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# Design of Plate Girders

9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. Figure 9. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy.Design of Plate Girders 4 9.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. As mentioned in the previous section.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder .

9.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. 9. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. She/he should. after the web panels buckle in shear. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. The Pratt truss of Fig.7(b). As shown in Fig. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. after the shear instability of the web takes place. In this truss. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. . Consequently. however. 9. a redistribution of stresses occurs. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results.7(a). the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. the instability of the web plate panels. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. will not result in its failure. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. 9.7(a). acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. It will then be able to carry additional loads. In fact.

9. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. however. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec. As a general guideline.12). However. Of course. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. the final design can be achieved quickly. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. In design of plate girders.2) (9. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6.

After the h/L ratio has been selected. 9. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. which is presented in Sec. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. In calculating the shear strength of the web.12. The next step is to choose the web thickness.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. Figure 9. our approach is interactive design. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. In this book. however. the depth of the web plate will be known. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. 2.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action .

acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. To satisfy this requirement. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. as shown in Fig.8. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. 9. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. according to ASD G1. the compressive force F1.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. .

9. α2 is much larger than α1.9.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. 9. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.6) where .000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1. Fv = Fy C v 2. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9. For high-strength steel.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.89 ≤ 0.9.5)]1 / 2 (9. h 2.5h (9. To satisfy the second criterion.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

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Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange.1 in the text). . 9. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange.16) and (9.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. Aw = tw h is the web area. (9. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9.18) and solving for Af. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate.18) By equating Eqs.4. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5.19) In this equation. tf is the thickness of the flange plate.

Therefore.46 (9.22) into Eq. However.23).Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. .22) Substituting Eq. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size. (9. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate..19) and solving for tf.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. (9. in many cases.19). for example. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate. we find the required flange width bf from Eq. as a fraction of 1/16 in. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. (9. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. (9. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate.

(9. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by .3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. Aw is the web area.4. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. 9. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y .15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1.5.0 − 0.24) In this equation. as discussed in Sec. 5. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. & # A .0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange. When h/tw < 970 / F y .

If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.0 ! ! " (9. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action.0. Otherwise. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 . a more complicated analysis is required.0.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . Re = 1. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges. Equation (9. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered.26) 9. α= 0.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. fb = M max S < Fb' (9. For nonhybrid girders.

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Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. 9. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. Thus.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig. Therefore. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa. 9.11). For end bearing stiffeners. fcb. Figure 9. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9.11).32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig.

33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. r. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.75.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9. . the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. Figure 9. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis.7. As a result.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. 9. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration.

The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .2). The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9. 5.12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec.

37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0.36). If we denote the length Figure 9.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. (9.36) Substituting for value of q 1 .23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9. (9. as shown in Fig. (9.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9. from Eq.13. and q 2 = w into Eq.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. 9. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1.36).

When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. As a result. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer.36).7.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1.12)].40) . the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. L1.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs. at least equal to . however.35) and (9. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9. and ww. 9.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. respectively.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.39). we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. According to ASD G4. a minimum amount of welding is used. (9. (9. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. (9.

15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side . respectively. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. (9. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. 9.15) Figure 9. Furthermore.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq. 9.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi.40).707 Fv 2.41) When single stiffeners are used. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig.

Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections. for the case of single stiffeners. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.707 Fv 1.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look.16.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.44) Figure 9.43) Similarly.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9. 9.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds .414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. as shown in Fig.

(a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange. Moreover.1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. 9. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. In fact. 9. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . 9.17 is covered in this section.8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4). 9.16). Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. (9.16). The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness.8. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.

33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support. assume that it is restrained against rotation.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. For welds. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.18. Figure 9. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners.67 = 633. 9. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load. 9. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: .17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466. at the point of application of concentrated load.8. Lateral support is provided at supports.17 9.

67(100) . .29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 .4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B.19. Therefore. Mmax = Mc = 466.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 . the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.x1 = A = = 116.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C. 9.

4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.t w ≥ = 0.0 .8. (9. (9. Eqs. when a ≤ 1.5 in. (9.3 . Try tw = 0.45 in. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners. that is.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.4) yield values close to each other. In other words. 12 12 From Eq. (9. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.47 in.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. . tw 333.000 ≤ = 322. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.x0.5 in. for the web plate.t w ≥ = 0.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners.3) and (9.2).3): h 150 14.19 Bending moment diagram 9. or PL150 in. from Eq.5 d.

can be computed approximately from Eq. tw Aw = 75 in.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.60Fy = 22 ksi.19).4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. (9. (9.24). we may decrease Fb = 0. Af. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required.8. kc = 4. (9. to Fb = 20 ksi.17 in. The required flange area.667)(12) 75 − = 94. Af = bf t f = (26. say.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 . 9.46 for h > 70 tw . 970 h = 300 > = 161.05 (h / t w ) 0.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq.22).2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0.

for each flange. 9. From Eq.294 (300) 0. Try PL38 in.2. Af = 95 in.34 in.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.20 kc = 4.05 = 0. (9.20.17): . The girder section is shown in Fig.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .5 in.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.x2. 294 $ tf = (94.

396 in.396 = = 16.4 S= I 1. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.46) 38 = 10. 9.245.5/26.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.19).5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.245. is zero (Figs.5) 3 = 1.31 in.687 Region DC is the critical region. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments.5). 9.667 = -0. 5.6 in. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.5)(75 + 1. .069.17 and 9.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2. M1/M2.333.

05(-0.75+1.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.39 ksi 21.17 < 2.069. 530 .17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102. (9.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.000)(1.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.30 . 510. 530 .74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57. 102. . 75 ) .24).55 ksi 3 1 . 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq. 000 ( 1 .55 = 20.75 + 1.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.687)+0.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.667)(12) = = 19.05(M1/M2)+0.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.3(-0. 150 − Fb' = $1.687)2 = 1.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26. 102.K.6 S O.39 ksi 16.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft . 000 C 3 1 .000)(1.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( .91 ksi < 20. & .0 − 0.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128. 510.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .

(9.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.89 Fv (2. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .89)(6.22 ksi in Eq.34 45.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 (36)(0. 2.000 kv = = From Eq.8. (9. (9.6) and solve for Cv. Cv = 2. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. a.22) = = 0.8): .67 = = 6.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9.5 < 0. (9.35 Design of Plate Girders 9. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.14)]. At the left end fv = R A 466.8 36 Fy From Eq.

b. At the right end fv = RB 633.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. Figure 9. from the left end A.41 amax = 0.89 Fv (2.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 . 5.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C . 5.34 45.34 ) =* ' + 48.678 < 0.345 in.33 = = 8.345(150) = 51.Design of Plate Girders 36 a . 5.81 > 9.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.000 1/ 2 a .44) = = 0. 5.3 in.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.44 ksi 75 Aw 2.81 − 4 ( = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.678)(300) 2 = 48. amax = 0. Tentatively.89)(8.41(150) = 61.8 in.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .

10) controls over Eq. x 12 ft 4 in.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. Web: PL150 in. 2 2 amax = 112. so the latter need not be checked. (9. x 12 ft 4 in.6 in.11). and C: 2PL18 in. x 1 /16 in. from the left end B. Equation (9. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. x 12 ft 6 in. 3 Figure 9.22) . From Eq. x /16 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. x /16 in. a. Bearing stiffeners at A. x ½ in. 3.6 in.22). 9. B. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. x 2½ in. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners.22 Final design Tentatively.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. (9. 9.5 in.

58 + 7.90 2 (a / h) (0.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451. 9. .02 ksi O.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.7 ) " = 2. 9.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .62 ksi > f v = 6. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.67 − 12 (4) = 451.K. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.15(1 + 0.90) = 0.0 + = 14.67 − 12 (4) = 450.3 are satisfied.207 36 & $0.67 = = 6. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.7) 2 = Cv = 45. Fv = # 1 − 0.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.22). to 45 in. (9.000)(14.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress. (Fig.34 5.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .04 = 9.89 % 1.34 = 4 .0 + 5.207 < 0.

Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.34 5.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.93) = 0. 9.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.000)(13. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in. b.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.22).33 − 12 (4) = 620.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616. to 50 in.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.66 = = 8.34 = 4.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0. 9.193 < 0.33 − 12 (4) = 616.93 2 (0.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.0 + 5. (Fig.0 + = 13. (9.12): .

22 ksi O. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.30)].78 ) .245.825 − 0. 4.375 9. The critical section for this check is either at point C.30)]: .45 ' (36) = 21. (9.15(1 + 0. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point. fv = VC 433.89 % 1. 9. (9. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.K.K. fv Fb = * * 0. 9. ' ' F y = * 0.44 ksi 1. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig.05 = 9. .396 I O. Check combined shear and bending in the web.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.40 + 7.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.825 − 0.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.33 = = 5.18 and 9.27 ksi < Fb = 21.375 F v + ) 5.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq.22.193 36 & $0.19).667)(12)(75) = = 19.733 ) " = 2.45 ksi > f v = 8.

47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied.7 ) "+ 9. For region EC. (9.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15.56 in.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.2 bs t s = 5.27): Ast = & #.8ts in Eq.22). (9. and between C and F is a = 110 in.2 From Eq. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced. Also.7 2 (150)(0.207) $0. (9. a. (9.27). which is a function of aspect ratio a/h. (Fig.56 / 2 = 2. From Eq.78 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.90 is considerably less than one. 6.5)(1 − 0. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq. Select the intermediate stiffeners. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. 5. because fb/Fb = 0. 9.62 ( % = 5.02 ) 1 0 . we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15.47) . such a check may be necessary. (9.

9.8)1 / 2 = 0.5 in.733 2 (150)(0.2 bs t s = 7. . x 7/16 in. b. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0. x 7/16 in.94 in.7/16 in.27): Ast = & #. From Eq. h ) . For region CF.5) 3 = 89.5 × 2 + 0.K.89 in. 9.28). Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. (9. 8.5)(1 − 0.89 / 2 = 3.193) $0. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. Use 2PL6½ in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). 4 I st = 12 4 4 O. Try 2PL6½ in.94 / 15. = 6.7 in.8)1 / 2 = 0.22 ) 1 0.2 bs = 15. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6. = 12 ft 4 in. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.5) = 148 in.45 ( % = 7. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).733 ) "+ 9.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.78 / 15. 4 > 81 in. .8t s Minimum t s = (3.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.419 in.

Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.75 in.22).5) 2 = 45.6. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio).8 16 Try 2PL18 in. 9. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a.375 in.2 . and the thickness of the web is 0. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15. 1. x 13/16 in. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. 9. From Eq. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in.67 Kips. for the left support. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig.375) + 12(0. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates.8.14 in. Abs = 21. x 9/16 in.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18.5 in. = in. (9.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in. 15.2 b.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. Moment of inertia check is not needed..2 = 1. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C). because these plates are larger than those used in region EC.

1 ( " ! + 1.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.26 r .26 in. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.96 ) 2 # .06 in.1 > KL r F. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .1 ( = 1. 10. 10.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.S.1 ( 8 + 126.75(150) = = 10.699 ( % % = 21.06 / 45.75 = 10. 10. KL 0.11 ksi Actual axial stress: . 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.96 10.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.S.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .96 ) 1 . 9.

fa = RB 633. 3. x 12 ft 6 in.75 Aeff O. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load.. P = 500 Kips.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in.20 ksi < 21. The bearing stiffener.33 = = 13. Use 2PL18 in. x 13/16 in. 9. is less than RB.11 ksi Aeff 45. however. say ¼ in.21) is larger than that of the end .11 ksi 45.84 ksi < Fa = 21.75 O. and the effective area (Fig.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. Use 2PL18 in.67 = = 10. the same as for the left support. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support. x 13/16 in. x 13/16 in.K. less than the depth of the web plate.K. 2. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. x 12 ft 6 in.

4) # 2 ( 150 2 .7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length.3.396) L1 ww % = 1. x 12 ft 6 in. 9.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0. 8. (9. . 2 & (633.33) 2 (95) 2 .) and 1.51L1 (9. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.25 in. (ASD J2b). for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load.39). the length of weld segment L1. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. flange plate is 5/16 in. Substituting this value into the previous equation.8.5-in.245.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1. x 13/16 in. we can use the same 2PL18 in.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. we obtain a1 = 2. (Sec.5 and ASD Table J2. Vmax = RB = 633. L1min = 1.4).5 in. Try ww = 5/16 in.5 in.

40): Fv = 9. 10-in. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.23 ksi + 9. long.8.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. From Eq. (9. 6. 4 in. From Eq. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . Try 5/16-in. (9. From Eq. long. Use 5/16-in. weld. For segment EC (Fig. spacing. (9.62 ( We use intermittent welds. a max = 12 in.48).04 in. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv .22) f v = 6. weld.5 in.8. 9.62 ksi . (ASD D2). 9. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0.02 ) * ' = 3.43): . 4 in.02 ksi. we obtain a1 = 10.

9.-thick plate is 3/16 in.-thick plate is ¼ in.05439 a1 2.45 ( (9. Use 3/16-in.5 in. long.828(21) (9. From Eq. 2.22 ksi.50 = = 0. For segment CF (Fig. a max = 24t s or 12 in. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. spacing.22 ) * ' = 4.5 in. .5 ksi + 9. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.828 Fv 2.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in. 3. Fv = 9. weld.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3.50) L1 ww 4. 8.45 ksi 3/ 2 .23 = = = 0.5 in.5 in.0757 a1 2. a max = 12 in. 10-in. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( .0 in. = 1. L1min = 1. (9.90 in.49) we obtain L1 = 2.22) f v = 8.

intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.49) = 96. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in.9. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4.50) we obtain L1 = 3. for each pair of bearing stiffeners. From Eq.707(16 = 4.K. x 13/16 in. (9. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in.64 K/in. 4 in. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. fillet weld = 0. Use ¼-in. x 12 ft 6 in. 9.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.89 Kips .50) = 675 Kips O.64) = 2784 Kips O. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in.K.8. 3. weld. spacing. 12-in. Use 5/16-in.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. > Vmax = 633.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. Try ww = 5/16 in.63 in. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. long.

The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length. 2. Single intermediate stiffeners are used. 3.19).9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.2.18 and 9.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.1 is desired except that 1.9.49/123) = 9.8. 36 ksi). 9.26 + 9. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs.Design of Plate Girders 50 .5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder. Selection of the Web Plate .73 = 145.5)( 16 )(148. 9. 9.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6.0)](0.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.49) = 38.9. 9.

x 9/16 in. when a ≤ 1..5)] 242.t w ≥ = 0.3 Selection of Flange Plates First. (9.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.375 in.62 in.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.5d. For the selected web plate.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.53 in. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.8 For closely spaced stiffeners. tw 282. (9.18 < 9 ) = 84.000 150 ≤ = 242. or PL150 in. for the web plate. taking into account the reduction of the .4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.5d. From Eq.3): h 14. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.9.t w ≥ = 0. 9. (9. we have h 800 = = 266.67 .8 .8 .24). from Eq. i.e.

893)(84.51) where β = 1.667)(12) (0.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.5α 3 From Eq.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.5(0.5α − 0.72) 3 = 0.60 Fyw / Fb = 0.893 Af = (26.54) In this example: α = 0. (9.0 β = 1. (9.2 (0.72) − 0. (9.52) (9. (9.24).60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.22).375) − = 58.55 in.6(36) / 30 = 0.72 < 1.51) and (9.5(0.53) and solving Af. . we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.53) Combining Eqs.

056.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.310 0.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.406 60.05 = = 0.98 in.24): Aw 84.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851. (9.980 6 + 1.31 tf =$ (58.2 Check Eq.05 4. Af = 60 in.20): bf tf = 30 = 15. x 2 in.893(1.46 (h / t ) (266.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.406) = 0.406 . (9.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.31 = 15.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4. Try PL30 in.67) 0. for each flange plate.375 = = 1.363 in.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.363 I = = 11.60Fyf = 0.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.7 in.

Aw 84.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .94 ksi > 26.125) = 65.8 = 11.281 A f (31)(2.981 6 + 1.8 in.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.875 in.0005)* '(266. Try PL31 in.980) + 60.7 N.76 )! (0. A f = (31)(2.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.667)(12) = = 28.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.0 ( % " = 26.67 − 138.24).1 in.76 ksi fb = M max (26.281) = 0.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.893(1. x 21/8 in. (9.0 O.G. 4 S= 920.375 = = 1.0 − (0. for each flange.056.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.76 ksi S 11.281 .935.K.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0. 84. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.2 = 920. (9.492.492.

5(150 + 4.875 ( % " = 27. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.53 ksi < 0.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266. 1. the design cannot be based on tension-field action. Also.60 in.5(h + 2tf) = 1. 84. Use PL31 in.67 = = = 5. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig. and we must use Eq.67 − 138.67] (150) = 142.1 O.2 9.0005)* '(266.981) + 65.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required.375 .9.25) = 231. Af = 65. (9.17).667)(12) = = 26. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.875 in.40 F y = 14.K. (9.6) for the allowable shear stress.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. x 21/8 in.5d = 1.0 − (0. from Eq.4 in.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.76)! (0.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.935. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1. for each flange. fv = Vmax R A 466.02 ksi fb = M max (26. 9.

23).34 45.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.67) 2 = 34.8 36 Fy = (36)(0. 9.34 ) =* ' + 25. between A and C (Fig. Use a = 75 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B.6): Cv = From Eq.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.26 > 9.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.51) = = 0.67) 2 = 25.501 amax = 0. 5. (9.8): a .53) = = 0. (9.444 < 0.30 > 9.89 Fv ( 2.375 2.2 in.34 45.000 (36)(0.33 = = = 7.603)(266. fv = Vmax R B 633.444)(266.51 ksi < 0.000 2. (9.000 .000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.89 Fv ( 2.603 < 0.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . 2. 5.40 F y = 14.501(150) = 75.89)(7.89)(5.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.

let us consider the case of single stiffeners.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. 5.57 Design of Plate Girders a .34 ) =* ' + 34.42 amax = 0. 3. between C and B (Fig. First. Use a = 60 in. 5. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary. 9.23). Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. In other words. Selection of intermediate stiffeners.28) and (9. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. the combined shear and bending check [Eq.30)] is not required for hybrid girders.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs.55) .29). (9. (9.42(150) = 63 in.

B. and C: 2PL15 in.28) and (9.000865h( F y ) 0. (9. x 1 in. Web: PL150 in. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.29) into Eq.55) and (9. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7.375 (9. (9. x /16 in.57) In the case of double stiffeners. x /16 in.5 in. x 12 ft 3 /4 in.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.000727 h( F y ) 0. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs. equating Eqs.55) yields I st = 285.375 (9. x 21/8 in.56) and solving for ts.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . Figure 9. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A.56) Finally. (9. (9.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in. x 12 ft 6 in.56) by 2.

375 = 0.K. O. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( .9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. t ) 1 . x 12 ft 3¾ in. x 9/16 in. for stiffeners on one side.90 in. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0.9.5 Bearing Stiffeners . Try PL7. for stiffeners on one side. From Eq. Try ts = 9/16 in.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8.50 in. 4 4 3 9.3 in. (9. 9 ). x 9/16 in.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in.3 in.000865(150)(36) 0.5 + ' = 88.5 in. h) . = 12 ft 33/4 in. + 16 ( Use PL7. < 88.5 in. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. 9 ) = * ' * 7.75 in. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: .

32 + 8.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.49/123) = 8.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student. x 12 ft 6 in. needs to be used.3. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds. 9. The answer: Use 2PL15 in. 8.9. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.875)(150)(0. 9. as given in ASD J2.49)/144 = 43. however.6.25 + 43.9.5)(147. 9. (9.39 Kips .6 and therefore will not be repeated here.49)/144 = 67.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding. Eq.07 = 118. x 1 in. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load.07 = 110.2b and covered in Sec.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.75)](0.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.8.25 Kips )(0.

The length of the span is 150 ft.24 . 9.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. Consider bending only.24. x 0. Figure 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.75 in.

60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.4. 4 = 340.95 67.760 in.5 in.8 > = = 137.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.24.95 − 4.18 0.3). 9.739 in.3 50 + 17.739 = = 5014. A = 33.26 in. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.01) 2 ] + 12 (0. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.8 in. I x = 934 in. .69) = = 177.8(50 + 17.60 F yf = 0.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0. 9. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.

0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & . 9.75) 3 × 0.75 in.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.8 − 20.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.1 / 20. 101.75) = 101.0 − 0.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.2 4 α= 0.75)(0.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .1 in.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.84 ksi + 20.0 − 0.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .26) = 20. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.72 − 0.26 = 0.1 ) .952) = 25.490)/144 = 0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.1) /( 20.23 + 0.952 12 + 2(101.47)(1.75 ( + 0.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.115) + (100)(0. 133.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.

35 K/ft in addition to its own weight. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.49 = 3.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.25): W = 3.84)(5014.35 + 0.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore. .5) − 0. Figure 9. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25. 9.49 = 3.

(9.5 in.8). ) =* ' + 5.7).98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.98(2)(66.89 = fv 2.79 − 5. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.34 ( 1/ 2 4 .000 (36)(0.1 ft . we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq. = 33.79 < 9. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2.4 ksi Aw 101.229)(177.34 45.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq. (9.229 < 0. a .89)(2.69) = 397. a max = 2. (9.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2. (9.40 F y = 14.98h = 2.85 ksi < 0.89 f v (2.11).6) and solve for Cv.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.85) = = 0.8) 2 = 5.000 k= = Now. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.10) and (9.

the governing limit is amax = 23.22 in. 260 ) .77 ft.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.5 ksi. = 23. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . 9. Use a= (150)(12) = 257. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.8 ' (133. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.38) = 285.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore.1 in.Design of Plate Girders 66 and .

t w = 0.5 in.7): Cv = 45.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq. (9.77) 45. Find Cv from Eq.000(8.197 < 0.34 + 4 4 = 5.34 + = 8. (9.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.77 2 (a / h) (1.08) 2 h = 100 in.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .8): k = 5. a = 1.000k = = 0.

40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.12).89 $ 1 . C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0. 9.51)(100)(0.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.61 ksi < 0.733(11. (9.232 F y = 11.068 F y / f v = 0. (All of the five conditions given in Sec. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.61) = 8.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq. fv Fb = * * 0.51 = 0.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.5) = 425.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.55 F y ( .068 F y + 0.4 + 2.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .825 − 0.733Fv = 0.5 ksi = 0.068(50) / 8.

000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.10.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. 1998).1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC. 9.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.11.10.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.5 h h = tw .60) for a ≤ 1. In particular. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9. when the design is without the tension-field action.5 h (9.5)]1 / 2 2.11. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.000 F yf for a > 1.

At the present time a constant value of 0. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. (9. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9. 9.9 is used for the resistance factor φb. 1.61) Coefficient Re in Eq.62) .0 12 + 2a r (9. Limit state of tension-flange yield.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.61) is the hybrid girder factor. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.11. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders. Note that these equations are similar to Eq. (9. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb.3) and (9.4) for the ASD code.

(9. In Eq.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. In general. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. and web local buckling (WLB). They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB).64) corresponds to Eq. 9. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. there exist three limit states of buckling. (9.6).71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr.24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. (9. 2. the limit state of WLB does .0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. flange local buckling (FLB).3.3.4. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r . Note that Eq.

10. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr.66) λp = (9. 3. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. λp.69) . we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq.67) λr = (9. and λr. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ.65) λ2 The quantities λ.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply.000C b (9. (9. λr. However. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9.63). and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately. λp.68) C PG = 286.1 for beams. a. F yf Fcr = & 1 .

For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.61) and (9.11.74) (9.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.0 (9. 9.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9. We will derive an approximate but explicit .63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate. b.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.72) kc = (9.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.763 (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.35). (5.71) λr = (9.70) λp = (9.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.

79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.61) and (9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters.76) Now.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq. (9.18) into Eq.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs. (9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq. (9. (9.

the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other.82) Note that for a given required Af.13. (9. 9.81) For the limit state of FLB. (9.65).66). In Sec. (9.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. For the limit state of LTB. we must have [Eqs.65). Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9. (9. and (9. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders.80) Substituting for rT from Eq.46) into this equation.70).67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: .81) and (9. we must have [Eqs. (9. and a compromise must be made. For the economical design of plate girders. .75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value). the requirement of Eqs. and (9. (9.

5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn. the design shear strength is φvVn. kv 0.6 Aw F yw for Vn = .2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0. where φv = 0. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.9 is the shear resistance factor.85) .6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.11.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.

000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.0 ≥ Cv > 0. (9.87) 44. In these cases.84) Equation (9.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq.86) 0.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0. where the resistance factor φv is 0.11. as well as when relation .86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.9. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.6.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.

85) holds.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9. For design based on tension-field action. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9. (9.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0.6 Aw F yw C v (9.90) (9. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.7.89) In Eq. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.90).90.91) .15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9. the tension-field action is not allowed. φv is 0. When transverse stiffeners are required. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5.88) 9. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .11. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.

9.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn). Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.3) 3 I st = at w j (9. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.92) where & 2. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. .93) 9.5. 9.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec. 2.94) In this expression φ = 0.9.625 u ≤ 1.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .375 φM n φV n (9.11.

but only for one load combination: dead plus live load. 9.2(3) + 1.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.2w D + 1.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.2 K/ft P = 1.12.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.7.12.12.6(1) = 5. Eq. respectively. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .2(400) + 1. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec. 2.27 and 9. 9.2).6(100) = 640 Kips 9. (2.6 w L = 1.28.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.6 PL = 1.2 PD + 1.

12 12 From Eq. (9. Vmax = Vu = 816.60) Figure 9.333.3 K-ft = 412.000 K-in.67 Kips 9.27 Shear diagram Figure 9.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.12.28 Bending moment diagram .

96) .2 0.0 in.5h for a ≤ 1. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.5 in.50 in.47 in.3 in. 322 322 Try tw = 0. h tw = 300.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322. (9.3 for a > 1.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0. (9.9(150)(36) 12 (9.12. or PL150 in. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. from Eq. (9.4.0 333. for the web plate. Selection of the Flange Plates 1. x 0. 2 9.79).81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72. We find an approximate flange area from Eq.000 − = 72. Aw = 75 in.3) = 45.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.

82): t f ≥ (72.. based on Eq. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders. based on Eq.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50.064. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. try bf = 40 in. (9.4 Sx = I x 1.74 in. (9.829.83 in.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq. 2.838 = = 13. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. Af = 80 in.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.95).97).0 . (9.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10. only the latter needs to be checked.97) To begin with.87 rT 10. Then.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0. (9. Therefore.064.838 in.1 in. try tf = 2 in.

5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.9) + 4(30.00 (" = 38.624.33(87. 55.885.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.17) is the critical segment.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .7 ft-K = 603.9 ft-K = 603.333.2)(87.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .333.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .5(34.33(62.551.0 − 50.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.624.1 ft-K = 603.551. 9.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.885.2)(75) 2 = 30. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.7) + 3(32.2)(62. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.87 − 50.35).5(34.5) 2 = 32.5M max 12.1) = 1.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126. (5.5) 2 = 27.3) 2.00 )# = (1.3) + 3(27.

h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + . 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0. ) .000 K-in. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .00) = 408. b. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10.1)(36.. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.829.633 K-in. and PL40 in. we would have to increase the area of the flange.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. x 2. If the section were not O. is acceptable for the flange plate.0 in.912)(13.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0.K.9(0. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412.85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi.

Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end. 9.67 tw F yw 36 b.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. (9. (9. Check Eq. (9. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.98) We can use Eq.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu.6(0.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.12.9)(75)(36)(0.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. 2. a.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. .000)(5) = 0. 9.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0. Check Eq.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9.27).

(9.443 a max = 0.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.443(150) = 66.88): C v = Vu /[0.4138)(36) / 44. . Tentatively. At the left end: Vu = 603.47 From Eq. from the right end B. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in. (9.33 /[0.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603. Tentatively.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25. At the right end: a max = 55.87 Design of Plate Girders a.4 in. (9.000 = 30.7 in.4138 < 0.6(0.8 From Eq. b. from the left end A.443h = 0.000 = (300) 2 (0.9)(75)(36)] = 0.47)]1 / 2 = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.9V n Kips From Eq.

000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.20 2 ( 0 .22): Try a = 105 in.8.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0. a. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2. (9. 9. (9. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values. From Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. As in the example of Sec.86): .87): Cv = 44..84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15.22.Design of Plate Girders 88 3. 260 ) . 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0.20) = 0. similar to Fig. a . 9.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq.7. 9.20 36 = 152.000(15. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).75h = 0. a/h = 0.5 in.75(150) = 112. (9.

9.15(1 + 0..9(1250.22.K.6(75)(36) $0. 9.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig. Similar to case a. C v = 0.6φVn = (0. Vu = 556. we find a = 110 in. to be satisfactory.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0.22). an interaction check is not necessary. a very small distance to the right of point C). We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.9)(1230) = 664.487 K-in.194. M u = 412.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.206 = 0.6)(0. Vu = 795 Kips 4.83 Kips < φ vVu O.2) = 583. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec. b. Vn = 1230. M n = 465.33 − 12 (5.0 Kips.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1. 9.2 Kips.000 K-in. .7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. Check shear and bending interaction.

100) (9.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.8 ts 36 (9.100) and (9. (9.5)(1 − 0.15(1. (9. (9.69 in.5 2 (0.7. Therefore. 36 ) & Ast = $0.0)(150)(0.101) The area requirement of Eq. From Eq.Design of Plate Girders 90 5. Region EC: a = 105 in. C v = 0.10) = 40. 2 From Eq.7) 2 ( a / h) (9.10 ≥ 0. a.5 2 . 2 bs t s = 0.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0.07 in. The .83 #.206 From Eq.101).. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs. (9.99) is minimal. Select intermediate stiffeners.5 −2= − 2 = 3.99) a/h = 0.5) 3 (3.14 in. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.91): 583.206) − 18(0.93): j= 2 . (9.

Region CF: a = 110 in. From Eq. x 3/8 in. (9. Try 2PL5. 4 O. x 3/8 in.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs.92 in.5 in. 4 ≥ 40.375)(11 + 0.69 in. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have . From Eq. 9.5 in. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C.5) 3 = 47. a/h = 0.6. 1.100) and (9. Bearing stiffeners at supports. (9.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in.5 in. for all bearing stiffeners..53 in.K. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. RB = 816. Use 2PL5.12. x 3/8 in. Use 2PL5.101): bs ≤ 5.101) is ts = 3/8 in.. (9. b. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B.5 in.100): 1 I st = 12 (0. and the thickness of the web is 0.67 Kips.733 The answer is the same as for region EC.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.

80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.17 Kips O.4 / 50.85(1807.37* * 29. x 1¼ in.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.9) = 1536. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 .5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0. 2.85 KL . KL (0.658 λc ) F y = (0.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23. x 12 ft 6 in. 95 Try 2PL19 in.80) = 1807. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.K.116 )(36) = 35.50)(35. x 1¼ in. ..75 in. 36 = 10.37 r 10.85 in.4 in.50 in.50 = 10. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.658 0.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0.5) 3 = 5944.75)(150) = = 10.7 Kips > R B = 816.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0. (9.5) 2 = 50.20 in. Abs = 23.75) + 12(0. Use 2PL19 in. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.116 < 1.

7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. Therefore. x 12 ft 6 in.8. 9. output window and control window (Fig.49) = 81.49) = 38. Use 2PL19 in. 9.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.0 + 8. .8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9.5)( 8 )(148)](0. x 1¼ in. This applet consists of three windows: input window.8 = 128.12.3 = 120.49/123) 4 = 8.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter. at the location of concentrated load.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes.7 + 38. 9.29).

To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. Flange & Web panel. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web.31. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. However. the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig.11). Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. To design a hybrid girder. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. Span length. For impractical values. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. respectively. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. 9. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values.30a). Stiffeners panel.29).30b. 9. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. thickness. 5. and Welds Panel. 9. .Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. Width. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. for example. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig.

29 .95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.30 . the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel. i. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.e. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. the place of the 1st stiffener. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. For example. 9. the applet provides only one segment selection.32a).32). bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). By default. Initially. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. Figure 9. width. 9. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet.31 . and thickness.

Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.32 .

34). all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. sections.33. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. 9. and welds panels in the output window. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. Depending on the selection made by the user. and elevation. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. Figure 9.33 Figure 9. 9.34 . If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners.

35 .Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

35b. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. But. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. . size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.35a). and size. 9. 9.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. length. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. and size.35).32b. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. 9. 9.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.32a). The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes.

38). Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders.39). and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig.37). 9. SFD (shear force diagram) panel. 9. Welds panel. 9.37 The output window consists of loadings panel.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. . Loadings panel displays the loadings.29 and 9. They are the method of design. ASD and LRFD. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig. supports.36). Elevation panel. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel. Figure 9. and the web depth-to-span ratio. 9. Similarly.29). this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. Sections panel. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. 9.

9.40 and 9.42). 9.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. respectively as shown in Figs. 9.41. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.43). It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window. 9.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9.39 . Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.

41 .40 Figure 9. 9. 9. The results are presented in Figs.9 also has been solved by the applet.44 are for the same problem also.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. 9. The results shown in Figs.29 to 9. Figure 9. 9.45 to 9.37 to 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.49. The example data used in Figs.44).8.

43 Figure 9.44 .105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.42 Figure 9.

47 .Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.45 Figure 9.46 Figure 9.

E.50.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3.49 9. and F. as indicated on the figure. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. Use A36 steel .107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.48 Figure 9. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners. 9.14 PROBLEMS 9. as shown in Fig.

2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. plate is selected for each flange. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan.5 in.9 of the book. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments. . and a 40 in. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate.x1. a 180 in. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. Figure 9. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode.50 9. check the adequacy of this preliminary design. 9.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec. Based on a preliminary design. plate is selected for the web.75 in.x0. 9.

10.50 in.10. double stiffeners . single stiffeners b. 9.109 Design of Plate Girders 9.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.10. 9.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in. 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi. using a. x 0.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. 9.