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9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 4 9.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. As mentioned in the previous section.

7(a). . Consequently. will not result in its failure.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. however. a redistribution of stresses occurs. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. after the shear instability of the web takes place.7(b). 9. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. 9. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. 9. the instability of the web plate panels.7(a). 9. after the web panels buckle in shear. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. As shown in Fig. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. In this truss. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. It will then be able to carry additional loads. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. In fact. She/he should. The Pratt truss of Fig.

however.2) (9. Of course. In design of plate girders.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. the final design can be achieved quickly. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. As a general guideline. However.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10.12). Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). 9. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec.

The web plate should carry all the shearing force. After the h/L ratio has been selected. Figure 9. the depth of the web plate will be known.12. which is presented in Sec. our approach is interactive design. In calculating the shear strength of the web.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . 9. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. 2. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. however. In this book. The next step is to choose the web thickness. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads.

8. 9. To satisfy this requirement. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. the compressive force F1. . the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. as shown in Fig. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. according to ASD G1.

Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress.6) where . 9. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.9.9.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig. h 2. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1.5)]1 / 2 (9. To satisfy the second criterion. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9. Fv = Fy C v 2. For high-strength steel. 9.89 ≤ 0.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.5h (9. α2 is much larger than α1.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

11

Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus.16) and (9. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange. 9. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. . Aw = tw h is the web area. tf is the thickness of the flange plate.4.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9.19) In this equation.18) and solving for Af.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate.18) By equating Eqs.1 in the text). (9.

20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. we find the required flange width bf from Eq.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. in many cases.22) into Eq. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate. (9. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size. as a fraction of 1/16 in. Therefore.46 (9. for example.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. (9. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. (9.22) Substituting Eq.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate.19) and solving for tf. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . (9.19). and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. However.23). ..

ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. 5.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point.5. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1.4. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. When h/tw < 970 / F y . The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange. (9. 9. Aw is the web area.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9.0 − 0. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. as discussed in Sec. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. & # A . h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments.24) In this equation. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.

the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . Re = 1. Equation (9. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. Otherwise. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. α= 0.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ .5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress.0.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1.0 ! ! " (9.26) 9. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. For nonhybrid girders. fb = M max S < Fb' (9.0. a more complicated analysis is required. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 .

17

Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners .32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig. 9. Figure 9. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. fcb.11).11). 9.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. For end bearing stiffeners. Thus. Therefore.

Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. r.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis.7. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web. . otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. 9. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. As a result.75. Figure 9.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.

The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec.2). which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w. 5.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.

If we denote the length Figure 9.36).36) Substituting for value of q 1 . we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld . (9. 9.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate.23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9. from Eq.13.707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used.36). the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0. (9. as shown in Fig. (9.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. and q 2 = w into Eq.

and ww. As a result. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. According to ASD G4.36).12)]. at least equal to . the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9. a minimum amount of welding is used. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. 9.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners.40) .38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs.39). (9. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. L1.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. however. (9. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners.35) and (9. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1.7. (9.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. respectively.

15) Figure 9. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels.707 Fv 2.41) When single stiffeners are used.40). noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. 9. respectively. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side . Furthermore. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. (9.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. 9.

43) Similarly. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.16.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections. for the case of single stiffeners. as shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look. 9. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds .707 Fv 1. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.44) Figure 9.

9.16).16).1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. In fact. 9. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange. (9. 9. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. Moreover. 9.17 is covered in this section.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.8. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig.

Figure 9. assume that it is restrained against rotation.67 = 633. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load. 9. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . at the point of application of concentrated load.8. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. Lateral support is provided at supports.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466.18.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support. 9.17 9. For welds.

19.29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. .67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 . the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load. 9. Mmax = Mc = 466.4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.x1 = A = = 116.67(100) .18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 . Therefore.

when a ≤ 1.5 in.47 in.45 in. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16. (9. 12 12 From Eq.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. from Eq. (9. .3) and (9. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners.t w ≥ = 0. that is. or PL150 in.2). for the web plate. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.t w ≥ = 0.5 d. Eqs.5 in.000 ≤ = 322.19 Bending moment diagram 9. tw 333.4) yield values close to each other.3): h 150 14.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners. In other words.0 .8.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. Try tw = 0.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.x0.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.3 . (9. (9.

667)(12) 75 − = 94.2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0. 9. (9. can be computed approximately from Eq.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. we may decrease Fb = 0.24).46 for h > 70 tw .17 in.19).22).4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. say.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 .8.05 (h / t w ) 0. kc = 4.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat. tw Aw = 75 in. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. to Fb = 20 ksi. (9. Af = bf t f = (26. The required flange area.60Fy = 22 ksi. 970 h = 300 > = 161.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. Af. (9.

2. (9.20 kc = 4. Try PL38 in. 294 $ tf = (94. From Eq.20.05 = 0.5 in. Af = 95 in.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.17): . for each flange.294 (300) 0. The girder section is shown in Fig. 9.34 in.x2.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .

5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.4 S= I 1.245. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.396 = = 16.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.245.687 Region DC is the critical region.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.333.31 in.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2.5/26. M1/M2. 5.6 in.396 in. .667 = -0. 9.5)(75 + 1. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.46) 38 = 10.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.5). is zero (Figs. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments.5) 3 = 1.19).069.17 and 9. 9.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.

000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26.05(M1/M2)+0.75+1.667)(12) = = 19.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.30 . 150 − Fb' = $1.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21. 510.069. 102.24).0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.6 S O.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510. 530 . & .5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.39 ksi 21. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.000)(1. 000 ( 1 .17 < 2. (9.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( .55 ksi 3 1 .58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft . 102.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.91 ksi < 20. 75 ) .05(-0.75 + 1. 510.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128.3(-0.K.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.0 − 0. 000 C 3 1 .687)+0.55 = 20.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102. 530 .000)(1.687)2 = 1.39 ksi 16. .

8 36 Fy From Eq.35 Design of Plate Girders 9.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6. (9.89)(6. At the left end fv = R A 466. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq. 2.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 . (9. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.6) and solve for Cv.89 Fv (2.67 = = 6. Cv = 2.000 (36)(0.22 ksi in Eq.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.8): .5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.8. a.34 45.5 < 0.14)]. (9.22) = = 0. (9.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9.000 kv = = From Eq.

from the left end A. 5.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.34 ) =* ' + 48. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.678 < 0.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .81 > 9. 5.89 Fv (2.89)(8.Design of Plate Girders 36 a .34 45.8 in.3 in. b.44) = = 0.678)(300) 2 = 48.000 1/ 2 a . Figure 9. 5.33 = = 8.44 ksi 75 Aw 2.345(150) = 51.81 − 4 ( = 0.345 in.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.41 amax = 0. 5. Tentatively. amax = 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( . At the right end fv = RB 633.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.41(150) = 61.

(9.22) . Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners.22 Final design Tentatively. B.22). x /16 in.5 in. and C: 2PL18 in.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. x 12 ft 6 in. a. x /16 in. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. 2 2 amax = 112. x 12 ft 4 in. x ½ in.6 in. (9. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig.11).6 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. Web: PL150 in. from the left end B. 9. x 2½ in.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. x 12 ft 4 in.10) controls over Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. 3. x 1 /16 in. From Eq. Bearing stiffeners at A. 3 Figure 9. Equation (9. 9. so the latter need not be checked.

7 ) " = 2. 9.67 − 12 (4) = 451.67 = = 6.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in. .34 = 4 . Fv = # 1 − 0.3 are satisfied.90) = 0.207 36 & $0.02 ksi O. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.7) 2 = Cv = 45.67 − 12 (4) = 450.000)(14.34 5. to 45 in.15(1 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.K. 9.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.58 + 7.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.0 + = 14. (Fig.207 < 0.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .0 + 5. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.62 ksi > f v = 6.22). (9.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.90 2 (a / h) (0.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .89 % 1.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.04 = 9.

to 50 in.66 = = 8.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.12): . 9.22).33 − 12 (4) = 616.0 + = 13.93 2 (0. (9.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.93) = 0.34 = 4.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. b.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.33 − 12 (4) = 620.34 5.000)(13.193 < 0.0 + 5. (Fig. 9.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.

15(1 + 0.396 I O.44 ksi 1.375 F v + ) 5.30)]: . The critical section for this check is either at point C.733 ) " = 2. fv Fb = * * 0. 9.18 and 9.27 ksi < Fb = 21. 9.05 = 9.245. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable. ' ' F y = * 0.33 = = 5.825 − 0. . Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig. (9.825 − 0.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq. Check combined shear and bending in the web. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.40 + 7.45 ksi > f v = 8.19). (9. fv = VC 433.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.78 ) .667)(12)(75) = = 19.45 ' (36) = 21.22.89 % 1.193 36 & $0.K.375 9.22 ksi O. 4.K.30)].

6.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. Select the intermediate stiffeners. Also.7 ) "+ 9.2 From Eq. because fb/Fb = 0.22). The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq. 9. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C. such a check may be necessary.8ts in Eq. 5. (9. (9. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. (9. and between C and F is a = 110 in. From Eq.207) $0.47) .7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.7 2 (150)(0. a. (Fig.62 ( % = 5. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.27): Ast = & #. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced. For region EC.56 / 2 = 2.2 bs t s = 5.56 in.02 ) 1 0 .90 is considerably less than one. (9.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. (9.27).78 in. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one.5)(1 − 0.

x 7/16 in. 9.94 / 15.5 in. Try 2PL6½ in. .8)1 / 2 = 0.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. = 6.27): Ast = & #.8t s Minimum t s = (3.K.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web. b. Use 2PL6½ in. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.22 ) 1 0. = 12 ft 4 in.89 / 2 = 3.2 bs = 15.8)1 / 2 = 0.7/16 in.28). For region CF.733 2 (150)(0.5)(1 − 0.89 in.193) $0. h ) .733 ) "+ 9.5 × 2 + 0. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). 4 > 81 in. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6. 8. From Eq.5) 3 = 89. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. 9. . (9. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in.94 in.2 bs t s = 7.78 / 15.7 in.5) = 148 in. x 7/16 in. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0.45 ( % = 7.419 in. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.

(9. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in..375 in. Abs = 21.2 b. and the thickness of the web is 0.67 Kips.22).8.2 = 1. 9. 15.5 in. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466. for the left support. x 9/16 in. From Eq. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio). x 13/16 in. 9.5) 2 = 45.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18. Moment of inertia check is not needed. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15.2 .31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in.14 in.375) + 12(0. = in. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C). Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates.75 in.6.8 16 Try 2PL18 in. 1. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a.

06 in. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.26 in.699 ( % % = 21.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 . 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.96 ) 1 .1 > KL r F. KL 0.1 ( 8 + 126.1 ( " ! + 1. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .5) 19 16 3 = 4812.11 ksi Actual axial stress: .4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.06 / 45.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.26 r .S.75(150) = = 10. 10. 10.75 = 10.1 ( = 1.S.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36. 10. 9.96 ) 2 # .96 10.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.

is less than RB. however.K.21) is larger than that of the end ..75 Aeff O. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly.75 O. x 13/16 in. say ¼ in. The bearing stiffener. x 12 ft 6 in. 2. 3.20 ksi < 21.K. Use 2PL18 in. less than the depth of the web plate. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load.11 ksi Aeff 45. P = 500 Kips. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. fa = RB 633. and the effective area (Fig. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. Use 2PL18 in.67 = = 10.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. x 13/16 in.33 = = 13. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support.84 ksi < Fa = 21. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support.11 ksi 45. x 12 ft 6 in. x 13/16 in. 9. the same as for the left support.

Vmax = RB = 633.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds.3.) and 1. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 . Try ww = 5/16 in. flange plate is 5/16 in.5-in. (Sec. Substituting this value into the previous equation.39).5 in. (9.245. 9. x 12 ft 6 in.5 and ASD Table J2.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length. L1min = 1. 2 & (633.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. x 13/16 in. we can use the same 2PL18 in. 8. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww. .33) 2 (95) 2 .25 in. the length of weld segment L1. we obtain a1 = 2.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.396) L1 ww % = 1.8.4). for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. (ASD J2b).51L1 (9. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1.5 in.

40): Fv = 9. 6. 9. (ASD D2). weld. From Eq.23 ksi + 9. Use 5/16-in. 10-in.8. weld.43): .62 ( We use intermittent welds. 4 in. (9. long.62 ksi . we obtain a1 = 10.48). 4 in. (9.04 in. long. a max = 12 in. Try 5/16-in.22) f v = 6.8.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. From Eq. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.02 ) * ' = 3. For segment EC (Fig. From Eq. (9. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 .5 in. spacing.02 ksi. 9. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . Thickness of the thinner plate = 0.

828 Fv 2. spacing.45 ksi 3/ 2 . = 1. 8.45 ( (9. 10-in. Use 3/16-in.-thick plate is ¼ in. From Eq.22 ) * ' = 4. . 3.23 = = = 0.22 ksi.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.828(21) (9. (9. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.0 in.50 = = 0. L1min = 1. weld. 2. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.5 in.05439 a1 2.49) we obtain L1 = 2. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in.-thick plate is 3/16 in.50) L1 ww 4.5 ksi + 9. long.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3. a max = 24t s or 12 in. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( .90 in.22) f v = 8. 9.5 in.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. Fv = 9. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. For segment CF (Fig.0757 a1 2.5 in. a max = 12 in.5 in.

12-in. 4 in.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.707(16 = 4. Use 5/16-in. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in.50) we obtain L1 = 3. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. for each pair of bearing stiffeners.50) = 675 Kips O. fillet weld = 0.K.64) = 2784 Kips O. long. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. spacing.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in. (9. Use ¼-in. x 12 ft 6 in. From Eq. 9. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4. weld. x 13/16 in.64 K/in. Try ww = 5/16 in. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in. > Vmax = 633.8. 3.63 in.9. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in.49) = 96.K.89 Kips .

28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.5)( 16 )(148.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.26 + 9.73 = 145.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. 2.0)](0. 9. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.2.9.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6. 3. 9.Design of Plate Girders 50 .5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.49) = 38.1 is desired except that 1. 9.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6.49/123) = 9. 9.8. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same. 36 ksi).0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.18 and 9.19). The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs. Selection of the Web Plate .9. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.

for the web plate.24). 9.3): h 14. or PL150 in. (9. For the selected web plate.000 150 ≤ = 242.8 For closely spaced stiffeners.8 .2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. x 9/16 in. (9. when a ≤ 1. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137. we have h 800 = = 266.t w ≥ = 0.3 Selection of Flange Plates First.t w ≥ = 0. (9. i. taking into account the reduction of the . tw 282.67 .5d.e.62 in. from Eq.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.5)] 242.8 . From Eq.375 in.53 in.9. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.5d.18 < 9 ) = 84..

0 β = 1.6(36) / 30 = 0.5α 3 From Eq.54) In this example: α = 0.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.72) 3 = 0.51) and (9.893 Af = (26.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq. (9. (9.55 in.72 < 1. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.60 Fyw / Fb = 0. .5(0. (9.52) (9.72) − 0.22).51) where β = 1.893)(84.53) and solving Af.667)(12) (0.5(0.375) − = 58.53) Combining Eqs. (9. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.5α − 0.2 (0.24).

375 = = 1.980 6 + 1.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4. x 2 in. (9.98 in.05 = = 0.893(1.056. Af = 60 in.31 = 15. Try PL30 in.05 4.24): Aw 84.31 tf =$ (58.60Fyf = 0.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.67) 0.406) = 0.363 I = = 11. for each flange plate.406 60.7 in.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0. (9.2 Check Eq.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.406 .60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.310 0.363 in.46 (h / t ) (266.

125) 3 + 2(31) (2. Aw 84. Try PL31 in.8 in.7 N.1 in.981 6 + 1.980) + 60.281) = 0.893(1.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.24).G.375 = = 1. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.492. A f = (31)(2.8 = 11. (9.76 ksi fb = M max (26. for each flange.667)(12) = = 28.K. (9.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.2 = 920.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.875 in.125) = 65.0005)* '(266.935.0 ( % " = 26.76 )! (0.67 − 138.0 O.492.0 − (0. 4 S= 920.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .281 A f (31)(2.281 .59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.94 ksi > 26.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0. x 21/8 in. 84.76 ksi S 11.056.

6) for the allowable shear stress.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.K. and we must use Eq. (9.5(150 + 4. 84.935. x 21/8 in.0 − (0.5d = 1. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig.9.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required. Also.375 .0005)* '(266.81 ksi < Fb' S 11. for each flange.67 = = = 5. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .1 O.25) = 231. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.2 9.981) + 65. 9. (9.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.53 ksi < 0. Af = 65. 1.67] (150) = 142. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.02 ksi fb = M max (26.875 ( % " = 27. Use PL31 in.67 − 138.667)(12) = = 26.17).4 in. fv = Vmax R A 466.76)! (0. from Eq.5(h + 2tf) = 1.875 in.40 F y = 14.60 in.

67) 2 = 25.89 Fv ( 2.89)(7. 5.23). between A and C (Fig.89)(5. (9.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.67) 2 = 34. 9. 2.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . Use a = 75 in.6): Cv = From Eq.375 2.89 Fv ( 2. fv = Vmax R B 633.444 < 0.51 ksi < 0.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq. 5.34 ) =* ' + 25.30 > 9.40 F y = 14.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.501(150) = 75.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.33 = = = 7.8): a .2 in.51) = = 0.34 45. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B.444)(266.603)(266.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.000 (36)(0.000 .53) = = 0.34 45.603 < 0.000 2.501 amax = 0.26 > 9. (9.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. (9.

Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. 5.30)] is not required for hybrid girders. First. 9. 5. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners.29). Use a = 60 in.23).55) .42(150) = 63 in.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary. (9. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action.34 ) =* ' + 34. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9.28) and (9. the combined shear and bending check [Eq.57 Design of Plate Girders a . 3.42 amax = 0. In other words. let us consider the case of single stiffeners. Selection of intermediate stiffeners. between C and B (Fig.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. (9.

x /16 in.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A. (9. x 12 ft 3 /4 in. Web: PL150 in.29) into Eq. B. (9. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0.55) yields I st = 285.375 (9.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq. x 1 in. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7.000727 h( F y ) 0.5 in.56) Finally. and C: 2PL15 in.28) and (9. (9.375 (9. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.000865h( F y ) 0.55) and (9.56) by 2. equating Eqs.57) In the case of double stiffeners.56) and solving for ts. x 12 ft 6 in. x /16 in. (9. Figure 9. x 21/8 in.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.

9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. x 12 ft 3¾ in.5 + ' = 88.90 in. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . t ) 1 .9.5 Bearing Stiffeners . for stiffeners on one side.5 in. From Eq.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8.5 in.50 in. x 9/16 in. = 12 ft 33/4 in. Try ts = 9/16 in. 9 ) = * ' * 7.375 = 0. 4 4 3 9. Try PL7. O.000865(150)(36) 0.3 in. 9 ). + 16 ( Use PL7. h) . (9.3 in.75 in.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. x 9/16 in. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.K. < 88. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. for stiffeners on one side. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( .

(9.25 Kips )(0.49)/144 = 67.07 = 118.2b and covered in Sec. needs to be used.5)(147.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.3. as given in ASD J2.6. 8.49/123) = 8.8. Eq.9. 9.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7. however.75)](0. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders. 9.07 = 110. x 12 ft 6 in.39 Kips .32 + 8.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.875)(150)(0.25 + 43. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.9. The answer: Use 2PL15 in. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.49)/144 = 43. x 1 in. 9. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.

75 in. x 0.24. The length of the span is 150 ft. Consider bending only.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.24 . 9.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in. Figure 9. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck.

75)(100) 3 t w = 0.60 F yf = 0.26 in. .01) 2 ] + 12 (0.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.3).5 in.95 − 4. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.95 67.24. A = 33.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.8(50 + 17.3 50 + 17.18 0. 4 = 340.8 > = = 137.739 = = 5014.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.739 in.69) = = 177. I x = 934 in. 9.4. 9.760 in.8 in.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.

2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.75) 3 × 0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.23 + 0.75)(0.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .1) /( 20.1 / 20.1 in.75) = 101. 133.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .115) + (100)(0.952 12 + 2(101.26) = 20.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .72 − 0. 9.75 in.2 4 α= 0.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.0 − 0.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.84 ksi + 20.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.26 = 0. 101.490)/144 = 0.8 − 20.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.47)(1. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.1 ) .75 ( + 0.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.0 − 0.952) = 25.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.

.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight. Figure 9.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.5) − 0. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.49 = 3.35 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore. 9.25): W = 3.49 = 3. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.84)(5014.

a max = 2. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.34 ( 1/ 2 4 .80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.229 < 0.8). (9.000 k= = Now. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.10) and (9.7).85 ksi < 0. (9.8) 2 = 5.79 − 5.69) = 397.1 ft . Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. (9.85) = = 0. (9.5 in.98h = 2. a . = 33. ) =* ' + 5.11).34 45.89 f v (2.000 (36)(0.89 = fv 2.229)(177.79 < 9.40 F y = 14.89)(2.98(2)(66.6) and solve for Cv.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.4 ksi Aw 101.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.

Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig. Use a= (150)(12) = 257. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.8 ' (133. 9.22 in. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.77 ft.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore. = 23.Design of Plate Girders 66 and . 260 ) .1 in. the governing limit is amax = 23.5 ksi. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi .38) = 285.

34 + 4 4 = 5.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.7): Cv = 45.77) 45.000(8. (9. t w = 0.77 2 (a / h) (1.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. Find Cv from Eq.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq.8): k = 5.5 in.08) 2 h = 100 in. (9.197 < 0. a = 1.34 + = 8.000k = = 0.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .

61 ksi < 0.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.4 + 2.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.825 − 0.733Fv = 0.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .068(50) / 8.733(11.89 $ 1 .55 F y ( .068 F y + 0.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met. 9.51)(100)(0.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .068 F y / f v = 0.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27. (9.12).Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.5 ksi = 0.51 = 0. fv Fb = * * 0.61) = 8.5) = 425.232 F y = 11.

In particular.11. 9.60) for a ≤ 1.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.5 h (9.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14.5)]1 / 2 2.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.11.10.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.10.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. 1998).5 h h = tw . when the design is without the tension-field action.000 F yf for a > 1.

Limit state of tension-flange yield.9 is used for the resistance factor φb. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb.3) and (9.11. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn.61) is the hybrid girder factor. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9.61) Coefficient Re in Eq. (9. At the present time a constant value of 0.62) . (9.4) for the ASD code.0 12 + 2a r (9. 9.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. 1.

Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. In general. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in.6). The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r . 2. the limit state of WLB does . In Eq.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). there exist three limit states of buckling.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1.64) corresponds to Eq. (9.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. Note that Eq.3. and web local buckling (WLB). Limit states of compression-flange buckling. (9. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9.3. flange local buckling (FLB). (9. 9.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section.24) of the ASD code covered in Sec.4.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9.

a. and a plate girder coefficient CPG.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply. λp. and λr. F yf Fcr = & 1 . λr.1 for beams. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. However.65) λ2 The quantities λ. (9.10. λp. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9.69) .63). The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. 3. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately.66) λp = (9.000C b (9.67) λr = (9.68) C PG = 286. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr.

For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0. b.70) λp = (9.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0. We will derive an approximate but explicit .74) (9.71) λr = (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.61) and (9.0 (9.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.11.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.763 (9.35).63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.72) kc = (9. (5. 9.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.

78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9. (9.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.18) into Eq. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical . substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.76) Now.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.61) and (9. (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters. (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange. (9.

we must have [Eqs. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. For the limit state of LTB. For the economical design of plate girders.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: . (9.82) Note that for a given required Af. 9. and a compromise must be made.80) Substituting for rT from Eq. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. and (9.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value).66).81) and (9. .67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9. (9.65). Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9. the requirement of Eqs.70).65). (9. and (9.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf.13. (9. (9. In Sec. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. we must have [Eqs. (9.46) into this equation.81) For the limit state of FLB.

2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.85) . the design shear strength is φvVn.6 Aw F yw for Vn = .83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9. kv 0.9 is the shear resistance factor.11. where φv = 0.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.

8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.0 ≥ Cv > 0.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.11. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.87) 44. as well as when relation . In these cases. where the resistance factor φv is 0.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.9.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.86) 0. (9.6.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.84) Equation (9.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.

6φ v Aw F yw C v (9.89) In Eq. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.11.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0. the tension-field action is not allowed. (9. When transverse stiffeners are required.7. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .90.6 Aw F yw C v (9.91) .90) (9. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9.90). and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.85) holds. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.88) 9.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9. For design based on tension-field action. φv is 0.

The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).93) 9.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.94) In this expression φ = 0.92) where & 2.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .625 u ≤ 1.375 φM n φV n (9. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.3) 3 I st = at w j (9.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0. 2. 9.11. 9. .9.5.

respectively.12. 9.12.2(3) + 1.6 w L = 1.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.2 PD + 1. 2. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.27 and 9.2(400) + 1. (2. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.6 PL = 1.2 K/ft P = 1.2). 9.2w D + 1.28. Eq.6(1) = 5. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .7. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.12.

Vmax = Vu = 816. (9.12.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34. 12 12 From Eq.3 K-ft = 412.27 Shear diagram Figure 9.000 K-in.28 Bending moment diagram .333.67 Kips 9.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.60) Figure 9.

Preliminary selection of the flange plates.79).5h for a ≤ 1.3) = 45.5 in.0 in. Selection of the Flange Plates 1.3 in.3 for a > 1. (9. (9. 2 9. x 0.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.000 − = 72. We find an approximate flange area from Eq.96) . for the web plate.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72. or PL150 in.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322.9(150)(36) 12 (9.47 in. Aw = 75 in.4. (9. from Eq. h tw = 300.0 333.2 0.50 in. 322 322 Try tw = 0. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.12.

95). based on Eq. try tf = 2 in.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. only the latter needs to be checked.97).5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.97) To begin with.838 in.83 in. Then..064.87 rT 10.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.4 Sx = I x 1.74 in. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling.064. 2. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.829.82): t f ≥ (72. try bf = 40 in.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50.0 . (9. (9.1 in.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0. (9. based on Eq. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders. Af = 80 in. Therefore.838 = = 13. (9.

885.551.2)(62.7) + 3(32.3) 2.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.33(62.7 ft-K = 603. 9.33(87.624.0 − 50.87 − 50. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .333.5(34.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 . 55.5) 2 = 32. (5.9) + 4(30.333. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.551.5M max 12.885.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .5) 2 = 27.1) = 1.00 )# = (1.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.624.9 ft-K = 603.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.3) + 3(27. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.17) is the critical segment.35).1 ft-K = 603.2)(87.00 (" = 38.5(34.2)(75) 2 = 30.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.

00) = 408.633 K-in.912)(13. x 2. ) . is acceptable for the flange plate.K.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + .1)(36.000 K-in. we would have to increase the area of the flange.829.9(0. and PL40 in. b.85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .0 in.. If the section were not O.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412.

98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.67 tw F yw 36 b.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9.98) We can use Eq.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0.12. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end. a. (9.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. 9.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig.9)(75)(36)(0.6(0. Check Eq. (9. (9. Check Eq.000)(5) = 0. 2.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0. 9.27). .

88): C v = Vu /[0.443(150) = 66. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.443 a max = 0.33 /[0. from the left end A. (9.4 in.4138)(36) / 44. At the left end: Vu = 603. b. .6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.4138 < 0.87 Design of Plate Girders a.000 = 30. (9.8 From Eq.47 From Eq.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.9V n Kips From Eq.47)]1 / 2 = 0.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.9)(75)(36)] = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.443h = 0. At the right end: a max = 55. Tentatively.6(0.000 = (300) 2 (0. from the right end B. (9.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25. Tentatively.7 in.

7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.75(150) = 112. (9.Design of Plate Girders 88 3.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq. a. From Eq.7. similar to Fig.20 2 ( 0 .5 in. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2.86): . As in the example of Sec.22): Try a = 105 in..75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.8.75h = 0.20 36 = 152.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44. 260 ) . 9.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15. 9. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5. a .000(15. (9.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.20) = 0.22. 9. a/h = 0. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).87): Cv = 44. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig. (9.

15(1 + 0.194. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0.6φVn = (0. Vu = 556. b.33 − 12 (5. 9.6)(0.K. an interaction check is not necessary.6(75)(36) $0.9)(1230) = 664.9(1250.2) = 583.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1. to be satisfactory. C v = 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec. M n = 465.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig. Vn = 1230..206 = 0.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig. Similar to case a.0 Kips. M u = 412. a very small distance to the right of point C).22).22. we find a = 110 in.2 Kips.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.. . Vu = 795 Kips 4. 9.83 Kips < φ vVu O. Check shear and bending interaction. 9.000 K-in.487 K-in.

5)(1 − 0.14 in.5) 3 (3.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0. 36 ) & Ast = $0. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs.7) 2 ( a / h) (9.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.15(1. Select intermediate stiffeners.5 2 (0.7.99) a/h = 0. Therefore.93): j= 2 .10 ≥ 0.100) and (9. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15. The .91): 583. C v = 0.100) (9.99) is minimal. From Eq.0)(150)(0.. a.101) The area requirement of Eq.5 −2= − 2 = 3.8 ts 36 (9.69 in.10) = 40. (9. (9.Design of Plate Girders 90 5. (9. (9. 2 From Eq.206 From Eq. 2 bs t s = 0.5 2 . Region EC: a = 105 in. (9.83 #.07 in.206) − 18(0.101).

and the thickness of the web is 0.101): bs ≤ 5. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C.5 in. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. From Eq.375)(11 + 0.92 in.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. 4 ≥ 40. 4 O.5 in.5 in.6.53 in. Use 2PL5..6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. 1..69 in. Bearing stiffeners at supports. b. for all bearing stiffeners.5 in. Use 2PL5.67 Kips. Region CF: a = 110 in. (9. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in. 9. a/h = 0.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9. x 3/8 in. RB = 816. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. Try 2PL5. (9.100): 1 I st = 12 (0.100) and (9. x 3/8 in. (9. From Eq.101) is ts = 3/8 in.K.12. x 3/8 in.5) 3 = 47. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have .733 The answer is the same as for region EC.

80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.5) 3 = 5944.75) + 12(0.658 λc ) F y = (0..85 KL .658 0. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load. Abs = 23.80) = 1807.4 / 50.116 )(36) = 35.4 in.50)(35.7 Kips > R B = 816.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports. x 1¼ in. 2. 36 = 10.116 < 1. . (9.20 in.5) 2 = 50.9) = 1536.37* * 29.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.85 in.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0.75 in. Use 2PL19 in.37 r 10. x 1¼ in.75)(150) = = 10. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 .50 = 10.85(1807. 95 Try 2PL19 in. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944. x 12 ft 6 in.K.17 Kips O. KL (0.50 in.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.

49) = 81.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.8.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.8 = 128.7 + 38.29). output window and control window (Fig.5)( 8 )(148)](0.3 = 120.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. 9. at the location of concentrated load. .3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter. Use 2PL19 in. 9.49/123) 4 = 8. This applet consists of three windows: input window. x 12 ft 6 in.12. Therefore.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.0 + 8. 9. x 1¼ in.49) = 38.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes.

the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. Width. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports.11).30a). 5. However. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. 9. 9. 9. and Welds Panel.31. respectively. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. . For impractical values. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. Stiffeners panel.30b. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. for example. thickness.29). this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. Flange & Web panel.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. To design a hybrid girder. Span length.

95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .

the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.30 .

97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. and thickness. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads.32). But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet.31 . the place of the 1st stiffener. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.e. 9. 9. Initially. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. i. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. width.32a). the applet provides only one segment selection. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). By default. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. Figure 9. For example.

32 .Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

and welds panels in the output window.34 .33 Figure 9. 9.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. and elevation. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window.33. sections. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. Figure 9. Depending on the selection made by the user.34). Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. 9.

Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .

9. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.32b.32a). At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. 9. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. 9. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. length. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. 9. and size. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. . The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.35b. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9.35). and size. But.35a).

Figure 9. supports. Loadings panel displays the loadings. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. 9. 9. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig.29). Welds panel.37).29 and 9. Sections panel. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. SFD (shear force diagram) panel.36). . and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. They are the method of design. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig.39). Elevation panel. 9. and the web depth-to-span ratio. ASD and LRFD.38). 9.37 The output window consists of loadings panel. Similarly. 9. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel.

It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig. 9. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.39 . 9. 9. 9.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9. respectively as shown in Figs.42). Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.40 and 9. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window.41.43).

8.44 are for the same problem also. The example data used in Figs. 9.40 Figure 9. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.44).Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig.37 to 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. 9.49. 9. Figure 9.29 to 9.9 also has been solved by the applet. The results shown in Figs. 9.41 . The results are presented in Figs.45 to 9.

42 Figure 9.44 .43 Figure 9.105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

47 .46 Figure 9.45 Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.

Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners.14 PROBLEMS 9. 9.49 9.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. Use A36 steel . as shown in Fig.48 Figure 9. as indicated on the figure. and F.50. E.

check the adequacy of this preliminary design. Figure 9. and a 40 in. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan.x0. plate is selected for each flange.50 9.9 of the book. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. . using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. plate is selected for the web. 9. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate.x1. Based on a preliminary design. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.5 in. a 180 in.75 in. 9.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec.

10.10. single stiffeners b.10.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. x 0.50 in.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. 9. double stiffeners . assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in. 9. using a. 9. 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.109 Design of Plate Girders 9.

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