a redistribution of stresses occurs. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. after the shear instability of the web takes place. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. 9. Consequently. .7(b). She/he should. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action.
we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset.2) (9. however. However.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem.12).Design of Plate Girders 6 9. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. 9. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec. Of course. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. In design of plate girders. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. the final design can be achieved quickly. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). As a general guideline.
7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. which is presented in Sec. The next step is to choose the web thickness. After the h/L ratio has been selected. 2. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. 9. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. Figure 9.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . In calculating the shear strength of the web. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. our approach is interactive design. In this book.12. the depth of the web plate will be known. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. however.
according to ASD G1. the compressive force F1. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. . To satisfy this requirement. 9. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate.8. as shown in Fig. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.
9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. h 2. 9. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners. To satisfy the second criterion.5h (9.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. α2 is much larger than α1. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.6) where .40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig. Fv = Fy C v 2.5)]1 / 2 (9.89 ≤ 0.9. 9. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. For high-strength steel. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1.9.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.
Design of Plate Girders
45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2
when Cv ≤ 0.8
190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +
(9.7) when Cv > 0.8
when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0
Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0
(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)
The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)
Design of Plate Girders
Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "
Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w
After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw
and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:
Design of Plate Girders
83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =
152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y
548 Fy <
h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)
h 380 ≤ tw Fy
It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.
9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES
9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb
In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and
.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5.19) In this equation.1 in the text). 9. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5.18) By equating Eqs. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate.16) and (9. Aw = tw h is the web area.18) and solving for Af. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange.4. tf is the thickness of the flange plate. (9. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange.
the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates.22) into Eq.46 (9. However.19) and solving for tf. Therefore. as a fraction of 1/16 in. for example.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. (9. in many cases. we find the required flange width bf from Eq. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate.. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . . (9.23).23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate.19). we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. (9. (9.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4.22) Substituting Eq.
17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. Aw is the web area.5. & # A . the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1.4. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1.24) In this equation. When h/tw < 970 / F y .15 Design of Plate Girders At this point.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. as discussed in Sec.0 − 0. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. 5. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support. 9.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. (9.
A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 .25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength. Otherwise. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. For nonhybrid girders. Re = 1. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. α= 0.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. a more complicated analysis is required. fb = M max S < Fb' (9. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered.26) 220.127.116.11 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1.0 ! ! " (9. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges. Equation (9. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.
Design of Plate Girders
stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)
&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv
) ' ' (
where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners
During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)
Design of Plate Girders
Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners
where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy
4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0
Design of Plate Girders
, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +
) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (
The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).
9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS
According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close
the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P.11). the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. Thus. 9. Figure 9. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. For end bearing stiffeners.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. fcb. Therefore. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. 9. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web.11).
the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. . 9.7. As a result. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9. r.75. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. Figure 9. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.
34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration. which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w.2).12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. 5. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld.
and q 2 = w into Eq.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1. 9.36). If we denote the length Figure 9. (9.13. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. (9.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. as shown in Fig. from Eq.36) Substituting for value of q 1 .36).35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. (9.707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate.
we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq. respectively. As a result.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs. a minimum amount of welding is used. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. (9. According to ASD G4. 9. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small.35) and (9. (9. L1. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. (9. and ww.7.39).Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. however.40) .39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1.12)].36).414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. at least equal to . a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq.
14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. 9.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side . 9.707 Fv 2.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq.41) When single stiffeners are used. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. respectively.40).14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.15) Figure 9. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. (9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi. Furthermore.
for the case of single stiffeners.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.16.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . 9.44) Figure 9. as shown in Fig.43) Similarly. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.707 Fv 1. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.
The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . 9.8. (9. In fact. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig.16).45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. 9.16). (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange.17 is covered in this section. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. 9. 9. Moreover.1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig.
Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. Lateral support is provided at supports.8.67 = 633.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. assume that it is restrained against rotation.17 9. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . For welds. Figure 9. 9. 9.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466.18. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load. at the point of application of concentrated load.
Therefore.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 . the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B. .67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.67(100) .4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.19. Mmax = Mc = 466.x1 = A = = 116.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 . 9.
(9.19 Bending moment diagram 9. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.5 d. Eqs.2).Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.5 in.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.4) yield values close to each other.45 in.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq.0 .3): h 150 14.5 in. (9. In other words.3) and (9. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in. for the web plate. that is.8. (9.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners. or PL150 in. when a ≤ 1. tw 333.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.47 in.t w ≥ = 0. . (9. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners. from Eq. 12 12 From Eq.t w ≥ = 0.000 ≤ = 322.3 .x0. Try tw = 0.
67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced.17 in. Af = bf t f = (26. kc = 4.22).19).24). check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. (9.2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0. to Fb = 20 ksi. The required flange area.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat. 970 h = 300 > = 161.8. (9. 9.05 (h / t w ) 0. (9. can be computed approximately from Eq. say. Af.667)(12) 75 − = 94.60Fy = 22 ksi.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 . tw Aw = 75 in. we may decrease Fb = 0.46 for h > 70 tw .
Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9. for each flange.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .5 in.294 (300) 0. Try PL38 in.x2. 9. The girder section is shown in Fig.17): .05 = 0.2. Af = 95 in.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.20.34 in. 294 $ tf = (94. From Eq. (9.20 kc = 4.
5/26.5).17 and 9. 9.5) 3 = 1. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region. is zero (Figs.667 = -0.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.19).5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.687 Region DC is the critical region.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2. .31 in.396 in. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.396 = = 16. 9.333. 5.245.069.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments. M1/M2.245.5)(75 + 1.46) 38 = 10.6 in.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2.4 S= I 1. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.
30 .K.687)2 = 1.05(-0.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( .000)(1.0 − 0.55 = 20.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26.91 ksi < 20. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57. 000 ( 1 .24).Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.667)(12) = = 19.6 S O.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.39 ksi 16. 75 ) .5 % 760 )# ' '! 21. 510.3(-0. 102.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0. 530 . 150 − Fb' = $1.000)(1. (9.069.05(M1/M2)+0. 102.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 . & .000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.75 + 1. 000 C 3 1 . 510.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.75+1. .687)+0. 530 .17 < 2.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.55 ksi 3 1 .39 ksi 21.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .
(9.6) and solve for Cv.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.14)].000 kv = = From Eq. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.89 Fv (2. (9.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.22 ksi in Eq. 2.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9.000 (36)(0.89)(6.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.34 45.8.67 = = 6. (9.8 36 Fy From Eq. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.5 < 0. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .5 ∴ Stiffeners are required. At the left end fv = R A 466. (9.22) = = 0.8): . a.35 Design of Plate Girders 9. Cv = 2.
41(150) = 61.34 45.33 = = 8. 5.81 > 9.3 in.345 in. At the right end fv = RB 633.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. amax = 0. Tentatively.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.89)(8.345(150) = 51. from the left end A. 5.000 1/ 2 a . 5.678)(300) 2 = 48.8 in.89 Fv (2.34 ) =* ' + 48.678 < 0.44 ksi 75 Aw 2. b. Figure 9.44) = = 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .41 amax = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.81 − 4 ( = 0.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C . 5.Design of Plate Girders 36 a .
9.22) .6 in. 3.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in.6 in. x 12 ft 4 in. so the latter need not be checked. x 1 /16 in. (9.22 Final design Tentatively. Web: PL150 in. Bearing stiffeners at A. x 12 ft 4 in. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. a. From Eq.22). Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners.11). x /16 in. x ½ in. B. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. x 2½ in. Equation (9. 9. and C: 2PL18 in.5 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. (9. from the left end B.10) controls over Eq. x /16 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. 3 Figure 9. 2 2 amax = 112.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. x 12 ft 6 in.
02 ksi O.90 2 (a / h) (0.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .58 + 7.0 + 5.15(1 + 0.3 are satisfied.62 ksi > f v = 6.207 36 & $0. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.67 = = 6.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.7 ) " = 2.89 % 1.207 < 0. (9. (Fig.000)(14.K. to 45 in. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.34 5.67 − 12 (4) = 451. 9.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.7) 2 = Cv = 45.34 = 4 .12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.0 + = 14.04 = 9.90) = 0. .22). 9.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.67 − 12 (4) = 450. Fv = # 1 − 0.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .
33 − 12 (4) = 616. 9.34 = 4.0 + = 13.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.193 < 0. (9.66 = = 8.22). to 50 in.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.34 5.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in. (Fig.0 + 5. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.33 − 12 (4) = 620. b.12): .93) = 0.93 2 (0. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.000)(13. 9.
40 + 7.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26.22 ksi O.22. Check combined shear and bending in the web. . 9.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0. 9.396 I O.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.825 − 0.19).733 ) " = 2.05 = 9.375 F v + ) 5.30)].375 9.825 − 0. fv Fb = * * 0. (9. ' ' F y = * 0.45 ' (36) = 21.193 36 & $0.15(1 + 0.45 ksi > f v = 8. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig.33 = = 5.667)(12)(75) = = 19. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.K. fv = VC 433.78 ) . Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.18 and 9.44 ksi 1.245.27 ksi < Fb = 21.K.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq. 4. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point. (9.30)]: . The critical section for this check is either at point C.89 % 1.
9. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h. 6. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in. (Fig.02 ) 1 0 .27): Ast = & #.47) .90 is considerably less than one.78 in. (9. 5.8ts in Eq. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. a. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. Also.207) $0.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15.56 in.5)(1 − 0. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. (9.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15.27). (9.2 bs t s = 5.62 ( % = 5.2 From Eq. Select the intermediate stiffeners. (9.22). and between C and F is a = 110 in.7 2 (150)(0. (9. because fb/Fb = 0. From Eq. For region EC.56 / 2 = 2. such a check may be necessary.7 ) "+ 9.
= 6.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.78 / 15.733 ) "+ 9. 8. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.5) = 148 in.27): Ast = & #.8)1 / 2 = 0. 9. 4 > 81 in. h ) .22 ) 1 0.2 bs t s = 7.8)1 / 2 = 0. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. = 12 ft 4 in. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.K. From Eq.2 bs = 15. For region CF.94 in.419 in.28). x 7/16 in.8t s Minimum t s = (3. Try 2PL6½ in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).733 2 (150)(0.5) 3 = 89. Use 2PL6½ in.5 in.5)(1 − 0. . (9.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.89 in.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.7/16 in.7 in. 9.193) $0.94 / 15. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0. x 7/16 in. .89 / 2 = 3. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6. b. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).45 ( % = 7.5 × 2 + 0.
8 16 Try 2PL18 in. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18.14 in. 15.75 in. From Eq. (9. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC.2 b.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21.67 Kips. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in.5 in. Moment of inertia check is not needed. = in. 9. 9. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C). Check buckling (width-thickness ratio).375 in. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. Abs = 21. x 9/16 in.22).43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in.. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.2 . x 13/16 in.375) + 12(0.5) 2 = 45. for the left support.2 = 1. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466.8. 1. and the thickness of the web is 0.6.
= $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126. 9.1 ( " ! + 1.1 > KL r F. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 . 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126. 10.06 / 45.699 ( % % = 21.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.96 ) 2 # .21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36.06 in.26 r .26 in.S.75 = 10.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 . 10. KL 0.96 ) 1 .S. 10.75(150) = = 10. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.96 10.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.11 ksi Actual axial stress: .1 ( 8 + 126.1 ( = 1.
for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. P = 500 Kips.75 Aeff O.K.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. 2. Use 2PL18 in. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. 9.K. x 13/16 in. 3.21) is larger than that of the end . less than the depth of the web plate.84 ksi < Fa = 21. x 13/16 in. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly. Use 2PL18 in. x 12 ft 6 in. is less than RB. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. say ¼ in.20 ksi < 21.. x 12 ft 6 in.11 ksi Aeff 45. however. x 13/16 in.33 = = 13. The bearing stiffener.75 O.67 = = 10. the same as for the left support. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support. and the effective area (Fig. fa = RB 633.11 ksi 45. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load.
.39). the length of weld segment L1. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length. we obtain a1 = 2.5 in. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 .25 in.396) L1 ww % = 1.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds.5 in. flange plate is 5/16 in. (9.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0.5 and ASD Table J2.8. 9.4). x 12 ft 6 in.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. x 13/16 in.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners. Vmax = RB = 633. 8. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load.) and 1. we can use the same 2PL18 in.245.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. 2 & (633.5-in. Try ww = 5/16 in. (Sec.33) 2 (95) 2 .3. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1. Substituting this value into the previous equation.51L1 (9. L1min = 1. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww. (ASD J2b).
(9.23 ksi + 9. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv .62 ( We use intermittent welds.02 ksi. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0. Use 5/16-in.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. 4 in.8. 10-in. spacing. weld.5 in.04 in. From Eq. For segment EC (Fig. long. (ASD D2). Try 5/16-in. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . 6. a max = 12 in.22) f v = 6.8. From Eq. (9. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.43): . 9. From Eq. weld.40): Fv = 9. 9.02 ) * ' = 3. long. (9.48). we obtain a1 = 10. 4 in.62 ksi .
2. From Eq.45 ksi 3/ 2 .49) we obtain L1 = 2.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3. long.-thick plate is ¼ in.50 = = 0. 10-in. For segment CF (Fig.5 in.22) f v = 8. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. Use 3/16-in.828(21) (9.-thick plate is 3/16 in. (9.5 in.45 ( (9. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.90 in. 9. weld.22 ) * ' = 4. Fv = 9.828 Fv 2.05439 a1 2.5 in. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in. L1min = 1. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( . = 1.23 = = = 0.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. a max = 12 in. .22 ksi.50) L1 ww 4.5 ksi + 9. 3.5 in. a max = 24t s or 12 in.0 in. 8. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.0757 a1 2. spacing.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.
5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in. 4 in.64) = 2784 Kips O.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. spacing.63 in. 12-in. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. fillet weld = 0.50) we obtain L1 = 3. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in.K. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. 9.64 K/in.50) = 675 Kips O. 3.49) = 96.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.8. From Eq.707(16 = 4. for each pair of bearing stiffeners. long. > Vmax = 633. Use ¼-in. Use 5/16-in. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate.K.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in. Try ww = 5/16 in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.89 Kips . (9.9. x 12 ft 6 in. x 13/16 in. weld.
49) = 38. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs. 2. 9.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135. 36 ksi).1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.19).5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.0)](0.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.2.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.9.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.1 is desired except that 1.26 + 9.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.Design of Plate Girders 50 . 9. 3. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.5)( 16 )(148. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length. 9.73 = 145.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.9.8. 9.18 and 9. Selection of the Web Plate .49/123) = 9.
For the selected web plate. i.e. tw 282.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.000 150 ≤ = 242. (9.62 in. from Eq.8 .53 in.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in. or PL150 in. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in.67 .3 Selection of Flange Plates First.5d. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282. 9. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.t w ≥ = 0.375 in. for the web plate.18 < 9 ) = 84. From Eq. (9..9.3): h 14.8 For closely spaced stiffeners.8 . when a ≤ 1. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders. x 9/16 in.24). taking into account the reduction of the .t w ≥ = 0. (9. we have h 800 = = 266.5)] 242.5d.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.
0 β = 1.667)(12) (0. (9.72) − 0.5(0. (9. (9.53) and solving Af.60 Fyw / Fb = 0.5α 3 From Eq.51) and (9.52) (9.2 (0.375) − = 58.54) In this example: α = 0. .53) Combining Eqs.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.72) 3 = 0.6(36) / 30 = 0.72 < 1.5(0.893)(84.22). we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.51) where β = 1. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.55 in.5α − 0.24).60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.893 Af = (26. (9.
310 0.05 = = 0.406 60.31 tf =$ (58. x 2 in. for each flange plate.46 (h / t ) (266.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. Af = 60 in.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.363 I = = 11.893(1.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.05 4.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0. Try PL30 in.60Fyf = 0.24): Aw 84.98 in.406 .406) = 0.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.67) 0.7 in.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4. (9.375 = = 1.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.363 in.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.056.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.980 6 + 1.2 Check Eq. (9.31 = 15.
for each flange.056.281 A f (31)(2.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .76 )! (0. Try PL31 in.0005)* '(266.67 − 138.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.8 = 11.875 in.667)(12) = = 28.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.492. Aw 84.76 ksi S 11.0 O.492.935. 4 S= 920. A f = (31)(2.125) = 65.K. 84.1 in.981 6 + 1.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.281) = 0.76 ksi fb = M max (26.0 − (0.8 in.94 ksi > 26.375 = = 1. (9.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2. x 21/8 in.G.0 ( % " = 26. (9.980) + 60.24).2 = 920. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.281 .7 N.893(1.
for each flange. and we must use Eq.667)(12) = = 26. fv = Vmax R A 466.67] (150) = 142.981) + 65.375 .53 ksi < 0.0 − (0.02 ksi fb = M max (26.9. Use PL31 in.935.60 in. Also.2 9.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required. (9.25) = 231. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.0005)* '(266.K.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.1 O.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .40 ksi Aw Aw 84.875 in. 84.17).875 ( % " = 27.4 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.76)! (0.5d = 1. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.67 − 138. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.40 F y = 14.5(h + 2tf) = 1.5(150 + 4.67 = = = 5. from Eq. 1. 9. Af = 65.6) for the allowable shear stress. (9. x 21/8 in.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.
Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.34 45.33 = = = 7.89)(5.26 > 9.444 < 0. (9. 2.51) = = 0.67) 2 = 34.30 > 9.89 Fv ( 2.6): Cv = From Eq. between A and C (Fig.40 F y = 14.23).375 2.67) 2 = 25. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B. fv = Vmax R B 633.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.444)(266.501(150) = 75. 5. Use a = 75 in. 9. (9.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.000 .603)(266.89)(7. (9.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.000 2.34 45.53) = = 0.8): a .51 ksi < 0.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .501 amax = 0. 5.89 Fv ( 2.34 ) =* ' + 25.000 (36)(0.2 in.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.603 < 0.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.
5.30)] is not required for hybrid girders.42 amax = 0. First. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9.55) .30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. let us consider the case of single stiffeners. (9. Selection of intermediate stiffeners.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . In other words.28) and (9. Use a = 60 in.57 Design of Plate Girders a .34 ) =* ' + 34. the combined shear and bending check [Eq.42(150) = 63 in. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary.29). 3. between C and B (Fig.23). 5. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. (9. 9. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action.
x 12 ft 6 in.56) by 2. (9. (9.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.55) and (9. x /16 in. and C: 2PL15 in.29) into Eq. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. (9.375 (9. x /16 in. x 1 in. x 12 ft 3 /4 in.000865h( F y ) 0.375 (9. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in. x 21/8 in. Web: PL150 in.57) In the case of double stiffeners. B.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.56) Finally.000727 h( F y ) 0. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.5 in. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7. (9.55) yields I st = 285.28) and (9. equating Eqs.56) and solving for ts.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0. Figure 9.
9. for stiffeners on one side. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. From Eq. 4 4 3 9.50 in.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8. Try PL7. for stiffeners on one side. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.000865(150)(36) 0. = 12 ft 33/4 in. x 9/16 in. h) .90 in. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( . 9 ) = * ' * 7. x 9/16 in.3 in.5 + ' = 88. + 16 ( Use PL7. t ) 1 .5 in. x 12 ft 3¾ in.375 = 0. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . 9 ).5 in. < 88. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. O.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147.75 in.K.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners.3 in. (9.5 Bearing Stiffeners . Try ts = 9/16 in.
49)/144 = 43.8.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.2b and covered in Sec.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding. as given in ASD J2. x 12 ft 6 in.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.07 = 110.49)/144 = 67.3. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.25 + 43. Eq. The answer: Use 2PL15 in.5)(147.39 Kips .9. 9.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.25 Kips )(0.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.9.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7. (9. x 1 in. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.75)](0.49/123) = 8.875)(150)(0.6. needs to be used.32 + 8. 9. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load.07 = 118. however. 9. 8.
The length of the span is 150 ft.75 in.24 . 9. x 0.24. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig. Consider bending only. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. Figure 9.
75)(100) 3 t w = 0.3). 9.95 − 4.4.739 = = 5014.5 in.8(50 + 17. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.24. A = 33.69) = = 177.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.8 > = = 137. 4 = 340. 9. .8 in.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.3 50 + 17.760 in.95 67.26 in.01) 2 ] + 12 (0.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.739 in.18 0.60 F yf = 0. I x = 934 in.
26 = 0.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.72 − 0.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .23 + 0.75 ( + 0.952 12 + 2(101.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .115) + (100)(0.26) = 20.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.75)(0.47)(1.1 ) .60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.0 − 0.1) /( 20. 101.1 / 20.75 in. 9. 133.75) 3 × 0.75) = 101.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.84 ksi + 20.490)/144 = 0.2 4 α= 0.952) = 25.1 in. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.8 − 20.0 − 0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.
84)(5014.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3. 9.49 = 3. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.5) − 0.35 + 0.25): W = 3.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. .49 = 3. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam. Figure 9.
85) = = 0.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. a max = 2. ) =* ' + 5.98(2)(66.229)(177.40 F y = 14. = 33.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.000 (36)(0.8).1 ft .11).000 k= = Now.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.85 ksi < 0.89 = fv 2.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.79 < 9. (9. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.69) = 397.4 ksi Aw 101.229 < 0.5 in.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.34 45.10) and (9.89)(2.79 − 5.7). 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5. a . (9.6) and solve for Cv. (9. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.98h = 2.89 f v (2.8) 2 = 5.34 ( 1/ 2 4 . (9.
22 in.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore. 260 ) .26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.77 ft.38) = 285. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.8 ' (133. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. Use a= (150)(12) = 257. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . the governing limit is amax = 23. = 23.1 in. 9.5 ksi. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.Design of Plate Girders 66 and .
08) 2 h = 100 in.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.5 in.8): k = 5.77 2 (a / h) (1. (9.7): Cv = 45.000k = = 0. t w = 0. a = 1.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq.000(8.34 + = 8. (9.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in. Find Cv from Eq.77) 45.197 < 0.34 + 4 4 = 5.
7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .068 F y + 0.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.5) = 425.733(11.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .61 ksi < 0. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.51 = 0.61) = 8. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.89 $ 1 . 9.068 F y / f v = 0.825 − 0.55 F y ( .232 F y = 11.51)(100)(0.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.12).5 ksi = 0.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.4 + 2.068(50) / 8. fv Fb = * * 0. (9.733Fv = 0.
1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC. 9.5 h h = tw . 1998).10.000 F yf for a > 1.10.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.11.69 Design of Plate Girders 9. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.11.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.5)]1 / 2 2.5 h (9. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14. when the design is without the tension-field action. In particular.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.60) for a ≤ 1.
Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders.61) is the hybrid girder factor. (9. At the present time a constant value of 0. 9.4) for the ASD code. (9. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb.9 is used for the resistance factor φb.11. Limit state of tension-flange yield.0 12 + 2a r (9.3) and (9. 1.61) Coefficient Re in Eq.62) . Note that these equations are similar to Eq. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.
The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. (9. (9. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). In general. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in.24) of the ASD code covered in Sec.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. Limit states of compression-flange buckling.6).0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9.3. Note that Eq. (9. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.64) corresponds to Eq. 2. there exist three limit states of buckling.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi.3.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r . flange local buckling (FLB).63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in.4. the limit state of WLB does . and web local buckling (WLB). In Eq. 9.
(9.63). The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq.67) λr = (9. a. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9. λp.1 for beams. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply.10. λr. 3.66) λp = (9. F yf Fcr = & 1 . and λr. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9.000C b (9. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. However. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. λp.68) C PG = 286.69) .65) λ2 The quantities λ.
75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.72) kc = (9.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq. b. We will derive an approximate but explicit .35 ≤ k c ≤ 0. 9.70) λp = (9.35).11. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0. (5.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.763 (9.71) λr = (9.0 (9.74) (9.61) and (9.
(9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .76) Now.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9. (9. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq. (9. (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9.18) into Eq.61) and (9.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.
the requirement of Eqs.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value).80) Substituting for rT from Eq. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9.65). (9. (9.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. and a compromise must be made. (9.81) and (9.13.81) For the limit state of FLB. In Sec. For the economical design of plate girders. For the limit state of LTB.46) into this equation.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9. and (9. we must have [Eqs.82) Note that for a given required Af. (9. and (9. 9. (9. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9.66). an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: .65).71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf.70). the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. . (9. we must have [Eqs.
where φv = 0.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.11.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.85) . kv 0.9 is the shear resistance factor. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.6 Aw F yw for Vn = . the design shear strength is φvVn.
84) Equation (9. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.9.11. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.77 Design of Plate Girders 9. In these cases. where the resistance factor φv is 0.86) 0.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel. (9. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq.6.87) 44.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0. as well as when relation .0 ≥ Cv > 0.
85) holds.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5. φv is 0.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) . When transverse stiffeners are required. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0. (9.90.90) (9.7.6 Aw F yw C v (9.90). Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads. For design based on tension-field action.89) In Eq. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.11.88) 9. the tension-field action is not allowed.91) . Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.
375 φM n φV n (9.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 . Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners. 9. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. 2.94) In this expression φ = 0.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.9.93) 9. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.11. 9. .5.625 u ≤ 1.92) where & 2.3) 3 I st = at w j (9.
12.2(3) + 1. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load. 2.2w D + 1.6(100) = 640 Kips 9. Maximum design bending moment and shear are . DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.2).2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs. Eq. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec. 9.2 PD + 1.27 and 9.6 PL = 1.12.6(1) = 5. 9.12.28. respectively.7. (2.2(400) + 1.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.6 w L = 1.2 K/ft P = 1.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.
3 K-ft = 412.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.60) Figure 9.333.28 Bending moment diagram .67 Kips 9. Vmax = Vu = 816.12. (9.27 Shear diagram Figure 9. 12 12 From Eq.000 K-in.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.
3 for a > 1.9(150)(36) 12 (9.2 0. for the web plate. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.47 in. Selection of the Flange Plates 1. Aw = 75 in.3) = 45.000 − = 72. 2 9. (9. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.79). from Eq.50 in.5 in. h tw = 300.0 333. 322 322 Try tw = 0. or PL150 in. We find an approximate flange area from Eq.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0.96) . m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. (9.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.4.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322.0 in. (9.3 in.12. x 0.5h for a ≤ 1.
1 in. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders. Therefore..2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.0 .5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1. (9. 2.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50.064. (9.83 in. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. based on Eq.95).82): t f ≥ (72.829. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.97) To begin with. try tf = 2 in. Then. try bf = 40 in. Af = 80 in.4 Sx = I x 1.838 in. (9.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. only the latter needs to be checked.838 = = 13. based on Eq.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.74 in.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.064.97). (9. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55.87 rT 10.
33(87.87 − 50.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.7) + 3(32.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .00 )# = (1.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .5M max 12. 9. (5.2)(87.551.5) 2 = 27.551.885.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.9 ft-K = 603.1) = 1.00 (" = 38.2)(62.3) 2.333.33(62.5(34.5) 2 = 32.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.0 − 50.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.885.624.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .7 ft-K = 603.3) + 3(27. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.35).9) + 4(30. 55.333.1 ft-K = 603. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.2)(75) 2 = 30.17) is the critical segment.5(34.624.
we would have to increase the area of the flange. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.912)(13.0 in..85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi. ) .9(0.829.1)(36.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412.633 K-in.K.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + . Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10. b. x 2.00) = 408.000 K-in. If the section were not O. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: . is acceptable for the flange plate. and PL40 in.
9.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig.6(0. . (9.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87. 2. (9.9)(75)(36)(0. (9.67 tw F yw 36 b. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44.98) We can use Eq. Check Eq.000)(5) = 0.12. 9.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required.27).89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. a. Check Eq. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.
443(150) = 66.6(0. At the right end: a max = 55.4 in. At the left end: Vu = 603.47)]1 / 2 = 0. . place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.000 = (300) 2 (0. (9. (9.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.33 /[0. from the left end A.4138 < 0.8 From Eq.7 in. b.443 a max = 0.443h = 0.87 Design of Plate Girders a. Tentatively.88): C v = Vu /[0.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603. (9.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25.000 = 30.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.4138)(36) / 44.9)(75)(36)] = 0.47 From Eq. from the right end B. Tentatively.9V n Kips From Eq.
Design of Plate Girders 88 3.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15. (9. 9. 9.5 in. (9.22. a. a . 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0. (9. 9.87): Cv = 44. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.000(15. 260 ) .20) = 0. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2.75h = 0.75(150) = 112.86): .22): Try a = 105 in. From Eq. similar to Fig. As in the example of Sec.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq. a/h = 0.20 36 = 152. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15.20 2 ( 0 . We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values.8. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.7.
Vu = 795 Kips 4.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.22.487 K-in. we find a = 110 in.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. 9..0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.6)(0.6φVn = (0. b. 9.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig.000 K-in. an interaction check is not necessary. C v = 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. .0 Kips.2) = 583. Vu = 556. to be satisfactory.6(75)(36) $0. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0. M u = 412. a very small distance to the right of point C). Similar to case a. Vn = 1230.15(1 + 0.K.9(1250.206 = 0.9)(1230) = 664.2 Kips.33 − 12 (5. Check shear and bending interaction.22).194.83 Kips < φ vVu O. 9.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1. M n = 465.
(9.5) 3 (3.10) = 40.206) − 18(0.101) The area requirement of Eq.8 ts 36 (9.7.5 2 .91): 583. The . Select intermediate stiffeners.206 From Eq.14 in.07 in. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs. (9. (9. (9.83 #.7) 2 ( a / h) (9.0)(150)(0.101).5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0. 2 From Eq. 2 bs t s = 0. From Eq. (9.. 36 ) & Ast = $0. C v = 0.15(1.5 −2= − 2 = 3. Region EC: a = 105 in.100) (9.10 ≥ 0. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.99) is minimal. a.5 2 (0. Therefore.5)(1 − 0.100) and (9.Design of Plate Girders 90 5.69 in.99) a/h = 0.93): j= 2 .
b.100) and (9.12.. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have .53 in. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B. From Eq.92 in. for all bearing stiffeners.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. RB = 816. Use 2PL5. x 3/8 in.100): 1 I st = 12 (0. 1..K.5 in. (9. Region CF: a = 110 in. x 3/8 in.5 in. (9. Use 2PL5. (9. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C. From Eq.101): bs ≤ 5. x 3/8 in. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in.733 The answer is the same as for region EC.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9. 9.375)(11 + 0.5) 3 = 47. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F.6. Bearing stiffeners at supports.67 Kips.5 in. a/h = 0. 4 O. and the thickness of the web is 0.69 in.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs.101) is ts = 3/8 in.5 in. Try 2PL5. 4 ≥ 40. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in.
116 )(36) = 35. 95 Try 2PL19 in. Use 2PL19 in. (9.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.4 / 50.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23. 36 = 10.37 r 10.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.50)(35.75) + 12(0.37* * 29.9) = 1536. x 12 ft 6 in. Abs = 23.50 in.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0.658 0. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.116 < 1.17 Kips O. x 1¼ in.50 = 10.75)(150) = = 10.80) = 1807. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.4 in. .. KL (0.85 in. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.5) 2 = 50.20 in. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 .K. 2. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.658 λc ) F y = (0.5) 3 = 5944.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.7 Kips > R B = 816.85(1807. x 1¼ in.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.75 in.85 KL .
0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.49) = 81.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81.29).7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. 9.12.8 = 128.7 + 38. Use 2PL19 in. x 1¼ in. 9. This applet consists of three windows: input window.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.0 + 8.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. .93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0. Therefore. x 12 ft 6 in.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes.3 = 120.5)( 8 )(148)](0.8.49/123) 4 = 8. output window and control window (Fig. at the location of concentrated load. 9. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.49) = 38.
thickness. To design a hybrid girder. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. and Welds Panel. For impractical values. for example. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9.30b. 9. Flange & Web panel. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. Span length.29). lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. Stiffeners panel. 9.30a). The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. 9. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. 5.31. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. However. . Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters.11). respectively.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. Width.
95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .
30 .Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage. the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.
and thickness. For example.32a). 9. width.32). Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments.e. 9. Figure 9. the applet provides only one segment selection. By default.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.31 . i. Initially. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. the place of the 1st stiffener. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet.
Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.32 .
the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. and elevation. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. and welds panels in the output window. Figure 9. Depending on the selection made by the user. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. 9.34). If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. sections. 9. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window.33.34 .33 Figure 9.
Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .
32b. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. . length.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.35a). The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. 9. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. and size. But. and size. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web.35b. 9.35). The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections.32a). At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. 9. 9.
and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. They are the method of design. 9. Sections panel.38). SFD (shear force diagram) panel.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. Similarly. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily.29). supports.36). Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders.39).37). ASD and LRFD. Elevation panel. 9. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. and the web depth-to-span ratio. Welds panel. 9. 9. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. 9. .37 The output window consists of loadings panel. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig. Figure 9.29 and 9. Loadings panel displays the loadings.
The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window. 9.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. 9. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. 9.41.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.40 and 9.43). 9. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig. respectively as shown in Figs. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.42).39 .
45 to 9.40 Figure 9. The results shown in Figs. 9.9 also has been solved by the applet. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.37 to 9.41 .44 are for the same problem also.8. 9.49.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. Figure 9. The example data used in Figs. 9.44).29 to 9. The results are presented in Figs.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. 9.
42 Figure 9.44 .43 Figure 9.105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.
47 .Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.45 Figure 9.46 Figure 9.
E. Use A36 steel .49 9.48 Figure 9. as indicated on the figure.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.14 PROBLEMS 9. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. and F. 9.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3. as shown in Fig.50.
Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan. a 180 in.9 of the book. and a 40 in. 9.50 9. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. Figure 9. check the adequacy of this preliminary design. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.5 in.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight.x1.75 in. 9. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. plate is selected for the web. Based on a preliminary design. plate is selected for each flange.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. .x0.
9. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. 9. 9.50 in. 18.104.22.168.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. double stiffeners . using a.109 Design of Plate Girders 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi. x 0. single stiffeners b.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.