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9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . Figure 9. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior.Design of Plate Girders 4 9. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. As mentioned in the previous section.

Consequently. will not result in its failure. It will then be able to carry additional loads. In fact. In this truss. the instability of the web plate panels. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. however. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. She/he should. after the web panels buckle in shear.7(a). 9. . 9. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. after the shear instability of the web takes place. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. 9. As shown in Fig. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. The Pratt truss of Fig. a redistribution of stresses occurs.7(a).7(b). the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. 9.

is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. the final design can be achieved quickly. Of course.12). 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). however. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design.2) (9. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . However. In design of plate girders. 9. As a general guideline.

8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . In this book. 2. After the h/L ratio has been selected.12. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. however.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. Figure 9. our approach is interactive design. In calculating the shear strength of the web. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. which is presented in Sec. 9. The next step is to choose the web thickness. the depth of the web plate will be known.

the compressive force F1.8. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. according to ASD G1. 9. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. as shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. To satisfy this requirement.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. . the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1.

5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.6) where . we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9. 9. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. For high-strength steel.5h (9.9. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.5)]1 / 2 (9. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1. To satisfy the second criterion.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1. 9. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners. Fv = Fy C v 2.89 ≤ 0.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. α2 is much larger than α1. h 2.9.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

11

Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. Aw = tw h is the web area. (9.1 in the text).19) In this equation.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange. 9. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5.18) and solving for Af. . tf is the thickness of the flange plate.4.18) By equating Eqs.16) and (9.

and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % .22) Substituting Eq. (9.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates.19). .23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate. (9. for example. (9. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. we find the required flange width bf from Eq.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9.19) and solving for tf. as a fraction of 1/16 in. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size. (9..22) into Eq.23). in many cases.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate.46 (9.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. Therefore. However.

0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. When h/tw < 970 / F y .4. The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. (9. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1.5. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . 5. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support. & # A .15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by .0 − 0. 9. Aw is the web area. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange.24) In this equation. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. as discussed in Sec. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq.

a more complicated analysis is required.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of .26) 9.0 ! ! " (9. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. Re = 1. Equation (9. For nonhybrid girders. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action. α= 0. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. Otherwise. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 . fb = M max S < Fb' (9. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1.0.0. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges.

17

Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa. Therefore. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. 9. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig. fcb.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates.11). For end bearing stiffeners. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. Thus.11). the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. 9. Figure 9.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener.

the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.75. r. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. 9. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. As a result. Figure 9. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9.7.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure. .

Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .2). which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9. 5.

we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. (9.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. 9. If we denote the length Figure 9.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. and q 2 = w into Eq. (9. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0. (9.36).707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9. from Eq.36).37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld.23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate.36) Substituting for value of q 1 .13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .13.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. as shown in Fig.

39). According to ASD G4. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. (9. at least equal to . and ww. respectively. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1. (9. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9.36).35) and (9. a minimum amount of welding is used.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.7. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. L1.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq. however. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9.12)]. 9. (9.40) . in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. As a result.

welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. respectively. Furthermore. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side .707 Fv 2. 9. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs.40).25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig.15) Figure 9. 9. (9.41) When single stiffeners are used.

16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.16. as shown in Fig.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.43) Similarly.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.44) Figure 9. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.707 Fv 1. 9. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look. for the case of single stiffeners.

16). 9. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.8. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. Moreover. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. 9. 9. 9.17 is covered in this section. In fact. (9.16).27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig.

Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: .33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig. assume that it is restrained against rotation. 9.67 = 633.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support. Figure 9. at the point of application of concentrated load. For welds. Lateral support is provided at supports.18. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.17 9. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners. 9.8.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig.

4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.x1 = A = = 116.29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.19. 9. the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.67(100) .67 = R A − wx1 = 0 .18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 . Therefore.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B. . Mmax = Mc = 466.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.

for the web plate.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9. that is. from Eq.t w ≥ = 0.45 in.5 d. (9. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners.47 in. (9. 12 12 From Eq.8.5 in. Try tw = 0. tw 333.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners.000 ≤ = 322. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.3 . when a ≤ 1.3): h 150 14.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.0 . 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. .19 Bending moment diagram 9.2).4) yield values close to each other. (9.x0.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.t w ≥ = 0.3) and (9. Eqs. or PL150 in.5 in. In other words. (9.

2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat.19).31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 .05 (h / t w ) 0.22). kc = 4. Af. can be computed approximately from Eq. (9.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. The required flange area. to Fb = 20 ksi.17 in. Af = bf t f = (26.667)(12) 75 − = 94. 9. (9.46 for h > 70 tw . say. tw Aw = 75 in.8.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. 970 h = 300 > = 161. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. (9. we may decrease Fb = 0.24).60Fy = 22 ksi.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq.

05 = 0. (9. for each flange. The girder section is shown in Fig.20 kc = 4.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 . From Eq.20.2.x2.34 in.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9. 9.17): . Try PL38 in.294 (300) 0. 294 $ tf = (94. Af = 95 in.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.5 in.

25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.5/26. 9.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.245.245.17 and 9. 9.396 in. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.6 in.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.396 = = 16.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.31 in.4 S= I 1.333. is zero (Figs.46) 38 = 10. 5. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9.5) 3 = 1.19).5)(75 + 1.069. .687 Region DC is the critical region. M1/M2.5).667 = -0.

75 + 1. 000 C 3 1 .55 = 20.39 ksi 16.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102. 75 ) .39 ksi 21.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.91 ksi < 20. (9.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.3(-0.000)(1.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .687)+0.75+1.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.6 S O.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0. & .74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.687)2 = 1.17 < 2.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( .05(-0.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26. 102.30 .069.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .K.0 − 0. .2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128.667)(12) = = 19.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10. 510.000)(1.24). 530 . 530 . 000 ( 1 .55 ksi 3 1 .3(M1/M2)2 = 1. 510.05(M1/M2)+0. 102. 150 − Fb' = $1.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.

8): . 2. a.35 Design of Plate Girders 9. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .89 Fv (2. Cv = 2.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.8 36 Fy From Eq.34 45. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.8. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end. At the left end fv = R A 466.5 < 0.000 (36)(0. (9.67 = = 6. (9. (9.22 ksi in Eq.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9.6) and solve for Cv.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 kv = = From Eq. (9.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.22) = = 0.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.14)].89)(6.

5.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0. b. At the right end fv = RB 633.8 in.89)(8. Tentatively.34 ) =* ' + 48. 5.41(150) = 61.81 − 4 ( = 0.81 > 9. Figure 9.345(150) = 51. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.000 1/ 2 a .3 in. amax = 0.41 amax = 0. 5.33 = = 8.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.89 Fv (2.345 in.44) = = 0.Design of Plate Girders 36 a .34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. from the left end A.678 < 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 . 5.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .34 45.678)(300) 2 = 48.44 ksi 75 Aw 2.

from the left end B. 3. x 12 ft 4 in.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112.6 in. 3 Figure 9. (9.10) controls over Eq.22). x /16 in.11). 2 2 amax = 112. From Eq.22 Final design Tentatively. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. Web: PL150 in.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. x ½ in. and C: 2PL18 in. (9. a. x 12 ft 4 in.6 in. 9.5 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6.22) . x 1 /16 in. x 2½ in. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. 9. so the latter need not be checked. Equation (9. x /16 in. x 12 ft 6 in. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners at A. B. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig.

22).3 are satisfied.34 = 4 .02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .67 − 12 (4) = 451.7 ) " = 2.34 5.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.04 = 9.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .207 36 & $0. to 45 in.7) 2 = Cv = 45.K.207 < 0.15(1 + 0.02 ksi O.90) = 0. Fv = # 1 − 0.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.0 + = 14. 9. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.89 % 1. (Fig.62 ksi > f v = 6.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in. 9. (9.000)(14.58 + 7.90 2 (a / h) (0. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451. .67 − 12 (4) = 450.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.0 + 5.67 = = 6.

(Fig. to 50 in.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.66 = = 8. b.93) = 0.193 < 0.34 5. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.22).22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616. 9.93 2 (0.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.33 − 12 (4) = 620.34 = 4. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.0 + 5.33 − 12 (4) = 616. (9.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.0 + = 13.000)(13.12): .8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45. 9.

Check combined shear and bending in the web. (9. fv = VC 433. 4.18 and 9.30)]: . ' ' F y = * 0.33 = = 5.89 % 1.78 ) . 9.245.K. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig.375 9. fv Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.40 + 7.22. .19).30)].193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.45 ksi > f v = 8.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.193 36 & $0.667)(12)(75) = = 19.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26. The critical section for this check is either at point C.27 ksi < Fb = 21.22 ksi O.375 F v + ) 5. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs. 9.825 − 0.45 ' (36) = 21.396 I O.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.15(1 + 0.733 ) " = 2. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.05 = 9.K.44 ksi 1. (9.

27): Ast = & #.62 ( % = 5.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.02 ) 1 0 . For region EC. 6.207) $0. because fb/Fb = 0. From Eq. 5.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. and between C and F is a = 110 in.47) . which is a function of aspect ratio a/h. (9.8ts in Eq. 9. such a check may be necessary. (9. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq. (9.22).7 2 (150)(0.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. (Fig. Select the intermediate stiffeners. a.56 in.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15.90 is considerably less than one. (9.78 in. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one.56 / 2 = 2. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C.7 ) "+ 9. Also.2 bs t s = 5. (9.27). the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.2 From Eq.5)(1 − 0.

h ) .89 / 2 = 3.419 in. 9.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.94 in. Try 2PL6½ in.28). Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. 8. x 7/16 in. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in.7/16 in.K.78 / 15. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). = 12 ft 4 in. For region CF.5 × 2 + 0.8t s Minimum t s = (3.22 ) 1 0.89 in. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.733 2 (150)(0. b. .94 / 15.45 ( % = 7. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.5) 3 = 89. 4 > 81 in.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.5) = 148 in.2 bs t s = 7.27): Ast = & #.8)1 / 2 = 0. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).733 ) "+ 9. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0. From Eq.7 in.8)1 / 2 = 0.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2. = 6.5)(1 − 0. Use 2PL6½ in. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.2 bs = 15.5 in.193) $0. (9. 9. . x 7/16 in.

2 = 1.5) 2 = 45.375) + 12(0. = in. Abs = 21.8. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466. for the left support.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. (9.14 in. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15.375 in. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig.75 in. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C).22). Check buckling (width-thickness ratio). because these plates are larger than those used in region EC..43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in.8 16 Try 2PL18 in.2 . Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates. 15. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. x 9/16 in.67 Kips. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. 1.6.5 in. 9. and the thickness of the web is 0. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. 9. From Eq.2 b. Moment of inertia check is not needed. x 13/16 in.

06 in. 10.S.75 = 10.26 r . KL 0.06 / 45. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.96 10.26 in. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 . = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 . 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29. 9.75(150) = = 10.1 > KL r F.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.1 ( = 1.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.11 ksi Actual axial stress: .21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36. 10.1 ( " ! + 1.96 ) 2 # .000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.1 ( 8 + 126.S. 10.96 ) 1 .699 ( % % = 21.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.

The bearing stiffener.20 ksi < 21. Use 2PL18 in. however. x 13/16 in. say ¼ in.11 ksi 45.21) is larger than that of the end . x 12 ft 6 in. Use 2PL18 in. and the effective area (Fig. x 13/16 in.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in.K. x 13/16 in. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. 9. is less than RB.K.67 = = 10. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly. fa = RB 633.11 ksi Aeff 45.33 = = 13. 2.84 ksi < Fa = 21. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. x 12 ft 6 in. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. 3. the same as for the left support. P = 500 Kips. less than the depth of the web plate. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support..75 Aeff O. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support.75 O.

x 12 ft 6 in. flange plate is 5/16 in.396) L1 ww % = 1. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 .33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. L1min = 1. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1.5-in. we can use the same 2PL18 in. .8.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length.4).48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1.51L1 (9.39).33) 2 (95) 2 . we obtain a1 = 2. Substituting this value into the previous equation. (ASD J2b).25 in.245.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load. (9. Try ww = 5/16 in.5 in. x 13/16 in.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.5 and ASD Table J2. 8. 2 & (633. 9. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.3. Vmax = RB = 633. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. (Sec. the length of weld segment L1.5 in.) and 1.

(9.5 in. we obtain a1 = 10. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . weld. long. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 .02 ksi. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0.8. From Eq. 9.48).62 ksi . From Eq.04 in.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. Use 5/16-in. Try 5/16-in.02 ) * ' = 3. 4 in. weld. spacing. For segment EC (Fig. long. (9.8. (ASD D2).40): Fv = 9.22) f v = 6. (9.23 ksi + 9. 10-in.43): .62 ( We use intermittent welds. a max = 12 in. 6. From Eq. 4 in. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1. 9.

(9.50 = = 0. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1. 3.0757 a1 2. For segment CF (Fig.22) f v = 8. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in. . 9.49) we obtain L1 = 2. spacing.45 ksi 3/ 2 .5 in. 2.0 in.-thick plate is 3/16 in.5 in. From Eq.45 ( (9. L1min = 1. = 1. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.828(21) (9.50) L1 ww 4.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3.23 = = = 0. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in.-thick plate is ¼ in.05439 a1 2. weld.5 in.5 ksi + 9. long.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in. Fv = 9.828 Fv 2.5 in.22 ) * ' = 4.22 ksi. a max = 24t s or 12 in.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( .90 in. 10-in. a max = 12 in. 8. Use 3/16-in.

4 in.9. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. 12-in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners. x 13/16 in. spacing. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.K. Use ¼-in. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. x 12 ft 6 in.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. From Eq. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4. weld. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in.8.50) we obtain L1 = 3.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.707(16 = 4. long. Use 5/16-in. Try ww = 5/16 in.K. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. 9. fillet weld = 0.64) = 2784 Kips O. (9. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in.49) = 96.64 K/in. for each pair of bearing stiffeners. 3.89 Kips .63 in.50) = 675 Kips O.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. > Vmax = 633.

1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.18 and 9. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs. 3.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6. 2.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.73 = 145. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.49/123) = 9.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6. 9.2. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.1 is desired except that 1.9.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135. 9.26 + 9.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.8.19). 9.Design of Plate Girders 50 .9. 9. 36 ksi).28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135. Selection of the Web Plate .49) = 38.5)( 16 )(148.0)](0.

for the web plate. from Eq. 9.5)] 242.t w ≥ = 0.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.8 . tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.67 .000 150 ≤ = 242.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.9. tw 282.62 in.e.. (9. (9. i.18 < 9 ) = 84.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. or PL150 in.t w ≥ = 0. From Eq. we have h 800 = = 266. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.3): h 14.24).375 in.5d. (9.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.53 in.8 . taking into account the reduction of the .8 For closely spaced stiffeners.3 Selection of Flange Plates First. x 9/16 in.5d. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1. when a ≤ 1. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in. For the selected web plate.

0 β = 1.53) and solving Af.72) − 0. (9.51) and (9.893)(84.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.893 Af = (26.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.72) 3 = 0. .60 Fyw / Fb = 0. (9.24).53) Combining Eqs. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.51) where β = 1. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.22).5α − 0.5(0.2 (0.55 in.667)(12) (0.6(36) / 30 = 0.375) − = 58. (9.52) (9.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.54) In this example: α = 0.72 < 1. (9.5(0.5α 3 From Eq.

0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.98 in.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0. (9.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0. for each flange plate.2 Check Eq.893(1.363 I = = 11.05 4.406 60.31 = 15. Try PL30 in.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. (9.67) 0.310 0.7 in.31 tf =$ (58.406 .363 in.980 6 + 1.406) = 0.24): Aw 84. x 2 in.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.46 (h / t ) (266.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1. Af = 60 in.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.05 = = 0.056.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.60Fyf = 0.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.375 = = 1.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.

667)(12) = = 28.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.875 in. A f = (31)(2.0 O.935.1 in.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.94 ksi > 26.893(1.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.375 = = 1.67 − 138.0 − (0.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # . x 21/8 in. Try PL31 in. (9.76 )! (0. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. (9.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.492.492.0 ( % " = 26. 84.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.281 . 4 S= 920.G.281 A f (31)(2.7 N.8 = 11.K.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.281) = 0.125) = 65.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15. for each flange.2 = 920.0005)* '(266.8 in.76 ksi fb = M max (26.981 6 + 1.980) + 60.24).056.76 ksi S 11. Aw 84.

(governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .981) + 65.40 F y = 14.67] (150) = 142.5d = 1.935.02 ksi fb = M max (26.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required.1 O. for each flange. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. 84.6) for the allowable shear stress.76)! (0.5(h + 2tf) = 1. Af = 65.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. from Eq.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.53 ksi < 0. x 21/8 in.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.0 − (0.667)(12) = = 26.9.2 9.60 in.4 in.0005)* '(266.875 in.K. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1. and we must use Eq. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.67 − 138.5(150 + 4.67 = = = 5. (9.25) = 231. Also.17).875 ( % " = 27. fv = Vmax R A 466. 9. (9. Use PL31 in. 1.375 .

501(150) = 75. 5.89)(5. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B.501 amax = 0. Use a = 75 in.000 .40 F y = 14.51 ksi < 0.375 2.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq. between A and C (Fig. (9.34 ) =* ' + 25.34 45.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq. (9.33 = = = 7.53) = = 0.000 2. fv = Vmax R B 633.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.603 < 0.6): Cv = From Eq.2 in. (9.23).603)(266.8): a .34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .8 36 Fy = (36)(0.89 Fv ( 2.67) 2 = 34.51) = = 0.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.67) 2 = 25. 5.444 < 0.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.26 > 9.89)(7.000 (36)(0. 9.34 45.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.444)(266.30 > 9. 2.89 Fv ( 2.

between C and B (Fig.42(150) = 63 in. Selection of intermediate stiffeners. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs.42 amax = 0.30)] is not required for hybrid girders. 5. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners.57 Design of Plate Girders a .34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . 9. the combined shear and bending check [Eq. First.55) .30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary. 5.34 ) =* ' + 34.29). The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. In other words. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. let us consider the case of single stiffeners. (9. (9.23).28) and (9. 3. Use a = 60 in.

56) by 2.56) Finally. x 12 ft 3 /4 in. and C: 2PL15 in.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9. x 21/8 in.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.000865h( F y ) 0.375 (9. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7. x 1 in.28) and (9.55) and (9. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.55) yields I st = 285. (9.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . (9. B.29) into Eq.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in. x 12 ft 6 in. (9.56) and solving for ts.5 in.375 (9. (9.57) In the case of double stiffeners. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0. x /16 in. Figure 9. Web: PL150 in.000727 h( F y ) 0. x /16 in. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. equating Eqs.

5 Bearing Stiffeners .9. h) .90 in.3 in. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1.5 in. for stiffeners on one side. O. From Eq.5 in.75 in.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. = 12 ft 33/4 in. Try PL7. x 9/16 in.K. x 12 ft 3¾ in.000865(150)(36) 0. x 9/16 in.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. 9 ) = * ' * 7. Try ts = 9/16 in. t ) 1 . + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. for stiffeners on one side. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( .50 in.3 in.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8.5 + ' = 88. 9 ). 4 4 3 9. + 16 ( Use PL7. (9.375 = 0. < 88. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.

This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student. 9.25 Kips )(0.9. however. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.49)/144 = 67. 9.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.49)/144 = 43.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.07 = 110.32 + 8.3. x 1 in.6.2b and covered in Sec.75)](0.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding. (9.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.9.39 Kips .8. 8.25 + 43.5)(147.07 = 118.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load. 9. as given in ASD J2.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.49/123) = 8.6 and therefore will not be repeated here. The answer: Use 2PL15 in.875)(150)(0. Eq. needs to be used. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds. x 12 ft 6 in.

Figure 9.75 in.24 . What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. Consider bending only. x 0.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. 9. The length of the span is 150 ft. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in.24.

8(50 + 17.18 0.01) 2 ] + 12 (0. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.60 F yf = 0. A = 33.95 − 4.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.4.8 in. .Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.95 67.3). 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.739 = = 5014. I x = 934 in. 9. 4 = 340.24.8 > = = 137.3 50 + 17.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.739 in.5 in. 9.26 in.69) = = 177.760 in.

75) = 101.75 ( + 0.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.952) = 25.75) 3 × 0.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 . 9.490)/144 = 0.26 = 0.8 − 20.72 − 0.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .23 + 0. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.1) /( 20.1 in.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.1 ) .38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.47)(1.1 / 20. 101.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.115) + (100)(0.75)(0.84 ksi + 20.0 − 0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.75 in.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.26) = 20.0 − 0.2 4 α= 0.952 12 + 2(101. 133.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .

9.5) − 0.49 = 3.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. . assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.49 = 3.35 + 0.25): W = 3.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.84)(5014.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig. Figure 9.

89 = fv 2.5 in. (9.85) = = 0.8).8) 2 = 5.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.10) and (9.11). Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. (9.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.79 < 9. a . (9.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.4 ksi Aw 101. = 33.85 ksi < 0.000 k= = Now.89 f v (2. (9.34 45.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.69) = 397.229 < 0. a max = 2.79 − 5.98h = 2.7).34 ( 1/ 2 4 .1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.6) and solve for Cv.40 F y = 14.98(2)(66. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.1 ft .89)(2.000 (36)(0. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. ) =* ' + 5.229)(177.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.

77 ft. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi .1 in.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. Use a= (150)(12) = 257. 260 ) .Design of Plate Girders 66 and . = 23. the governing limit is amax = 23. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.5 ksi.8 ' (133. 9.38) = 285.22 in.

197 < 0. (9.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.8): k = 5.34 + 4 4 = 5.000k = = 0. t w = 0. (9.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in. Find Cv from Eq.77 2 (a / h) (1.7): Cv = 45.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq.77) 45.08) 2 h = 100 in. a = 1.5 in.000(8.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .34 + = 8.

(All of the five conditions given in Sec.61 ksi < 0.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action . C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0. fv Fb = * * 0.89 $ 1 .068 F y + 0.5) = 425.5 ksi = 0.61) = 8.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.51 = 0.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2. 9.232 F y = 11.733(11.068(50) / 8. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.51)(100)(0.4 + 2.733Fv = 0.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.12). (9.068 F y / f v = 0.55 F y ( .825 − 0.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.

10.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC.5 h (9.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.5)]1 / 2 2.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.5 h h = tw . 9. 1998). Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. In particular. when the design is without the tension-field action.000 F yf for a > 1.10.11.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.11. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.60) for a ≤ 1.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.

1. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9. Limit state of tension-flange yield.9 is used for the resistance factor φb.4) for the ASD code.0 12 + 2a r (9.11. 9. At the present time a constant value of 0. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn.61) is the hybrid girder factor. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. (9. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb.62) .61) Coefficient Re in Eq. (9. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders.3) and (9.

3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. (9.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). 9. flange local buckling (FLB). In general.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. the limit state of WLB does .63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. In Eq. Limit states of compression-flange buckling.6).4.64) corresponds to Eq. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r . and web local buckling (WLB). 2. (9. Note that Eq. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. (9. there exist three limit states of buckling.3.24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9.3. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.

λp.10.000C b (9. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately.66) λp = (9. F yf Fcr = & 1 .69) . we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. and λr. (9. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ.68) C PG = 286. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. λp.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply.1 for beams.67) λr = (9. 3.65) λ2 The quantities λ. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5.63). λr. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. a. However.

73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.61) and (9.72) kc = (9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.74) (9. b.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate. (5. We will derive an approximate but explicit .763 (9.70) λp = (9.0 (9.71) λr = (9.11. 9.35).73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.

61) and (9. (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.18) into Eq. (9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs. (9.76) Now.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9. (9.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.

the requirement of Eqs.46) into this equation. (9. . For the limit state of LTB.13. (9.65). and (9. (9. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: .75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value). (9. and (9.66). (9. (9.70). the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other.65). 9.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9.81) For the limit state of FLB. For the economical design of plate girders. and a compromise must be made. we must have [Eqs. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9.80) Substituting for rT from Eq.81) and (9.82) Note that for a given required Af. we must have [Eqs. In Sec. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9.

83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.9 is the shear resistance factor.11.85) .5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2. where φv = 0.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.6 Aw F yw for Vn = . kv 0.Design of Plate Girders 76 9. the design shear strength is φvVn.

The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.84) Equation (9. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. (9. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.0 ≥ Cv > 0.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.86) 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.6.11.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.87) 44. where the resistance factor φv is 0.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq. as well as when relation . In these cases.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.9.

91) . When transverse stiffeners are required.11.88) 9. the tension-field action is not allowed.90) (9. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1. For design based on tension-field action.7.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9.90. (9.6 Aw F yw C v (9. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5. φv is 0.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.90). Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.89) In Eq.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9.85) holds. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .

5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9. . Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.9. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. 9.375 φM n φV n (9.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.5.92) where & 2.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).625 u ≤ 1.11. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.3) 3 I st = at w j (9. 2. 9.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.94) In this expression φ = 0.93) 9.

2(400) + 1.6(1) = 5.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.6 PL = 1. (2.2).12. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load.6 w L = 1.12. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .8 on the basis of the LRFD code.27 and 9. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.12.2(3) + 1. respectively. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.2w D + 1. 2. 9.28. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1. 9.2 PD + 1.7.2 K/ft P = 1.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs. Eq.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.

12.60) Figure 9.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.000 K-in.3 K-ft = 412. (9. 12 12 From Eq. Vmax = Vu = 816.28 Bending moment diagram .27 Shear diagram Figure 9.67 Kips 9.333.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.

3 for a > 1.2 0. 322 322 Try tw = 0. for the web plate. 2 9.96) .0 in. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.5h for a ≤ 1. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.12.0 333.000 − = 72. Selection of the Flange Plates 1. (9. from Eq. (9.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.3) = 45.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322.47 in. x 0. or PL150 in.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.79). (9. Aw = 75 in. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412.3 in.50 in.5 in. h tw = 300. We find an approximate flange area from Eq.9(150)(36) 12 (9.4.

based on Eq.838 in.83 in.74 in. (9..829.4 Sx = I x 1.0 .838 = = 13.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10. (9. Af = 80 in. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. (9.064.87 rT 10.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq. based on Eq.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1.82): t f ≥ (72.95). (9. try tf = 2 in. 2. Therefore.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.1 in. only the latter needs to be checked.97). Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50. try bf = 40 in. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. Then.064.97) To begin with.

5) 2 = 32.9) + 4(30. 9.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .5(34.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.551.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi . λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 . the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.5M max 12.885.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.1 ft-K = 603.885. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.33(87.2)(87.624.7) + 3(32. 55.9 ft-K = 603.5(34.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.2)(62.5) 2 = 27. (5.00 (" = 38.624.0 − 50.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.17) is the critical segment.3) 2.2)(75) 2 = 30.35).551.333.1) = 1. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.33(62.3) + 3(27.333.7 ft-K = 603.87 − 50.00 )# = (1.

85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. b.9(0.0 in.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. is acceptable for the flange plate. If the section were not O. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10.829.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + .000 K-in.00) = 408.633 K-in.K. and PL40 in. we would have to increase the area of the flange. ) . the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.912)(13. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412. x 2.1)(36. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .

0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44.000)(5) = 0.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. a. .27).12.9)(75)(36)(0.67 tw F yw 36 b. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end. (9. 9. 9.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. 2. (9. Check Eq.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. Check Eq.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.6(0. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required. (9.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.98) We can use Eq.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9.

87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44. At the right end: a max = 55. (9.4138 < 0. Tentatively. (9.000 = (300) 2 (0.47)]1 / 2 = 0.4 in. At the left end: Vu = 603.47 From Eq.88): C v = Vu /[0. b.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.443(150) = 66.8 From Eq.443 a max = 0. from the left end A.443h = 0.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.4138)(36) / 44. from the right end B. (9.87 Design of Plate Girders a.9)(75)(36)] = 0.000 = 30. . place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.33 /[0. Tentatively.7 in.6(0.9V n Kips From Eq.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.

we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end). (9.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.20 2 ( 0 .. similar to Fig. a.87): Cv = 44.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.75h = 0.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2. 9.86): .22.75(150) = 112. From Eq.000(15.20) = 0.Design of Plate Girders 88 3.8. 9. As in the example of Sec. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig. (9. (9. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners. 9. a/h = 0.7. a . We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15.5 in. 260 ) .22): Try a = 105 in.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq.20 36 = 152.

206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1. C v = 0.6φVn = (0.194. 9.33 − 12 (5. we find a = 110 in.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0.487 K-in.6)(0.2 Kips.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. Similar to case a.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.9)(1230) = 664.22).8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig.0 Kips. .15(1 + 0.6(75)(36) $0. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually. M u = 412. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.9(1250. Vu = 556. M n = 465..206 = 0.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.83 Kips < φ vVu O. 9. 9. Vu = 795 Kips 4.. Check shear and bending interaction. to be satisfactory. Vn = 1230.22.000 K-in.2) = 583.K. a very small distance to the right of point C). b. an interaction check is not necessary.

69 in. a. Therefore.100) and (9.15(1.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.91): 583.5) 3 (3.5 2 (0.5)(1 − 0. The .101).0)(150)(0. (9.7) 2 ( a / h) (9.7. 2 From Eq. Region EC: a = 105 in.206 From Eq. (9.Design of Plate Girders 90 5.5 −2= − 2 = 3.100) (9.10) = 40. (9. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs.8 ts 36 (9.5 2 . (9. Select intermediate stiffeners. From Eq.101) The area requirement of Eq. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.83 #.14 in.93): j= 2 .99) is minimal.99) a/h = 0.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0. 2 bs t s = 0. C v = 0.07 in..10 ≥ 0. (9. 36 ) & Ast = $0.206) − 18(0.

x 3/8 in. 1.5 in. (9. (9..375)(11 + 0.100) and (9. From Eq. 4 O.5 in. (9. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have .. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in. From Eq. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C. for all bearing stiffeners. Region CF: a = 110 in. Use 2PL5. Try 2PL5.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.12. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F.67 Kips.K.6.101): bs ≤ 5. and the thickness of the web is 0.733 The answer is the same as for region EC. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. Bearing stiffeners at supports. a/h = 0. b. 9.69 in.5) 3 = 47.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. Use 2PL5.5 in. RB = 816.92 in. x 3/8 in.100): 1 I st = 12 (0.5 in.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. x 3/8 in. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B.101) is ts = 3/8 in. 4 ≥ 40.53 in.

80) = 1807. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.116 < 1.75)(150) = = 10.37* * 29.4 / 50. .5) 3 = 5944.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.50 in.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.50 = 10. Use 2PL19 in.75) + 12(0.7 Kips > R B = 816.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23. x 1¼ in. x 12 ft 6 in..4 in.K.17 Kips O. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.85 KL .658 0. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.50)(35. x 1¼ in.85(1807. Abs = 23. 95 Try 2PL19 in.9) = 1536. (9.5) 2 = 50. 36 = 10.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.75 in.658 λc ) F y = (0.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.20 in.85 in.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0. KL (0.37 r 10.116 )(36) = 35. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 . 2.

490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9.7 + 38. .3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. Therefore.0 + 8.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120. 9. output window and control window (Fig.29).49/123) 4 = 8.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes.5)( 8 )(148)](0.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.3 = 120. 9. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.49) = 81.49) = 38. x 1¼ in.8 = 128. at the location of concentrated load. x 12 ft 6 in. 9. Use 2PL19 in. This applet consists of three windows: input window.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.12.8.

5. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. Stiffeners panel.11). respectively. For impractical values. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. 9.29). 9. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. Width. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. Span length.30b. However. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. Flange & Web panel. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. . and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. To design a hybrid girder.31. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. and Welds Panel. for example. thickness. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. 9.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters.30a). The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only.

29 .95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage. the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.30 .

Initially.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). Figure 9. width. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. the place of the 1st stiffener. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. 9.31 . 9. the applet provides only one segment selection. For example. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads.32). the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig.e. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners. By default. and thickness. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.32a). i.

32 .Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

33. Figure 9.33 Figure 9. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. 9.34). Depending on the selection made by the user. sections.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. 9. and welds panels in the output window. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. and elevation.34 . the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment.

35 .Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

32a). length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web.32b. and size. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9.35b. 9. But. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. 9. 9.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web.35). and size. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. 9. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. length.35a).101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. .

Figure 9. Sections panel. They are the method of design. ASD and LRFD.29). 9. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig.38). Welds panel. 9. 9. Loadings panel displays the loadings. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs.36).37). Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders.29 and 9. Elevation panel. supports. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. 9. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel. and the web depth-to-span ratio. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily.39). Similarly. SFD (shear force diagram) panel. 9. .37 The output window consists of loadings panel.

the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9. 9.42).103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig. 9.39 .40 and 9. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window.43). It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig.41. respectively as shown in Figs. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. 9. 9.

36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. 9. The example data used in Figs.8.41 . 9.40 Figure 9.44).49.9 also has been solved by the applet. The results are presented in Figs. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.37 to 9.29 to 9.45 to 9. The results shown in Figs. 9. Figure 9.44 are for the same problem also.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. 9.

44 .105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.42 Figure 9.43 Figure 9.

46 Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.47 .45 Figure 9.

49 9. Use A36 steel . and F.50.14 PROBLEMS 9. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3. as shown in Fig. as indicated on the figure.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support. E. 9.48 Figure 9.

.9 of the book. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. 9. plate is selected for the web.x1.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec.5 in. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only.75 in. check the adequacy of this preliminary design. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. plate is selected for each flange. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. Figure 9.x0. 9. and a 40 in. Based on a preliminary design. a 180 in. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode.50 9.

9.10.10. double stiffeners . single stiffeners b.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.109 Design of Plate Girders 9. 9. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in. 9. x 0.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9. 9. using a.50 in.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.10.

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