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9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design
Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building
Design of Plate Girders
Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder
Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates
Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections
Figure 9.5 Welded box girder
Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder
of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:
Design of Plate Girders
1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).
7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. Figure 9. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. As mentioned in the previous section. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior.Design of Plate Girders 4 9.
9.7(a). a redistribution of stresses occurs. Consequently. In this truss. however. She/he should.7(b). 9. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. will not result in its failure. 9.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). . For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. The Pratt truss of Fig. after the shear instability of the web takes place. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig.7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. In fact. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension.7(a). after the web panels buckle in shear. It will then be able to carry additional loads. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. As shown in Fig. the instability of the web plate panels. 9. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased.
however. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. In design of plate girders. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design.12). 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. Of course. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). As a general guideline. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. 9.2) (9. the final design can be achieved quickly. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. However. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate.
Figure 9. The next step is to choose the web thickness. 9.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. however. In this book. the depth of the web plate will be known. 2.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. which is presented in Sec. our approach is interactive design. In calculating the shear strength of the web. After the h/L ratio has been selected. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1.12.
. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. according to ASD G1. To satisfy this requirement. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate.8. 9. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. the compressive force F1.9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. as shown in Fig.
This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1. 9. α2 is much larger than α1. h 2.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4.5h (9.9. To satisfy the second criterion.89 ≤ 0.5)]1 / 2 (9. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16.9.6) where .9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners. For high-strength steel. Fv = Fy C v 2. 9.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.
Design of Plate Girders
45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2
when Cv ≤ 0.8
190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +
(9.7) when Cv > 0.8
when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0
Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0
(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)
The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)
Design of Plate Girders
Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "
Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w
After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw
and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:
Design of Plate Girders
83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =
152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y
548 Fy <
h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)
h 380 ≤ tw Fy
It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.
9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES
9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb
In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and
16) and (9.18) and solving for Af.18) By equating Eqs. Aw = tw h is the web area.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5. 9. (9.19) In this equation.1 in the text). The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9. .17) where bf is the width of the flange plate.4.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. tf is the thickness of the flange plate. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5. The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange.
05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % . We may round this thickness to a commercially available size.19) and solving for tf. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9.23). (9. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. . for example.46 (9.22) into Eq.. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9.22) Substituting Eq. (9.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq. Therefore. in many cases.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. we find the required flange width bf from Eq.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. However. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate.19). as a fraction of 1/16 in. (9. (9.
Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange.4.0 − 0. & # A . we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq.5. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . 9. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by .24) In this equation. 5. as discussed in Sec. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. (9.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. When h/tw < 970 / F y . h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. Aw is the web area.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9.
Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ .0.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress.0 ! ! " (9. Equation (9. a more complicated analysis is required.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. Otherwise. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. α= 0. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . fb = M max S < Fb' (9. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. Re = 1.26) 9.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.0. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 .5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. For nonhybrid girders.
Design of Plate Girders
stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)
&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv
) ' ' (
where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners
During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)
Design of Plate Girders
Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners
where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy
4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0
Design of Plate Girders
, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +
) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (
The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).
9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS
According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close
11). 9.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners . For end bearing stiffeners. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. 9. Figure 9. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. Therefore.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. Thus. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig.11).31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. fcb.
75. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds. Figure 9.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. As a result. r. 9.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.7. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. . Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure.
2).34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. 5. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is . the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9.
36) Substituting for value of q 1 .35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. from Eq. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate. and q 2 = w into Eq. (9. as shown in Fig. 9.23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.36).414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. If we denote the length Figure 9.36). the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. (9.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .13.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. (9.707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9.
(9.35) and (9.39). When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq. a minimum amount of welding is used. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. however.36). a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. (9. According to ASD G4. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. respectively. and ww. 9.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs.7. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9. As a result. at least equal to .Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners.40) .39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1.12)]. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. (9. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. L1.
15) Figure 9.707 Fv 2. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. respectively.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi.41) When single stiffeners are used. (9. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. 9. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side . welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection. Furthermore.40).14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig. 9.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.
Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look.16.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.43) Similarly. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1. as shown in Fig.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2. 9.44) Figure 9. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.707 Fv 1. for the case of single stiffeners.
In fact. Moreover.16).45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig.16).8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. 9.1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from .17 is covered in this section. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange.8. 9. (9. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4). 9. 9. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness.
Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support.17 9. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. 9.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. at the point of application of concentrated load. 9. assume that it is restrained against rotation. Figure 9. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners. Lateral support is provided at supports.8.67 = 633. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.18. For welds.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466.
4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. .19.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B. Therefore.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 .x1 = A = = 116. Mmax = Mc = 466.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 . 9.67(100) .
Try tw = 0.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.2). 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.47 in. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners. (9. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners.4) yield values close to each other. from Eq.5 d. Eqs. 12 12 From Eq. when a ≤ 1.8.t w ≥ = 0. (9. tw 333.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. . that is.000 ≤ = 322.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.45 in. (9.5 in. for the web plate.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.3 .0 .19 Bending moment diagram 9. In other words.t w ≥ = 0. (9.3): h 150 14. or PL150 in.x0.3) and (9.5 in.
(9.667)(12) 75 − = 94. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. 970 h = 300 > = 161. say.17 in.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 .2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0. kc = 4.19). (9.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. to Fb = 20 ksi.46 for h > 70 tw .60Fy = 22 ksi. can be computed approximately from Eq.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat. Af = bf t f = (26. 9. we may decrease Fb = 0.24).22).05 (h / t w ) 0.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.8. tw Aw = 75 in. The required flange area.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. (9. Af.
46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.17): .20 kc = 4. 9.2. The girder section is shown in Fig.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.20. From Eq.5 in. for each flange.34 in. 294 $ tf = (94.x2. Af = 95 in. (9.294 (300) 0.05 = 0. Try PL38 in.
25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.687 Region DC is the critical region.19). 9. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.5) 3 = 1.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.5).6 in.5)(75 + 1.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9.245.17 and 9. 9.396 = = 16.069. . This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.245. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.31 in.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.5/26. M1/M2.667 = -0. 5.4 S= I 1.333.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.396 in. is zero (Figs.46) 38 = 10.
91 ksi < 20.17 < 2.05(-0.687)2 = 1.687)+0.3(-0.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.K. 102.000)(1. & .667)(12) = = 19.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.6 S O. . 530 .30 .2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .75 + 1.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128. 510. 510.39 ksi 21.55 ksi 3 1 .24).000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58. 102.000)(1. 150 − Fb' = $1.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26. 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.05(M1/M2)+0.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510. 000 C 3 1 .31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58. 000 ( 1 .55 = 20. (9.75+1.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.39 ksi 16.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .0 − 0. 75 ) .Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.3(M1/M2)2 = 1.069. 530 .2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( .
(9.35 Design of Plate Girders 9. 2. (9.8): .7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.34 45. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.89 Fv (2. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 . Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.000 (36)(0.89)(6.5 < 0.14)].000 kv = = From Eq.8 36 Fy From Eq. (9. a.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.22 ksi in Eq.67 = = 6. At the left end fv = R A 466. Cv = 2.22) = = 0.8.6) and solve for Cv.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9. (9.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.
5.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( . Figure 9.81 − 4 ( = 0. At the right end fv = RB 633.34 45.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .41(150) = 61. Tentatively.81 > 9.000 1/ 2 a .44) = = 0.89 Fv (2.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.41 amax = 0.33 = = 8. 5.8 in.Design of Plate Girders 36 a . amax = 0.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.44 ksi 75 Aw 2. from the left end A.89)(8. 5.345(150) = 51.678 < 0.34 ) =* ' + 48.345 in.3 in. b. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in. 5.678)(300) 2 = 48.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.
From Eq. 3 Figure 9. (9.22). Equation (9. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in. x 2½ in. 9. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. (9. Web: PL150 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. from the left end B. 9. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. x 12 ft 4 in.6 in. 2 2 amax = 112. x /16 in. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners. x 12 ft 6 in.22 Final design Tentatively. x ½ in.22) . x 12 ft 4 in.6 in. x 1 /16 in.5 in. Bearing stiffeners at A. so the latter need not be checked. and C: 2PL18 in. x /16 in.11).10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. a. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. 3.10) controls over Eq.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. B.
(Fig.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .000)(14.K.207 36 & $0.22).90) = 0. 9.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .207 < 0.0 + 5.04 = 9.67 − 12 (4) = 450. .8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.67 − 12 (4) = 451.0 + = 14.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.90 2 (a / h) (0.67 = = 6.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + 0.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.62 ksi > f v = 6.7) 2 = Cv = 45.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.34 5.34 = 4 .3 are satisfied. (9.02 ksi O. Fv = # 1 − 0.7 ) " = 2. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466. to 45 in. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466. 9.58 + 7.
22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.193 < 0.33 − 12 (4) = 620.34 = 4. to 50 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig. b.22). and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.34 5. (9.33 − 12 (4) = 616.93) = 0.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example. (Fig. 9.12): . 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. 9.0 + 5.0 + = 13.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.93 2 (0.66 = = 8.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.000)(13.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.
89 % 1.375 9.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26.18 and 9.K.375 F v + ) 5.K. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.667)(12)(75) = = 19. fv = VC 433.05 = 9.733 ) " = 2. fv Fb = * * 0. (9.245.193 36 & $0. 9.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq. The critical section for this check is either at point C.78 ) . Check combined shear and bending in the web. 4.19).45 ksi > f v = 8. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig. ' ' F y = * 0.396 I O.825 − 0. (9.27 ksi < Fb = 21.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.825 − 0. 9.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.15(1 + 0.44 ksi 1.22 ksi O. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.40 + 7.22. .45 ' (36) = 21.30)].30)]: . or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.33 = = 5.
Also.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C.56 in. For region EC. From Eq. 6. (9. and between C and F is a = 110 in. (9.8ts in Eq.7 2 (150)(0.5)(1 − 0.62 ( % = 5. 9.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. Select the intermediate stiffeners. (9. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h.7 ) "+ 9.27). (Fig.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15.2 bs t s = 5.02 ) 1 0 . 5.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied.56 / 2 = 2. such a check may be necessary. (9.47) . because fb/Fb = 0. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one.27): Ast = & #.78 in. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.90 is considerably less than one. a.22).207) $0.2 From Eq. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq. (9.
Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.8t s Minimum t s = (3.2 bs t s = 7.45 ( % = 7. For region CF.7 in.7/16 in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).89 / 2 = 3.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web.5) = 148 in. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O. x 7/16 in.89 in. Use 2PL6½ in. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.419 in. = 12 ft 4 in. (9. b. 9.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. Try 2PL6½ in. .Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.733 2 (150)(0.2 bs = 15.193) $0.5)(1 − 0.94 in. 8.K. 4 > 81 in.5 × 2 + 0.22 ) 1 0. x 7/16 in. From Eq. h ) .28). = 6.27): Ast = & #.8)1 / 2 = 0.733 ) "+ 9. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).5) 3 = 89. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0.5 in. .8)1 / 2 = 0.78 / 15.94 / 15. 9.
8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18. 1. and the thickness of the web is 0.2 . 9.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in. (9. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates.6. 9. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466.2 b.75 in.375) + 12(0.8. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in.5 in.22). Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. 15.375 in. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C). Moment of inertia check is not needed.14 in. x 13/16 in. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC. Abs = 21. From Eq.67 Kips. for the left support. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in..5) 2 = 45. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio).2 = 1. x 9/16 in. = in.8 16 Try 2PL18 in.
= factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .96 ) 1 .1 > KL r F.1 ( 8 + 126.26 r .5) 19 16 3 = 4812.06 / 45.75 = 10.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36. 9.75(150) = = 10. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.96 10. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.1 ( = 1.11 ksi Actual axial stress: .699 ( % % = 21.26 in.S.S. 10. KL 0. 10.96 ) 2 # .699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .1 ( " ! + 1. 10.06 in.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.
2.K. Use 2PL18 in. P = 500 Kips. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support. x 12 ft 6 in. x 13/16 in. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. however.11 ksi 45. 9..20 ksi < 21. x 13/16 in. less than the depth of the web plate.84 ksi < Fa = 21.75 O. is less than RB. the same as for the left support.33 = = 13. x 12 ft 6 in.11 ksi Aeff 45. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners.75 Aeff O.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in. The bearing stiffener.21) is larger than that of the end . Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. say ¼ in. Use 2PL18 in. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. and the effective area (Fig.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. 3.67 = = 10. fa = RB 633.K. x 13/16 in. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly.
4) # 2 ( 150 2 . (ASD J2b).51L1 (9. 8.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0. . Vmax = RB = 633.25 in. 2 & (633.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length.33) 2 (95) 2 .5 in. L1min = 1. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww. we obtain a1 = 2.396) L1 ww % = 1.5-in. x 12 ft 6 in.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.245.8.5 in. flange plate is 5/16 in.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2. Try ww = 5/16 in. the length of weld segment L1.4). for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1. (Sec. we can use the same 2PL18 in.5 and ASD Table J2.) and 1.3. Substituting this value into the previous equation.39).33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. (9. 9. x 13/16 in.
04 in. spacing. 10-in.8.02 ksi. long. 6. From Eq.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in.43): .02 ) * ' = 3. (9.48). Try 5/16-in. From Eq. 9. Use 5/16-in.40): Fv = 9. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0. (ASD D2). long. From Eq. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . we obtain a1 = 10. 4 in.62 ( We use intermittent welds. a max = 12 in. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.22) f v = 6.62 ksi . (9.5 in. (9. 9. weld.23 ksi + 9. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . weld. 4 in. For segment EC (Fig.8.
a max = 24t s or 12 in. 2.49) we obtain L1 = 2.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.05439 a1 2. weld.-thick plate is 3/16 in.828(21) (9.50) L1 ww 4. Fv = 9.50 = = 0. .5 in. 3. 10-in.45 ksi 3/ 2 . a max = 12 in.5 in.5 ksi + 9.5 in.90 in.45 ( (9. 8. Use 3/16-in.828 Fv 2. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in.22 ) * ' = 4. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( . (9. For segment CF (Fig. long. spacing.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3.5 in. 9.0 in.22) f v = 8.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.0757 a1 2.23 = = = 0. From Eq. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.-thick plate is ¼ in. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. L1min = 1. = 1.22 ksi.
12-in. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in.49) = 96. 9. 4 in. Try ww = 5/16 in. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in. weld. (9. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. > Vmax = 633.50) = 675 Kips O. Use 5/16-in. x 13/16 in.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in. spacing. fillet weld = 0. Use ¼-in.64 K/in.707(16 = 4. From Eq. long.64) = 2784 Kips O.63 in. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in.50) we obtain L1 = 3.8.89 Kips .490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. for each pair of bearing stiffeners.K. x 12 ft 6 in. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. 3. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4.K.9.
Design of Plate Girders 50 .1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.9. Selection of the Web Plate . 9. 36 ksi).5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0. 9.19).49) = 38.73 = 145. 3. 9.0)](0.18 and 9.5)( 16 )(148. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.1 is desired except that 1.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.49/123) = 9. 2.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.9. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs.26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148. 9. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.26 + 9.2.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.8.
we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in. when a ≤ 1.9. For the selected web plate.5d.62 in.8 For closely spaced stiffeners.53 in.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in.e. (9.5d. tw 282. From Eq. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137. (9.. 9.375 in. for the web plate.000 150 ≤ = 242.8 . from Eq.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.18 < 9 ) = 84. we have h 800 = = 266.24). or PL150 in.t w ≥ = 0.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.3 Selection of Flange Plates First.t w ≥ = 0.5)] 242.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266. x 9/16 in. taking into account the reduction of the .8 . 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16. i. (9.67 .3): h 14.
5(0. (9.5(0.5α 3 From Eq.72) 3 = 0.55 in.51) where β = 1.5α − 0. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.53) Combining Eqs. .24).893)(84.60 Fyw / Fb = 0. (9.54) In this example: α = 0.72) − 0.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.51) and (9.375) − = 58.52) (9.893 Af = (26.53) and solving Af.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq. (9.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.2 (0.22).72 < 1. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.0 β = 1. (9.6(36) / 30 = 0.667)(12) (0.
53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0. (9.363 in. Try PL30 in.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.2 Check Eq.980 6 + 1.05 = = 0. (9.893(1.46 (h / t ) (266.363 I = = 11.310 0. Af = 60 in.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0. for each flange plate.60Fyf = 0. x 2 in.67) 0.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.24): Aw 84.31 = 15.406 60.375 = = 1.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.7 in.056.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.31 tf =$ (58.05 4.98 in.406 .406) = 0.
Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .0005)* '(266.2 = 920. A f = (31)(2.056.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.7 N.1 in.0 − (0.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2. 84.492.893(1.980) + 60.981 6 + 1.0 ( % " = 26.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.492.375 = = 1.125) = 65. x 21/8 in.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.K.G.667)(12) = = 28. 4 S= 920.0 O.94 ksi > 26.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.875 in.76 ksi fb = M max (26. for each flange. Try PL31 in. Aw 84.76 )! (0.76 ksi S 11. (9. (9.24). Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.281 .125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.8 = 11.8 in.67 − 138.935.281 A f (31)(2.281) = 0.
4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. from Eq.6) for the allowable shear stress.981) + 65.4 in. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig. Use PL31 in.0005)* '(266.02 ksi fb = M max (26.40 F y = 14.53 ksi < 0.9.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.17). the design cannot be based on tension-field action. 84. 9.875 ( % " = 27.67 = = = 5.667)(12) = = 26. (9.1 O.60 in.0 − (0.935.67] (150) = 142.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.25) = 231.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. 1.K.67 − 138. and we must use Eq.76)! (0. for each flange. (9.375 .55 Design of Plate Girders & # .5d = 1. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C. Af = 65. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders. Also.875 in.5(150 + 4. fv = Vmax R A 466.5(h + 2tf) = 1.2 9. x 21/8 in.
8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.89)(5. between A and C (Fig.23).501 amax = 0.603)(266.89 Fv ( 2.6): Cv = From Eq.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.33 = = = 7.51) = = 0.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 2.30 > 9.444 < 0.89 Fv ( 2.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .2 in.8 36 Fy = (36)(0. fv = Vmax R B 633.444)(266. (9. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B.89)(7.34 45.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq. Use a = 75 in.67) 2 = 25.34 45.53) = = 0.8): a .000 .40 ksi Aw Aw 84.40 F y = 14.26 > 9. 5.51 ksi < 0.603 < 0.375 2.67) 2 = 34.501(150) = 75. 5. 9. (9. 2.000 (36)(0. (9.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.34 ) =* ' + 25.
34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .28) and (9. Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. 5. In other words. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary.42(150) = 63 in.57 Design of Plate Girders a . (9. 9. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs.23). 3. First.30)] is not required for hybrid girders.42 amax = 0. Selection of intermediate stiffeners. between C and B (Fig.29). let us consider the case of single stiffeners. Use a = 60 in. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. the combined shear and bending check [Eq.34 ) =* ' + 34.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. 5.55) . (9.
000727 h( F y ) 0. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. x 1 in.56) Finally. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7. (9. (9.55) and (9.57) In the case of double stiffeners. B.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.375 (9. equating Eqs. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs.55) yields I st = 285. x 12 ft 6 in.5 in. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A. Figure 9.56) by 2.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . (9.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.000865h( F y ) 0. x /16 in. x 12 ft 3 /4 in.28) and (9. (9.375 (9.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq. x 21/8 in.29) into Eq. Web: PL150 in.56) and solving for ts. and C: 2PL15 in. x /16 in.
x 12 ft 3¾ in. for stiffeners on one side. t ) 1 . 9 ) = * ' * 7. From Eq.000865(150)(36) 0. 4 4 3 9.K.5 in.375 = 0. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in. Try PL7. x 9/16 in.50 in.9. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. < 88.75 in. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . (9.5 Bearing Stiffeners . x 9/16 in.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners.90 in. + 16 ( Use PL7.5 + ' = 88.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. = 12 ft 33/4 in.3 in. 9 ).3 in. O. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. h) .5 in.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8. for stiffeners on one side. Try ts = 9/16 in. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( .
as given in ASD J2.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.9.49)/144 = 67. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student. needs to be used.875)(150)(0.5)(147. however.6.25 + 43. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds.07 = 110.3.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec. The answer: Use 2PL15 in. x 1 in. 9.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65. Eq.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.49/123) = 8. (9.32 + 8. x 12 ft 6 in.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.49)/144 = 43.39 Kips . Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.9.75)](0.8.25 Kips )(0.2b and covered in Sec.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.07 = 118. 9. 8. 9.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.
What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. Figure 9.75 in.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.24 . Consider bending only. x 0. 9. The length of the span is 150 ft.24.
9. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.8 in.739 in.739 = = 5014.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.3).3 50 + 17.95 67.4.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec. I x = 934 in.18 0. . 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33. 4 = 340.8(50 + 17. 9.5 in.24.26 in.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.95 − 4. A = 33.8 > = = 137.760 in.60 F yf = 0.69) = = 177.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.01) 2 ] + 12 (0.
133.84 ksi + 20.8 − 20.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.0 − 0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.75 in.23 + 0.952) = 25.115) + (100)(0.0 − 0.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & . 101. 9.26) = 20.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.1 in.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.1) /( 20.1 ) .26 = 0. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.1 / 20.75) = 101.952 12 + 2(101.47)(1.2 4 α= 0.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.75 ( + 0.75)(0.490)/144 = 0.72 − 0.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .75) 3 × 0.
Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. Figure 9.25): W = 3.84)(5014.5) − 0. . the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.49 = 3.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore.49 = 3.35 + 0.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig. 9.
4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.4 ksi Aw 101.229)(177.85) = = 0.1 ft .89 = fv 2.98h = 2.7).40 F y = 14.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.11).79 − 5.10) and (9. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. ) =* ' + 5.85 ksi < 0.89)(2. (9.69) = 397. a .8).79 < 9.89 f v (2.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.6) and solve for Cv.34 ( 1/ 2 4 . (9.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.34 45.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2. a max = 2. (9.98(2)(66.8) 2 = 5. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.229 < 0.5 in.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.000 (36)(0. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq. = 33. (9.000 k= = Now.
260 ) .26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27. 9.77 ft. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.8 ' (133. the governing limit is amax = 23.38) = 285. Use a= (150)(12) = 257.Design of Plate Girders 66 and . Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore. = 23.5 ksi. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports.1 in.22 in.
08) 2 h = 100 in.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .5 in.8): k = 5.77 2 (a / h) (1.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq.197 < 0. (9.7): Cv = 45.77) 45. (9.34 + 4 4 = 5. a = 1.34 + = 8.000k = = 0. t w = 0.000(8. Find Cv from Eq.
733(11.89 $ 1 .61) = 8.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.12).068(50) / 8.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.61 ksi < 0.825 − 0.51 = 0.068 F y + 0. (9.5 ksi = 0. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0. 9.5) = 425. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.733Fv = 0. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.068 F y / f v = 0. fv Fb = * * 0.232 F y = 11.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .4 + 2.51)(100)(0.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.55 F y ( .) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .
5 h h = tw .000 F yf for a > 1. 1998). the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.2 and LRFD Appendix F2. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5. In particular.5 h (9.11. 9.10.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.60) for a ≤ 1. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. when the design is without the tension-field action.11.10.5)]1 / 2 2.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.69 Design of Plate Girders 9.
3) and (9.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders.61) is the hybrid girder factor.61) Coefficient Re in Eq. Limit state of tension-flange yield. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9. 9.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. 1.0 12 + 2a r (9.4) for the ASD code. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.62) .9 is used for the resistance factor φb.11. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb. (9. (9. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. At the present time a constant value of 0.
6).24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.3.64) corresponds to Eq. the limit state of WLB does .0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. (9. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .3.4. there exist three limit states of buckling.3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. Note that Eq. In Eq. (9. (9. and web local buckling (WLB). In general. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. flange local buckling (FLB).h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. 2.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB).64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. 9.
1 for beams. F yf Fcr = & 1 . λp.000C b (9. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9. 3.67) λr = (9.10. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5. (9.69) . and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. and λr. λr. a. However.68) C PG = 286. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. λp.66) λp = (9.63).Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq.65) λ2 The quantities λ.
(5.72) kc = (9.70) λp = (9.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.74) (9. b.763 (9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.71) λr = (9. We will derive an approximate but explicit . Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.61) and (9. 9.11.35).35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.0 (9.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.
(9.61) and (9.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs. (9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical .76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq.18) into Eq. (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.76) Now. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters. (9.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9.
we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. For the limit state of LTB. (9. (9. In Sec. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: . (9.81) For the limit state of FLB. and (9.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value).80) Substituting for rT from Eq. the requirement of Eqs. and (9. (9. (9. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. and a compromise must be made.65).65).81) and (9.82) often cannot be met simultaneously.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf. we must have [Eqs. .67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9.82) Note that for a given required Af. (9. we must have [Eqs.46) into this equation.70). For the economical design of plate girders.13. 9. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9.66).
kv 0. where φv = 0.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9. the design shear strength is φvVn.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.9 is the shear resistance factor.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.11.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.85) .6 Aw F yw for Vn = .Design of Plate Girders 76 9. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.
as well as when relation .6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. (9. where the resistance factor φv is 0. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.9.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.11.84) Equation (9.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.87) 44.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0. In these cases. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.86) 0.0 ≥ Cv > 0.6.
φv is 0.6 Aw F yw C v (9.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9.7. For design based on tension-field action. the tension-field action is not allowed.85) holds.6φ v Aw F yw C v (18.104.22.168) In Eq. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads. When transverse stiffeners are required.90) (9. (9. Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.91) . the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .90). and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5.88) 9.
9. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.375 φM n φV n (9.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.93) 9.625 u ≤ 1.9.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.11.94) In this expression φ = 0. 9. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0. .5.92) where & 2. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec. 2.3) 3 I st = at w j (9.
1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.12. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1. Eq.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs. 9.2 K/ft P = 1. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.6(1) = 5.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.8 on the basis of the LRFD code. respectively. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .2 PD + 1.12. (2.7. 2.12.2(400) + 1.2w D + 1. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9. 9.6 w L = 1.28.2).2(3) + 1.6 PL = 1.27 and 9.
28 Bending moment diagram . Vmax = Vu = 816.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.12.67 Kips 9. 12 12 From Eq.000 K-in.3 K-ft = 412.27 Shear diagram Figure 9.333.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34. (9.60) Figure 9.
Selection of the Flange Plates 1.5h for a ≤ 1.47 in. (9.5 in.000 − = 72. from Eq. We find an approximate flange area from Eq. h tw = 300.9(150)(36) 12 (9.12. 322 322 Try tw = 0.2 0. (9.50 in.0 in.0 333. for the web plate.4. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412.3) = 45. or PL150 in.3 in. Aw = 75 in.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322. 2 9.3 for a > 1. Preliminary selection of the flange plates.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72. x 0.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0.96) .79). (9.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.
1 in.97) To begin with. Therefore.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. 2..97).3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50. Af = 80 in. (9. based on Eq. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. (9.82): t f ≥ (72.83 in. try bf = 40 in.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1.87 rT 10.838 in.064. (9.829. try tf = 2 in. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders.74 in.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. only the latter needs to be checked.4 Sx = I x 1. Then. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.0 .838 = = 13. based on Eq.064.95). (9.
551.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .33(87.5(34.9 ft-K = 603.0 − 50. 55.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.624.17) is the critical segment.885.7 ft-K = 603.00 )# = (1.1) = 1.885.33(62.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.3) 2.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.2)(87.87 − 50.5(34.1 ft-K = 603. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.5M max 12.35).2)(75) 2 = 30.2)(62.624.5) 2 = 27. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.3) + 3(27.333.5) 2 = 32.00 (" = 38.333.7) + 3(32.551.9) + 4(30. (5.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2. 9.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.
85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0. is acceptable for the flange plate. and PL40 in.K.9(0.633 K-in. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: .912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0.829. If the section were not O. x 2.1)(36.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.. ) .00) = 408. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10.000 K-in.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + .0 in. b.912)(13. we would have to increase the area of the flange.
6(0.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu. 9. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69.12.000)(5) = 0.27). ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required.9)(75)(36)(0. (9.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. 9.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. (9.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9. 2. (9. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44.98) We can use Eq. a. Check Eq. .5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1. Check Eq.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.67 tw F yw 36 b.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.
At the right end: a max = 55.7 in.8 From Eq.33 /[0.47 From Eq. At the left end: Vu = 603.443h = 0. b. (9. Tentatively.4138 < 0. .443 a max = 0.9V n Kips From Eq.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25.9)(75)(36)] = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.443(150) = 66.87 Design of Plate Girders a.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.000 = (300) 2 (0. from the left end A.4138)(36) / 44.88): C v = Vu /[0.47)]1 / 2 = 0. from the right end B. (9.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44. Tentatively. (9.6(0.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.4 in. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.000 = 30.
Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2. As in the example of Sec. (9. a .000(22.214.171.124): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15. (9.87): Cv = 44. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0.5 in.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.20) = 0.75h = 0.86): .000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.75(150) = 112. a. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end).22): Try a = 105 in. 9.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5. 9. a/h = 0.. similar to Fig.20 2 ( 0 . 9.Design of Plate Girders 88 3. From Eq. (9.7.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq.20 36 = 152. 260 ) .
15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.15(1 + 0. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually. 9.6φVn = (0.33 − 12 (5.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1. M n = 465. Vn = 1230. Vu = 556. we find a = 110 in. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.194.22. 9.487 K-in.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.000 K-in.6(75)(36) $0.22). to be satisfactory..206 = 0.83 Kips < φ vVu O. 9.2) = 583.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.. Check shear and bending interaction. Vu = 795 Kips 4. a very small distance to the right of point C).2 Kips. b. M u = 412.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.9)(1230) = 664. Similar to case a.K. C v = 0.67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0. .8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig.6)(0.9(1250.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0. an interaction check is not necessary.0 Kips.
The . (9.10) = 40.93): j= 2 .Design of Plate Girders 90 5.101).99) is minimal.100) (9. From Eq.14 in.99) a/h = 0.7.206 From Eq. (9.5 −2= − 2 = 3.07 in.91): 583.0)(150)(0. (9.5 2 (0. Region EC: a = 105 in. 2 From Eq. (9.5 2 .101) The area requirement of Eq. a.10 ≥ 0.5) 3 (3.69 in.100) and (9.7) 2 ( a / h) (9. 36 ) & Ast = $0.15(1.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0. Select intermediate stiffeners..8 ts 36 (9. C v = 0.83 #. (9. 2 bs t s = 0.5)(1 − 0. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0. Therefore.206) − 18(0.
(9. RB = 816. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C.101) is ts = 3/8 in. Region CF: a = 110 in. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in.K.5 in.5 in. for all bearing stiffeners. 4 O.. 4 ≥ 40.6. x 3/8 in.733 The answer is the same as for region EC. Use 2PL5.5 in. x 3/8 in. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. b.101): bs ≤ 5.12.375)(11 + 0. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have . (9.67 Kips.5 in. From Eq.5) 3 = 47. From Eq..69 in. and the thickness of the web is 0.53 in.100): 1 I st = 12 (0. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B. 9. Bearing stiffeners at supports. 1.92 in. x 3/8 in. (9. Use 2PL5. Try 2PL5.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. a/h = 0.100) and (9.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1.
x 1¼ in.85(1807. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.17 Kips O.50 in.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.7 Kips > R B = 816.658 λc ) F y = (0.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.37 r 10. Abs = 23.75) + 12(0.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.85 KL . x 1¼ in.85 in.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.75)(150) = = 10.4 / 50.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.658 0.9) = 1536. x 12 ft 6 in.K. .5) 3 = 5944.20 in. 36 = 10. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.5) 2 = 50.50)(35. (9. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load. Use 2PL19 in. 95 Try 2PL19 in..9 Kips φ c Pn = 0. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 . KL (0.116 )(36) = 35.4 in.75 in.80) = 1807.50 = 10.37* * 29. 2.116 < 1.
49/123) 4 = 8.8 = 128.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. This applet consists of three windows: input window. at the location of concentrated load.12.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes. 9. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.49) = 38.5)( 8 )(148)](0.29). output window and control window (Fig.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. 9. x 12 ft 6 in.7 + 38. . x 1¼ in.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.3 = 120.8. Use 2PL19 in.0 + 8.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.49) = 81. 9. Therefore.
Stiffeners panel.30b. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. To design a hybrid girder. Width. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values.30a). the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. 9. 5. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. for example. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec.29). 9. . the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. respectively. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. 9. However. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. Span length. For impractical values. Flange & Web panel. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. and Welds Panel.11). thickness.31.
95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.29 .
the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.30 .Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.
9. For example. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. the applet provides only one segment selection. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners. width. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. Initially. i. and thickness. 9. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig.e.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. Figure 9. Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.32a).31 .32). By default. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). the place of the 1st stiffener.
Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.32 .
If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. and elevation.33 Figure 9. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. Depending on the selection made by the user. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. 9.34 . sections.34). Figure 9. 9. and welds panels in the output window. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig.33.
Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .
9. 9. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.32a). size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. But. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. 9. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. . The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not.35).35a). length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. 9. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig.32b. and size. length. and size.35b.
and Girder Weight Panel (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. 9. 9. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders. ASD and LRFD. They are the method of design.37 The output window consists of loadings panel. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. .39). 9.29). Sections panel. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. and the web depth-to-span ratio. Welds panel. Elevation panel. Figure 9. 9. supports. 9. Similarly. Loadings panel displays the loadings. SFD (shear force diagram) panel.29 and 9.36). BMD (bending moment diagram) panel.37).38).
Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig.42). the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values. 9.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig. 9. 9. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window.43).39 .41) and a section within any segment (Fig. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9.40 and 9.41. respectively as shown in Figs. 9.
The results shown in Figs.44). Figure 9. 9. The example data used in Figs. 9. 9. The results are presented in Figs.37 to 9. 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9.8.29 to 9.45 to 9.41 .40 Figure 9.49.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig.44 are for the same problem also.9 also has been solved by the applet. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.
44 .105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.43 Figure 9.42 Figure 9.
47 .Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.46 Figure 9.45 Figure 9.
50. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners.14 PROBLEMS 9.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. E. as shown in Fig.49 9. as indicated on the figure. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. 9. Use A36 steel .1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3.48 Figure 9. and F.
Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. plate is selected for the web. and a 40 in.50 9.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan. 9. plate is selected for each flange.5 in. a 180 in. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. check the adequacy of this preliminary design. 9. .x0.x1.75 in. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.9 of the book. Figure 9. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. Based on a preliminary design.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight.
9. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in.50 in. 9.10. single stiffeners b. using a.10. double stiffeners . 9.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.109 Design of Plate Girders 9. 9.10. x 0.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.
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