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9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. Figure 9. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment.Design of Plate Girders 4 9.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners. As mentioned in the previous section.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear.

after the web panels buckle in shear. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. 9. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss.7(a). As shown in Fig. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. In this truss. 9. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear.7(b). bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. . As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. however. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. She/he should. 9. will not result in its failure. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. a redistribution of stresses occurs. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. after the shear instability of the web takes place. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. 9. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. It will then be able to carry additional loads. Consequently. The Pratt truss of Fig. the instability of the web plate panels. In fact.7(a).

we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. however. Of course. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio.2) (9. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. the final design can be achieved quickly.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate.12). As a general guideline. However. 9. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. In design of plate girders. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem.

Figure 9. our approach is interactive design. The web plate should carry all the shearing force.12. The next step is to choose the web thickness. the depth of the web plate will be known. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. 2.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . which is presented in Sec. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. After the h/L ratio has been selected. In calculating the shear strength of the web. 9. In this book. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. however.

. as shown in Fig.8.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. 9. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. according to ASD G1. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. To satisfy this requirement. the compressive force F1.

000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig. Fv = Fy C v 2. 9. 9.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1. For high-strength steel.89 ≤ 0. To satisfy the second criterion.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.9. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. h 2.9.5h (9.5)]1 / 2 (9.6) where .3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2. α2 is much larger than α1. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

11

Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

tf is the thickness of the flange plate. 9.1 in the text). The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.19) In this equation.18) By equating Eqs. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. Aw = tw h is the web area. (9.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5. .2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange.18) and solving for Af. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange.16) and (9.4.

for example. Therefore. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9.46 (9. (9. as a fraction of 1/16 in. .23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % ..Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. (9.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. (9.19) and solving for tf.23). this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate. However. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. in many cases.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required.22) Substituting Eq. we find the required flange width bf from Eq. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq.22) into Eq.19). (9.

5. Aw is the web area. 9. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. as discussed in Sec.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. & # A .5.4. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9.24) In this equation.0 − 0. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support. (9. When h/tw < 970 / F y . The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange.

α= 0.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. For nonhybrid girders.0 ! ! " (9. a more complicated analysis is required.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 . Otherwise. Equation (9. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action.0.0. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength. fb = M max S < Fb' (9.26) 9. Re = 1.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action.

17

Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. 9.11).Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. Thus. Figure 9. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. Therefore.11). For end bearing stiffeners.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. fcb. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . 9. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa.

1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. Figure 9. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. r.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. As a result. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis.75. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.7. . 9.

Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec.2). 5. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.

and q 2 = w into Eq.13. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. 9.36) Substituting for value of q 1 .707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9.36).36). as shown in Fig. (9. (9. from Eq. If we denote the length Figure 9. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate. (9.23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .

(9.7. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1.39). When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq. (9.40) . Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9. at least equal to . As a result.35) and (9. According to ASD G4. and ww. a minimum amount of welding is used. 9.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. however.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs.12)].36). respectively. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. L1. (9.

40). we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0.15) Figure 9.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq.707 Fv 2. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. 9. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. (9. respectively. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi.41) When single stiffeners are used. 9.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side . Furthermore. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig.

16. 9.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . for the case of single stiffeners. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.44) Figure 9.707 Fv 1.43) Similarly. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9. as shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections.

In fact. 9. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft.8. 9. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. Moreover. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. 9. 9. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig.17 is covered in this section. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange. (9.8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.16).27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).16). The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness.1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig.

8. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. 9. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support. 9.18. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load.17 9. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. Figure 9. For welds.67 = 633. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: .17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466. Lateral support is provided at supports. assume that it is restrained against rotation. at the point of application of concentrated load.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.

67 = R A − wx1 = 0 .29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 . Therefore.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C. Mmax = Mc = 466. .x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B.67(100) . 9.4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466. the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.19.x1 = A = = 116.

we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in. (9. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.4) yield values close to each other. Try tw = 0. tw 333.t w ≥ = 0.3): h 150 14. In other words.45 in.5 in. (9.0 .5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners.3) and (9.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9. 12 12 From Eq.5 in.000 ≤ = 322.t w ≥ = 0.5 d.3 . .3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. when a ≤ 1.8. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners. from Eq. (9.2).47 in. that is. or PL150 in.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. for the web plate. (9. Eqs.19 Bending moment diagram 9.x0.

46 for h > 70 tw . can be computed approximately from Eq.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. to Fb = 20 ksi.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. The required flange area. kc = 4. we may decrease Fb = 0.667)(12) 75 − = 94.2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0. (9. (9. Af. tw Aw = 75 in.19).05 (h / t w ) 0. (9.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 . check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required.60Fy = 22 ksi.22).2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. 970 h = 300 > = 161.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat.8.24).17 in. Af = bf t f = (26. say. 9.

From Eq.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .17): .2. Try PL38 in. The girder section is shown in Fig. 9.34 in. (9.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.x2.294 (300) 0. 294 $ tf = (94. for each flange.20. Af = 95 in.5 in.05 = 0.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.20 kc = 4.

9.687 Region DC is the critical region.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.396 = = 16.5) 3 = 1. M1/M2.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9.5/26. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments.31 in.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.069. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.5)(75 + 1.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.245. is zero (Figs.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2. 5. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.333. .396 in.6 in.19).46) 38 = 10.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig. 9.4 S= I 1.5).17 and 9.245.667 = -0.

05(M1/M2)+0.39 ksi 16.17 < 2. 102.3(-0.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57. 000 C 3 1 .000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .91 ksi < 20.069.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( . 510.K.75 + 1.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.30 . & .000)(1. . 75 ) .75+1. 530 .6 S O.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.000)(1.39 ksi 21. 510.687)+0.55 = 20. (9. 150 − Fb' = $1.667)(12) = = 19.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10. 530 .24).0 − 0.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.05(-0. 000 ( 1 .687)2 = 1.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .55 ksi 3 1 . 102.

(9. (9.5 < 0. At the left end fv = R A 466. Cv = 2.000 (36)(0. a.89)(6.8 36 Fy From Eq.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.8): . 2.89 Fv (2. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9. (9.22) = = 0.8.34 45.6) and solve for Cv.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.67 = = 6.000 kv = = From Eq.22 ksi in Eq.35 Design of Plate Girders 9.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6. (9.14)]. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 . Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.

41 amax = 0. Tentatively. 5.44 ksi 75 Aw 2.89 Fv (2.3 in.678 < 0. 5.41(150) = 61. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.345 in. 5. 5.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. At the right end fv = RB 633.34 45.81 > 9.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .89)(8. amax = 0.81 − 4 ( = 0.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .Design of Plate Girders 36 a .34 ) =* ' + 48.8 in.33 = = 8.44) = = 0.000 1/ 2 a .345(150) = 51. from the left end A.678)(300) 2 = 48. Figure 9. b.

3. B.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. and C: 2PL18 in. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. x /16 in. a.11). place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. x 2½ in.6 in.22). (9. x 1 /16 in. (9.5 in. 3 Figure 9.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in.22 Final design Tentatively. so the latter need not be checked. x 12 ft 6 in.6 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. Web: PL150 in.10) controls over Eq.22) . Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners. x 12 ft 4 in. x ½ in. Bearing stiffeners at A. 9. 2 2 amax = 112. x /16 in. from the left end B. Equation (9. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. From Eq. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. 9. x 12 ft 4 in.

207 36 & $0.22). 9.67 = = 6.67 − 12 (4) = 450. 9.62 ksi > f v = 6.67 − 12 (4) = 451. (Fig.0 + = 14.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.3 are satisfied.K.7 ) " = 2.7) 2 = Cv = 45.207 < 0.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.04 = 9. .0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.34 = 4 .15(1 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466. to 45 in.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 . we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .34 5.89 % 1. Fv = # 1 − 0. (9.000)(14.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.58 + 7.90) = 0. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.0 + 5.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.90 2 (a / h) (0.02 ksi O.

733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.000)(13.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.93) = 0.33 − 12 (4) = 616.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in. to 50 in.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45. b. (Fig.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.12): .22).193 < 0.93 2 (0.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.34 5.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616. (9. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.66 = = 8.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.0 + = 13. 9.34 = 4. 9.0 + 5.33 − 12 (4) = 620. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.

15(1 + 0.396 I O.40 + 7. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.K.667)(12)(75) = = 19.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26. fv = VC 433.22 ksi O.27 ksi < Fb = 21.18 and 9.30)].33 = = 5.825 − 0. 9. (9.193 36 & $0.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.45 ksi > f v = 8.44 ksi 1.825 − 0. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig. 4. ' ' F y = * 0. (9. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.375 9. Check combined shear and bending in the web.19). The critical section for this check is either at point C.45 ' (36) = 21.K.30)]: . where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.78 ) .89 % 1.733 ) " = 2.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq.375 F v + ) 5.05 = 9.22. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq. fv Fb = * * 0. 9. .245.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.

5. From Eq.5)(1 − 0.27): Ast = & #. and between C and F is a = 110 in. a.78 in. 6. such a check may be necessary. (9.8ts in Eq. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h.47) .7 2 (150)(0.2 From Eq.27).56 / 2 = 2. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.207) $0.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners.90 is considerably less than one. For region EC. (9. Select the intermediate stiffeners. 9. Also. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one.56 in.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. (Fig. (9. (9.62 ( % = 5.2 bs t s = 5.22).7 ) "+ 9.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. because fb/Fb = 0. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C.02 ) 1 0 .41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. (9.

27): Ast = & #.2 bs = 15. h ) . 4 > 81 in. x 7/16 in.45 ( % = 7.193) $0. (9.89 in. Try 2PL6½ in.8t s Minimum t s = (3.K.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.5) = 148 in. For region CF. . 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.5) 3 = 89. 9.2 bs t s = 7. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.94 / 15. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. x 7/16 in.5)(1 − 0. b.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. = 12 ft 4 in.5 × 2 + 0.94 in. From Eq. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). Use 2PL6½ in.733 ) "+ 9. .89 / 2 = 3. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig.28).22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.7 in. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq. 9. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).78 / 15. 8.5 in. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0.22 ) 1 0.7/16 in.8)1 / 2 = 0.8)1 / 2 = 0.733 2 (150)(0.419 in. = 6.

x 9/16 in. and the thickness of the web is 0. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in.14 in. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC. From Eq. for the left support.2 = 1.375) + 12(0.8 16 Try 2PL18 in.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in.5 in. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. Abs = 21. x 13/16 in. 9.75 in. (9.375 in. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C). 9.6. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466. = in.2 . Moment of inertia check is not needed. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio). 15. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15.2 b.8..22).5) 2 = 45. 1.67 Kips.

1 ( " ! + 1.96 10.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.96 ) 2 # .26 in. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 . 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.06 in. 9.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.S. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 . KL 0.1 > KL r F.699 ( % % = 21.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.26 r .21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36.11 ksi Actual axial stress: .75 = 10. 10. 10.96 ) 1 .06 / 45.S.1 ( 8 + 126.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.1 ( = 1.75(150) = = 10. 10.

K. 9. fa = RB 633.75 Aeff O. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. x 13/16 in. the same as for the left support.21) is larger than that of the end .11 ksi 45.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support.20 ksi < 21. Use 2PL18 in. x 12 ft 6 in.33 = = 13. say ¼ in. Use 2PL18 in.67 = = 10.K.11 ksi Aeff 45. and the effective area (Fig. 2. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly. 3. x 12 ft 6 in. less than the depth of the web plate. however.75 O. x 13/16 in. is less than RB. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. P = 500 Kips. x 13/16 in. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633..33 Kips Try 2PL18 in.84 ksi < Fa = 21. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. The bearing stiffener.

33) 2 (95) 2 .39).48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. we obtain a1 = 2.4). 8. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load.3.245.) and 1. Try ww = 5/16 in.396) L1 ww % = 1. (ASD J2b). flange plate is 5/16 in.8. L1min = 1. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1. x 13/16 in.25 in.51L1 (9.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0. . Substituting this value into the previous equation.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. 9. (Sec.5 and ASD Table J2. the length of weld segment L1. (9.5 in. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2.5-in. Vmax = RB = 633. x 12 ft 6 in. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners. we can use the same 2PL18 in. 2 & (633. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 .5 in.

Try 5/16-in.43): .47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. weld. we obtain a1 = 10. For segment EC (Fig. (9. 4 in. From Eq. 6. From Eq. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0. a max = 12 in.62 ksi . 9. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1. Use 5/16-in. weld.8. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . 9. long. (9.62 ( We use intermittent welds.48).04 in.22) f v = 6. 4 in.02 ksi. (9.02 ) * ' = 3. spacing. long.40): Fv = 9.23 ksi + 9. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv .5 in. 10-in. (ASD D2). From Eq.8.

23 = = = 0. 10-in. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.45 ksi 3/ 2 . 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( . Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1. For segment CF (Fig.5 in. a max = 24t s or 12 in. 9.0 in.5 in. weld. = 1. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. .5 in. Use 3/16-in. 2. spacing.49) we obtain L1 = 2.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.05439 a1 2.5 ksi + 9.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in.90 in. From Eq. long.-thick plate is 3/16 in.50) L1 ww 4. (9. 3.22 ) * ' = 4. 8.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3.0757 a1 2.22) f v = 8.-thick plate is ¼ in. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in.828(21) (9. a max = 12 in.828 Fv 2.45 ( (9. L1min = 1.5 in. Fv = 9.50 = = 0.22 ksi.

spacing.8. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate.50) we obtain L1 = 3. Try ww = 5/16 in. Use ¼-in.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in. weld. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4.50) = 675 Kips O.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.K. x 12 ft 6 in. 3. x 13/16 in. fillet weld = 0.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. 4 in. > Vmax = 633.707(16 = 4. From Eq.64 K/in.63 in. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in.9.89 Kips . 12-in. for each pair of bearing stiffeners. long. 9. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. Use 5/16-in.K. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in.49) = 96. (9.64) = 2784 Kips O.

1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.26 + 9. 9. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length. 36 ksi).9.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.49) = 38.5)( 16 )(148.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.9.Design of Plate Girders 50 .2.8. 9.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. 9.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.18 and 9.19). 3.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135. 2.0)](0.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs.49/123) = 9. 9.1 is desired except that 1. Selection of the Web Plate .26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6.73 = 145.

000 150 ≤ = 242.62 in. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.8 For closely spaced stiffeners. (9. x 9/16 in.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282. For the selected web plate. we have h 800 = = 266.e.67 .3 Selection of Flange Plates First. (9. i.8 . tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. From Eq. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1. for the web plate.375 in. tw 282. when a ≤ 1.9.t w ≥ = 0. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.t w ≥ = 0.5d.53 in. from Eq.. 9.24). or PL150 in.18 < 9 ) = 84. taking into account the reduction of the .2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.8 .51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. (9.5)] 242.5d.3): h 14.

375) − = 58. (9. (9.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.60 Fyw / Fb = 0.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.72) 3 = 0.0 β = 1.5α − 0.6(36) / 30 = 0.5(0.72 < 1.2 (0. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.5α 3 From Eq.24).51) where β = 1.22).54) In this example: α = 0.5(0.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.53) Combining Eqs.55 in.893)(84.893 Af = (26.72) − 0.51) and (9. .667)(12) (0. (9.53) and solving Af. (9.52) (9. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.

(9.406 60.67) 0.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.310 0.375 = = 1.98 in.31 tf =$ (58. Try PL30 in.406) = 0.363 in.893(1.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.2 Check Eq.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0. x 2 in.05 4.363 I = = 11. (9.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.05 = = 0.406 .0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.24): Aw 84.980 6 + 1.056.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.31 = 15.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. Af = 60 in.60Fyf = 0.46 (h / t ) (266. for each flange plate.7 in.

980) + 60.24).056. A f = (31)(2.125) = 65. for each flange.875 in.2 = 920.G.281 A f (31)(2.0 O.76 ksi fb = M max (26.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.375 = = 1.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.7 N.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.492. 84.667)(12) = = 28. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.94 ksi > 26.893(1.76 )! (0.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .0005)* '(266.67 − 138. Aw 84. (9.8 in.0 ( % " = 26.935. Try PL31 in.8 = 11.981 6 + 1.281) = 0. (9.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.76 ksi S 11.492.281 . 4 S= 920. x 21/8 in.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.K.0 − (0.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.1 in.

67 − 138.9.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.935.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .60 in.875 in. 84. for each flange.40 F y = 14. fv = Vmax R A 466.667)(12) = = 26. (9. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig.375 . from Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C. the design cannot be based on tension-field action. x 21/8 in.0005)* '(266.1 O. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.0 − (0.2 9. Use PL31 in. 9.981) + 65.5d = 1.4 in.17).02 ksi fb = M max (26. and we must use Eq.5(h + 2tf) = 1. Af = 65.K.76)! (0.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.875 ( % " = 27.67 = = = 5.6) for the allowable shear stress.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. (9. Also.53 ksi < 0. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required.25) = 231. 1.67] (150) = 142.5(150 + 4.

6): Cv = From Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B. between A and C (Fig.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.53) = = 0.89 Fv ( 2.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.89 Fv ( 2.23).67) 2 = 34.89)(7.000 .26 > 9.67) 2 = 25.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .444)(266.33 = = = 7. fv = Vmax R B 633.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.2 in.51 ksi < 0.34 45. 9.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.89)(5.501(150) = 75. 5. 5.40 F y = 14. (9.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.000 (36)(0.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.8): a .34 ) =* ' + 25.444 < 0.375 2.51) = = 0.30 > 9.603 < 0.501 amax = 0.603)(266. 2.34 45. (9.000 2. (9.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq. Use a = 75 in.

5.42(150) = 63 in. (9. the combined shear and bending check [Eq.28) and (9.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. let us consider the case of single stiffeners.42 amax = 0. First. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. (9. In other words. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. between C and B (Fig. 9.23).55) . Selection of intermediate stiffeners.29). Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. Use a = 60 in.57 Design of Plate Girders a .30)] is not required for hybrid girders. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . 5.34 ) =* ' + 34. 3.

000727 h( F y ) 0. equating Eqs. x 12 ft 6 in.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder .57) In the case of double stiffeners. x 12 ft 3 /4 in.375 (9.28) and (9.56) Finally. Web: PL150 in.375 (9. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A. Figure 9. x 1 in.56) by 2.55) yields I st = 285.000865h( F y ) 0.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.55) and (9. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. x /16 in. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9. (9. B. and C: 2PL15 in.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0. (9. x 21/8 in. (9. x /16 in.56) and solving for ts.29) into Eq.5 in. (9. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.

75 in.3 in. Try PL7.9. for stiffeners on one side.3 in. x 9/16 in.5 + ' = 88. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0.000865(150)(36) 0.K. x 9/16 in. 9 ).59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners.50 in. x 12 ft 3¾ in. < 88. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . Try ts = 9/16 in.5 Bearing Stiffeners . h) . + 16 ( Use PL7. = 12 ft 33/4 in. From Eq. for stiffeners on one side.5 in. 4 4 3 9.375 = 0. t ) 1 .29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( .90 in. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. 9 ) = * ' * 7. (9. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147.5 in. O.

for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.875)(150)(0.9. (9.25 Kips )(0.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.3.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.5)(147.32 + 8.75)](0. needs to be used. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders. Eq.6.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.07 = 118. 9.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.9.25 + 43.07 = 110.49)/144 = 43. x 1 in.8.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.49)/144 = 67. 9. 9.49/123) = 8. The answer: Use 2PL15 in. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.6 and therefore will not be repeated here. 8. however.39 Kips . as given in ASD J2. x 12 ft 6 in.2b and covered in Sec.

Figure 9.24 .10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig. x 0.75 in.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. 9. The length of the span is 150 ft.24. Consider bending only.

60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.739 = = 5014.18 0.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.95 67. 4 = 340. I x = 934 in.8(50 + 17.3). 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.8 > = = 137.26 in.8 in.69) = = 177.3 50 + 17. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.24. .60 F yf = 0. 9.739 in.01) 2 ] + 12 (0.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1. A = 33.95 − 4. 9.4.760 in.5 in.

75 in.0 − 0.75) = 101.8 − 20.1) /( 20.75)(0.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.26 = 0.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.26) = 20. 101.1 ) .75) 3 × 0.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .75 ( + 0.0 − 0.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .0005* − '* * ' ! (0. 133.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.115) + (100)(0.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .2 4 α= 0.952) = 25. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.1 / 20. 9.1 in.952 12 + 2(101.47)(1.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.72 − 0.23 + 0.84 ksi + 20.490)/144 = 0.

25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig.49 = 3. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.25): W = 3.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. Figure 9.35 + 0. .49 = 3.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.84)(5014. 9.5) − 0. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.

1 ft .6) and solve for Cv.8).4 ksi Aw 101.34 45. ) =* ' + 5. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.229 < 0.229)(177.79 − 5.89)(2.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.79 < 9.000 (36)(0.40 F y = 14. a .000 k= = Now.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2. a max = 2.89 f v (2.98(2)(66.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.11).7).69) = 397.5 in.89 = fv 2.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq. (9.8) 2 = 5.10) and (9.98h = 2.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs. (9. = 33.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.85) = = 0. (9. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.85 ksi < 0.34 ( 1/ 2 4 . (9.

7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.77 ft. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi .26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27. the governing limit is amax = 23.22 in.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore.8 ' (133. = 23. 260 ) .Design of Plate Girders 66 and .5 ksi.1 in.38) = 285. 9. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177. Use a= (150)(12) = 257.

7): Cv = 45.34 + = 8.000k = = 0.197 < 0.34 + 4 4 = 5. (9.77 2 (a / h) (1.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in. Find Cv from Eq.8): k = 5.77) 45.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq. a = 1.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .08) 2 h = 100 in. (9.000(8.5 in. t w = 0.

51 = 0.61 ksi < 0.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: . 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.232 F y = 11.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action . fv Fb = * * 0.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.89 $ 1 .3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.5) = 425.733Fv = 0. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.068 F y / f v = 0.5 ksi = 0.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0. (9.733(11.55 F y ( .068 F y + 0.825 − 0.068(50) / 8.4 + 2.51)(100)(0. 9.12).61) = 8. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.

Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. when the design is without the tension-field action.10. 1998).11.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.5)]1 / 2 2.60) for a ≤ 1.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.5 h (9.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.000 F yf for a > 1.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC.2 and LRFD Appendix F2. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.5 h h = tw . 9.11. In particular.10.

11.4) for the ASD code. At the present time a constant value of 0.62) . the design flexural strength will be φb Mn.3) and (9. 1.61) is the hybrid girder factor.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. (9. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. Limit state of tension-flange yield.61) Coefficient Re in Eq.9 is used for the resistance factor φb. (9. 9. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9.0 12 + 2a r (9. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.

24) of the ASD code covered in Sec.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. Note that Eq.4.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9. (9.3.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. 9. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). and web local buckling (WLB). In general. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. (9.64) corresponds to Eq. (9. 2.6). The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .3.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. the limit state of WLB does .64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. there exist three limit states of buckling. flange local buckling (FLB). In Eq. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9.

and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. a.66) λp = (9.63).67) λr = (9. (9.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply. 3. λp. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. and λr. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ.69) . F yf Fcr = & 1 . we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9.68) C PG = 286.1 for beams.65) λ2 The quantities λ. λp.10. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. λr. However. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr.000C b (9.

61) and (9.70) λp = (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1. 9. b.72) kc = (9.763 (9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.11.35). (5. We will derive an approximate but explicit .0 (9.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.71) λr = (9.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.74) (9.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.

(9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters. (9.61) and (9.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.76) Now. (9.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs. (9.18) into Eq. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.

71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf.82) Note that for a given required Af.65). and (9.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. and (9. (9.81) For the limit state of FLB. (9. .67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9. and a compromise must be made. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. we must have [Eqs. we must have [Eqs. For the economical design of plate girders.81) and (9.46) into this equation.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value). we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: . (9. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9.80) Substituting for rT from Eq. (9. For the limit state of LTB. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. (9.13. In Sec. 9.66). (9. the requirement of Eqs.65).70).

9 is the shear resistance factor.6 Aw F yw for Vn = . where φv = 0.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn. the design shear strength is φvVn.11.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9. kv 0. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.85) .

8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.86) 0. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.0 ≥ Cv > 0. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.6.87) 44. where the resistance factor φv is 0.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. (9.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.84) Equation (9. In these cases. as well as when relation .15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.11.9.

15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9. When transverse stiffeners are required.11. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .Design of Plate Girders 78 (9.91) . their design should be based on the following requirements: 1. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.6 Aw F yw C v (9.90) (9. φv is 0.85) holds.89) In Eq. For design based on tension-field action.90. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.90). the tension-field action is not allowed. (9. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5.7.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0.88) 9.

5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.9.11.92) where & 2.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 . depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0.5.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn). 2. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.625 u ≤ 1. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec. 9.375 φM n φV n (9. .6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.94) In this expression φ = 0.93) 9.3) 3 I st = at w j (9. 9.

Eq.7.27 and 9.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.12.2w D + 1.Design of Plate Girders 80 9. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .2 K/ft P = 1.6 PL = 1.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.12.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec. 9.2(3) + 1.6(1) = 5.2 PD + 1.28. (2. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load.2). Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec. respectively.2(400) + 1. 9.12.6 w L = 1.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs. 2.

12 12 From Eq.28 Bending moment diagram . Vmax = Vu = 816.12.67 Kips 9.60) Figure 9.27 Shear diagram Figure 9. (9.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.3 K-ft = 412.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.000 K-in.333.

x 0. Aw = 75 in.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0. (9.50 in.3) = 45.9(150)(36) 12 (9.79). We find an approximate flange area from Eq. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.0 333. or PL150 in.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.2 0. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.3 in. for the web plate. h tw = 300. (9. (9.0 in. 322 322 Try tw = 0.3 for a > 1.5h for a ≤ 1.96) .5 in. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412.12. Selection of the Flange Plates 1. 2 9.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322. from Eq.47 in.000 − = 72.4.

.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.838 in.87 rT 10. try tf = 2 in. 2. Then.0 .95).74 in.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1.97). (9.97) To begin with.064. based on Eq. Therefore.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.064. based on Eq. (9. Af = 80 in.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.1 in. try bf = 40 in.4 Sx = I x 1. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. (9.829. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders.838 = = 13.82): t f ≥ (72.83 in. (9. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a. only the latter needs to be checked.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.

00 (" = 38.333.551.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.885.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.1 ft-K = 603. 55.17) is the critical segment. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .5(34.5M max 12.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2. 9.885.333. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.00 )# = (1.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.5) 2 = 27.1) = 1. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.551.9) + 4(30.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .2)(75) 2 = 30.7) + 3(32.33(62.624.0 − 50.5(34.33(87.9 ft-K = 603.624.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.3) + 3(27.2)(87. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.87 − 50.3) 2.7 ft-K = 603.35). (5.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.2)(62.5) 2 = 32.

912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0.829. ) . we would have to increase the area of the flange.1)(36.85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .00) = 408.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + . b.633 K-in..000 K-in. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0. and PL40 in.0 in. If the section were not O. x 2. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.K.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore.9(0. is acceptable for the flange plate.912)(13.

6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. 9.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87. a.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44. 9.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. (9.000)(5) = 0.6(0. . 2.12.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.67 tw F yw 36 b.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44.98) We can use Eq.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. (9. (9.27). Check Eq.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required.9)(75)(36)(0. Check Eq.

33 /[0.443(150) = 66.9V n Kips From Eq.4138 < 0.4 in. from the right end B. At the right end: a max = 55.6(0.88): C v = Vu /[0.8 From Eq.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603. (9.000 = (300) 2 (0.4138)(36) / 44. .47)]1 / 2 = 0.9)(75)(36)] = 0. b. Tentatively. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.7 in. Tentatively.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25.443 a max = 0.47 From Eq. from the left end A. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.000 = 30.443h = 0. (9. At the left end: Vu = 603.87 Design of Plate Girders a. (9.

1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.22.20 36 = 152.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq. 9. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2.22): Try a = 105 in.000(15.75(150) = 112. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5.75h = 0.7.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15.5 in. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values.20) = 0. (9. 9. (9. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).86): . a . Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig.20 2 ( 0 .. a. From Eq. a/h = 0.Design of Plate Girders 88 3.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.8.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. (9. As in the example of Sec.87): Cv = 44. similar to Fig. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners. 9. 260 ) . 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.

2) = 583.6φVn = (0.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.6)(0.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0.194.000 K-in.83 Kips < φ vVu O.9)(1230) = 664. 9.K.33 − 12 (5.22). a very small distance to the right of point C).9(1250. b.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1. Similar to case a. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually. Vu = 556.487 K-in. 9.6(75)(36) $0. M n = 465.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig. we find a = 110 in. 9.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.0 Kips. an interaction check is not necessary.206 = 0.2 Kips.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig.22.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0. Check shear and bending interaction. Vn = 1230. to be satisfactory. C v = 0. .15(1 + 0. M u = 412. Vu = 795 Kips 4..

93): j= 2 .14 in. (9.99) is minimal.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.91): 583. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs. (9.206) − 18(0.5 2 . a. Region EC: a = 105 in.10 ≥ 0.5) 3 (3. Therefore.Design of Plate Girders 90 5. From Eq.206 From Eq. (9.07 in.0)(150)(0.5 2 (0. 36 ) & Ast = $0. (9.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0..7) 2 ( a / h) (9. C v = 0.99) a/h = 0. (9.8 ts 36 (9.100) and (9.5)(1 − 0.101). Select intermediate stiffeners. 2 bs t s = 0.69 in.100) (9. The .10) = 40.7. 2 From Eq. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.83 #.5 −2= − 2 = 3.15(1.101) The area requirement of Eq.

101): bs ≤ 5. Try 2PL5. (9. (9.67 Kips.. 1.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.69 in. From Eq. Use 2PL5.5) 3 = 47.5 in. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have . a/h = 0.12.5 in. 4 ≥ 40. RB = 816. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B. 4 O. (9.53 in.375)(11 + 0.101) is ts = 3/8 in.6. x 3/8 in.5 in.92 in. x 3/8 in.733 The answer is the same as for region EC.5 in. Region CF: a = 110 in. b.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C.K. and the thickness of the web is 0. From Eq.100) and (9. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in..100): 1 I st = 12 (0. 9. Use 2PL5.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. Bearing stiffeners at supports. x 3/8 in. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in. for all bearing stiffeners.

Use 2PL19 in.658 λc ) F y = (0.5) 2 = 50.37 r 10. 36 = 10.116 )(36) = 35. KL (0. 95 Try 2PL19 in.4 / 50. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.5) 3 = 5944.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.85 in.658 0. x 12 ft 6 in.75)(150) = = 10.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.85 KL .85(1807. x 1¼ in.50)(35.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0. 2.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23..K.17 Kips O.9) = 1536.20 in. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.116 < 1.7 Kips > R B = 816.37* * 29.50 in. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 . (9. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.4 in.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.75) + 12(0.75 in.80) = 1807.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq. Abs = 23.50 = 10. x 1¼ in. .

8. .5)( 8 )(148)](0.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5. output window and control window (Fig.12. 9.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0. x 1¼ in.29).3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. 9.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes. at the location of concentrated load.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.49) = 81.7 + 38. x 12 ft 6 in. Use 2PL19 in.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. 9.49) = 38.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. Therefore.8 = 128.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.0 + 8.49/123) 4 = 8.3 = 120. This applet consists of three windows: input window.

11).Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. 9. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. and Welds Panel. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. Flange & Web panel. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. 9.31. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. thickness. For impractical values. respectively. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. To design a hybrid girder.29). Span length. Stiffeners panel.30a). The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. 9.30b. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. Width. 5. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. for example. . However.

95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .

Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.30 . the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

9.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. For example. the place of the 1st stiffener. 9. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.32). Initially. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig.e. the applet provides only one segment selection. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. i.31 . Figure 9. By default. and thickness. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. width. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads.32a). thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.

Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.32 .

and elevation.33. Figure 9. and welds panels in the output window. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. Depending on the selection made by the user.33 Figure 9. 9. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”.34).34 . If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. 9. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. sections. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners.

35 .Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

35b.35a). . 9. 9. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. 9. and size.32b. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. 9. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. and size.32a). and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. length. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. But. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes.35). The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections.

Loadings panel displays the loadings.36). 9. Sections panel. and the web depth-to-span ratio. 9. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders. SFD (shear force diagram) panel. . Elevation panel.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs.39). They are the method of design. Welds panel. supports.38). BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig. ASD and LRFD.37).29 and 9. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel. Similarly.37 The output window consists of loadings panel. 9. Figure 9. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily.29). 9. 9.

the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.41) and a section within any segment (Fig.40 and 9. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window. respectively as shown in Figs. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig.43). and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9. 9.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. 9.42). 9. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.41. 9.39 . Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.

The results are presented in Figs. The example data used in Figs. 9. The results shown in Figs.49.9 also has been solved by the applet.40 Figure 9.45 to 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. Figure 9.37 to 9.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig.29 to 9.8.41 . 9.44). 9. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.44 are for the same problem also. 9.

43 Figure 9.42 Figure 9.105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.44 .

45 Figure 9.47 .46 Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.

107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. Use A36 steel .1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3. 9.50. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners. and F.49 9.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support. E.14 PROBLEMS 9. as indicated on the figure.48 Figure 9. as shown in Fig. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D.

9 of the book.5 in. plate is selected for each flange.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. a 180 in. Figure 9. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. plate is selected for the web. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan. Based on a preliminary design. .75 in. 9.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec.x1. check the adequacy of this preliminary design. and a 40 in.x0.50 9. 9.

9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9. double stiffeners . 9. 9. 9.10.50 in.10. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.109 Design of Plate Girders 9.10. single stiffeners b. using a. x 0.

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