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9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. As mentioned in the previous section. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy.Design of Plate Girders 4 9. Figure 9. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear.

the instability of the web plate panels. Consequently. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. after the shear instability of the web takes place. 9. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. The Pratt truss of Fig. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. She/he should. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. In this truss.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. however. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. In fact.7(b). As shown in Fig. 9. . due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength.7(a). a redistribution of stresses occurs. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength.7(a). The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. after the web panels buckle in shear. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. will not result in its failure. 9. It will then be able to carry additional loads. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. 9.

2) (9. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. As a general guideline. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem.12). experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. In design of plate girders. 9. However. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. the final design can be achieved quickly. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. however. Of course.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings).Design of Plate Girders 6 9. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec.

our approach is interactive design. After the h/L ratio has been selected. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. the depth of the web plate will be known. 2. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. 9. The web plate should carry all the shearing force.12. The next step is to choose the web thickness. In this book. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . In calculating the shear strength of the web. Figure 9. however.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. which is presented in Sec.

To satisfy this requirement.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. . 9. Due to the deflected shape of the girder.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. as shown in Fig. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. the compressive force F1.8. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. according to ASD G1.

5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners. h 2.6) where .89 ≤ 0. 9. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig. To satisfy the second criterion.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.9.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. Fv = Fy C v 2.5h (9. 9. α2 is much larger than α1.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.5)]1 / 2 (9. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. For high-strength steel. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9.9.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

11

Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

4. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9.1 in the text).19) In this equation.18) and solving for Af. (9. Aw = tw h is the web area.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5. 9. tf is the thickness of the flange plate. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9.18) By equating Eqs. .16) and (9.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange.

19) and solving for tf. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . (9.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required.19). this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. for example. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. However. (9. as a fraction of 1/16 in.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. .46 (9. (9.. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. in many cases.23). (9.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. we find the required flange width bf from Eq.22) Substituting Eq. Therefore.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4.22) into Eq.

24) In this equation. & # A . to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9.5. 9. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1. (9.0 − 0. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point.4. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. 5. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. as discussed in Sec. Aw is the web area. When h/tw < 970 / F y . the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange.

Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. Otherwise. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action.0 ! ! " (9.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action. Equation (9. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength.26) 9. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . a more complicated analysis is required. Re = 1.0. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. For nonhybrid girders. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. fb = M max S < Fb' (9. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges.0. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 . α= 0.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1.

17

Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners .Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. 9. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. Thus. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. fcb. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig. Figure 9.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. Therefore.11). shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa.11). They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. For end bearing stiffeners. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. 9.

. r.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.75. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. As a result. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r. 9. Figure 9.7.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.

2). The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. 5. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w.

707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9.36).37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. 9. as shown in Fig.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .13. from Eq. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used.23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. (9.36) Substituting for value of q 1 . (9. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0.36).35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate. and q 2 = w into Eq. If we denote the length Figure 9. (9. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1.

the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9.12)]. however. According to ASD G4. (9.36).35) and (9. 9. respectively.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. and ww.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9. at least equal to . (9.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs.7.40) . (9. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq. a minimum amount of welding is used. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. As a result. L1.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.39). a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners.

15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side . welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq. respectively.40). either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0.707 Fv 2.15) Figure 9. Furthermore. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi. (9. 9.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.41) When single stiffeners are used. 9. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels.

16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds .42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections. 9.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.44) Figure 9.16. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1. for the case of single stiffeners. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.43) Similarly.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. as shown in Fig.707 Fv 1.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look.

9. In fact.16). Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. 9. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. Moreover. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.16). 9.8. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. (9. 9. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft.8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.17 is covered in this section.

Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . For welds. 9.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load. assume that it is restrained against rotation.8.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.67 = 633.17 9. Figure 9.18.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners. at the point of application of concentrated load.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. Lateral support is provided at supports. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. 9.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support.

the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. 9. Therefore.x1 = A = = 116. Mmax = Mc = 466.19. .29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B.67(100) .18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 .67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 .

that is.3) and (9.5 in.t w ≥ = 0. from Eq.5 d. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.000 ≤ = 322.47 in.5 in.4) yield values close to each other.3 .19 Bending moment diagram 9. or PL150 in.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.2).5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.45 in. (9.3): h 150 14. tw 333. when a ≤ 1. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners. for the web plate. . 12 12 From Eq.x0. (9.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333. (9.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.0 . Eqs.t w ≥ = 0.8. Try tw = 0. In other words. (9.

The required flange area. 9. 970 h = 300 > = 161. Af.60Fy = 22 ksi. tw Aw = 75 in.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.17 in.05 (h / t w ) 0. (9. say. Af = bf t f = (26. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required.667)(12) 75 − = 94. (9.22).19).31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 . can be computed approximately from Eq. we may decrease Fb = 0. to Fb = 20 ksi.46 for h > 70 tw .2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. (9.2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced.8. kc = 4.24).

294 $ tf = (94. From Eq. The girder section is shown in Fig.05 = 0.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 . for each flange.x2.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.34 in. 9.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9. Af = 95 in.20 kc = 4.2.5 in.20. (9.17): . Try PL38 in.294 (300) 0.

20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9.333.069.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2.687 Region DC is the critical region. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.6 in.31 in.46) 38 = 10. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.19). (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments.667 = -0.5).5)(75 + 1.4 S= I 1.5/26. 9.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.396 = = 16. is zero (Figs.17 and 9.245.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.396 in. . 5.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.5) 3 = 1. 9.245. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig. M1/M2.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.

102. 510.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.000)(1.K.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.75 + 1. 000 C 3 1 .05(-0.667)(12) = = 19. 530 .17 < 2. 000 ( 1 . . 150 − Fb' = $1.0 − 0.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1. (9.30 .000)(1.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( . 530 .687)+0.687)2 = 1.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57. 102.55 = 20.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.75+1.91 ksi < 20.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .55 ksi 3 1 .000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .39 ksi 16.6 S O.069. 510.3(-0.05(M1/M2)+0. 75 ) .39 ksi 21.24). & . 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26.

Cv = 2. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 . (9.22 ksi in Eq.000 kv = = From Eq.8): .8 36 Fy From Eq.5 < 0.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9.34 45. (9.89)(6. (9.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.35 Design of Plate Girders 9.22) = = 0.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.14)].7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.6) and solve for Cv. 2. a.8.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required. At the left end fv = R A 466.67 = = 6. (9. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.000 (36)(0.89 Fv (2.

At the right end fv = RB 633.41 amax = 0.678)(300) 2 = 48.33 = = 8. Figure 9.89)(8.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.345(150) = 51.41(150) = 61. 5.8 in.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .34 ) =* ' + 48.44) = = 0.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.345 in. 5. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.678 < 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .3 in. amax = 0.Design of Plate Girders 36 a . 5.000 1/ 2 a .34 45.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C . Tentatively.89 Fv (2. from the left end A.44 ksi 75 Aw 2. 5.81 > 9. b.81 − 4 ( = 0.

10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. x /16 in.22). 3.11). x 12 ft 6 in. Web: PL150 in. 9.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. x ½ in.22) . 2 2 amax = 112. from the left end B.6 in. and C: 2PL18 in. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. x 1 /16 in. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. Bearing stiffeners at A. B. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. x 2½ in. (9. (9. From Eq.22 Final design Tentatively. x 12 ft 4 in. x 12 ft 4 in. 9. so the latter need not be checked.5 in. 3 Figure 9. Equation (9.6 in. x /16 in. a.10) controls over Eq.

67 = = 6.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.3 are satisfied. Fv = # 1 − 0. (9.7 ) " = 2.0 + 5.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 . and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.04 = 9. . 9.67 − 12 (4) = 451.58 + 7.22).0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.02 ksi O.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.K.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. (Fig.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.207 36 & $0.207 < 0.7) 2 = Cv = 45.90 2 (a / h) (0.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.15(1 + 0.000)(14. 9.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 . we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.89 % 1.34 5.34 = 4 .12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.0 + = 14. to 45 in. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.67 − 12 (4) = 450.90) = 0.62 ksi > f v = 6.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.

(Fig.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.193 < 0.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8. b. 9.34 = 4.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.66 = = 8.0 + = 13.34 5.93 2 (0.93) = 0. (9.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4. 9. to 50 in.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.33 − 12 (4) = 620.0 + 5.22).33 − 12 (4) = 616.12): .733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.000)(13.

18 and 9.05 = 9.45 ' (36) = 21. 9.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26.27 ksi < Fb = 21. 4.33 = = 5.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.22 ksi O.375 F v + ) 5.245. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.89 % 1.193 36 & $0.733 ) " = 2.375 9.30)]: .Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.19).K.825 − 0. fv = VC 433.825 − 0. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.30)].396 I O.78 ) .22. (9. (9. Check combined shear and bending in the web.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq. 9. .667)(12)(75) = = 19.K. fv Fb = * * 0. ' ' F y = * 0.44 ksi 1.45 ksi > f v = 8.15(1 + 0. The critical section for this check is either at point C.40 + 7.

47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq.56 in.2 From Eq.5)(1 − 0.22). Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. because fb/Fb = 0. and between C and F is a = 110 in.27).56 / 2 = 2.7 ) "+ 9.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15.8ts in Eq.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. For region EC. (Fig. 6. Also.62 ( % = 5. (9.02 ) 1 0 . (9.47) . which is a function of aspect ratio a/h. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. (9. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C. such a check may be necessary. (9.90 is considerably less than one. 5.2 bs t s = 5.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. a.207) $0. From Eq. 9. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.27): Ast = & #.7 2 (150)(0. (9.78 in. Select the intermediate stiffeners.

x 7/16 in. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in.8t s Minimum t s = (3.2 bs t s = 7. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.5) = 148 in.733 ) "+ 9.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web. Use 2PL6½ in.89 in. .8)1 / 2 = 0.419 in. = 12 ft 4 in. 9. = 6.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.7/16 in.2 bs = 15.5 × 2 + 0.8)1 / 2 = 0. 9. h ) .94 / 15. For region CF. b.28).94 in.5)(1 − 0. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).733 2 (150)(0. (9.27): Ast = & #.78 / 15.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq. From Eq. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6. x 7/16 in. 8.89 / 2 = 3.45 ( % = 7. Try 2PL6½ in. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0.22 ) 1 0.5) 3 = 89.193) $0. 4 > 81 in.7 in.5 in. .K.

. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. (9.8 16 Try 2PL18 in. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a.5 in.14 in.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in. Abs = 21. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466. x 13/16 in.22).8.67 Kips. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates.75 in.2 = 1. 15. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. for the left support.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18. = in. Moment of inertia check is not needed.375) + 12(0. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio).2 b.375 in. x 9/16 in. 1. 9. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C). for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig. 9.2 . and the thickness of the web is 0.6. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.5) 2 = 45. From Eq.

000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.96 ) 1 .1 ( " ! + 1. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.699 ( % % = 21. 10.S.1 ( = 1.1 ( 8 + 126.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.26 in.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36. 10. 10.26 r . KL 0.S.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.75 = 10. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .11 ksi Actual axial stress: .96 ) 2 # . 9.06 / 45.75(150) = = 10.96 10.1 > KL r F. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.06 in. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.

x 13/16 in. The bearing stiffener.75 O.84 ksi < Fa = 21. 2. x 13/16 in. the same as for the left support. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633.. however. Use 2PL18 in. is less than RB.K.33 = = 13. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. x 12 ft 6 in.K. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. less than the depth of the web plate.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466.75 Aeff O.20 ksi < 21. x 13/16 in.11 ksi 45.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. fa = RB 633.67 = = 10. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support. P = 500 Kips.21) is larger than that of the end . Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly. 3. and the effective area (Fig. x 12 ft 6 in.11 ksi Aeff 45. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. say ¼ in. Use 2PL18 in. 9.

1246 Minimum weld size for a 2.3. Vmax = RB = 633.) and 1.5-in. flange plate is 5/16 in. (Sec. 2 & (633. 8. 9. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 .245.39).4). Substituting this value into the previous equation. (9. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. we can use the same 2PL18 in. (ASD J2b). the length of weld segment L1.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1.5 in. we obtain a1 = 2.51L1 (9.25 in. x 12 ft 6 in.396) L1 ww % = 1.33) 2 (95) 2 .8. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load.5 in. x 13/16 in. Try ww = 5/16 in.5 and ASD Table J2. . L1min = 1. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.

23 ksi + 9. weld. spacing. 6.04 in.02 ) * ' = 3.8.5 in. long. (9.43): . 4 in. From Eq. a max = 12 in.40): Fv = 9. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0.62 ksi . long. Try 5/16-in. (9.48). 4 in. From Eq. Use 5/16-in.62 ( We use intermittent welds.8. 9.02 ksi.22) f v = 6. 10-in. we obtain a1 = 10. (9.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. For segment EC (Fig. (ASD D2). Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . 9. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . From Eq. weld.

long.23 = = = 0.5 in. 9.90 in.828(21) (9.50 = = 0.22 ) * ' = 4. 8.5 in. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.45 ( (9. 10-in.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in.22 ksi. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. spacing.-thick plate is ¼ in. a max = 24t s or 12 in.828 Fv 2.-thick plate is 3/16 in.5 ksi + 9. weld. (9. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.5 in.05439 a1 2. .828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in. L1min = 1. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in. 2.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3.50) L1 ww 4.0757 a1 2.49) we obtain L1 = 2. For segment CF (Fig. 3. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( .0 in. From Eq.5 in. Fv = 9.22) f v = 8.45 ksi 3/ 2 . = 1. Use 3/16-in. a max = 12 in.

5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. x 12 ft 6 in. (9.9.50) we obtain L1 = 3.50) = 675 Kips O. Use 5/16-in.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.49) = 96.64) = 2784 Kips O. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. Use ¼-in. 12-in. weld. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4.707(16 = 4.K.K. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. spacing. 4 in.63 in. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. From Eq.89 Kips . > Vmax = 633.64 K/in. fillet weld = 0. 9. 3. for each pair of bearing stiffeners. long. x 13/16 in. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. Try ww = 5/16 in.8.

19). Selection of the Web Plate .0)](0.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.73 = 145.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.5)( 16 )(148. 2. 9.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.9.8.Design of Plate Girders 50 .9. 36 ksi).49/123) = 9.49) = 38.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.18 and 9.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148. 9. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec. 9. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.1 is desired except that 1.26 + 9. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs. 3. 9.2.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.

For the selected web plate. i.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.53 in. (9. From Eq.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.000 150 ≤ = 242.8 . (9.18 < 9 ) = 84.375 in.5d.8 For closely spaced stiffeners. (9. when a ≤ 1. x 9/16 in.24).5d.8 .5)] 242.9.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.62 in. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.3): h 14. 9.. from Eq. tw 282.e. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.t w ≥ = 0. for the web plate. taking into account the reduction of the .3 Selection of Flange Plates First. or PL150 in.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.t w ≥ = 0. we have h 800 = = 266.67 .

51) where β = 1.72) 3 = 0.0 β = 1.60 Fyw / Fb = 0. (9.893 Af = (26.375) − = 58.2 (0. (9. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9. .54) In this example: α = 0.55 in.893)(84.53) and solving Af.5(0.24). This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.5(0.53) Combining Eqs.5α 3 From Eq. (9.667)(12) (0.72) − 0.72 < 1. (9.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.5α − 0.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.51) and (9.52) (9.6(36) / 30 = 0.22).

60Fyf = 0.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1. (9.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0. Af = 60 in.31 = 15. x 2 in.375 = = 1.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.980 6 + 1.406 60. (9.363 in.893(1.98 in.363 I = = 11.67) 0.05 = = 0.406) = 0.2 Check Eq.406 .310 0.7 in.31 tf =$ (58.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0. for each flange plate. Try PL30 in.24): Aw 84.46 (h / t ) (266.056.05 4.

67 − 138. (9.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.0005)* '(266.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.281) = 0.94 ksi > 26.875 in.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.0 ( % " = 26.056. (9.281 .125) 3 + 2(31) (2.24).492.375 = = 1.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.76 )! (0.G. A f = (31)(2.8 = 11. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. Aw 84.7 N.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .76 ksi S 11. for each flange.667)(12) = = 28.893(1.2 = 920.8 in. 84.1 in.K.0 O.281 A f (31)(2.935. Try PL31 in.76 ksi fb = M max (26.981 6 + 1. 4 S= 920.980) + 60.492.0 − (0. x 21/8 in.125) = 65.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.

0005)* '(266.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. and we must use Eq. Af = 65.02 ksi fb = M max (26. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig. (9. from Eq.4 in.667)(12) = = 26.60 in.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.67] (150) = 142.5(h + 2tf) = 1. (9. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.0 − (0.6) for the allowable shear stress.K. the design cannot be based on tension-field action. Use PL31 in.1 O. 84.981) + 65.875 ( % " = 27.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .2 9. fv = Vmax R A 466.5(150 + 4.67 − 138.5d = 1.875 in. 9.53 ksi < 0.40 F y = 14. for each flange. x 21/8 in.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. 1.17). (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.67 = = = 5.76)! (0.375 . Also.25) = 231.935.9.

30 > 9. 2.34 ) =* ' + 25.51) = = 0.23).26 > 9. (9.444)(266.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.501 amax = 0.33 = = = 7.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.603 < 0.000 (36)(0. fv = Vmax R B 633.34 45. (9.501(150) = 75.67) 2 = 34.6): Cv = From Eq.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.34 45.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. (9. 5.89 Fv ( 2.000 .8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.8): a .51 ksi < 0.53) = = 0.89 Fv ( 2.89)(5.603)(266. 5.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .67) 2 = 25.000 2. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B. between A and C (Fig. 9.89)(7.375 2.40 F y = 14.2 in.444 < 0. Use a = 75 in.

42 amax = 0. (9. 9. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. First. the combined shear and bending check [Eq. (9.29).34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . 3.55) . Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. Selection of intermediate stiffeners. between C and B (Fig.34 ) =* ' + 34. let us consider the case of single stiffeners.30)] is not required for hybrid girders.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. In other words. 5. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. Use a = 60 in.42(150) = 63 in.28) and (9. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. 5.23). no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary.57 Design of Plate Girders a .

28) and (9.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.29) into Eq. (9.000727 h( F y ) 0. Figure 9.375 (9. equating Eqs. x /16 in. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.55) yields I st = 285.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . x 12 ft 3 /4 in.375 (9. Web: PL150 in. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. (9.56) Finally. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9. (9.57) In the case of double stiffeners. and C: 2PL15 in. B. x 21/8 in.56) by 2.5 in. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq. x 1 in. x /16 in. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0.55) and (9.000865h( F y ) 0. (9.56) and solving for ts. x 12 ft 6 in.

+ 16 ( Use PL7. 9 ) = * ' * 7. x 12 ft 3¾ in. t ) 1 . 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. 4 4 3 9. From Eq.3 in. (9. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1.75 in. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0.5 in.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8. < 88.K.5 in. for stiffeners on one side. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: .9.5 Bearing Stiffeners .90 in.3 in. 9 ). 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( . x 9/16 in.5 + ' = 88.375 = 0. for stiffeners on one side. h) . = 12 ft 33/4 in. x 9/16 in.50 in.000865(150)(36) 0. Try PL7. O. Try ts = 9/16 in.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147.

for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load.5)(147.07 = 118.2b and covered in Sec. (9.32 + 8.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.6.49/123) = 8.9. 9. The answer: Use 2PL15 in. x 1 in.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.49)/144 = 43.25 Kips )(0. 9.25 + 43. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.8. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds. 8.3. however.75)](0. 9. Eq.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.49)/144 = 67.875)(150)(0. x 12 ft 6 in.07 = 110. needs to be used. as given in ASD J2.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.9.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.39 Kips .40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.

61 Design of Plate Girders 9. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. The length of the span is 150 ft.24.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in. x 0. Figure 9.24 . Consider bending only. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.75 in. 9.

9.95 − 4.8(50 + 17.3 50 + 17.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.24.5 in.18 0.4.75)(100) 3 t w = 0. I x = 934 in.95 67.8 > = = 137.760 in.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig. 9.60 F yf = 0.739 in. A = 33.26 in.739 = = 5014. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.01) 2 ] + 12 (0. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33. .75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.8 in.69) = = 177. 4 = 340.3).

75) 3 × 0.115) + (100)(0. 133.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.26 = 0.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.75 in.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .75 ( + 0.952) = 25.0 − 0. 9.47)(1.952 12 + 2(101.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.490)/144 = 0. 101.2 4 α= 0.72 − 0. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.1 / 20.0 − 0.8 − 20.84 ksi + 20.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .1 in.1) /( 20.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .1 ) .26) = 20.75) = 101.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.75)(0.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.23 + 0.

9. Figure 9. .35 K/ft in addition to its own weight. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.49 = 3.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig.49 = 3. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.35 + 0.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.84)(5014. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.25): W = 3.5) − 0.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore.

98(2)(66.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2. (9.5 in.89 = fv 2.69) = 397.98h = 2.79 − 5.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.40 F y = 14.89 f v (2. (9.8) 2 = 5. = 33.4 ksi Aw 101.89)(2.85 ksi < 0.7).34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.6) and solve for Cv.10) and (9.1 ft .8).229 < 0.229)(177. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2.000 k= = Now. a .85) = = 0. ) =* ' + 5.34 45. (9.11).34 ( 1/ 2 4 . (9. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 (36)(0.79 < 9. a max = 2.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.

9.5 ksi. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.Design of Plate Girders 66 and .77 ft.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.1 in. = 23.38) = 285.22 in. the governing limit is amax = 23. 260 ) .77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore. Use a= (150)(12) = 257.8 ' (133. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.

000k = = 0.5 in.77) 45.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .77 2 (a / h) (1. a = 1. Find Cv from Eq.197 < 0.08) 2 h = 100 in.34 + = 8.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq. (9.8): k = 5.34 + 4 4 = 5.000(8. (9.7): Cv = 45. t w = 0.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.55 F y ( . fv Fb = * * 0.068 F y + 0.61 ksi < 0. (All of the five conditions given in Sec. (9.825 − 0.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .61) = 8.89 $ 1 .) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.5 ksi = 0. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.068 F y / f v = 0.733Fv = 0.232 F y = 11.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.12).51 = 0.4 + 2.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.733(11.068(50) / 8.5) = 425.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2. 9.51)(100)(0.

2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14.11.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9. when the design is without the tension-field action.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.60) for a ≤ 1.5 h h = tw .000 F yf for a > 1.5)]1 / 2 2.59) If this requirement is not satisfied. 9.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.10. 1998).1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.11. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. In particular.10. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.5 h (9.

62) . (9.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.4) for the ASD code. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9.61) is the hybrid girder factor.3) and (9. 1. Limit state of tension-flange yield.11. (9.61) Coefficient Re in Eq. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb.9 is used for the resistance factor φb. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.0 12 + 2a r (9. At the present time a constant value of 0. 9.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.

flange local buckling (FLB). In Eq.3. 2. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in.3.4. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. (9. and web local buckling (WLB).63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. In general. Note that Eq.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. the limit state of WLB does . (9.6).64) corresponds to Eq. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB).24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. (9.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. 9. there exist three limit states of buckling.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section.

and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply. λp. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. and λr.68) C PG = 286. λr. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. (9.69) . 3. λp. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr.1 for beams.65) λ2 The quantities λ.000C b (9.67) λr = (9.10. a. However. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9.63). F yf Fcr = & 1 . For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9.66) λp = (9.

We will derive an approximate but explicit .74) (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.11.71) λr = (9. 9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0. (5.0 (9.72) kc = (9.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations. b.61) and (9.35).70) λp = (9.763 (9.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.

18) into Eq. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq. (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq. (9. (9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.61) and (9.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.76) Now. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical . In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9. (9.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.

we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. For the economical design of plate girders. we must have [Eqs.70). the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. (9. the requirement of Eqs. (9.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. and a compromise must be made.82) Note that for a given required Af. For the limit state of LTB. we must have [Eqs.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value). 9. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9.65). In Sec. (9.66).81) For the limit state of FLB.46) into this equation.80) Substituting for rT from Eq. (9.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: .81) and (9. . an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. and (9.65). (9.13. (9.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9. and (9.

Design of Plate Girders 76 9.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9. where φv = 0.11.9 is the shear resistance factor. the design shear strength is φvVn.6 Aw F yw for Vn = . The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9. kv 0.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.85) .5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.

84) Equation (9.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.0 ≥ Cv > 0. (9.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq. as well as when relation . It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.86) 0. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn. In these cases.87) 44. where the resistance factor φv is 0.6.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.9.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.11.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.

90) (9.90.6 Aw F yw C v (9. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5.7. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.85) holds. (9. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.88) 9.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0.91) . φv is 0.89) In Eq. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.90). their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9. For design based on tension-field action. When transverse stiffeners are required. the tension-field action is not allowed.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9.11. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .

6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.92) where & 2.5.625 u ≤ 1.94) In this expression φ = 0.3) 3 I st = at w j (9.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec. 9.11.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .93) 9. 2. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener. 9.375 φM n φV n (9.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).9.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec. .

2. 9.12. (2.2(400) + 1.6(100) = 640 Kips 9. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .6 PL = 1. Eq.6(1) = 5.2w D + 1. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.12.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.6 w L = 1. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.Design of Plate Girders 80 9. respectively.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.12.27 and 9.2).2 K/ft P = 1.2 PD + 1.2(3) + 1. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.7. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load. 9.28.

28 Bending moment diagram .27 Shear diagram Figure 9.333.60) Figure 9.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.67 Kips 9. 12 12 From Eq.12.3 K-ft = 412.000 K-in.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in. Vmax = Vu = 816. (9.

5h for a ≤ 1. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.0 in.3) = 45.50 in.5 in.2 0.47 in.12.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322. 2 9. (9.4.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in. h tw = 300.96) .79). from Eq.9(150)(36) 12 (9. Aw = 75 in. (9. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.000 − = 72. for the web plate. or PL150 in. 322 322 Try tw = 0.3 in. (9.0 333. x 0.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0. We find an approximate flange area from Eq. Selection of the Flange Plates 1.3 for a > 1.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.

3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.064. (9. based on Eq.829. Therefore. (9.97) To begin with.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. 2.838 in. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders.1 in.95). the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. (9. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. try tf = 2 in.83 in.064.87 rT 10. try bf = 40 in. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a. Af = 80 in.838 = = 13.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1..74 in.0 .97).4 Sx = I x 1. only the latter needs to be checked.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0. (9.82): t f ≥ (72.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq. based on Eq. Then.

33(62. 55.9 ft-K = 603.87 − 50.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.9) + 4(30.5(34. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.0 − 50.00 )# = (1.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.333.333.1 ft-K = 603.2)(87.624.2)(75) 2 = 30.885.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi . (5.5M max 12.00 (" = 38.3) + 3(27.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .5) 2 = 27.3) 2.551.1) = 1.5) 2 = 32.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.551.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.885.7 ft-K = 603.624. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.33(87.2)(62.17) is the critical segment.35).5(34.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 . 9.7) + 3(32. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.

000 K-in. ) . the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.633 K-in.85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi.1)(36. and PL40 in.00) = 408. If the section were not O.0 in.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10. x 2.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + .829. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412.. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: . is acceptable for the flange plate. b. we would have to increase the area of the flange.912)(13.K.9(0.

5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.000)(5) = 0.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end. (9. a.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.27).98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu. (9.6(0. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required.98) We can use Eq.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9. (9. 9. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required. 2.9)(75)(36)(0. Check Eq.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44.12.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. Check Eq. 9. .67 tw F yw 36 b.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0.

Tentatively.9V n Kips From Eq. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.87 Design of Plate Girders a.4138 < 0.000 = 30.000 = (300) 2 (0. Tentatively. At the right end: a max = 55. from the left end A.9)(75)(36)] = 0.88): C v = Vu /[0.443h = 0.443(150) = 66.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.33 /[0. At the left end: Vu = 603. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.6(0.4138)(36) / 44.47 From Eq.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25.47)]1 / 2 = 0.7 in. from the right end B.443 a max = 0. (9. (9.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.8 From Eq. (9. b.4 in. .

9. a .75h = 0.. From Eq.86): .7.5 in. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2. As in the example of Sec. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44. similar to Fig. a/h = 0.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0. 260 ) .75(150) = 112. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.20 2 ( 0 .Design of Plate Girders 88 3.8.87): Cv = 44.22.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15.000(15. (9.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq. 9. 9. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.20) = 0.22): Try a = 105 in. (9. a.20 36 = 152. (9. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0.

Check shear and bending interaction. Vn = 1230. M u = 412.0 Kips.2 Kips. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.6)(0. 9.6φVn = (0. a very small distance to the right of point C).15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.9)(1230) = 664. Vu = 795 Kips 4.K.. 9.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig.. Similar to case a.22. M n = 465. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually. C v = 0.33 − 12 (5.194. .9(1250.000 K-in.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603. to be satisfactory.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.22).206 = 0.6(75)(36) $0. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.2) = 583. Vu = 556.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1. we find a = 110 in.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0.487 K-in.83 Kips < φ vVu O. an interaction check is not necessary. 9.15(1 + 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. b.

5 2 . (9.69 in.83 #. 36 ) & Ast = $0.07 in.206 From Eq.99) a/h = 0..101) The area requirement of Eq.99) is minimal. The . a. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs.7.101).Design of Plate Girders 90 5.5)(1 − 0.91): 583. 2 bs t s = 0.7) 2 ( a / h) (9.14 in.0)(150)(0.5 2 (0. (9.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.100) and (9. From Eq. (9.15(1. Select intermediate stiffeners.10 ≥ 0.5 −2= − 2 = 3.10) = 40.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0.5) 3 (3. 2 From Eq.206) − 18(0. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15. (9. Region EC: a = 105 in.93): j= 2 . C v = 0. (9.100) (9. Therefore.8 ts 36 (9.

101) is ts = 3/8 in.733 The answer is the same as for region EC. 4 O.92 in. Try 2PL5..5) 3 = 47. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have . From Eq. b. x 3/8 in.69 in.375)(11 + 0. for all bearing stiffeners. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B. Use 2PL5.101): bs ≤ 5.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs.12. x 3/8 in. and the thickness of the web is 0.K. Use 2PL5. x 3/8 in.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9. From Eq.5 in. 9.5 in.100) and (9. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C. a/h = 0. 4 ≥ 40. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in.6. 1. Bearing stiffeners at supports. (9. (9..100): 1 I st = 12 (0. Region CF: a = 110 in. RB = 816.67 Kips.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1.53 in.5 in. (9.5 in.

5) 3 = 5944.5) 2 = 50.50)(35.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.85 in. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.658 λc ) F y = (0. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load. Abs = 23.K. x 12 ft 6 in.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.658 0.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq. 36 = 10.85(1807.75)(150) = = 10. Use 2PL19 in.80) = 1807. KL (0.50 = 10.37* * 29. .80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.37 r 10.20 in. x 1¼ in. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 . 95 Try 2PL19 in. 2.4 in. x 1¼ in.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0..116 )(36) = 35.17 Kips O.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0.7 Kips > R B = 816.85 KL .75) + 12(0.116 < 1.4 / 50.75 in.50 in.9) = 1536. (9.

9.49/123) 4 = 8.7 + 38.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. Use 2PL19 in.29).0 + 8.8. at the location of concentrated load.49) = 81. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. Therefore.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5. 9.49) = 38. x 1¼ in. x 12 ft 6 in.8 = 128. This applet consists of three windows: input window. .12.5)( 8 )(148)](0. 9.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120. output window and control window (Fig.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9.3 = 120.

the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. for example. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web.30b. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig.31. Width.30a). The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. 9. and Welds Panel. For impractical values. To design a hybrid girder. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. . The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig.29). However.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. Stiffeners panel. Flange & Web panel. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. respectively. 9. thickness. Span length. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. 5. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads.11). 9. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values.

95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .

the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.30 .Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.

the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig.32a). Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel. and thickness.31 . bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. Initially. For example. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. the place of the 1st stiffener. Figure 9. By default. 9. 9.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. the applet provides only one segment selection. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.e.32). The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. i. width.

32 .Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments.33 Figure 9. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment. and elevation. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners.34).99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. 9. sections. Figure 9. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig.33. and welds panels in the output window. 9. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. Depending on the selection made by the user.34 .

35 .Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

35).35a). size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web. . The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. and size.32b.35b. length. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. 9. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. and size. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. 9.32a). 9. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. But. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. 9.

SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders. Similarly.39). BMD (bending moment diagram) panel.29 and 9. SFD (shear force diagram) panel. 9. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily.36). 9. Elevation panel. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. Figure 9. .37). 9. Sections panel.37 The output window consists of loadings panel. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. 9. Loadings panel displays the loadings. They are the method of design. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. and the web depth-to-span ratio. 9. Welds panel. supports. ASD and LRFD.38).29).

and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.41) and a section within any segment (Fig.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.41.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values. 9.40 and 9. 9.39 . 9. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.42). The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window. 9. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig.43). respectively as shown in Figs.

9. 9.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. The results shown in Figs. Figure 9.8.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. 9.44). 9.44 are for the same problem also.49.40 Figure 9.45 to 9.29 to 9.41 .37 to 9. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.9 also has been solved by the applet. The example data used in Figs. The results are presented in Figs.

105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.44 .43 Figure 9.42 Figure 9.

45 Figure 9.47 .46 Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.

as indicated on the figure. and F.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. 9. Use A36 steel .1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3.49 9.14 PROBLEMS 9. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners. E.50. as shown in Fig.48 Figure 9.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support.

5 in. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. Figure 9. plate is selected for the web.75 in. plate is selected for each flange.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan.x1. Based on a preliminary design.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec. .x0. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only.50 9.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. a 180 in. check the adequacy of this preliminary design.9 of the book. 9. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. and a 40 in. 9. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.

50 in. single stiffeners b. double stiffeners .10.109 Design of Plate Girders 9.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.10.10. 9. using a. x 0. 9. 9. 9. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in.

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