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# Design of Plate Girders

9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners.Design of Plate Girders 4 9. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. As mentioned in the previous section. Figure 9. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear.

5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. In this truss. a redistribution of stresses occurs. She/he should.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. The Pratt truss of Fig. 9. Consequently. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. It will then be able to carry additional loads. 9. will not result in its failure. after the shear instability of the web takes place. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996).7(a). the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. 9.7(b).7(a). after the web panels buckle in shear. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. the instability of the web plate panels. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. however. 9. . If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. As shown in Fig. In fact.

we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9.2) (9.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example.12). however.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. However. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. As a general guideline. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. Of course. In design of plate girders. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. 9. the final design can be achieved quickly. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio.

Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. however. After the h/L ratio has been selected.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action .12. In calculating the shear strength of the web. 2. Figure 9. 9. the depth of the web plate will be known. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. In this book. The next step is to choose the web thickness. which is presented in Sec. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. our approach is interactive design.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders.

the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. as shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. the compressive force F1. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. 9. according to ASD G1. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3.8. . the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. To satisfy this requirement.

9.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4. To satisfy the second criterion.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. h 2.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig. α2 is much larger than α1.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.89 ≤ 0. For high-strength steel.6) where .5)]1 / 2 (9. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1. 9.9. Fv = Fy C v 2.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9.5h (9. 9. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

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Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

1 in the text). the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5.16) and (9.18) By equating Eqs. (9. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.4. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9. 9. tf is the thickness of the flange plate.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. Aw = tw h is the web area. . and Af = bf tf = area of the flange.19) In this equation.18) and solving for Af.

23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate. in many cases.23). for example. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9.22) into Eq. Therefore.22) Substituting Eq. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . (9. (9. However.46 (9.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size.. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. as a fraction of 1/16 in. .20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. (9.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. we find the required flange width bf from Eq. (9.19).19) and solving for tf.

ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y .17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. 9. When h/tw < 970 / F y . (9.0 − 0.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9.24) In this equation.5. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. Aw is the web area.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. & # A . as discussed in Sec. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1. 5. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange.4. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments.

and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . α= 0. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of .26) 9.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. a more complicated analysis is required. Re = 1. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength.0 ! ! " (9.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 .0. fb = M max S < Fb' (9. For nonhybrid girders.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1. Equation (9. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress.0. Otherwise.

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Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9.11).11). Figure 9. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig. For end bearing stiffeners. fcb. 9.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. Thus. Therefore. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. 9. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web.

So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. 9. As a result. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration.75. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. Figure 9. .7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. r.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure.7. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds.

the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. 5.2). The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.

13. (9. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .36) Substituting for value of q 1 .23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. If we denote the length Figure 9.36). from Eq. and q 2 = w into Eq. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used.707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. as shown in Fig.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate. (9.36). (9. 9. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0.

the designer can find the third parameter from Eq.7. (9. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs.36).12)].414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. L1. and ww. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. 9. respectively. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. however. According to ASD G4. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1.39). a minimum amount of welding is used.40) . As a result.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. (9.35) and (9. at least equal to .39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. (9.

respectively.707 Fv 2.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig.15) Figure 9. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. Furthermore.41) When single stiffeners are used. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.40). 9. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side .25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi. (9.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. 9.

16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds .43) Similarly. as shown in Fig.707 Fv 1.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look. for the case of single stiffeners.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.44) Figure 9. 9.16.

1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4). (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in.17 is covered in this section. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange.16).8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. Moreover. (9. 9. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. 9. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. In fact.16). 9. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . 9.8.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.

Lateral support is provided at supports. 9. assume that it is restrained against rotation.8.18.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. at the point of application of concentrated load.67 = 633. Figure 9. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support. For welds. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners.17 9. 9.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig.

the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.x1 = A = = 116. Therefore.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 .29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. 9.19. .67(100) .4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 .x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B. Mmax = Mc = 466.

t w ≥ = 0.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners. 12 12 From Eq.000 ≤ = 322.3): h 150 14. (9.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. (9.5 in. that is. when a ≤ 1. .3 . we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.5 in. (9.2). tw 333. or PL150 in.47 in.t w ≥ = 0.8.19 Bending moment diagram 9.x0.45 in. Try tw = 0. for the web plate.3) and (9.5 d. Eqs.0 . from Eq. (9.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333. In other words.4) yield values close to each other.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.

we may decrease Fb = 0. can be computed approximately from Eq. 970 h = 300 > = 161.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced.60Fy = 22 ksi.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. 9.46 for h > 70 tw .8. say.05 (h / t w ) 0.19). tw Aw = 75 in. Af = bf t f = (26.667)(12) 75 − = 94. (9. kc = 4. The required flange area. (9.17 in.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 . check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. to Fb = 20 ksi.24). Af.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat. (9.22).2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0.

From Eq.294 (300) 0. Try PL38 in.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.5 in. (9.20 kc = 4.20. Af = 95 in. 294 $ tf = (94.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.34 in.2. for each flange.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 . 9. The girder section is shown in Fig.17): .x2.05 = 0.

6 in. M1/M2. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.667 = -0. 5.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.31 in.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.687 Region DC is the critical region. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.5).5/26. 9.245.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9.4 S= I 1.396 = = 16.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.46) 38 = 10.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2. is zero (Figs.19). 9.245.5)(75 + 1.396 in.17 and 9. .069.5) 3 = 1.333.

30 . (9.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .39 ksi 21.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102. 530 .2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.91 ksi < 20.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.3(-0.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57. 75 ) .6 S O. & .55 ksi 3 1 .687)2 = 1.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.05(-0.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( .39 ksi 16.687)+0. 510. 150 − Fb' = $1.05(M1/M2)+0.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.K.667)(12) = = 19.75+1.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0. 000 ( 1 . 530 .55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26. 510.24).Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.55 = 20.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.0 − 0. 102.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 . . 000 C 3 1 .31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.75 + 1.069.17 < 2. 102.000)(1.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.000)(1. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.

Cv = 2.000 kv = = From Eq. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .22 ksi in Eq.35 Design of Plate Girders 9.6) and solve for Cv. (9. a. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end. (9.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.34 45.14)]. At the left end fv = R A 466.000 (36)(0.22) = = 0.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.89)(6.8. 2.8): .5 < 0.67 = = 6.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required. (9.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9.8 36 Fy From Eq. (9.89 Fv (2.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.

41(150) = 61.8 in.345 in.Design of Plate Girders 36 a . 5. 5.33 = = 8. Figure 9.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .41 amax = 0. At the right end fv = RB 633.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.678)(300) 2 = 48.3 in. Tentatively.44 ksi 75 Aw 2. from the left end A.89 Fv (2. amax = 0.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. 5.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( . place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.81 > 9.678 < 0. b.000 1/ 2 a .81 − 4 ( = 0.89)(8. 5.34 ) =* ' + 48.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .345(150) = 51.34 45.44) = = 0.

x 12 ft 4 in. (9. x 12 ft 6 in.11). Bearing stiffeners at A.5 in. x 1 /16 in.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. From Eq.22 Final design Tentatively. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. x 12 ft 4 in. 2 2 amax = 112. (9. from the left end B. x /16 in. so the latter need not be checked.10) controls over Eq. Web: PL150 in. x ½ in. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. 3. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners.6 in.22). x 2½ in. x /16 in.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. and C: 2PL18 in. B.22) . 9. Equation (9. 9. 3 Figure 9.6 in. a. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig.

04 = 9.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.67 − 12 (4) = 450.90) = 0.0 + = 14.0 + 5.207 < 0. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.34 5. to 45 in.89 % 1.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 . 9.7) 2 = Cv = 45.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.3 are satisfied.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.34 = 4 . and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.207 36 & $0.22). (9.58 + 7.90 2 (a / h) (0. (Fig.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in. Fv = # 1 − 0.15(1 + 0.K.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6. 9. .02 ksi O.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .67 = = 6. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.000)(14.62 ksi > f v = 6.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.67 − 12 (4) = 451.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.7 ) " = 2.

12): . 9.34 = 4.000)(13. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig. b. 9.34 5. (9.93) = 0.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.33 − 12 (4) = 620.22).733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.193 < 0. to 50 in.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.0 + 5. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.33 − 12 (4) = 616.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.0 + = 13.66 = = 8.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. (Fig.93 2 (0.

where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.19). Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.245.15(1 + 0.22 ksi O.375 F v + ) 5. .40 + 7. fv = VC 433.825 − 0.45 ' (36) = 21. The critical section for this check is either at point C.30)].89 % 1.78 ) .27 ksi < Fb = 21. (9.375 9.22. ' ' F y = * 0.733 ) " = 2. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.193 36 & $0.K. 9.K. Check combined shear and bending in the web.18 and 9.45 ksi > f v = 8.396 I O.825 − 0. fv Fb = * * 0.33 = = 5. 9. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point. 4.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.05 = 9.30)]: . (9.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26.667)(12)(75) = = 19.44 ksi 1.

(9.78 in.56 in. 9.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.5)(1 − 0. Also.7 ) "+ 9.27).02 ) 1 0 . From Eq. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. (9. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h. and between C and F is a = 110 in.8ts in Eq.27): Ast = & #. 6.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. such a check may be necessary. because fb/Fb = 0. For region EC. Select the intermediate stiffeners.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.7 2 (150)(0. (9. (9. (Fig. (9.2 bs t s = 5.62 ( % = 5. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one.207) $0. 5.2 From Eq.22). a.47) .41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied.90 is considerably less than one.56 / 2 = 2.

Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.78 / 15.733 ) "+ 9.733 2 (150)(0. .5) 3 = 89. Try 2PL6½ in.89 / 2 = 3.2 bs t s = 7. h ) . 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.22 ) 1 0. x 7/16 in. b.5 in. (9. = 12 ft 4 in.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.28).8)1 / 2 = 0.5 × 2 + 0.5)(1 − 0. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). 9.5) = 148 in. From Eq. 8.419 in.94 / 15. 9.7 in.94 in. For region CF. Use 2PL6½ in.89 in.K.27): Ast = & #. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig.45 ( % = 7.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2. = 6. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.8t s Minimum t s = (3. x 7/16 in.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.8)1 / 2 = 0.2 bs = 15. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0.7/16 in. .193) $0. 4 > 81 in.

75 in. 15.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18. x 13/16 in. x 9/16 in. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. and the thickness of the web is 0. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15. (9.8. Abs = 21. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21.375) + 12(0. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. 9.2 . Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.14 in. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. Moment of inertia check is not needed. for the left support.22). 9. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC.5) 2 = 45.6.2 = 1.375 in.67 Kips. 1. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C)..2 b.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466.8 16 Try 2PL18 in.5 in. = in. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio). From Eq.

9. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126. KL 0. 10.26 r . 10.26 in.699 ( % % = 21.S.75 = 10. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.S. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.1 ( 8 + 126.75(150) = = 10.06 in.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.06 / 45. 10.1 > KL r F.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36.1 ( " ! + 1.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.96 ) 2 # .11 ksi Actual axial stress: .96 ) 1 . = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .1 ( = 1.96 10.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.

x 13/16 in. x 12 ft 6 in.20 ksi < 21.84 ksi < Fa = 21. 9.67 = = 10. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. is less than RB. the same as for the left support. say ¼ in.21) is larger than that of the end . fa = RB 633. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly.75 Aeff O.33 = = 13.11 ksi 45. x 12 ft 6 in. The bearing stiffener. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. Use 2PL18 in. Use 2PL18 in.K. x 13/16 in.. and the effective area (Fig.75 O. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support. x 13/16 in.11 ksi Aeff 45.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. P = 500 Kips.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466.K. however. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. 3. 2. less than the depth of the web plate.

4) # 2 ( 150 2 .5 and ASD Table J2. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1.8. (9.5-in. x 12 ft 6 in. we can use the same 2PL18 in.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0. flange plate is 5/16 in. we obtain a1 = 2.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1.25 in. 2 & (633.396) L1 ww % = 1.5 in.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length.51L1 (9.245. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww. L1min = 1. Vmax = RB = 633. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. x 13/16 in.3. (Sec.33) 2 (95) 2 . (ASD J2b). for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load. .) and 1. the length of weld segment L1.39). 8.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. Try ww = 5/16 in.5 in. Substituting this value into the previous equation.4). 9.

weld. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.22) f v = 6. 10-in. From Eq. From Eq. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0.5 in. weld.02 ) * ' = 3. spacing. a max = 12 in. (ASD D2). (9. long. 4 in.04 in.48). long.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in.02 ksi.8. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . we obtain a1 = 10. Use 5/16-in. (9.40): Fv = 9. From Eq. 6.23 ksi + 9. For segment EC (Fig.62 ( We use intermittent welds.8.43): . (9. 4 in. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . Try 5/16-in. 9. 9.62 ksi .

fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.49) we obtain L1 = 2. 10-in.05439 a1 2.90 in. a max = 12 in.45 ksi 3/ 2 .22) f v = 8.0 in.828 Fv 2.5 in.0757 a1 2. a max = 24t s or 12 in.45 ( (9. Fv = 9. long.22 ) * ' = 4. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10. From Eq. . (9. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( . = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. Use 3/16-in.5 in.-thick plate is ¼ in.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in. For segment CF (Fig. 2.22 ksi.5 in.5 ksi + 9. 3. L1min = 1. 8.-thick plate is 3/16 in.5 in.50) L1 ww 4. = 1.828(21) (9.50 = = 0.23 = = = 0. spacing. weld. 9.

64) = 2784 Kips O. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.89 Kips .490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. Try ww = 5/16 in. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in. spacing. Use 5/16-in.K. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.K. (9.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. fillet weld = 0. > Vmax = 633. Use ¼-in. From Eq. x 12 ft 6 in.9.50) = 675 Kips O.64 K/in. 12-in. 3.8. for each pair of bearing stiffeners.50) we obtain L1 = 3. x 13/16 in. 9. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in.49) = 96. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. weld. 4 in.707(16 = 4.63 in. long. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4.

36 ksi).7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.1 is desired except that 1.Design of Plate Girders 50 .9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.26 + 9.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.19). 9.73 = 145. Selection of the Web Plate .0)](0. 9.2.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6. 9. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.9. 2.49) = 38.9. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.49/123) = 9.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.8.5)( 16 )(148. Single intermediate stiffeners are used. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs. 3. 9.18 and 9.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.

t w ≥ = 0. (9. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.t w ≥ = 0.8 . tw 282.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.8 . (9.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in. taking into account the reduction of the .67 .3): h 14.000 150 ≤ = 242. 9.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.e. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders. i. when a ≤ 1.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.9.53 in. for the web plate.5d.5d.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. (9. From Eq.3 Selection of Flange Plates First. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1. we have h 800 = = 266. or PL150 in.5)] 242.8 For closely spaced stiffeners. For the selected web plate.24). x 9/16 in. from Eq. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.375 in..18 < 9 ) = 84.62 in.

375) − = 58.53) Combining Eqs.72) − 0.51) and (9.72) 3 = 0. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.5(0.24).5α − 0. (9.0 β = 1.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.54) In this example: α = 0.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.72 < 1.2 (0. (9.6(36) / 30 = 0.53) and solving Af.22).5(0.893 Af = (26. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.667)(12) (0.60 Fyw / Fb = 0. (9.55 in.51) where β = 1. (9.52) (9.893)(84.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq. .5α 3 From Eq.

7 in.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.31 tf =$ (58.2 Check Eq.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.980 6 + 1. (9.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.406 60.363 I = = 11.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.60Fyf = 0.406) = 0.46 (h / t ) (266.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.375 = = 1.363 in.893(1.05 = = 0. (9.310 0.67) 0.31 = 15.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0. for each flange plate.406 .05 4. Try PL30 in.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.056. x 2 in.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1. Af = 60 in.24): Aw 84.98 in.

667)(12) = = 28.1 in.981 6 + 1.76 ksi S 11.94 ksi > 26.8 = 11.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # . 84.76 ksi fb = M max (26. (9.7 N.281 .281) = 0. 4 S= 920.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.980) + 60.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.492.24). x 21/8 in.8 in.76 )! (0.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15. (9.67 − 138.K. for each flange. Try PL31 in.492.056.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.125) = 65.935.G.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.0005)* '(266.375 = = 1.0 ( % " = 26. A f = (31)(2.0 O.281 A f (31)(2.2 = 920.875 in.893(1. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. Aw 84.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.0 − (0.

02 ksi fb = M max (26.76)! (0.17). from Eq.5d = 1.375 .53 ksi < 0.0 − (0.2 9.981) + 65.4 in. Use PL31 in.6) for the allowable shear stress. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.875 in. fv = Vmax R A 466. x 21/8 in. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders. Af = 65. 9.935. (9.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required. 1.K.0005)* '(266.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.81 ksi < Fb' S 11. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig. and we must use Eq.40 F y = 14.67 − 138.67] (150) = 142. 84.67 = = = 5.5(150 + 4.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.667)(12) = = 26.5(h + 2tf) = 1.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .9.1 O.25) = 231. (9. Also.60 in.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.875 ( % " = 27. for each flange.

6): Cv = From Eq.603 < 0.51 ksi < 0.33 = = = 7.000 .26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.603)(266.30 > 9. (9.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .89)(5.375 2.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.51) = = 0.40 F y = 14.444 < 0.501(150) = 75. (9.89 Fv ( 2. 5. between A and C (Fig.67) 2 = 34.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.8): a .26 > 9. Use a = 75 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B. 9.89 Fv ( 2.000 2.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.67) 2 = 25.34 45.501 amax = 0. (9.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.23). 2.2 in.53) = = 0.34 45. fv = Vmax R B 633.444)(266. 5.34 ) =* ' + 25.000 (36)(0.89)(7.

In other words. (9. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. the combined shear and bending check [Eq. 3. (9. 5.29).30)] is not required for hybrid girders.55) .42 amax = 0.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. First. Selection of intermediate stiffeners. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary. Use a = 60 in.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .42(150) = 63 in. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9.57 Design of Plate Girders a .34 ) =* ' + 34. let us consider the case of single stiffeners. 9. between C and B (Fig. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs.23). 5.28) and (9.

x /16 in. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A. (9.55) and (9.28) and (9.56) and solving for ts. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.000865h( F y ) 0.5 in.000727 h( F y ) 0.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . x /16 in. x 21/8 in. equating Eqs.56) Finally.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9. Web: PL150 in. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7.29) into Eq. x 12 ft 6 in.57) In the case of double stiffeners. x 12 ft 3 /4 in. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0.56) by 2. x 1 in. B. Figure 9. (9.375 (9. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0. and C: 2PL15 in.55) yields I st = 285. (9. (9.375 (9.

000865(150)(36) 0. 9 ).50 in.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8.K. From Eq. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in. = 12 ft 33/4 in. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( . t ) 1 .3 in. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. < 88.90 in. x 9/16 in.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0.375 = 0. for stiffeners on one side. 4 4 3 9. + 16 ( Use PL7. (9. Try ts = 9/16 in. Try PL7.9. x 9/16 in.3 in. h) .5 Bearing Stiffeners .9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. for stiffeners on one side.5 in. 9 ) = * ' * 7. x 12 ft 3¾ in.5 in. O.75 in. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: .5 + ' = 88.

8. 9.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.6.07 = 110.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.5)(147. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.2b and covered in Sec.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.25 Kips )(0.49/123) = 8.75)](0.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec. x 12 ft 6 in.49)/144 = 43.39 Kips .875)(150)(0. The answer: Use 2PL15 in. 9.8. x 1 in. Eq. 9.9.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65. however.49)/144 = 67. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.32 + 8.9.25 + 43.3. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load. (9.07 = 118.6 and therefore will not be repeated here. needs to be used. as given in ASD J2.

61 Design of Plate Girders 9. 9.24 .24. Figure 9.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig. Consider bending only.75 in. The length of the span is 150 ft. x 0. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck.

4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.739 in.3 50 + 17.01) 2 ] + 12 (0.8 in. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.4.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.95 67. A = 33. 9. .24.60 F yf = 0.18 0.3).8 > = = 137.5 in. I x = 934 in. 4 = 340.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.26 in. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1. 9.69) = = 177.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.8(50 + 17.760 in.95 − 4.739 = = 5014.

1 in.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .75)(0.1) /( 20.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .84 ksi + 20.75) = 101.0 − 0.952 12 + 2(101.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.1 / 20.75) 3 × 0.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.47)(1. 133.75 in.490)/144 = 0.115) + (100)(0.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.23 + 0.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.75 ( + 0. 9.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .0 − 0.2 4 α= 0.1 ) . h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.26 = 0.8 − 20. 101.952) = 25.72 − 0.26) = 20.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.

25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.35 + 0. . 9.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.25): W = 3. Figure 9.49 = 3.49 = 3. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.5) − 0. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.84)(5014.

(9. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.6) and solve for Cv.34 ( 1/ 2 4 .1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. = 33.85 ksi < 0.89)(2.89 = fv 2.229 < 0. (9.79 − 5.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.11).65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.000 (36)(0. ) =* ' + 5.000 k= = Now.98h = 2. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.89 f v (2. (9. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.229)(177. a max = 2.69) = 397.1 ft .7).84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.79 < 9.34 45.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.8) 2 = 5.8).40 F y = 14.5 in.10) and (9. a .85) = = 0.98(2)(66.4 ksi Aw 101.

7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports.38) = 285.22 in.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore.8 ' (133.1 in.77 ft. Use a= (150)(12) = 257.5 ksi. 260 ) . 9. the governing limit is amax = 23. = 23. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.Design of Plate Girders 66 and .26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.

(9. t w = 0.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .34 + = 8.08) 2 h = 100 in.77 2 (a / h) (1.8): k = 5.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq. Find Cv from Eq.197 < 0.34 + 4 4 = 5.000(8. (9.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.7): Cv = 45.77) 45.000k = = 0.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in. a = 1.5 in.

232 F y = 11.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .068 F y / f v = 0. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .61 ksi < 0.825 − 0.733Fv = 0.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.733(11.55 F y ( .068 F y + 0.51 = 0. fv Fb = * * 0.61) = 8.12).4 + 2.89 $ 1 .) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.51)(100)(0.5) = 425.068(50) / 8.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8. (9.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0. 9. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.5 ksi = 0.

5 h h = tw .2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14.59) If this requirement is not satisfied. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9.10.2 and LRFD Appendix F2. 1998).1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.5)]1 / 2 2.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16. In particular. when the design is without the tension-field action.10.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.000 F yf for a > 1. 9.60) for a ≤ 1. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.5 h (9.11.11.

The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9.9 is used for the resistance factor φb. Note that these equations are similar to Eq. (9.61) is the hybrid girder factor.4) for the ASD code.0 12 + 2a r (9.62) .61) Coefficient Re in Eq. At the present time a constant value of 0. 9. Limit state of tension-flange yield.11. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. 1. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. (9.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders.3) and (9. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.

the limit state of WLB does .64) corresponds to Eq. (9.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). 2.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. In Eq.3. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .4.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. Note that Eq. In general.6). and web local buckling (WLB). 9. (9.24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in.3. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. there exist three limit states of buckling.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. (9. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. flange local buckling (FLB).0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9.

For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. and λr. 3.10. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. λp. λp. However. a. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9. F yf Fcr = & 1 . Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. λr.63).1 for beams. (9.68) C PG = 286.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply.66) λp = (9.000C b (9.69) .67) λr = (9. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ.65) λ2 The quantities λ.

11.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations. We will derive an approximate but explicit . 9.35).763 (9.0 (9. (5.71) λr = (9.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.74) (9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr. b.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.61) and (9.72) kc = (9.70) λp = (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.

76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9. (9. (9.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical . (9.18) into Eq. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters. (9.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9.61) and (9.76) Now.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.

the requirement of Eqs. For the limit state of LTB. . (9. we must have [Eqs. (9. (9.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9.80) Substituting for rT from Eq. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: .46) into this equation.81) For the limit state of FLB.82) often cannot be met simultaneously.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value).70). and (9. For the economical design of plate girders.65). we must have [Eqs. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other.13.65). we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. (9. and a compromise must be made. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. In Sec.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9. (9. 9. and (9.81) and (9.82) Note that for a given required Af. (9.66).

9 is the shear resistance factor.85) . where φv = 0.6 Aw F yw for Vn = . the design shear strength is φvVn.11.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9. kv 0.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.

84) Equation (9. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.86) 0.11. (9. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq. In these cases.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. as well as when relation .6. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. where the resistance factor φv is 0.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.87) 44.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.9.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.0 ≥ Cv > 0.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.

φv is 0. For design based on tension-field action.90). the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .6 Aw F yw C v (9.11. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5. (9.89) In Eq. the tension-field action is not allowed.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9.90) (9. When transverse stiffeners are required. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.90.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9.91) .7. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9.85) holds.88) 9. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.

. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.625 u ≤ 1. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.11.3) 3 I st = at w j (9. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9. 9.375 φM n φV n (9.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .5.94) In this expression φ = 0.92) where & 2.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners. 9.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.9. 2.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.93) 9.

2(400) + 1. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load.6 w L = 1. respectively. 9.6(100) = 640 Kips 9. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9. 9.2(3) + 1. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .12.8 on the basis of the LRFD code. Eq. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.2 K/ft P = 1.27 and 9. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.28.12.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec. 2.12.Design of Plate Girders 80 9. (2.2w D + 1.7.2).2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.6(1) = 5.6 PL = 1.2 PD + 1.

12 12 From Eq.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.3 K-ft = 412. (9.27 Shear diagram Figure 9.60) Figure 9.12.67 Kips 9. Vmax = Vu = 816.000 K-in.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.333.28 Bending moment diagram .

Aw = 75 in. h tw = 300.50 in. for the web plate. We find an approximate flange area from Eq. or PL150 in.12.0 in. 322 322 Try tw = 0.9(150)(36) 12 (9. (9. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322.5h for a ≤ 1.3 in.47 in.4.000 − = 72. (9.3 for a > 1. 2 9. x 0. Selection of the Flange Plates 1. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. (9.0 333.79).5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.5 in.2 0.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.3) = 45. Preliminary selection of the flange plates. from Eq.96) .

based on Eq.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.82): t f ≥ (72.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1.97). (9. Af = 80 in.97) To begin with. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a. (9.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.829.83 in. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. 2.0 .5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.838 = = 13.74 in. (9. Therefore.838 in. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders.4 Sx = I x 1. (9. try bf = 40 in. Then.95).83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.064. try tf = 2 in. based on Eq.. only the latter needs to be checked.87 rT 10.1 in.064.

7) + 3(32.00 )# = (1.5) 2 = 32.9 ft-K = 603.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.624.551. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.1 ft-K = 603.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi . λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .5(34.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.3) 2.5(34.5) 2 = 27.0 − 50. 55.624.33(62. 9.35).2)(62.885.33(87.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.87 − 50.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.885. (5.17) is the critical segment.333.00 (" = 38.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.5M max 12.551.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.2)(75) 2 = 30.9) + 4(30.7 ft-K = 603.3) + 3(27.333.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .1) = 1.2)(87.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.

The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412.0 in. If the section were not O. b.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi. is acceptable for the flange plate. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .912)(13.K.829. and PL40 in.00) = 408.633 K-in. ) .9(0.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. x 2. we would have to increase the area of the flange.1)(36.000 K-in. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + . Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10..

12. (9.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. Check Eq.9)(75)(36)(0. 2. .98) We can use Eq.27).0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end.6(0. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required. (9. Check Eq. 9.000)(5) = 0. a.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.67 tw F yw 36 b.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44. (9. 9.

7 in.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25.9V n Kips From Eq.6(0.88): C v = Vu /[0. (9.4 in.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.443 a max = 0.000 = 30. from the right end B. (9. .8 From Eq. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.47)]1 / 2 = 0. At the right end: a max = 55.000 = (300) 2 (0.47 From Eq.9)(75)(36)] = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.33 /[0. Tentatively.4138)(36) / 44. (9. b.443(150) = 66.443h = 0.87 Design of Plate Girders a.4138 < 0. At the left end: Vu = 603. Tentatively. from the left end A.

9.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values. From Eq. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.7. similar to Fig. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0..000(15. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).75(150) = 112.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15. a/h = 0. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig.20 2 ( 0 .75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.5 in. 9. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2.20) = 0.86): . (9. a .Design of Plate Girders 88 3. a.22. 9.87): Cv = 44. As in the example of Sec.8.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. (9. 260 ) .20 36 = 152.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.22): Try a = 105 in.75h = 0. (9.

0 Kips.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. 9.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig. b.6)(0. to be satisfactory. Check shear and bending interaction.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0..206 = 0. M u = 412.9)(1230) = 664. a very small distance to the right of point C).6φVn = (0.83 Kips < φ vVu O.22). 9.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.2) = 583.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1.22. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually.194.000 K-in. .9(1250. Vu = 795 Kips 4.15(1 + 0. 9.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603. we find a = 110 in.. C v = 0.2 Kips. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig. M n = 465.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.6(75)(36) $0.33 − 12 (5. Vu = 556.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.487 K-in. Vn = 1230.K. an interaction check is not necessary. Similar to case a.

101) The area requirement of Eq. Region EC: a = 105 in. (9.10) = 40. 2 From Eq. (9.07 in.100) and (9.91): 583. (9. C v = 0.0)(150)(0. 2 bs t s = 0.7) 2 ( a / h) (9.7. Select intermediate stiffeners..5 −2= − 2 = 3.5)(1 − 0.5 2 .206) − 18(0. The .69 in.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0.83 #.15(1.10 ≥ 0. Therefore. 36 ) & Ast = $0. a.5 2 (0.14 in. (9.93): j= 2 . From Eq.8 ts 36 (9. (9.100) (9.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.99) is minimal.101). bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs.Design of Plate Girders 90 5.5) 3 (3.206 From Eq.99) a/h = 0. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.

and the thickness of the web is 0. a/h = 0.5 in.92 in.101) is ts = 3/8 in. Use 2PL5. for all bearing stiffeners.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.733 The answer is the same as for region EC. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in.5 in. x 3/8 in. Use 2PL5. (9. (9.375)(11 + 0.K. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have . for intermediate stiffeners from C to F.. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C. 1.100): 1 I st = 12 (0. 4 O. Try 2PL5.5) 3 = 47. 4 ≥ 40. RB = 816.53 in. From Eq. b.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs..6.69 in.5 in.12. x 3/8 in.5 in. Region CF: a = 110 in. From Eq. (9.100) and (9.101): bs ≤ 5.67 Kips. 9. x 3/8 in. Bearing stiffeners at supports.

000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.50 = 10.75) + 12(0.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.4 / 50.85 KL .80) = 1807.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0. x 12 ft 6 in..85(1807. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.17 Kips O.9) = 1536.50)(35.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0. .658 0.75)(150) = = 10. x 1¼ in.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.85 in. Use 2PL19 in. 2.7 Kips > R B = 816.116 < 1.20 in.4 in. Abs = 23.50 in. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.5) 2 = 50.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.116 )(36) = 35.37* * 29. (9. KL (0.37 r 10.5) 3 = 5944. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 . 95 Try 2PL19 in.658 λc ) F y = (0.75 in.K. 36 = 10. x 1¼ in. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.

x 12 ft 6 in.8. output window and control window (Fig. Use 2PL19 in. 9. x 1¼ in.8 = 128.49) = 38.3 = 120.49/123) 4 = 8. This applet consists of three windows: input window.29).49) = 81.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes. at the location of concentrated load.12.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter. 9. .7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. Therefore.0 + 8.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.7 + 38.5)( 8 )(148)](0. 9.

thickness.30b. Flange & Web panel. However. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. respectively. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. To design a hybrid girder. For impractical values. Stiffeners panel. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. for example.31.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel.30a). The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. Span length. Width. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. 9. . 9. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. and Welds Panel. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. 5. 9. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9.11). The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels.29).

95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .

Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage. the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.30 .

9.32). the place of the 1st stiffener. 9. By default. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. width. i. For example. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. Figure 9.32a).e. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments.31 . Initially. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. and thickness. the applet provides only one segment selection. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.

32 .Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

Depending on the selection made by the user. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig.34 . the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”.33 Figure 9. sections.33.34). and welds panels in the output window. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. and elevation. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. 9. Figure 9. 9.

Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .

length.35a).101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. . At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. and size. and size. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. 9. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. But.32b.35b. 9.35). 9. 9. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.32a). length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web.

.37).37 The output window consists of loadings panel. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel. 9. Elevation panel. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig.29).38). Figure 9. and the web depth-to-span ratio. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. Similarly. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. 9. They are the method of design.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. Loadings panel displays the loadings. Sections panel. supports.29 and 9. 9. Welds panel. SFD (shear force diagram) panel.36). BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. ASD and LRFD. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig. 9. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders.39). 9.

9. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9.40 and 9.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. 9. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig.41. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.39 . 9. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.43). The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.42). respectively as shown in Figs.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. 9.

36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9.37 to 9. Figure 9.45 to 9.9 also has been solved by the applet. 9. 9. The results shown in Figs.8. 9. The hybrid girder presented in section 9. The example data used in Figs.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. 9.40 Figure 9.29 to 9. The results are presented in Figs.49.41 .44 are for the same problem also.44).

42 Figure 9.44 .105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.43 Figure 9.

46 Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.45 Figure 9.47 .

50.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support. and F. Use A36 steel .14 PROBLEMS 9. E. as shown in Fig.49 9. 9.48 Figure 9. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. as indicated on the figure.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3.

5 in. .75 in. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. 9. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec. plate is selected for each flange.x0. Figure 9. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. a 180 in. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.50 9. and a 40 in.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. Based on a preliminary design. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. plate is selected for the web.x1. 9. check the adequacy of this preliminary design.9 of the book.

6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.109 Design of Plate Girders 9.10. single stiffeners b. using a. 9. 9.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9. x 0. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi. 9. 9.50 in.10. double stiffeners . assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.10.