## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. Figure 9. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners.Design of Plate Girders 4 9. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. As mentioned in the previous section.

The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. It will then be able to carry additional loads. . 9. however.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. 9. Consequently. 9.7(a). the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. after the shear instability of the web takes place. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. In this truss. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. the instability of the web plate panels.7(a). the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. As shown in Fig. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. 9. will not result in its failure.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. She/he should. In fact. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996).7(b). The Pratt truss of Fig. after the web panels buckle in shear. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. a redistribution of stresses occurs. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength.

we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. As a general guideline. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. Of course. however. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. In design of plate girders. 9. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9.12). Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight .1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. the final design can be achieved quickly. However.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec.2) (9. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders.

it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . After the h/L ratio has been selected. our approach is interactive design. 9. however. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. In calculating the shear strength of the web. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. In this book. the depth of the web plate will be known. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. The next step is to choose the web thickness.12.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. 2. which is presented in Sec. Figure 9.

according to ASD G1. as shown in Fig. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. . To satisfy this requirement. 9. the compressive force F1.8. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections.

5h (9. 9.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1.6) where . α2 is much larger than α1.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. 9.89 ≤ 0. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.9. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig.5)]1 / 2 (9.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.9. For high-strength steel. Fv = Fy C v 2.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4. h 2. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is. To satisfy the second criterion.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

11

Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling.18) and solving for Af.19) In this equation. 9. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate.1 in the text).13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. Aw = tw h is the web area. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9. (9.18) By equating Eqs. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9. . tf is the thickness of the flange plate.4.16) and (9. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange.

and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % .Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. in many cases.23). we find the required flange width bf from Eq. (9. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9.19) and solving for tf.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. (9. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. as a fraction of 1/16 in.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. However. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq.. Therefore. for example.22) Substituting Eq.19). (9. (9. .22) into Eq. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size.46 (9.

When h/tw < 970 / F y . the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by .5. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. 9. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq.4. (9. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. 5. as discussed in Sec. & # A . The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support.0 − 0. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.24) In this equation. Aw is the web area.

the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of .0.0 ! ! " (9.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. Re = 1.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ .26) 9. fb = M max S < Fb' (9. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. For nonhybrid girders. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges. Equation (9.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. Otherwise. α= 0. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1.0.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. a more complicated analysis is required. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 .

17

Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

9. Thus.11). For end bearing stiffeners. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. Therefore. fcb. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener.11). the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . Figure 9. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. 9. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web.

r. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9. Figure 9. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure.75.7. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. 9. As a result. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. . the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis.

the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld.2).Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is . 5.

intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1. from Eq. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0.13. (9.36).37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. (9.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq.707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9.23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. as shown in Fig.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld . If we denote the length Figure 9.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate.36) Substituting for value of q 1 . 9. and q 2 = w into Eq. (9.36).

12)]. As a result. respectively. (9.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer.39). (9. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs. According to ASD G4. and ww. 9. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq.36). the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. a minimum amount of welding is used.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. L1. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners.40) .414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. (9. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9.35) and (9.7. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. however. at least equal to . in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners.

9.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side .707 Fv 2.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. (9. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels.41) When single stiffeners are used. Furthermore.40).14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.15) Figure 9. 9. respectively.

we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1. for the case of single stiffeners.43) Similarly.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.44) Figure 9.16.707 Fv 1.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . 9. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look. as shown in Fig.

Moreover. 9. 9. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig.17 is covered in this section. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . In fact. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure.8. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig.16).45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.16). 9. (9. 9. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft.

Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support. 9. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners. at the point of application of concentrated load.17 9. For welds. 9.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466.8. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466. assume that it is restrained against rotation.67 = 633. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A. Lateral support is provided at supports.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig.18. Figure 9.

. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 .67 = R A − wx1 = 0 . Therefore.67(100) .67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C. 9. the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466.x1 = A = = 116.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B.29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. Mmax = Mc = 466.19.

1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16. for the web plate.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333. In other words. . (9. from Eq.8. 12 12 From Eq. (9.3) and (9.4) yield values close to each other.3 . we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.45 in.000 ≤ = 322.x0.5 in.t w ≥ = 0.2). Try tw = 0.0 .Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.3): h 150 14. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. Eqs.5 in.19 Bending moment diagram 9.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners.5 d. (9.t w ≥ = 0.47 in. when a ≤ 1. (9. that is. tw 333. or PL150 in.

970 h = 300 > = 161. (9. we may decrease Fb = 0.17 in. 9.60Fy = 22 ksi. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. kc = 4.46 for h > 70 tw .2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq.22). to Fb = 20 ksi. The required flange area.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced.19). say.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 .8. Af.05 (h / t w ) 0. can be computed approximately from Eq.667)(12) 75 − = 94.2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat. (9. tw Aw = 75 in.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. Af = bf t f = (26.24). (9.

The girder section is shown in Fig. Try PL38 in.20.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.294 (300) 0.20 kc = 4.5 in. From Eq.2.17): .05 = 0.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2. for each flange. 294 $ tf = (94.x2. 9. Af = 95 in. (9.34 in.

.4 S= I 1.5).667 = -0.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.245. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2.245.6 in. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments. is zero (Figs.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.46) 38 = 10.396 in.687 Region DC is the critical region.17 and 9. 9.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2. 9.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9. 5.5) 3 = 1.396 = = 16.5)(75 + 1.19).5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.31 in. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.069.333. M1/M2.5/26.

17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.667)(12) = = 19. (9.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128.05(M1/M2)+0.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21. .000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58. 510.24).58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft . 102.91 ksi < 20.39 ksi 21. 75 ) .000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( . & .6 S O. 530 . 000 C 3 1 .55 = 20.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.687)2 = 1.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26. 150 − Fb' = $1.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.55 ksi 3 1 .000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .K.05(-0. 510. 000 ( 1 .000)(1. 530 .30 .0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.687)+0.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.069.3(-0.17 < 2.0 − 0. 102.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.75+1.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.39 ksi 16.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.75 + 1.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.000)(1.

6) and solve for Cv. 2. (9.22 ksi in Eq.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.22) = = 0.89)(6. a.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.8.000 kv = = From Eq. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq. (9.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.89 Fv (2.34 45.35 Design of Plate Girders 9.8 36 Fy From Eq. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.5 < 0.000 (36)(0. Cv = 2.14)]. (9. At the left end fv = R A 466. (9.67 = = 6.8): .

from the left end A.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .3 in.41(150) = 61.34 ) =* ' + 48.81 − 4 ( = 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .678 < 0.345(150) = 51.000 1/ 2 a .8 in. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.44) = = 0.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0. b. 5. 5. amax = 0.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .81 > 9. 5.89)(8.44 ksi 75 Aw 2.678)(300) 2 = 48. At the right end fv = RB 633. Figure 9.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. Tentatively.34 45.41 amax = 0.Design of Plate Girders 36 a . 5.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.345 in.89 Fv (2.33 = = 8.

10) controls over Eq. x ½ in. From Eq. Equation (9. (9.22) . x /16 in.11).22). x 2½ in. 3. 9. B. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners. x 12 ft 4 in. from the left end B.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. 3 Figure 9.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112.6 in. so the latter need not be checked. 9. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. 2 2 amax = 112.6 in. x 1 /16 in.5 in. Bearing stiffeners at A. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. a. and C: 2PL18 in. Web: PL150 in. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig.22 Final design Tentatively. (9. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. x 12 ft 4 in. x 12 ft 6 in. x /16 in.

12) for calculating the allowable shear stress. Fv = # 1 − 0. (Fig.22).3 are satisfied.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.0 + = 14.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.67 − 12 (4) = 450.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. 9. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.58 + 7. (9.000)(14.02 ksi O.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.K.04 = 9.67 − 12 (4) = 451.34 = 4 .34 5. to 45 in.15(1 + 0. 9. . we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.207 36 & $0.89 % 1.0 + 5.7 ) " = 2.62 ksi > f v = 6.7) 2 = Cv = 45.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.90 2 (a / h) (0.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.67 = = 6.207 < 0.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .90) = 0.

39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.33 − 12 (4) = 620.000)(13. (9. (Fig.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.33 − 12 (4) = 616.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.34 = 4.12): .733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.0 + = 13. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in. to 50 in. 9.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in. b.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.0 + 5.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.93) = 0. 9.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.22).22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.34 5.93 2 (0.193 < 0.66 = = 8.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.

30)].825 − 0.733 ) " = 2.45 ' (36) = 21. (9.22.18 and 9.15(1 + 0.27 ksi < Fb = 21. Check combined shear and bending in the web. 4. (9. fv Fb = * * 0.396 I O. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq. The critical section for this check is either at point C.30)]: .22 ksi O.375 F v + ) 5.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq.45 ksi > f v = 8. .19).667)(12)(75) = = 19.245. 9. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.78 ) . 9.K. fv = VC 433.375 9.33 = = 5.05 = 9.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26. ' ' F y = * 0.825 − 0.K.193 36 & $0.40 + 7.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.44 ksi 1. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig.89 % 1. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.

27). (Fig. 9.27): Ast = & #.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. (9. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h.5)(1 − 0. (9. Select the intermediate stiffeners.7 ) "+ 9. 5. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.02 ) 1 0 . we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C.78 in. 6.62 ( % = 5.207) $0. Also. and between C and F is a = 110 in. because fb/Fb = 0.90 is considerably less than one. such a check may be necessary.2 From Eq.56 / 2 = 2.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. a. For region EC. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. (9.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. From Eq.56 in.7 2 (150)(0.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.47) . (9.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. (9.2 bs t s = 5.8ts in Eq.22). The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq.

5)(1 − 0.5) 3 = 89.89 / 2 = 3.K.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.8)1 / 2 = 0. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.7/16 in. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O. 4 > 81 in.8)1 / 2 = 0. x 7/16 in.193) $0. x 7/16 in.5) = 148 in. 9. Use 2PL6½ in. 8.2 bs t s = 7.5 in. Try 2PL6½ in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). h ) .78 / 15.45 ( % = 7.27): Ast = & #. .5 × 2 + 0.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.733 2 (150)(0. From Eq.733 ) "+ 9. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0. b.22 ) 1 0. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.94 / 15. = 12 ft 4 in.2 bs = 15.419 in.94 in. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in.89 in.8t s Minimum t s = (3. .7 in. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. For region CF.28). 9. = 6. (9.

375 in. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates.22). 9.375) + 12(0. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C). x 9/16 in. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. Moment of inertia check is not needed.67 Kips. Abs = 21.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in..8. x 13/16 in.6. and the thickness of the web is 0.75 in. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio).2 .14 in. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in. for the left support.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18.8 16 Try 2PL18 in.2 b.2 = 1. 1. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. = in. 15. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. (9.5) 2 = 45. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15.5 in. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig. 9. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466. From Eq.

06 in.1 ( 8 + 126.S.06 / 45.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.1 ( = 1. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .96 ) 1 .S. 10. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.96 10.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.26 r .75 = 10.75(150) = = 10.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .1 ( " ! + 1.699 ( % % = 21. 10.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36. 10.11 ksi Actual axial stress: . KL 0.1 > KL r F.26 in.96 ) 2 # . 9.

the same as for the left support.75 O. x 12 ft 6 in. x 12 ft 6 in.K. The bearing stiffener. P = 500 Kips. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. less than the depth of the web plate. x 13/16 in. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support.11 ksi 45. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. x 13/16 in. and the effective area (Fig. 9.K.20 ksi < 21.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. x 13/16 in. is less than RB. say ¼ in. 3. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners.33 = = 13. 2..21) is larger than that of the end . Use 2PL18 in. fa = RB 633. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support. Use 2PL18 in.84 ksi < Fa = 21.75 Aeff O. however.11 ksi Aeff 45.67 = = 10.

4).7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1.25 in.3.5 in.33) 2 (95) 2 .245.8.5-in. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 . L1min = 1. (Sec. we obtain a1 = 2.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners. (ASD J2b). Try ww = 5/16 in. Vmax = RB = 633. x 12 ft 6 in. the length of weld segment L1.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. flange plate is 5/16 in.51L1 (9.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load. 8. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0.5 in. . 2 & (633. x 13/16 in. we can use the same 2PL18 in.) and 1. (9.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. Substituting this value into the previous equation. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq.39). 9.5 and ASD Table J2.396) L1 ww % = 1.

10-in. 9. 4 in. For segment EC (Fig. long. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . Use 5/16-in. a max = 12 in. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0.5 in.48).04 in.23 ksi + 9. weld. From Eq. (ASD D2). we obtain a1 = 10.62 ( We use intermittent welds. spacing. 6. From Eq.8. (9.22) f v = 6. weld. Try 5/16-in. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . long.8.43): . Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.62 ksi . (9.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in.40): Fv = 9. 9. 4 in. (9. From Eq.02 ksi.02 ) * ' = 3.

3.22 ) * ' = 4.49) we obtain L1 = 2. a max = 12 in. long.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.-thick plate is 3/16 in.45 ksi 3/ 2 . Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1. spacing.05439 a1 2. 2.828 Fv 2.5 in.0757 a1 2.23 = = = 0. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( .828(21) (9. a max = 24t s or 12 in.5 in. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10. Use 3/16-in. For segment CF (Fig.5 ksi + 9.22) f v = 8. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3. (9.0 in.50 = = 0.50) L1 ww 4.5 in. = 1.-thick plate is ¼ in. Fv = 9. 9. From Eq. .90 in. 10-in. weld.45 ( (9.5 in.22 ksi. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. L1min = 1. 8.

Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners. x 12 ft 6 in.50) = 675 Kips O. 4 in. Try ww = 5/16 in.64 K/in. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. Use ¼-in. From Eq.50) we obtain L1 = 3.8. > Vmax = 633. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4.49) = 96. Use 5/16-in.64) = 2784 Kips O. 9. for each pair of bearing stiffeners.707(16 = 4. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in. fillet weld = 0. spacing. x 13/16 in. (9. weld.K.9. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. 3.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.89 Kips .63 in.K. long.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in. 12-in. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in.

49) = 38. 9. 3.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.8.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.0)](0.1 is desired except that 1.9. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. 9.Design of Plate Girders 50 .5)( 16 )(148.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148. 36 ksi).18 and 9.73 = 145.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.9. 9. Single intermediate stiffeners are used. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.19).2. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs. Selection of the Web Plate .49/123) = 9.26 + 9.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6. 2.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135. 9.

5d. From Eq.24). For the selected web plate.53 in.000 150 ≤ = 242.67 . (9. when a ≤ 1.8 . or PL150 in.9.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16. tw 282.18 < 9 ) = 84.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.3): h 14.t w ≥ = 0.62 in.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. x 9/16 in.375 in. we have h 800 = = 266.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.t w ≥ = 0.3 Selection of Flange Plates First.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.5)] 242. i. for the web plate. (9. from Eq. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137. 9..5d.8 For closely spaced stiffeners. (9. taking into account the reduction of the . Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.8 .e.

0 β = 1.5α 3 From Eq. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.72) − 0.55 in.72) 3 = 0.5(0.893 Af = (26.375) − = 58. . (9.6(36) / 30 = 0. (9.72 < 1.5α − 0.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.53) and solving Af.53) Combining Eqs.54) In this example: α = 0.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.2 (0.24).22).Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.60 Fyw / Fb = 0.667)(12) (0.893)(84. (9. (9. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.52) (9.51) where β = 1.51) and (9.5(0.

0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.2 Check Eq. for each flange plate.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4. Try PL30 in.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.31 tf =$ (58.056.406) = 0.980 6 + 1.20): bf tf = 30 = 15. (9.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.67) 0. (9.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.893(1.406 .363 I = = 11.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.05 4.310 0.375 = = 1.46 (h / t ) (266. x 2 in.98 in.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0. Af = 60 in.7 in.406 60.60Fyf = 0.363 in.05 = = 0.31 = 15.24): Aw 84.

981 6 + 1.76 ksi S 11.492. A f = (31)(2.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .1 in.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.8 in. for each flange.125) = 65. Aw 84.K. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.375 = = 1.281 A f (31)(2. 4 S= 920. Try PL31 in.667)(12) = = 28.67 − 138.0 ( % " = 26.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.0 O.0005)* '(266.8 = 11. (9.0 − (0.G. x 21/8 in.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.281 . (9.76 ksi fb = M max (26.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.980) + 60.935.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.056.893(1.24).7 N. 84.492.875 in.76 )! (0.2 = 920.281) = 0.94 ksi > 26.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.

5(h + 2tf) = 1. 1.K.981) + 65. Use PL31 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.76)! (0. 9.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required. 84. fv = Vmax R A 466.60 in. for each flange. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig.4 in.667)(12) = = 26.5d = 1. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.375 .17).875 ( % " = 27.02 ksi fb = M max (26.935. (9.67 = = = 5.67] (150) = 142. x 21/8 in.5(150 + 4. Af = 65. and we must use Eq. (9.0005)* '(266.2 9. from Eq.875 in.9. Also.40 F y = 14.25) = 231.6) for the allowable shear stress.1 O. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.67 − 138.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .81 ksi < Fb' S 11.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.0 − (0.53 ksi < 0.

33 = = = 7.603)(266.2 in. 9.444 < 0.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .40 F y = 14.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.89 Fv ( 2.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.89)(5. (9. 5.67) 2 = 34. (9.51) = = 0. (9.89)(7.34 ) =* ' + 25.501(150) = 75.51 ksi < 0.501 amax = 0.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq. between A and C (Fig. 5.34 45.23).000 .8 36 Fy = (36)(0. 2.34 45.30 > 9.89 Fv ( 2. Use a = 75 in.444)(266.67) 2 = 25. fv = Vmax R B 633. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B.000 (36)(0.53) = = 0.26 > 9.375 2.603 < 0.6): Cv = From Eq.000 2.8): a .26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.

(9. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. 3. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners.23). First.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .57 Design of Plate Girders a . Use a = 60 in.55) . Selection of intermediate stiffeners. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. In other words. 5.28) and (9. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary.42 amax = 0. 5. the combined shear and bending check [Eq.30)] is not required for hybrid girders.29). between C and B (Fig. 9. (9.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.42(150) = 63 in.34 ) =* ' + 34. let us consider the case of single stiffeners.

and C: 2PL15 in. B. (9. Web: PL150 in.000865h( F y ) 0.29) into Eq. Figure 9. (9.28) and (9.55) and (9.56) by 2. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7. equating Eqs. x 21/8 in.55) yields I st = 285. (9. x 12 ft 3 /4 in.56) and solving for ts. x 12 ft 6 in.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . x 1 in.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq. x /16 in.56) Finally. x /16 in. (9. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A.000727 h( F y ) 0. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.375 (9.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.57) In the case of double stiffeners.5 in. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0.375 (9.

3 in. From Eq. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.K.75 in.3 in. < 88.000865(150)(36) 0.5 in.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147.90 in. + 16 ( Use PL7.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8. x 12 ft 3¾ in. O. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( .375 = 0.5 in. x 9/16 in. (9.50 in. for stiffeners on one side. Try PL7. t ) 1 .5 Bearing Stiffeners . x 9/16 in. 4 4 3 9.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1.9. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. = 12 ft 33/4 in. h) . 9 ) = * ' * 7. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . for stiffeners on one side. Try ts = 9/16 in. 9 ).5 + ' = 88.

07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec. Eq.3. however.9. x 1 in.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67. The answer: Use 2PL15 in.49)/144 = 43. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.8.9.07 = 110. 9. 9.49/123) = 8.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7. x 12 ft 6 in.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.5)(147.25 + 43.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.32 + 8. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load.75)](0. needs to be used. 8.2b and covered in Sec.07 = 118. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.875)(150)(0. as given in ASD J2. (9.25 Kips )(0.39 Kips .6.49)/144 = 67. 9.

plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.61 Design of Plate Girders 9.24. 9. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. The length of the span is 150 ft. x 0. Figure 9.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in.24 .75 in. Consider bending only.

2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.95 67.760 in.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig. 9.60 F yf = 0.26 in.8 > = = 137. 9.3 50 + 17.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.4.01) 2 ] + 12 (0. 4 = 340.24. .5 in.95 − 4.739 = = 5014. I x = 934 in. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.3).18 0.69) = = 177.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.8(50 + 17. A = 33.739 in. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.8 in.

2 4 α= 0.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.26 = 0.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .72 3 # =$ ! = 0.47)(1.75 ( + 0.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .23 + 0. 133.75 in.1) /( 20.26) = 20.490)/144 = 0. 101. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.72 − 0.75) = 101.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.75)(0.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.952 12 + 2(101.0 − 0.1 ) .0 − 0.115) + (100)(0.1 in. 9.952) = 25.84 ksi + 20.75) 3 × 0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.8 − 20.1 / 20.

9.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam. .25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig.25): W = 3.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight.49 = 3. Figure 9. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.35 + 0.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.5) − 0.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore.84)(5014.49 = 3.

(9.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.98(2)(66.8) 2 = 5.85) = = 0. = 33.89 = fv 2.229 < 0.000 (36)(0. a max = 2.4 ksi Aw 101. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.34 ( 1/ 2 4 .85 ksi < 0. (9.8).89)(2. ) =* ' + 5.34 45.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.1 ft . (9.89 f v (2.79 − 5. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.6) and solve for Cv. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.229)(177.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2. (9.79 < 9.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.40 F y = 14.11). 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.000 k= = Now.7).98h = 2.69) = 397. a .10) and (9.5 in.

What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.22 in.38) = 285. 260 ) . Use a= (150)(12) = 257.77 ft.1 in. = 23.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. the governing limit is amax = 23.Design of Plate Girders 66 and . 9.5 ksi.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.8 ' (133.

(9.34 + 4 4 = 5.000k = = 0.77) 45.77 2 (a / h) (1.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .5 in.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.08) 2 h = 100 in.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq. t w = 0. Find Cv from Eq.7): Cv = 45.197 < 0. a = 1.000(8.8): k = 5.34 + = 8. (9.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.51 = 0.232 F y = 11.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .733Fv = 0.89 $ 1 .4 + 2.51)(100)(0.12).733(11.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.61) = 8.61 ksi < 0.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.5 ksi = 0.068 F y / f v = 0.825 − 0.55 F y ( . (All of the five conditions given in Sec.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .068 F y + 0. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0. 9.068(50) / 8. (9. fv Fb = * * 0.5) = 425.

000 F yf for a > 1. 1998).59) If this requirement is not satisfied.60) for a ≤ 1. when the design is without the tension-field action.5 h h = tw . 9.5)]1 / 2 2.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5. In particular.10. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9.11.11.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.10. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.5 h (9.

3) and (9. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9.0 12 + 2a r (9. Limit state of tension-flange yield. 9.4) for the ASD code. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1.61) Coefficient Re in Eq.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.62) . At the present time a constant value of 0.9 is used for the resistance factor φb.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.11. (9. (9.61) is the hybrid girder factor. 1.

3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. In Eq. flange local buckling (FLB).24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. (9.64) corresponds to Eq.3.4.3. 9. In general. (9.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. Note that Eq. (9. 2. the limit state of WLB does . there exist three limit states of buckling.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. and web local buckling (WLB).6). Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .

λr. a. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately.63).10. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. (9. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply.1 for beams. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. λp. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. However. and a plate girder coefficient CPG.66) λp = (9. and λr.68) C PG = 286. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. F yf Fcr = & 1 .67) λr = (9.65) λ2 The quantities λ.69) .000C b (9. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. λp. 3.

74) (9.71) λr = (9.763 (9.11.0 (9.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.72) kc = (9.70) λp = (9. 9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0. We will derive an approximate but explicit .61) and (9.35). (5. b.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.

79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange. (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs. (9. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9. (9.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.76) Now.18) into Eq. (9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters.61) and (9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.

71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf.66).80) Substituting for rT from Eq.82) Note that for a given required Af. (9.70).82) often cannot be met simultaneously. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: . we must have [Eqs. For the economical design of plate girders. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. and (9.81) and (9. (9.65). Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value). 9. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders.65). we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. (9. (9.13. we must have [Eqs. For the limit state of LTB. In Sec.81) For the limit state of FLB. (9.46) into this equation. and (9. . and a compromise must be made. (9. the requirement of Eqs.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9.

The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0. the design shear strength is φvVn.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.85) .11. where φv = 0. kv 0.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.9 is the shear resistance factor.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.6 Aw F yw for Vn = .

as well as when relation .000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.11.0 ≥ Cv > 0.6. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.77 Design of Plate Girders 9. In these cases. where the resistance factor φv is 0.9. (9.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.86) 0.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.84) Equation (9.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.87) 44.

F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .85) holds.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9.6 Aw F yw C v (9.90) (9. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.90. (9.91) . φv is 0. the tension-field action is not allowed.89) In Eq. When transverse stiffeners are required. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5. For design based on tension-field action.7.88) 9.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.11.90).Design of Plate Girders 78 (9. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.

Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.94) In this expression φ = 0.375 φM n φV n (9. 9.92) where & 2.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0.11.3) 3 I st = at w j (9. .6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0. 2.93) 9. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).5.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec. 9.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .625 u ≤ 1.9.

2(400) + 1.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.7.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.2). but only for one load combination: dead plus live load.28.12.12. (2.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.2(3) + 1. Eq.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.8 on the basis of the LRFD code. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.27 and 9.12.2w D + 1.6 PL = 1.6(1) = 5. respectively. 2. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec. Maximum design bending moment and shear are . 9.2 K/ft P = 1.2 PD + 1. 9.6 w L = 1. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.

27 Shear diagram Figure 9. Vmax = Vu = 816.60) Figure 9. (9.12.333.3 K-ft = 412.67 Kips 9.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.000 K-in.28 Bending moment diagram . 12 12 From Eq.

from Eq.0 in. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.4. h tw = 300.79). We find an approximate flange area from Eq. for the web plate. 322 322 Try tw = 0. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322.96) . x 0. 2 9.000 − = 72.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0. Aw = 75 in. (9.5h for a ≤ 1. Selection of the Flange Plates 1. (9. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.12.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.3 for a > 1.5 in.0 333.3) = 45.50 in.9(150)(36) 12 (9.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.47 in. (9.3 in. or PL150 in.2 0.

try tf = 2 in. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling.87 rT 10. Therefore. based on Eq.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.064.97) To begin with. only the latter needs to be checked..97).82): t f ≥ (72.838 = = 13. (9. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders. (9.0 .3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. based on Eq.4 Sx = I x 1.74 in. 2.1 in. (9. Af = 80 in.83 in.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50. Then.829.838 in.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.95).2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.064. try bf = 40 in. (9.

885.9) + 4(30.3) 2.7) + 3(32.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .885.333.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5. 9.624. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.2)(87.9 ft-K = 603.0 − 50.00 (" = 38.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.7 ft-K = 603.3) + 3(27. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .333.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .87 − 50.5) 2 = 32.5(34.5) 2 = 27. (5.2)(75) 2 = 30.33(87.624. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.1 ft-K = 603.1) = 1.2)(62.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.5M max 12.35). MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.5(34.17) is the critical segment.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.551.551.00 )# = (1.33(62.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126. 55.

h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + .1)(36..85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi. b.912)(13. If the section were not O.9(0.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore.00) = 408. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10. and PL40 in. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.829.0 in.000 K-in.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. ) . is acceptable for the flange plate.633 K-in. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .K. we would have to increase the area of the flange. x 2.

(9. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9. Check Eq.6(0.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. 9. Check Eq.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44. (9.12.98) We can use Eq. (9. 2. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.27). Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44. a.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0.9)(75)(36)(0.67 tw F yw 36 b. .000)(5) = 0.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. 9.

(9.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.9)(75)(36)] = 0.87 Design of Plate Girders a. (9. Tentatively.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25.4 in.443h = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in. b.6(0. from the left end A. At the right end: a max = 55.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.4138)(36) / 44.000 = 30.47)]1 / 2 = 0.443 a max = 0.33 /[0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.000 = (300) 2 (0.47 From Eq.8 From Eq.443(150) = 66.4138 < 0. . Tentatively.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.9V n Kips From Eq. At the left end: Vu = 603.7 in. (9.88): C v = Vu /[0. from the right end B.

86): . (9. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.20 36 = 152.22): Try a = 105 in. a .20 2 ( 0 . 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0. From Eq.000(15. (9.22. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig. 9.Design of Plate Girders 88 3.75h = 0.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq.7. As in the example of Sec.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. 9. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5.20) = 0.87): Cv = 44.75(150) = 112.. a. (9. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end). similar to Fig. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values. 260 ) .8. a/h = 0.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.5 in. 9.

. M u = 412. Vu = 556.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0.33 − 12 (5. Similar to case a. b.206 = 0. Vu = 795 Kips 4. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1.83 Kips < φ vVu O. 9.9)(1230) = 664. a very small distance to the right of point C). We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually.22.6(75)(36) $0. an interaction check is not necessary.0 Kips. we find a = 110 in.2) = 583..9(1250.6)(0.22).6φVn = (0.2 Kips..K.487 K-in.15(1 + 0. Check shear and bending interaction. to be satisfactory.000 K-in.194. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig. 9.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig. Vn = 1230. M n = 465.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0. 9. C v = 0.

5) 3 (3. (9. Therefore.101) The area requirement of Eq. The . C v = 0. (9.14 in. a. 2 bs t s = 0.5 −2= − 2 = 3.83 #.69 in.15(1.5 2 (0. From Eq.07 in.93): j= 2 . Select intermediate stiffeners. (9.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0.5 2 .. (9. Region EC: a = 105 in.100) (9.5)(1 − 0.91): 583.100) and (9.0)(150)(0.8 ts 36 (9.7.99) is minimal.101).206 From Eq. 36 ) & Ast = $0.Design of Plate Girders 90 5. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.7) 2 ( a / h) (9. 2 From Eq.10 ≥ 0. (9.10) = 40.206) − 18(0.99) a/h = 0. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs.

we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. and the thickness of the web is 0. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in.5 in. Use 2PL5.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. Region CF: a = 110 in.12.101): bs ≤ 5. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B.. a/h = 0.67 Kips.5 in. 4 ≥ 40.101) is ts = 3/8 in. 1. b. x 3/8 in. From Eq. 4 O. for all bearing stiffeners.K. Bearing stiffeners at supports.5) 3 = 47. Try 2PL5.733 The answer is the same as for region EC. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. x 3/8 in. (9. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have .92 in. RB = 816. (9.6.375)(11 + 0.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. x 3/8 in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C.69 in. From Eq.100): 1 I st = 12 (0.100) and (9. (9.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.5 in.. 9.5 in.53 in. Use 2PL5.

x 12 ft 6 in. KL (0.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.75) + 12(0. x 1¼ in.75)(150) = = 10.5) 2 = 50. .80) = 1807.4 / 50. (9.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.9) = 1536.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50. 36 = 10.658 λc ) F y = (0.20 in.37* * 29. 95 Try 2PL19 in.K.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0..116 < 1. Abs = 23. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.50 in.85 KL .7 Kips > R B = 816.17 Kips O. x 1¼ in.50)(35. 2. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.85 in.116 )(36) = 35.4 in.5) 3 = 5944. Use 2PL19 in.50 = 10.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 .85(1807.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.75 in. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.37 r 10.658 0.

Therefore. at the location of concentrated load.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120. .93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs. 9. Use 2PL19 in. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.5)( 8 )(148)](0.8 = 128.29).49) = 81. 9.0 + 8. This applet consists of three windows: input window. 9.3 = 120.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.49/123) 4 = 8.7 + 38.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.49) = 38. output window and control window (Fig. x 1¼ in.8.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes. x 12 ft 6 in.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.12.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.

The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels.29). and Welds Panel. Stiffeners panel.30b. 9.31. To design a hybrid girder. For impractical values.30a).11). 9. Width. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. However. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. . Flange & Web panel. 5. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. for example. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. thickness. respectively. Span length. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. 9. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left.

95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .

30 . the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.

For example. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.e. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). 9. Initially. i.32). the applet provides only one segment selection.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. width. the place of the 1st stiffener. Figure 9. 9. and thickness. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments.31 . thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.32a). By default.

32 .Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

34 .99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments.33. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. 9. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. Figure 9. and welds panels in the output window. sections. Depending on the selection made by the user. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig.34).33 Figure 9. 9. and elevation.

Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .

35a). . whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes.32b. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. and size. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. 9. length. 9. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web.32a).35b. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. 9.35). But. 9.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. and size. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.

BMD (bending moment diagram) panel. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig.37). Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders.39). 9. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. Welds panel. Similarly. supports. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. . Loadings panel displays the loadings.36). 9.29). and the web depth-to-span ratio. Elevation panel. SFD (shear force diagram) panel. ASD and LRFD.38). Sections panel.37 The output window consists of loadings panel. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig.29 and 9. 9. 9. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. Figure 9. 9. They are the method of design.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs.

9. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window. 9.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. 9.42).43). respectively as shown in Figs. 9. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9.40 and 9.39 .38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder.41. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

49.29 to 9. The example data used in Figs.44 are for the same problem also.44). 9. 9.40 Figure 9. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.45 to 9.41 .9 also has been solved by the applet.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. The results are presented in Figs. The results shown in Figs.8.37 to 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. 9. 9. Figure 9.

43 Figure 9.44 .42 Figure 9.105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.45 Figure 9.47 .46 Figure 9.

Use A36 steel . as indicated on the figure.50.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners.48 Figure 9.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. E. and F. 9. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D.49 9.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support.14 PROBLEMS 9. as shown in Fig.

x1.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. Figure 9. 9.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec. check the adequacy of this preliminary design.9 of the book. plate is selected for each flange. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode.5 in.75 in. Based on a preliminary design. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan. 9. and a 40 in. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates.50 9.x0.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. . Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. a 180 in. plate is selected for the web.

50 in.10. 9. using a.10.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. 9.109 Design of Plate Girders 9.10. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi. 9. double stiffeners .6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. x 0. single stiffeners b. 9.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in.

- Gantry Girder
- Design of Steel-Concrete Composite Bridges to Eurocodes
- Eurocode Design Example Book
- Introduction to Plate Girder Design
- 4. Plate Girder Design
- Designs Guide to en 1994-2, Eurocode 4
- Lecture Notes 11 Design of Plate Girder
- Plate Girder Bridges
- Design of Plate Girders
- Design of Gantry Girder
- Gusset Plate Design
- Plate Girder
- THE BEHAVIOUR AND DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES TO EC3 (4th EDITION)
- Design of Steel Structure by Arya & Ajmani
- Plate and Box Girder Design
- Torsional Section Properties of Steel Shapes
- Eurocode Load Combinations for Steel Structures 2010
- eurocode - cara mengerjakan jembatan rangka baja
- civl432_plate_girder_design
- General Connection in Steel Structures
- Engg Ref Book
- Design of Steel Structures
- CIDECT Design Guide 9
- Steel Structures - Design Behaviour by Salmon Johnson
- Crane Beam Design
- Moment of Inertia of Cracked Section
- CM Exam Personal Reflections
- 1984
- Design of Welded Structures
- Single-storey Steel Buildings - Steel Buildings in Europe

Skip carousel

- McCarty v. Lehigh Valley R. Co., 160 U.S. 110 (1895)
- As 3623-1993 Domestic Metal Framing
- R/C Soaring Digest - Apr 2005
- HB 48-1999 Steel Structures Design Handbook
- Noy Haynes v. James H. Carr, Inc., and Pacific Lumber Inspection Bureau, 427 F.2d 700, 4th Cir. (1970)
- As 4440-2004 Installation of Nailplated Timber Roof Trusses
- Design and Comparison of Steel Roof Truss with Tubular Section (using SP
- Chestnut Forks Tennis Club v. T.J. International, Incorporated Trus Joist MacMillan Limited, 56 F.3d 60, 4th Cir. (1995)
- HFD Report
- Skorsky Prize Aerovelo FAI Record Dossier
- 7674 160706 R01 Seismic Assessment Report_with Appendix
- July 8, 1889
- Waterloo Bridge engineering report
- Instructions on Modern American Bridge Building by Tower, G. B. N. (George Bates Nichols)
- tmpDC73
- Keystone Bridge Co. v. Phoenix Iron Co., 95 U.S. 274 (1877)
- Pwr Pt Science History Enriched College LevelicB.poprerar.2.3.10
- Some Mooted Questions in Reinforced Concrete DesignAmerican Society of Civil Engineers, Transactions, PaperNo. 1169, Volume LXX, Dec. 1910 by Godfrey, Edward
- Cluthe's Advice to the Ruptured by Cluthe Rupture Institute
- Vandenburgh v. Truscon Steel Co., 261 U.S. 6 (1923)

- C-Range Anchorage Types
- Basic Theory and Application of Hydraulic Jump
- A review of Ganges water treaty
- Offshore Structure Design consideration
- Abaqus simulating thermal expansion.pdf
- Creating 3D Models Using ArcGIS
- D Alembert Solution
- Climate Change Projections of Coastal Region of Bangladesh
- Hollow Section in Structural Application
- English Vocabulary Builder
- Aircraft and Aerodynamics
- Bridge Engineering Lecture No. 1-A
- oop_in_php_tutorial.pdf
- Consolidation Test
- BUILDING COMMUNICATION Drawing stairs & staircase.pdf
- how to create a steel material in 3d studio max
- Fourier's Law of Heat Conduction
- Post-Tensioning Systems
- 3Ds Max TutorialFerrari F430 ModelPart 1
- Flexible Pavement Distress
- Post Tensioning cables in prestressed structures.
- 3D water illumination tutorial in daylight system created by 3d studio max .
- Finite Element Analysis Using Abaqus
- World Environment Day
- Finite Element Project Abaqus Tutorial
- Pavement Failure Identification
- Abaqus Interaction Tutorial
- Green Technology in Civil Engineering
- How to Make a Tyre in 3D Studio Max

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading