This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design

Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building

Design of Plate Girders

2

Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder

Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates

Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections

Figure 9.5 Welded box girder

Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder

of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:

3

Design of Plate Girders

1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).

Figure 9. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. As mentioned in the previous section. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder .2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate.Design of Plate Girders 4 9. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners.

due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. 9. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. after the web panels buckle in shear. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. In this truss.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. In fact. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. after the shear instability of the web takes place. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature.7(a). the instability of the web plate panels. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. however. Consequently. The Pratt truss of Fig. 9. will not result in its failure. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. 9. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. It will then be able to carry additional loads.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. 9. a redistribution of stresses occurs. As shown in Fig. She/he should. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased.7(b).7(a). Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. .

we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6.Design of Plate Girders 6 9.2) (9.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. However. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. the final design can be achieved quickly. In design of plate girders.12). we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. 9. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. Of course. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. As a general guideline. however. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10.

Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. which is presented in Sec. In this book.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . The next step is to choose the web thickness. In calculating the shear strength of the web. 9. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. After the h/L ratio has been selected. our approach is interactive design. Figure 9. however. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. the depth of the web plate will be known.12. 2.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders.

according to ASD G1. the compressive force F1. . This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. 9. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. To satisfy this requirement.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.8.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. as shown in Fig. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate.

taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.89 ≤ 0.6) where .9.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1.5h (9.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9. α2 is much larger than α1. h 2. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. To satisfy the second criterion. 9.5)]1 / 2 (9. For high-strength steel. Fv = Fy C v 2.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2. 9. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1.9. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.

Design of Plate Girders

10

45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2

when Cv ≤ 0.8

190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +

(9.7) when Cv > 0.8

when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0

kv =

Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0

(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)

The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)

11

Design of Plate Girders

Fv =

Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "

(9.12)

Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w

(9.13)

After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw

(9.14)

and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:

Design of Plate Girders

12

83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =

152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y

when

h tw

>

548 Fy <

h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)

when when

380 Fy

h 380 ≤ tw Fy

It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.

9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES

**9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
**

The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb

(9.16)

In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and

(9.4.19) In this equation.16) and (9. Aw = tw h is the web area. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. 9. .13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5.1 in the text). The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9.18) and solving for Af. tf is the thickness of the flange plate.18) By equating Eqs.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling.

M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. for example. However.19).05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. we find the required flange width bf from Eq. (9.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0..22) Substituting Eq. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate.19) and solving for tf. Therefore. (9. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. . After selecting the thickness of the flange plate. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . in many cases.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4.22) into Eq.23). (9. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. as a fraction of 1/16 in. (9. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required.46 (9.

9. Aw is the web area.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point.5. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support. & # A .3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. as discussed in Sec. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear.0 − 0. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . (9. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . 5. The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange.4.24) In this equation.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. When h/tw < 970 / F y . a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling.

the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 .0. Equation (9. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. Otherwise. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength. Re = 1. α= 0. fb = M max S < Fb' (9.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . For nonhybrid girders.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges.26) 9. a more complicated analysis is required.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress.0. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action.0 ! ! " (9.

17

Design of Plate Girders

stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)

Ast =

&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv

) ' ' (

(9.27)

where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners

D=

During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)

Design of Plate Girders

18

Figure 9.10

Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners

where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy

(9.29)

4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0

(9.10)

(9.11)

19

Design of Plate Girders

d.

, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +

) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (

(9.30)

The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).

9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS

According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close

9. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. Figure 9.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners .11).Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa. For end bearing stiffeners. Therefore. Thus. 9. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig.11). the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. fcb.

the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. . Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. 9.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. r. Figure 9.7.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.75. As a result.

which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is .34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.2).12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9. 5.

707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9. 9. from Eq. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. (9.36) Substituting for value of q 1 .23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld . (9.36). as shown in Fig.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. (9. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1. and q 2 = w into Eq.36).13. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate. If we denote the length Figure 9.

a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. L1. and ww. According to ASD G4.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq. (9. a minimum amount of welding is used.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. (9. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1. As a result.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. however.36).39).35) and (9. respectively. at least equal to . 9.7.40) . in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. (9.12)].Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1.

respectively. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq.707 Fv 2. 9. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig. (9. Furthermore.15) Figure 9. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs.41) When single stiffeners are used. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9. 9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side .828 Fv (for SMAW) (9. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.40).

828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.44) Figure 9.707 Fv 1.43) Similarly.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.16.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . for the case of single stiffeners.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1. as shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. 9.

1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig. 9.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable. (9. 9. In fact. 9. 9. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from .17 is covered in this section.8. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in.16).8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.16). The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. Moreover. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft.

33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . For welds.18. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466.8.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. assume that it is restrained against rotation.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. Lateral support is provided at supports. at the point of application of concentrated load. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. 9. Figure 9. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.17 9. 9.67 = 633. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support.

29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. . Therefore. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 .19.67(100) .67 = R A − wx1 = 0 . 9. Mmax = Mc = 466.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B. the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466.4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.x1 = A = = 116.

tw 333. (9.5 in. .2).4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. (9.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9. from Eq. (9.3): h 150 14. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16. In other words. that is.45 in.x0.5 in.47 in.000 ≤ = 322.4) yield values close to each other.5 d.t w ≥ = 0. or PL150 in.3) and (9. Try tw = 0.0 .8. Eqs. when a ≤ 1.3 . (9.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners.19 Bending moment diagram 9. 12 12 From Eq. for the web plate.t w ≥ = 0.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.

check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. Af = bf t f = (26. (9. we may decrease Fb = 0. The required flange area.667)(12) 75 − = 94.60Fy = 22 ksi.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. 970 h = 300 > = 161.05 (h / t w ) 0.22).17 in. to Fb = 20 ksi.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 .4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. 9.46 for h > 70 tw . (9.2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0. Af.19).8. (9. kc = 4. tw Aw = 75 in. can be computed approximately from Eq. say.24).

5 in. Try PL38 in.x2.17): .34 in.20 kc = 4.05 = 0. 294 $ tf = (94. 9. The girder section is shown in Fig.20.2.294 (300) 0.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2. From Eq. (9. Af = 95 in. for each flange.

687 Region DC is the critical region.069. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.19). 9.4 S= I 1.245.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.333. .667 = -0. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments.46) 38 = 10.6 in.5/26.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.17 and 9.5)(75 + 1.5).5) 3 = 1.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.396 = = 16.31 in.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2. is zero (Figs. 5.245. 9. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.396 in.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9. M1/M2. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.

000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .5 % 760 )# ' '! 21. (9. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq. 75 ) .687)2 = 1.687)+0.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.3(-0.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .3(M1/M2)2 = 1. 510.K. 102. & .2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.6 S O.24).30 . 102.39 ksi 16.667)(12) = = 19.55 ksi 3 1 .31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.0 − 0.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.75+1.069.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26.05(-0. 530 .000)(1.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.39 ksi 21.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( . 510.75 + 1. 530 .05(M1/M2)+0. 000 ( 1 . 150 − Fb' = $1.55 = 20. .17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128. 000 C 3 1 .000)(1.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.17 < 2.91 ksi < 20.

7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq. (9.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9. (9.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.89 Fv (2.000 (36)(0.8 36 Fy From Eq. Cv = 2.5 < 0.6) and solve for Cv.14)].34 45.22 ksi in Eq. a.67 = = 6. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .8. (9. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.8): .35 Design of Plate Girders 9. At the left end fv = R A 466.89)(6.000 kv = = From Eq. (9. 2.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.22) = = 0.

34 45.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.44) = = 0.89)(8. b.Design of Plate Girders 36 a . At the right end fv = RB 633.41(150) = 61. 5.44 ksi 75 Aw 2. from the left end A.34 ) =* ' + 48.345(150) = 51. 5.89 Fv (2. Figure 9.33 = = 8.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0. 5.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( . Tentatively.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .345 in.81 − 4 ( = 0. amax = 0.8 in.000 1/ 2 a .34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.81 > 9.678)(300) 2 = 48.41 amax = 0.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .678 < 0. 5.3 in.

a. Bearing stiffeners at A. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. (9. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. x 1 /16 in. 9. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. x 12 ft 6 in. 2 2 amax = 112.22) . Equation (9. x /16 in. x ½ in. From Eq. Web: PL150 in.6 in. from the left end B.10) controls over Eq. x 12 ft 4 in. B. 3. (9.6 in. so the latter need not be checked. x /16 in. x 2½ in. and C: 2PL18 in.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. x 12 ft 4 in.5 in.22 Final design Tentatively. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. 9. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in.22).11). We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. 3 Figure 9.

we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq. 9.67 − 12 (4) = 450.89 % 1. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.67 = = 6.90) = 0.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451. Fv = # 1 − 0. (9.000)(14.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.34 = 4 . 9.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in. to 45 in.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.62 ksi > f v = 6.3 are satisfied.22).15(1 + 0. (Fig.207 36 & $0. .34 5.58 + 7.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.207 < 0.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.K.0 + = 14.7) 2 = Cv = 45.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .67 − 12 (4) = 451.0 + 5.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.7 ) " = 2.04 = 9. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.90 2 (a / h) (0.02 ksi O.

33 − 12 (4) = 620.93 2 (0.22).193 < 0. 9.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.34 5.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.34 = 4.000)(13.12): .0 + 5.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.0 + = 13.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example. 9.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.66 = = 8.33 − 12 (4) = 616.93) = 0. b.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. to 50 in. (9. (Fig.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.

44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26.33 = = 5. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.45 ksi > f v = 8. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point. fv Fb = * * 0. ' ' F y = * 0.K.78 ) .733 ) " = 2.27 ksi < Fb = 21.05 = 9.15(1 + 0.89 % 1.19).30)].78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq. 9.245.825 − 0.40 + 7.396 I O.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. (9. . 4.30)]: .K. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq. Check combined shear and bending in the web.22 ksi O. fv = VC 433. (9.193 36 & $0.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.22.45 ' (36) = 21.375 F v + ) 5. The critical section for this check is either at point C. 9.18 and 9.44 ksi 1.825 − 0.375 9.667)(12)(75) = = 19. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.

56 in.22).5)(1 − 0.90 is considerably less than one.27).02 ) 1 0 .62 ( % = 5. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. because fb/Fb = 0.7 2 (150)(0. Also.27): Ast = & #.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. (Fig. (9. (9. 6. a.78 in.207) $0. such a check may be necessary. For region EC.56 / 2 = 2. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq. and between C and F is a = 110 in.2 From Eq.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.8ts in Eq.47) .29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. (9. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C. 9. From Eq. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h. 5. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.2 bs t s = 5.7 ) "+ 9.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. (9. Select the intermediate stiffeners. (9.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied.

9.8)1 / 2 = 0.94 in.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.7 in.193) $0.89 in.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.5) 3 = 89. (9. x 7/16 in. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq. x 7/16 in. Use 2PL6½ in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).K.94 / 15.8)1 / 2 = 0.419 in.8t s Minimum t s = (3. . + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.45 ( % = 7. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0.28). .27): Ast = & #. = 6.5)(1 − 0. 9. h ) . From Eq. Try 2PL6½ in. = 12 ft 4 in.733 ) "+ 9.89 / 2 = 3. 8.7/16 in. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. 4 > 81 in.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.2 bs = 15.22 ) 1 0. For region CF. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).5 × 2 + 0.78 / 15.5 in. b.2 bs t s = 7.5) = 148 in. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.733 2 (150)(0.

Check buckling (width-thickness ratio).8. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.2 = 1. for the left support. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in.2 b. Abs = 21. (9.8 16 Try 2PL18 in. x 9/16 in. and the thickness of the web is 0.375) + 12(0.2 . From Eq. 15.67 Kips.22).8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18. 9. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in.375 in. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in.6..31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. 1. x 13/16 in.75 in.5) 2 = 45. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466.5 in. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. Moment of inertia check is not needed.14 in. 9. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig. = in. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C).

11 ksi Actual axial stress: . 10.1 ( = 1.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.06 / 45.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126. 10.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.75(150) = = 10.96 ) 2 # . = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .96 ) 1 .S.06 in. 10.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 . 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.96 10. KL 0.75 = 10. 9. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.26 in.699 ( % % = 21.1 > KL r F.1 ( 8 + 126.26 r .S.1 ( " ! + 1.

x 13/16 in. however.20 ksi < 21.21) is larger than that of the end . less than the depth of the web plate. the same as for the left support. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. x 13/16 in. x 12 ft 6 in. say ¼ in. 2.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. P = 500 Kips.67 = = 10. Use 2PL18 in. is less than RB.11 ksi Aeff 45.K. 3. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633.. Use 2PL18 in.75 O. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support.75 Aeff O.K.84 ksi < Fa = 21. fa = RB 633. x 12 ft 6 in.11 ksi 45. The bearing stiffener. and the effective area (Fig.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. x 13/16 in. 9.33 = = 13. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly.

Try ww = 5/16 in. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1.25 in. Vmax = RB = 633.5 in.8. Substituting this value into the previous equation. x 12 ft 6 in. x 13/16 in. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. L1min = 1. 2 & (633. we obtain a1 = 2.396) L1 ww % = 1. (9. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 .39).7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length. (Sec.5-in.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.5 in.51L1 (9.4).245. (ASD J2b).414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0. the length of weld segment L1. 8. 9.) and 1. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.33) 2 (95) 2 .33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. flange plate is 5/16 in.5 and ASD Table J2.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. we can use the same 2PL18 in. .3.

02 ksi. 9.40): Fv = 9. For segment EC (Fig. 4 in. (ASD D2). long. 4 in. 6.48). (9. 9. we obtain a1 = 10.62 ksi .23 ksi + 9.5 in.62 ( We use intermittent welds. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in.8. From Eq.22) f v = 6. a max = 12 in.8. 10-in. weld. (9.43): .04 in. From Eq. spacing. Try 5/16-in. (9.02 ) * ' = 3. long. Use 5/16-in. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . weld. From Eq. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 .

22 ) * ' = 4. long.05439 a1 2. spacing. 2.5 in.49) we obtain L1 = 2. Use 3/16-in. From Eq.0757 a1 2. 10-in. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.45 ksi 3/ 2 .22 ksi. Fv = 9. For segment CF (Fig. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in.5 in.-thick plate is ¼ in. .49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. 8.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.5 in.0 in. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.828(21) (9.45 ( (9.90 in.50 = = 0.23 = = = 0.5 ksi + 9. = 1. weld.5 in.-thick plate is 3/16 in. 3.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( . L1min = 1.50) L1 ww 4.22) f v = 8. 9.828 Fv 2. (9. a max = 24t s or 12 in. a max = 12 in.

intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. weld. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.707(16 = 4. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4.63 in. 4 in. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. x 12 ft 6 in. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in. (9.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.50) we obtain L1 = 3.K. Try ww = 5/16 in.64) = 2784 Kips O. Use 5/16-in.8. long. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.50) = 675 Kips O. 9.64 K/in. Use ¼-in. x 13/16 in. 3.49) = 96. for each pair of bearing stiffeners.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.9.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. fillet weld = 0.89 Kips . spacing. 12-in.K. From Eq. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in. > Vmax = 633.

5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6. 2.9. 36 ksi).73 = 145.49/123) = 9.18 and 9. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.5)( 16 )(148.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135. Selection of the Web Plate . The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135. 9. 9.19).1 is desired except that 1. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.Design of Plate Girders 50 . 3.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.8.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs.2.0)](0.26 + 9.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder. 9. 9.49) = 38.9.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.

8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.9.8 . For the selected web plate. (9. i.t w ≥ = 0. 9. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.62 in. (9. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.t w ≥ = 0..3): h 14.67 .8 .18 < 9 ) = 84.24). when a ≤ 1.e.53 in.5)] 242. (9.5d.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. we have h 800 = = 266. from Eq.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.8 For closely spaced stiffeners. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1. x 9/16 in. taking into account the reduction of the .3 Selection of Flange Plates First. tw 282. From Eq.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.000 150 ≤ = 242. or PL150 in. for the web plate.5d.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.375 in. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.

60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq. .60 Fyw / Fb = 0.22).5α 3 From Eq. (9.54) In this example: α = 0. (9.24).Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq.53) Combining Eqs.72) − 0.55 in.893 Af = (26.51) and (9.5α − 0.0 β = 1.72) 3 = 0.52) (9.5(0.53) and solving Af.5(0.667)(12) (0. (9.893)(84.375) − = 58. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9. (9.51) where β = 1.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.72 < 1.2 (0.6(36) / 30 = 0. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.

Af = 60 in.05 4.67) 0.363 I = = 11.056. (9.406) = 0.310 0.31 tf =$ (58.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.60Fyf = 0.24): Aw 84.2 Check Eq.98 in.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0. for each flange plate.375 = = 1.05 = = 0.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1. (9.7 in.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.363 in.980 6 + 1.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.893(1.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.406 .406 60. x 2 in.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.46 (h / t ) (266.31 = 15. Try PL30 in.

125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.281 A f (31)(2. 84. x 21/8 in.8 = 11. (9. A f = (31)(2. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.76 ksi fb = M max (26.K.893(1.67 − 138.667)(12) = = 28.0005)* '(266.0 − (0.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.125) = 65.G. (9.94 ksi > 26.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.056.76 )! (0.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.76 ksi S 11.0 ( % " = 26.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2.8 in.2 = 920.935.281 . for each flange. 4 S= 920.492.375 = = 1.7 N.981 6 + 1.281) = 0.980) + 60.492.875 in. Aw 84.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. Try PL31 in.1 in.0 O.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .24).

(governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders.9. 9.17). Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.935. 84.67 − 138. 1.5(150 + 4. from Eq.4 in.667)(12) = = 26.375 . and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.2 9. fv = Vmax R A 466.1 O.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.981) + 65.76)! (0. Also.5(h + 2tf) = 1.25) = 231.0 − (0.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. (9.02 ksi fb = M max (26. x 21/8 in.53 ksi < 0.0005)* '(266.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .81 ksi < Fb' S 11.875 in.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.875 ( % " = 27.K. (9.6) for the allowable shear stress. and we must use Eq. Af = 65.67] (150) = 142.40 F y = 14. for each flange.60 in. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig.67 = = = 5.5d = 1. Use PL31 in.

444 < 0.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.501(150) = 75.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq. Use a = 75 in.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. 2.501 amax = 0.51 ksi < 0. 5. fv = Vmax R B 633.375 2. between A and C (Fig.000 2.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B.444)(266.603 < 0. (9. 5. (9.603)(266.000 .6): Cv = From Eq.67) 2 = 25.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.53) = = 0.2 in.34 45.23).34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . 9.34 45.40 F y = 14.34 ) =* ' + 25.30 > 9.89 Fv ( 2. (9.26 > 9.89 Fv ( 2.8): a .40 ksi Aw Aw 84.51) = = 0.000 (36)(0.89)(7.89)(5.33 = = = 7.67) 2 = 34.

55) .42 amax = 0. (9. between C and B (Fig. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary. 3.23).34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . let us consider the case of single stiffeners. First.42(150) = 63 in.57 Design of Plate Girders a . Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. 5. the combined shear and bending check [Eq. In other words. 9. 5.30)] is not required for hybrid girders. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. (9. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners.29). Selection of intermediate stiffeners. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.28) and (9.34 ) =* ' + 34. Use a = 60 in.

29) into Eq. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0.56) by 2.28) and (9. x /16 in.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.56) and solving for ts. (9.5 in. x 1 in.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.56) Finally. (9. equating Eqs. (9. x 12 ft 6 in. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs. x 12 ft 3 /4 in.55) yields I st = 285. Web: PL150 in.375 (9. Figure 9.000865h( F y ) 0. x 21/8 in.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder .55) and (9. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7. (9. B. x /16 in.57) In the case of double stiffeners. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A.000727 h( F y ) 0. and C: 2PL15 in.375 (9.

for stiffeners on one side. O. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. 4 4 3 9.5 in. < 88. x 12 ft 3¾ in. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . for stiffeners on one side. (9. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in. 9 ). h) .9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. From Eq.50 in.3 in.5 Bearing Stiffeners . = 12 ft 33/4 in. x 9/16 in. Try ts = 9/16 in.375 = 0.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8. Try PL7.3 in.5 + ' = 88.90 in. + 16 ( Use PL7.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. t ) 1 .000865(150)(36) 0.5 in.75 in.9. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( . 9 ) = * ' * 7. x 9/16 in. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0.K.

however.07 = 118. The answer: Use 2PL15 in.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110. needs to be used.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.25 + 43.07 = 110.9. x 1 in. Eq. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.3.5)(147. 9.2b and covered in Sec.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.6.9. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.8. as given in ASD J2. 8.875)(150)(0.25 Kips )(0.75)](0.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student. (9. 9.32 + 8. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.49/123) = 8.39 Kips .49)/144 = 43. x 12 ft 6 in. 9.49)/144 = 67.

24. Figure 9. x 0. Consider bending only. The length of the span is 150 ft.24 . What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.61 Design of Plate Girders 9.75 in. 9.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in.

9.8 in. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.24. 9.739 in. I x = 934 in.60 F yf = 0. A = 33.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.8(50 + 17.3 50 + 17. 4 = 340.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.26 in. .95 − 4.5 in.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.739 = = 5014. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.8 > = = 137.4.01) 2 ] + 12 (0.18 0.760 in.69) = = 177.95 67.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.3). Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.

8 − 20.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .952) = 25.1 / 20.0 − 0. 101.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.47)(1.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A . h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.115) + (100)(0.75) 3 × 0.952 12 + 2(101. 133.84 ksi + 20.26) = 20.1 ) .60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig. 9.490)/144 = 0.75) = 101.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.1 in.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.75 in.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .2 4 α= 0.1) /( 20.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.75 ( + 0.0 − 0.26 = 0.23 + 0.72 − 0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.75)(0.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.

Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore.5) − 0. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25. . Figure 9. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.49 = 3.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided.25): W = 3. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. 9. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.84)(5014.49 = 3.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight.35 + 0.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.

000 (36)(0.000 k= = Now.98(2)(66.40 F y = 14. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.10) and (9.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2.229)(177.85) = = 0.85 ksi < 0. (9.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.11). = 33. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.89 f v (2. (9.79 < 9.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.229 < 0. a max = 2.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.7). (9.4 ksi Aw 101.89)(2.8).34 ( 1/ 2 4 .69) = 397.1 ft .8) 2 = 5.6) and solve for Cv. ) =* ' + 5. a .80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.34 45.98h = 2.89 = fv 2. (9.79 − 5.5 in.

7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports.38) = 285. the governing limit is amax = 23.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore.1 in.5 ksi.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.77 ft. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig. 9.22 in.Design of Plate Girders 66 and . 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177. = 23. 260 ) .8 ' (133. Use a= (150)(12) = 257.

34 + 4 4 = 5. (9.34 + = 8.7): Cv = 45. t w = 0.000k = = 0.77 2 (a / h) (1.08) 2 h = 100 in.8): k = 5.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .5 in.77) 45. (9.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.000(8.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.197 < 0. Find Cv from Eq. a = 1.

Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.825 − 0.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.89 $ 1 . 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.12).068 F y + 0.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .61) = 8. 9.068(50) / 8. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.733(11. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.61 ksi < 0.733Fv = 0.5 ksi = 0.4 + 2.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.51 = 0.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27. (9.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.5) = 425.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.55 F y ( .068 F y / f v = 0.51)(100)(0.232 F y = 11. fv Fb = * * 0.

000 F yf for a > 1. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.5 h h = tw .10.11.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.60) for a ≤ 1. 9.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.10.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14.69 Design of Plate Girders 9. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.5)]1 / 2 2.5 h (9. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. when the design is without the tension-field action.11. In particular. 1998).

61) is the hybrid girder factor.62) . At the present time a constant value of 0. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9.9 is used for the resistance factor φb. Limit state of tension-flange yield. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1.0 12 + 2a r (9.4) for the ASD code. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. Note that these equations are similar to Eq. (9.3) and (9.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. 9. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb. 1.11.61) Coefficient Re in Eq. (9.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders.

They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). (9. 2. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi.6). (9. the limit state of WLB does .24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. 9.3. flange local buckling (FLB).0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. there exist three limit states of buckling. In Eq.3.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. In general. Note that Eq.64) corresponds to Eq.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. (9. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section.4. and web local buckling (WLB).

λp.1 for beams.69) . (9.65) λ2 The quantities λ. and λr. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5.67) λr = (9. λp.10.66) λp = (9. λr. However.63). The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. a. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. F yf Fcr = & 1 .000C b (9. and a plate girder coefficient CPG.68) C PG = 286. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately. 3.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply.

9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0. We will derive an approximate but explicit .0 (9.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.74) (9.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.763 (9. b.71) λr = (9.61) and (9.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.72) kc = (9.70) λp = (9.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.11. (5.35).4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.

(9.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9. (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.18) into Eq. (9. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield. (9.61) and (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .76) Now.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.

the requirement of Eqs. and (9.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf.82) Note that for a given required Af.81) For the limit state of FLB.70). we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: . (9. In Sec.46) into this equation. .65).65). an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. and a compromise must be made. (9. For the limit state of LTB.81) and (9.66). we must have [Eqs. 9.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value).80) Substituting for rT from Eq. For the economical design of plate girders. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. (9.13. (9. (9.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9. and (9. we must have [Eqs. (9. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9.

6 Aw F yw for Vn = . The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn. kv 0.9 is the shear resistance factor.Design of Plate Girders 76 9. where φv = 0.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.85) .11.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9. the design shear strength is φvVn.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.

0 ≥ Cv > 0. In these cases.11.86) 0. (9. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.9.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.87) 44. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. where the resistance factor φv is 0.6.84) Equation (9.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders. as well as when relation .

6 Aw F yw C v (9.90.11.85) holds. For design based on tension-field action.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9.89) In Eq. (9. When transverse stiffeners are required. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .91) .90). Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0. φv is 0. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5.7. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.88) 9. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.90) (9.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9. the tension-field action is not allowed.

75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec. 2.92) where & 2.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.375 φM n φV n (9.93) 9.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 . . depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.625 u ≤ 1.9. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.11.94) In this expression φ = 0. 9.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.3) 3 I st = at w j (9.5. 9.

6 w L = 1. Eq. 2.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.12.28.2(400) + 1.12. (2.2).6(1) = 5. 9.2(3) + 1. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load.2 K/ft P = 1.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.6 PL = 1.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec. 9.7.2w D + 1. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.12. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .2 PD + 1. respectively.27 and 9.

3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in. 12 12 From Eq.12.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.67 Kips 9.000 K-in.28 Bending moment diagram .27 Shear diagram Figure 9.3 K-ft = 412. Vmax = Vu = 816.333.60) Figure 9. (9.

50 in.5h for a ≤ 1. (9.3 for a > 1. 2 9.12.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322. We find an approximate flange area from Eq. from Eq.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0. Preliminary selection of the flange plates. x 0.9(150)(36) 12 (9.4. Selection of the Flange Plates 1.000 − = 72. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress. (9. or PL150 in.96) .2 0.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72. h tw = 300. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. (9. for the web plate.0 333.3) = 45.0 in.3 in. 322 322 Try tw = 0.79).95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.47 in. Aw = 75 in.5 in.

97) To begin with.829. try bf = 40 in. (9. (9.95).74 in.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10. Therefore. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. only the latter needs to be checked.87 rT 10.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50. (9. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders. Af = 80 in. try tf = 2 in..83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.064. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55.838 = = 13. based on Eq. based on Eq.0 .064. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.82): t f ≥ (72.4 Sx = I x 1. 2. (9.838 in. Then.83 in.1 in.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1.97).

2)(62.7) + 3(32.333.2)(75) 2 = 30.9) + 4(30.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.1) = 1.33(62.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .5) 2 = 27.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.33(87.885.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.551.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.5(34.87 − 50.551.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.00 (" = 38.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12. 9. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .624.624.9 ft-K = 603.00 )# = (1.35). The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.5M max 12.5) 2 = 32. (5. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5. 55.0 − 50.17) is the critical segment.3) + 3(27. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.333.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .5(34.7 ft-K = 603.1 ft-K = 603.885.2)(87.3) 2.

Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10. If the section were not O.633 K-in. b.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + .0 in. we would have to increase the area of the flange.00) = 408. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412.1)(36. is acceptable for the flange plate.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. x 2.9(0. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.912)(13. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: ..85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi.829. and PL40 in.K. ) .000 K-in. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.

000)(5) = 0.9)(75)(36)(0.27).98) We can use Eq. Check Eq. 9.6(0. Check Eq.67 tw F yw 36 b. 9. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. a.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.12. (9.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu. (9. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required. (9. . 2.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.

000 = 30.88): C v = Vu /[0.443(150) = 66.4138 < 0. b. Tentatively. (9. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.9)(75)(36)] = 0.33 /[0.47 From Eq.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in. from the left end A. At the right end: a max = 55.6(0. from the right end B.4 in. Tentatively.4138)(36) / 44.000 = (300) 2 (0.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.9V n Kips From Eq.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.47)]1 / 2 = 0.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0. (9.443 a max = 0.7 in. .443h = 0. (9. At the left end: Vu = 603.8 From Eq.87 Design of Plate Girders a.

From Eq.87): Cv = 44. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2.7. 9. (9. (9.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.22): Try a = 105 in.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq.20) = 0. a/h = 0.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig.20 36 = 152. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0. (9.75(150) = 112.8.. 260 ) . 9.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end). a .86): .206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq. similar to Fig.22.20 2 ( 0 . We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values.75h = 0. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5.Design of Plate Girders 88 3.5 in.000(15. a. 9.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. As in the example of Sec.

9.22).8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig. Vu = 795 Kips 4. b.15(1 + 0. M u = 412.2) = 583..487 K-in.9(1250.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig. Vn = 1230. M n = 465.33 − 12 (5.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0.194. to be satisfactory. Check shear and bending interaction. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. 9..206 = 0. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.6φVn = (0.2 Kips. a very small distance to the right of point C).83 Kips < φ vVu O. 9.9)(1230) = 664. we find a = 110 in.6)(0.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0. C v = 0. Vu = 556. an interaction check is not necessary.0 Kips. .6(75)(36) $0.K.000 K-in.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.22. Similar to case a.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.

(9.8 ts 36 (9.14 in.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.10 ≥ 0.93): j= 2 .15(1. 36 ) & Ast = $0.5 2 (0.07 in. (9. 2 From Eq.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0..83 #. (9. The .206) − 18(0.5 2 .5) 3 (3. a. (9.100) and (9.0)(150)(0. 2 bs t s = 0.10) = 40. Region EC: a = 105 in. From Eq.5 −2= − 2 = 3.99) a/h = 0.100) (9.69 in.91): 583.101). (9.7.101) The area requirement of Eq.206 From Eq.5)(1 − 0. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.99) is minimal.Design of Plate Girders 90 5. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs. C v = 0. Select intermediate stiffeners.7) 2 ( a / h) (9. Therefore.

6. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C. RB = 816.K.101): bs ≤ 5. From Eq. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in.5 in..6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1.5) 3 = 47. (9. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B. 1. b.69 in. for all bearing stiffeners.12.92 in.733 The answer is the same as for region EC.101) is ts = 3/8 in.67 Kips.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.100): 1 I st = 12 (0. Try 2PL5. 9.5 in.53 in. Use 2PL5. x 3/8 in.375)(11 + 0. (9.100) and (9. (9. 4 O.5 in.5 in. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have . From Eq. Bearing stiffeners at supports.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. x 3/8 in. a/h = 0. 4 ≥ 40. Region CF: a = 110 in. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F.. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. x 3/8 in. Use 2PL5. and the thickness of the web is 0.

75) + 12(0. KL (0.85 KL .116 )(36) = 35. (9.85(1807.37* * 29.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.37 r 10.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0.5) 3 = 5944. x 12 ft 6 in.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.658 λc ) F y = (0.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50. . x 1¼ in. 95 Try 2PL19 in.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.5) 2 = 50.K.4 in. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.116 < 1. 36 = 10. Use 2PL19 in. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 .4 / 50.50 = 10..50)(35. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.75 in.17 Kips O.20 in. Abs = 23.85 in.80) = 1807.50 in. x 1¼ in. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944. 2.7 Kips > R B = 816.9) = 1536.75)(150) = = 10.658 0.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.

3 = 120. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes. x 12 ft 6 in.5)( 8 )(148)](0.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. Therefore.7 + 38.12.29). 9. at the location of concentrated load.49) = 38.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. 9.8.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.0 + 8.49) = 81. x 1¼ in.49/123) 4 = 8. output window and control window (Fig.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120. This applet consists of three windows: input window. Use 2PL19 in. 9. .8 = 128.

Span length. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. thickness. and Welds Panel. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. However. 9. 9. for example. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. Stiffeners panel. 9. To design a hybrid girder. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. Flange & Web panel.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports.29). this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. 5. For impractical values. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec.30b. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. Width. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. respectively. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters.11).31. .30a). the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig.

95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .

Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.30 . the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

i.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig. the place of the 1st stiffener. width. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. the applet provides only one segment selection. For example. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). Initially. 9. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners. and thickness. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. Figure 9. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel. By default.31 .32). 9. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig.e.32a).

32 .Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.

and welds panels in the output window. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners.33. and elevation.33 Figure 9. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment.34 . The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. Depending on the selection made by the user. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. Figure 9. 9. 9. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments.34). sections.

Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .

9.35a). and size. and size. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. length.35b. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. But. 9.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners.32b. 9. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. .32a). 9.35). The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.

supports. . Sections panel. Elevation panel. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders.37). and the web depth-to-span ratio.29).36). ASD and LRFD. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. They are the method of design. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig.29 and 9.38).37 The output window consists of loadings panel. Loadings panel displays the loadings. Welds panel.39).Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. 9. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. Figure 9. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. 9. 9. SFD (shear force diagram) panel. Similarly. 9. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel. 9.

41.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. 9. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.42). 9. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window.39 .43).41) and a section within any segment (Fig. 9. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9. 9. respectively as shown in Figs. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements.40 and 9. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig.

The results shown in Figs.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9.41 .Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig. The example data used in Figs. The results are presented in Figs. 9.40 Figure 9. 9.44 are for the same problem also. 9. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.45 to 9.49.9 also has been solved by the applet. Figure 9.44).37 to 9.8. 9.29 to 9.

43 Figure 9.44 .105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.42 Figure 9.

45 Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.47 .46 Figure 9.

1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3. 9. as indicated on the figure. and F.48 Figure 9.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.14 PROBLEMS 9.50.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. E.49 9. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners. as shown in Fig. Use A36 steel .

Figure 9.5 in.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec. a 180 in. plate is selected for each flange. 9. Based on a preliminary design.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight.50 9. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments. .9 of the book.75 in.x0. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. and a 40 in. 9.x1.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. check the adequacy of this preliminary design. plate is selected for the web.

9.109 Design of Plate Girders 9. single stiffeners b.10. 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.10. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. 9. using a.10. double stiffeners . 9.50 in. x 0.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.

- Concrete Beam with Openings.pdf
- ARC REINFORCEMENT HANDBOOK 6ed 2010.pdf
- Environmental Quality in Design of Civil Works Projects
- Guidelines for Landscape Planting at Floodwalls, Levees & Embankment Dams
- Lock and Dam Gate Operating and Control Systems-Change2
- EM 1110-2-2102 Waterstops and Other Preformed Joint Materials for Civil Works Structures
- Navigation Locks - Fire Protection Provisions
- Hydropower Change 1-Change
- Lubricant and Hydraulic Fluids-Change1
- Lubricant and Hydraulic Fluids-Change2
- Lock and Dam Gate Operating and Control Systems-Change1
- Planning and Design of Hydroelectric Power Plant Structures
- Environmental Engineering for Small Boat Basins
- Navigation Locks - Fire Protection Provisions
- EM 1110-2-1914 Design, Construction and Maintenance of Relief Wells
- Guidelines
- Construction Cost Management Learning From Case Studies
- 1332
- คู่มือด้านจัดสรรน้ำ
- kc_PenMon_2551
- KM_book2
- Concrete Repair Method
- Agri Water Requirement
- Dg6 Concrete Crack

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Introduction to Plate Girder Design
- Design of Plate Girders
- Plate Girder
- Plate and Box Girder Design
- Design of Gantry Girder
- Plate Girder Bridges
- Designs Guide to en 1994-2, Eurocode 4
- Eurocode Design Example Book
- THE BEHAVIOUR AND DESIGN OF STEEL STRUCTURES TO EC3 (4th EDITION)
- Gantry Girder
- civl432_plate_girder_design
- Lecture Notes 11 Design of Plate Girder
- Gusset Plate Design
- Design of Welded Structures
- Steel Structures - Design Behaviour by Salmon Johnson
- Moment of Inertia of Cracked Section
- Crane Beam Design
- Eurocode Load Combinations for Steel Structures 2010
- Single-storey Steel Buildings - Steel Buildings in Europe
- Engg Ref Book
- CIDECT Design Guide 9
- Reinforced Concrete Design (Limit State) - By Varghese P.C.
- STAAD.pro Advanced Training Manual
- Design of Steel Structures
- Structural Connections according to Eurocode 3.pdf
- Gantry Girder Unprotected
- Design of Steel Structure by Arya & Ajmani
- Steel Design Handbook
- HighriseReinforced_ConcreteStructures
- eurocode - cara mengerjakan jembatan rangka baja
- Plate Girder Design