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9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design
Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building
Design of Plate Girders
Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder
Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates
Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections
Figure 9.5 Welded box girder
Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder
of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:
Design of Plate Girders
1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).
a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . As mentioned in the previous section. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate.Design of Plate Girders 4 9. Figure 9. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior.
9. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. will not result in its failure. 9.5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. the instability of the web plate panels. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential.7(a).7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. Consequently. after the web panels buckle in shear. 9.7(b). acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996). 9.7(a). It will then be able to carry additional loads. however. . designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. She/he should. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. due to the lack of sufficient experiment results. The Pratt truss of Fig. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. a redistribution of stresses occurs. In fact. As shown in Fig. In this truss. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. after the shear instability of the web takes place. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss.
9.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio. we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design. As a general guideline. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. however.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. However. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6.12). 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. In design of plate girders. Of course.2) (9. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. the final design can be achieved quickly. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10.
however. 2. our approach is interactive design. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. which is presented in Sec.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action .7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. the depth of the web plate will be known. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. Figure 9. After the h/L ratio has been selected. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth. In calculating the shear strength of the web. The next step is to choose the web thickness. 9. In this book.12.
9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. .8. To satisfy this requirement.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. according to ASD G1. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. as shown in Fig. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf. the compressive force F1. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. 9.
5h (9. To satisfy the second criterion.9.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2. For high-strength steel. 9.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1. we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9.6) where .4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.89 ≤ 0. h 2. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig. α2 is much larger than α1. Fv = Fy C v 2.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14.9. 9.5)]1 / 2 (9. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.
Design of Plate Girders
45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2
when Cv ≤ 0.8
190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +
(9.7) when Cv > 0.8
when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0
Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0
(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)
The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)
Design of Plate Girders
Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "
Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w
After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw
and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:
Design of Plate Girders
83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =
152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y
548 Fy <
h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)
h 380 ≤ tw Fy
It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.
9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES
9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb
In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and
we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. Aw = tw h is the web area.18) and solving for Af.16) and (9. tf is the thickness of the flange plate.19) In this equation. .13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. 9.1 in the text). The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus. (9.18) By equating Eqs. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling.4.
23).22) into Eq. (9.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. we find the required flange width bf from Eq. . as a fraction of 1/16 in. (9. However. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq.46 (9.20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate.19). we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % .. we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. for example.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate. in many cases.19) and solving for tf. this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9.22) Substituting Eq. (9. (9. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4. Therefore. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9.
4. 5.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . Aw is the web area.24) In this equation. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side. 9. as discussed in Sec. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support. & # A .5.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. (9. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y . The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange. no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1. When h/tw < 970 / F y .0 − 0. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq.
we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges. Otherwise. a more complicated analysis is required.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1.0 ! ! " (9.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 . and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered. When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. Equation (9. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary.26) 9.0.5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action.0. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. Re = 1.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of . α= 0. fb = M max S < Fb' (9.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same. For nonhybrid girders.
Design of Plate Girders
stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)
&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv
) ' ' (
where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners
During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)
Design of Plate Girders
Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners
where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy
4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0
Design of Plate Girders
, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +
) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (
The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).
9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS
According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close
For end bearing stiffeners. Figure 9. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9. Thus.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. Therefore. 9. shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa.11). They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. fcb.11). 9.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners .
otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis. . Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds.7.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load.75. Figure 9. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration. 9. As a result. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web. r.
34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. 5. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is . which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w.2).
as shown in Fig.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld .23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9. 9.36). (9.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld.13. we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1. from Eq.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. and q 2 = w into Eq.36).36) Substituting for value of q 1 . the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0. If we denote the length Figure 9. (9.707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used. (9.
12)].Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners. a minimum amount of welding is used. (9.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq.40) . in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. at least equal to . the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. 9. According to ASD G4. (9.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. (9.35) and (9. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. As a result. respectively. L1.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9.7.39).2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. however. and ww.36).
respectively. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side .25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi.15) Figure 9. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.707 Fv 2.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig.40). 9.41) When single stiffeners are used.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. Furthermore.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig. (9. 9.
707 Fv 1.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds . we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.16. for the case of single stiffeners.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. as shown in Fig.43) Similarly. 9. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1.44) Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look.
In fact.17 is covered in this section. 9. (9. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable.16). 9.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4). such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . Moreover.16).1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig. such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness. 9. 9.8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9. The girder has a span of L = 150 ft. Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig.8.
17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig.18.33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.67 = 633.8. 9. For welds. at the point of application of concentrated load. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A.17 9. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load. Figure 9. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners. assume that it is restrained against rotation. 9. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: . Lateral support is provided at supports.
Therefore.x1 = A = = 116. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 .67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.19. the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig. Mmax = Mc = 466.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B. .67(100) .29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 . 9.
tw 333. Eqs. (9.5 d. (9. we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.t w ≥ = 0.0 .8.2).4) yield values close to each other. for the web plate.45 in. 12 12 From Eq. (9.000 ≤ = 322. Try tw = 0.19 Bending moment diagram 9.3): h 150 14.x0.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9.5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners.5 in. .t w ≥ = 0. from Eq.5 in. that is.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333. In other words. or PL150 in.3 . when a ≤ 1.47 in. (9.3) and (9. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq.
to Fb = 20 ksi.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. 9. we may decrease Fb = 0.24).22). check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required. kc = 4.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced.8. (9.46 for h > 70 tw .05 (h / t w ) 0.19). Af = bf t f = (26.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 . (9.17 in.2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0. 970 h = 300 > = 161. say. (9.667)(12) 75 − = 94.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat. The required flange area.60Fy = 22 ksi. can be computed approximately from Eq. tw Aw = 75 in.67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. Af.
9. Af = 95 in.2.x2. Try PL38 in. The girder section is shown in Fig.294 (300) 0.17): . 294 $ tf = (94.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .5 in.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.20.20 kc = 4.05 = 0.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9. From Eq. (9. for each flange.34 in.
667 = -0.069.245.19). This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec.333. is zero (Figs. 5.4 S= I 1.5)(75 + 1.245. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments. .31 in.5/26. 9.687 Region DC is the critical region.5) 3 = 1.46) 38 = 10.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.6 in.5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2.396 in.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9. 9.17 and 9. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region. M1/M2.396 = = 16.5). rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.
05(-0.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0.55 ksi 3 1 . 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq. 75 ) .39 ksi 21.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.75+1.000)(1.3(M1/M2)2 = 1. & .74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.55 = 20.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .687)+0.17 < 2. 530 . 000 ( 1 .39 ksi 16.6 S O. 102.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .069.667)(12) = = 19. 102.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26.0 − 0.91 ksi < 20. 530 .17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.24). 150 − Fb' = $1.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1.75 + 1. 510. 000 C 3 1 .05(M1/M2)+0.2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21. (9.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.30 .3(-0.K.000)(1.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( . .17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128. 510.687)2 = 1.
5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.34 45. (9.14)].5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. (9.000 kv = = From Eq. Cv = 2.22 ksi in Eq. a.89 Fv (2.8 36 Fy From Eq. At the left end fv = R A 466. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq.5 < 0.000 (36)(0. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.22) = = 0.8.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end.6) and solve for Cv.35 Design of Plate Girders 9. (9. (9.67 = = 6.8): . 2.89)(6.
81 − 4 ( = 0.678 < 0.Design of Plate Girders 36 a .33 = = 8.000 1/ 2 a . Tentatively. 5. 5.44) = = 0.89)(8. 5. amax = 0.345 in. b.34 ) =* ' + 48.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.44 ksi 75 Aw 2.81 > 9.345(150) = 51. from the left end A. At the right end fv = RB 633.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 . place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.41 amax = 0.89 Fv (2.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .8 in.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .678)(300) 2 = 48.3 in. 5.41(150) = 61.34 45. Figure 9.
and C: 2PL18 in.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. Equation (9. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. so the latter need not be checked. B. x /16 in. (9. x 12 ft 6 in.6 in. Web: PL150 in. x 12 ft 4 in. x 12 ft 4 in.5 in. x 1 /16 in.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in. a.6 in. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners. x /16 in. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6. 2 2 amax = 112. from the left end B. 3 Figure 9.10) controls over Eq. 9. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. Bearing stiffeners at A.11).22 Final design Tentatively.22) . 9. x ½ in. From Eq. 3. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in.22). (9. x 2½ in. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in.
58 + 7.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.90) = 0.67 − 12 (4) = 450. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.34 5.04 = 9. (9.62 ksi > f v = 6. (Fig. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466. 9. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.3 are satisfied.000)(14. to 45 in.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.90 2 (a / h) (0.207 36 & $0. .0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.0 + 5.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.7) 2 = Cv = 45.207 < 0.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .67 = = 6.0 + = 14.7 ) " = 2.15(1 + 0. 9.22).K.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.02 ksi O.67 − 12 (4) = 451. Fv = # 1 − 0.89 % 1.34 = 4 .
22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.33 − 12 (4) = 616.193 < 0.93) = 0.34 = 4.12): .66 = = 8.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616. (9.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.93 2 (0. 9.34 5. 9. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.000)(13.0 + 5.22). b.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.0 + = 13. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45. to 50 in.33 − 12 (4) = 620. (Fig.
Check combined shear and bending in the web. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.40 + 7.45 ksi > f v = 8. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.22 ksi O.375 F v + ) 5. (9. fv Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26.825 − 0.K.05 = 9. The critical section for this check is either at point C.15(1 + 0. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq. fv = VC 433. 9.K.27 ksi < Fb = 21.45 ' (36) = 21. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq. .396 I O.245. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.89 % 1.30)]: . ' ' F y = * 0.667)(12)(75) = = 19.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.44 ksi 1. 4. 9.19).78 ) .30)].33 = = 5.22.193 36 & $0. (9.18 and 9.375 9.733 ) " = 2.
02 ) 1 0 .5)(1 − 0.27). Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. (Fig. From Eq. 6. Also. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. because fb/Fb = 0.2 bs t s = 5.207) $0. 5.78 in. Select the intermediate stiffeners.56 in. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq.47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. (9.29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. (9.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.47) . 9.62 ( % = 5. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h.56 / 2 = 2. For region EC.22). (9. a. (9.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied. (9.2 From Eq.7 ) "+ 9.8ts in Eq. and between C and F is a = 110 in.7 2 (150)(0.27): Ast = & #. such a check may be necessary.90 is considerably less than one. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.
for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).5) 3 = 89. 8. For region CF. 9.2 bs = 15. Use 2PL6½ in.K. h ) . = 12 ft 4 in.5 in.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.7/16 in.94 in. From Eq.7 in.8)1 / 2 = 0.28).22 ) 1 0. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq.193) $0. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6. b. Try 2PL6½ in. x 7/16 in.8t s Minimum t s = (3. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).89 / 2 = 3.5) = 148 in.733 ) "+ 9. .22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web. (9.5 × 2 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.27): Ast = & #. .94 / 15. 4 > 81 in. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig. = 6.733 2 (150)(0. 9. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.78 / 15.2 bs t s = 7.89 in.45 ( % = 7.419 in.5)(1 − 0.8)1 / 2 = 0. x 7/16 in.
Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. = in.2 b. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio).2 . we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. 9. 1.5) 2 = 45. x 13/16 in. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466.22). bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15.8 16 Try 2PL18 in.375) + 12(0.67 Kips. Moment of inertia check is not needed.2 = 1.5 in.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18.. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a. 15.75 in. Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC. Abs = 21.375 in. x 9/16 in. and the thickness of the web is 0. From Eq. (9. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21. for the left support.6. 9. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in.14 in. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C).8.
= factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .S.1 ( " ! + 1.1 > KL r F.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .699 ( % % = 21.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36. 10.96 10.S.75 = 10.06 in.06 / 45.1 ( 8 + 126. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.96 ) 2 # .26 in.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.26 r . 10.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812.96 ) 1 .1 ( = 1.75(150) = = 10.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.11 ksi Actual axial stress: . KL 0. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126. 9. 10. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.
11 ksi 45. x 13/16 in. however. Use 2PL18 in. 9.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in.67 = = 10. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly.. say ¼ in. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support. 3. 2.11 ksi Aeff 45. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. The bearing stiffener. less than the depth of the web plate.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466. x 13/16 in. fa = RB 633. x 12 ft 6 in.K. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load. the same as for the left support. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. P = 500 Kips.K.20 ksi < 21. x 13/16 in. Use 2PL18 in. x 12 ft 6 in.75 O.21) is larger than that of the end .84 ksi < Fa = 21. is less than RB. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633.33 = = 13.75 Aeff O. and the effective area (Fig.
5 in. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq.51L1 (9. Vmax = RB = 633.) and 1. 2 & (633.25 in. (ASD J2b). x 13/16 in.414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0.33) 2 (95) 2 .Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.4). we can use the same 2PL18 in.5 and ASD Table J2. (Sec. .245.1246 Minimum weld size for a 2.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length. The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww.5-in. Try ww = 5/16 in.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. we obtain a1 = 2. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load.5 in. 8. L1min = 1.396) L1 ww % = 1. the length of weld segment L1. x 12 ft 6 in.8. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1. 9.39). (9.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. flange plate is 5/16 in. Substituting this value into the previous equation.3. 4) # 2 ( 150 2 .
62 ( We use intermittent welds.47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. 9. we obtain a1 = 10. 6. long. 9. long. Try 5/16-in.40): Fv = 9.02 ksi.8. 4 in. Use 5/16-in. For segment EC (Fig. (9. (ASD D2).43): . 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . From Eq. weld.22) f v = 6. a max = 12 in.04 in. (9. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1.8.23 ksi + 9.48). 10-in. 4 in.02 ) * ' = 3. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv . (9. From Eq. From Eq.62 ksi .5 in. spacing. weld.
22) f v = 8. Fv = 9.0757 a1 2.05439 a1 2. 8. 9.5 ksi + 9. Use 3/16-in.5 in. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in. 3.0 in. spacing. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10. a max = 24t s or 12 in.50 = = 0.828(21) (9.23 = = = 0.49) we obtain L1 = 2.Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3.-thick plate is ¼ in.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in. L1min = 1. = 1. 10-in. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( .45 ( (9. (9.828 Fv 2. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in. .5 in. long.5 in.90 in.5 in. weld.22 ) * ' = 4. For segment CF (Fig.22 ksi.-thick plate is 3/16 in.45 ksi 3/ 2 . a max = 12 in. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1. From Eq. 2.50) L1 ww 4.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.
49) = 96.63 in.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4. Use ¼-in. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in.K. for each pair of bearing stiffeners. From Eq. long. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate.490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.64 K/in. fillet weld = 0. 9. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.50) we obtain L1 = 3. 4 in. spacing. x 13/16 in. 12-in.9. Try ww = 5/16 in.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in.64) = 2784 Kips O. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in. x 12 ft 6 in. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. weld.8.707(16 = 4. Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. (9. Use 5/16-in.89 Kips .50) = 675 Kips O. 3. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in.K. > Vmax = 633.
28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135. 36 ksi).9. 2.18 and 9. 3.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder.19).2. 9.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec.49) = 38.73 = 145. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.Design of Plate Girders 50 .26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length. Selection of the Web Plate .1 is desired except that 1. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same.0)](0. 9.73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135. 9.26 + 9.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 220.127.116.11/123) = 9. 9.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.5)( 16 )(148.
24). 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.3 Selection of Flange Plates First. we have h 800 = = 266. taking into account the reduction of the .5d.4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282. (9. from Eq.9.t w ≥ = 0.67 . From Eq.3): h 14.8 For closely spaced stiffeners.2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.53 in.62 in.18 < 9 ) = 84. (9. x 9/16 in.t w ≥ = 0. i.5d.8 .51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.8 . for the web plate.5)] 242.375 in.e. (9.000 150 ≤ = 242. 9.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. when a ≤ 1. tw 282. or PL150 in. For the selected web plate..
5(0.52) (9.5(0.893)(84. (9.5α − 0.2 (0.51) and (9. (9.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.72) 3 = 0.60 Fyw / Fb = 0.22).5α 3 From Eq.0 β = 1. (9.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.24). .51) where β = 1.375) − = 58. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.72) − 0.53) Combining Eqs.72 < 1.6(36) / 30 = 0.54) In this example: α = 0. (9.893 Af = (26.53) and solving Af.55 in.667)(12) (0.
05 = = 0. x 2 in.406) = 0.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.98 in.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.056. (9.46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.893(1.67) 0.980 6 + 1.46 (h / t ) (266.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0.375 = = 1. Af = 60 in. for each flange plate.60Fyf = 0.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.363 in.310 0.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.05 4.2 Check Eq.363 I = = 11.31 = 15.24): Aw 84.7 in.406 60. Try PL30 in.406 .60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq. (9.31 tf =$ (58.
67 − 138. Aw 84.94 ksi > 26.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # .59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.76 ksi fb = M max (26. Try PL31 in.20): bf tf = 31 = 14.0 O.125) = 65.1 in.981 6 + 1.2 = 920.492.375 = = 1.76 ksi S 11.0 − (0.7 N.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2. x 21/8 in.980) + 60.492.281) = 0.76 )! (0.K.G. for each flange.935.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.667)(12) = = 28.875 in.0005)* '(266.0 ( % " = 26.8 in.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq. 84.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.056. A f = (31)(2. (9. 4 S= 920.893(1.281 .281 A f (31)(2.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.24). (9. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.8 = 11.
0005)* '(266.4 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C. from Eq.67 − 138. (9.935.02 ksi fb = M max (26. 9.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required. 1.981) + 65. Also.67 = = = 5. and we must use Eq.375 .5d = 1. x 21/8 in. for each flange.25) = 231.875 ( % " = 27.5(150 + 4.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.1 O.53 ksi < 0.40 F y = 14.60 in.6) for the allowable shear stress.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .K. fv = Vmax R A 466. Use PL31 in. Af = 65.0 − (0.2 9. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig.875 in. (9.76)! (0.667)(12) = = 26. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1. 84.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.17).67] (150) = 142.9.5(h + 2tf) = 1.
(9.603)(266.444)(266.34 45.603 < 0.8 36 Fy = (36)(0.375 2. 2.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .40 ksi Aw Aw 84. 9.89 Fv ( 2.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.26 > 9.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.34 45.000 . Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B.53) = = 0.8): a .501(150) = 75.30 > 9. fv = Vmax R B 633.444 < 0.89)(5.34 ) =* ' + 25.51 ksi < 0. 5.000 (36)(0.89 Fv ( 2.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.501 amax = 0.33 = = = 7. between A and C (Fig. 5.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.51) = = 0.2 in. Use a = 75 in.6): Cv = From Eq.000 2. (9.40 F y = 14.23).89)(7. (9.67) 2 = 34.67) 2 = 25.
Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action. let us consider the case of single stiffeners.42 amax = 0. In other words. Use a = 60 in. Selection of intermediate stiffeners. (9.34 ) =* ' + 34. 5.29). 9. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. First.23).57 Design of Plate Girders a .42(150) = 63 in. (9. 5.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .30)] is not required for hybrid girders.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.28) and (9. 3. no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. the combined shear and bending check [Eq. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9. between C and B (Fig.55) .
equating Eqs. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0.57) In the case of double stiffeners. we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs. x /16 in. x 12 ft 6 in. (9.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in. (9. x 1 in. (9.5 in.375 (9. x 12 ft 3 /4 in. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7. Figure 9.000865h( F y ) 0.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0.56) Finally.56) by 2.000727 h( F y ) 0.55) and (9. (9. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A.375 (9. x 21/8 in.29) into Eq. Web: PL150 in.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . B.56) and solving for ts.28) and (9. x /16 in.55) yields I st = 285. and C: 2PL15 in.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq.
9 ) = * ' * 7. (9.5 in. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. for stiffeners on one side. From Eq. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1.75 in. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( .90 in. Try PL7.000865(150)(36) 0. 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in. Try ts = 9/16 in.5 + ' = 88. < 88. for stiffeners on one side.3 in. x 9/16 in. = 12 ft 33/4 in.9. h) . + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . O. x 12 ft 3¾ in.50 in.5 in.9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147.3 in.K.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8.5 Bearing Stiffeners .59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners. 4 4 3 9. + 16 ( Use PL7. 9 ). t ) 1 . x 9/16 in.375 = 0.
07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.25 + 43. as given in ASD J2.75)](0.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65. 9. x 12 ft 6 in. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.5)(147.49)/144 = 67.9.9. 9. 8. x 1 in.8.875)(150)(0. 9. however. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders.07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110. Eq.49)/144 = 43.07 = 110.07 = 118.6.25 Kips )(0. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds. needs to be used.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.39 Kips .32 + 8. The answer: Use 2PL15 in.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.2b and covered in Sec.3. (9.49/123) = 8.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.
10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in. Figure 9. The length of the span is 150 ft.24. x 0.24 . 9.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck. Consider bending only. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig.75 in.
4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340.69) = = 177.5 in. 4 = 340. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.01) 2 ] + 12 (0. I x = 934 in.95 67.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.739 = = 5014.8(50 + 17.18 0. .26 in.95 − 4.24.3 50 + 17. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig. A = 33.60 F yf = 0.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66.760 in.75)(100) 3 t w = 0.3).8 > = = 137. 9.4.8 in. 9.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.739 in.
2 4 α= 0.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.8 − 20.47)(1.952) = 25.75)(0.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.0 − 0.490)/144 = 0.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.952 12 + 2(101.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.75 in.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .26) = 20. 133.1) /( 20. 9.75) 3 × 0.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.84 ksi + 20.75) = 101.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.23 + 0.1 in.1 ) .115) + (100)(0.1 / 20.0 − 0.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .75 ( + 0. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.26 = 0.72 − 0. 101.
84)(5014.49 = 3. Figure 9.5) − 0.49 = 3.25): W = 3. . 9.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig. assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight.35 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.
65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.89 = fv 2. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.85 ksi < 0.229)(177.4 ksi Aw 101. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5. (9.1 ft . (9.8).11). Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2.000 k= = Now.69) = 397.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.89 f v (2. ) =* ' + 5. a max = 2.79 < 9.8) 2 = 5.6) and solve for Cv.7).85) = = 0.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.5 in.40 F y = 14.34 ( 1/ 2 4 .84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.34 45.98(2)(66. we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq.89)(2.000 (36)(0.10) and (9.229 < 0.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq. = 33. a .98h = 2.79 − 5.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs. (9. (9.
260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27. the governing limit is amax = 23.Design of Plate Girders 66 and .22 in.8 ' (133. Use a= (150)(12) = 257. 260 ) .1 in.38) = 285.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore.77 ft. 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig. = 23. 9. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi .5 ksi.
08) 2 h = 100 in. t w = 0.7): Cv = 45.197 < 0.5 in.77 2 (a / h) (1.000(8.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.34 + = 8.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.8): k = 5. a = 1.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq. (9.34 + 4 4 = 5.000k = = 0. (9. Find Cv from Eq.77) 45.
(9.5 ksi = 0.12).5) = 425. fv Fb = * * 0.51)(100)(0.61 ksi < 0.61) = 8.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .825 − 0.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .733(11.4 + 2.068 F y / f v = 0.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.068(50) / 8.068 F y + 0.232 F y = 11.733Fv = 0.375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0. 9. (All of the five conditions given in Sec.55 F y ( .89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.51 = 0. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.89 $ 1 .
10.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.69 Design of Plate Girders 9. Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. In particular. 9.5)]1 / 2 2.60) for a ≤ 1. 1998).1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC.5 h h = tw .5 h (9.000 F yf for a > 1.10. when the design is without the tension-field action.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.11. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.2 and LRFD Appendix F2.11.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14.
It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. (9.11.62) . Limit state of tension-flange yield. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling.3) and (9. 9. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.4) for the ASD code.61) is the hybrid girder factor.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. (9. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9. At the present time a constant value of 0.0 12 + 2a r (9. 1.9 is used for the resistance factor φb.61) Coefficient Re in Eq.
3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. 9.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. flange local buckling (FLB). Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in.3. Note that Eq.63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in. In Eq.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9.3. the limit state of WLB does . The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r .h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB).24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. Limit states of compression-flange buckling.64) corresponds to Eq. Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. (9. there exist three limit states of buckling. In general. (9.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. 2.4. and web local buckling (WLB). (9.6).
3. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately.66) λp = (9.68) C PG = 286.69) . Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. λr. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5.65) λ2 The quantities λ. and a plate girder coefficient CPG.1 for beams.10. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9.63). λp. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq.67) λr = (9. The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. λp. F yf Fcr = & 1 .Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply. and λr. a. (9. However.000C b (9.
70) λp = (9. For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0. 9.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.74) (9.11.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.35).0 (9.72) kc = (9.71) λr = (9. (5. b.73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.763 (9.61) and (9.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate. We will derive an approximate but explicit .
77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.61) and (9.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield.18) into Eq. For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9. (9.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.76) Now. (9. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical . (9.79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange. (9.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9.
75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value).80) Substituting for rT from Eq. . For the economical design of plate girders. For the limit state of LTB.70). (9. 9. we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: . (9.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9.66).81) For the limit state of FLB. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9. the requirement of Eqs. and a compromise must be made.65). (9. (9. (9. In Sec. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders.13. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other.81) and (9.65). and (9. (9. we must have [Eqs.82) often cannot be met simultaneously.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf. and (9. we must have [Eqs.46) into this equation.82) Note that for a given required Af.
6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9. the design shear strength is φvVn. kv 0.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.85) .83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.Design of Plate Girders 76 9.11.9 is the shear resistance factor. where φv = 0.6 Aw F yw for Vn = . The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.
9.0 ≥ Cv > 0.87) 44.6.86) 0.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1. as well as when relation . (9.77 Design of Plate Girders 9.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0. In these cases. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. where the resistance factor φv is 0. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.84) Equation (9.11.8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq.
Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0.90) (9.6 Aw F yw C v (9.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9. the tension-field action is not allowed.11.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9. their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.90.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.90).7. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0. When transverse stiffeners are required. φv is 0. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) .91) .88) 9.89) In Eq.85) holds. (9.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0. For design based on tension-field action. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5.
75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec. 9.375 φM n φV n (9. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0.93) 9. 9. Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.625 u ≤ 1.5.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 .94) In this expression φ = 0.11.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.92) where & 2. .3) 3 I st = at w j (9. 2.9. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2.
9.6 PL = 1. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.12. (2.2 PD + 1. 9. 2. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec. Eq. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .28.2w D + 1.2 K/ft P = 1. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.2).2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.7.2(400) + 1.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.27 and 9.6(1) = 5. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.12.2(3) + 1.Design of Plate Girders 80 9.6 w L = 1.12. respectively.
67 Kips 9.3 K-ft = 412. 12 12 From Eq.12.27 Shear diagram Figure 9. (9.333.60) Figure 9.000 K-in.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.28 Bending moment diagram . Vmax = Vu = 816.
h tw = 300. Aw = 75 in. (9.2 0.000 − = 72.0 333. We find an approximate flange area from Eq. 322 322 Try tw = 0. x 0. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412. 2 9.79).5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0.5 in.3 for a > 1.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322. or PL150 in.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in.3) = 45.96) .47 in.9(150)(36) 12 (9.5h for a ≤ 1.12. Preliminary selection of the flange plates. For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress. from Eq.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72.50 in. (9. Selection of the Flange Plates 1.0 in. for the web plate. (9.4.3 in.
838 in. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. (9. Then.95).838 = = 13.064.83 in.0 . [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders. based on Eq. 2. based on Eq.4 Sx = I x 1.829.97).1 in. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. (9.87 rT 10.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1. (9. try bf = 40 in.064.. Af = 80 in.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10. try tf = 2 in. only the latter needs to be checked.74 in.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0. Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.97) To begin with. (9.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50. Therefore.82): t f ≥ (72.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.
1) = 1.5) 2 = 32.2)(75) 2 = 30.5(34.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.3) 2.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.35).17) is the critical segment.624.00 (" = 38.9 ft-K = 603.5M max 12.00 )# = (1. λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .87 − 50.551.5(34. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.0 − 50. 55.7 ft-K = 603.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.2)(87.33(87. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.2)(62.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.333.885.885.33(62.624.3) + 3(27.1 ft-K = 603. 9.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12. (5. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.7) + 3(32.333.9) + 4(30.5) 2 = 27.551.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi .0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .
0 in. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10..83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: . ) .912)(13.9(0.633 K-in. b. is acceptable for the flange plate.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + .000 K-in. we would have to increase the area of the flange.00) = 408. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi.1)(36.K.829. and PL40 in. If the section were not O. The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. x 2.
. 2. (9.98) We can use Eq. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44.67 tw F yw 36 b.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44. Check Eq.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.27).90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.6(0. (9. a.12.9)(75)(36)(0.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0. Check Eq.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. 9.000)(5) = 0. Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end. 9.0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required. (9.
9V n Kips From Eq.4 in.443 a max = 0.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603. At the right end: a max = 55. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0. At the left end: Vu = 603.87 Design of Plate Girders a.6(0.4138 < 0. Tentatively.443(150) = 66.47)]1 / 2 = 0.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25. b.7 in. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.47 From Eq. Tentatively.000 = 30. (9.88): C v = Vu /[0.33 /[0. from the right end B.000 = (300) 2 (0. from the left end A.8 From Eq.4138)(36) / 44.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44.443h = 0. (9. (9. .9)(75)(36)] = 0.
a/h = 0.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15.7.5 in. 9. similar to Fig.20 36 = 152.22.86): . we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end). Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig. 9. 260 ) . We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners. (9.. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5. As in the example of Sec.20) = 0.22): Try a = 105 in. From Eq.8. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2. (9. a.20 2 ( 0 .75h = 0.87): Cv = 44. a . (9.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.Design of Plate Girders 88 3.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15.000(15. 9.75(150) = 112.
2 Kips.9(1250.22.000 K-in.9)(1230) = 664.0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603. 9. we find a = 110 in.6(75)(36) $0.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig. Similar to case a. 9. a very small distance to the right of point C). an interaction check is not necessary. . Check shear and bending interaction.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.2) = 583. Vu = 795 Kips 4.15(1 + 0. b.89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0. Vu = 556. C v = 0. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec.487 K-in. M n = 465. 9. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually.33 − 12 (5.194.206 = 0.83 Kips < φ vVu O.6φVn = (0.6)(0.K.. Vn = 1230. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1.22).67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0..7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. to be satisfactory. M u = 412.0 Kips.
5 −2= − 2 = 3. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs.101). a.07 in. The .206 From Eq.7.5 2 (0.100) and (9.. 2 bs t s = 0.0)(150)(0.8 ts 36 (9. C v = 0. 2 From Eq.83 #.5 2 . 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15. Select intermediate stiffeners.15(1.5) 3 (3.Design of Plate Girders 90 5. Therefore. (9. (9.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0.10 ≥ 0.101) The area requirement of Eq. 36 ) & Ast = $0.7) 2 ( a / h) (9.91): 583.10) = 40. (9. (9.206) − 18(0.99) is minimal. (9.100) (9. From Eq. Region EC: a = 105 in.5)(1 − 0.99) a/h = 0.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0.69 in.93): j= 2 .14 in.
101): bs ≤ 5...100): 1 I st = 12 (0. 4 ≥ 40.5 in.375)(11 + 0. Region CF: a = 110 in. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B.5 in. RB = 816. From Eq. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. From Eq. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in. Bearing stiffeners at supports.K.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1. Use 2PL5.101) is ts = 3/8 in.5 in. 4 O.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9.67 Kips. (9. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C. Use 2PL5. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have .53 in.733 The answer is the same as for region EC. Try 2PL5. 1.69 in. b.92 in. (9.5 in. for all bearing stiffeners. x 3/8 in.6.12. (9. x 3/8 in. and the thickness of the web is 0. 9.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. x 3/8 in.5) 3 = 47. a/h = 0.100) and (9.
.37 r 10.5) 3 = 5944.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.4 / 50.50)(35.17 Kips O.658 λc ) F y = (0. 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0. (9.116 )(36) = 35.50 = 10. 36 = 10. x 1¼ in.75 in. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load. 2.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0. KL (0.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23.85 KL .K.9) = 1536. 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1.75) + 12(0.5) 2 = 50. x 1¼ in.50 in.658 0. Abs = 23. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 .116 < 1. x 12 ft 6 in.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports.20 in.85(1807.37* * 29.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.75)(150) = = 10.80) = 1807.85 in.4 in. Use 2PL19 in. 95 Try 2PL19 in.7 Kips > R B = 816..
9. Use 2PL19 in.5)( 8 )(148)](0.49) = 38.29).0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.0 + 8. 9.3 = 120.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. x 1¼ in.49) = 81.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.49/123) 4 = 8. 9. at the location of concentrated load.8 = 128. x 12 ft 6 in. Therefore.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes. This applet consists of three windows: input window.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81. . output window and control window (Fig.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.7 + 38.7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.8.12.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter.8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.
Span length.30b. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only. Flange & Web panel. 9. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. 5. 9. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports.29). To design a hybrid girder. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. Stiffeners panel. For impractical values. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel.31. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. respectively.11). for example.30a). the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. thickness. 9. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. However. Width. if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9. . The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. and Welds Panel.
29 .95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.
the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.30 .
and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig.e. For example.31 . 9.32). thickness and width of bearing stiffeners. the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. width. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments. Initially.32a).97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. By default. Figure 9. the applet provides only one segment selection. i. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. and thickness. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. the place of the 1st stiffener. 9. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.
32 .Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.
34 .33. and welds panels in the output window.33 Figure 9. Depending on the selection made by the user. sections. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. 9. Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners. 9. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”. and elevation.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig.34). Figure 9. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment.
Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .
and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. and size. . The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web. 9.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. and size.32a).36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. length.32b. 9.35b. 9.35). whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig. continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. 9. But. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig.35a).
Loadings panel displays the loadings. 9. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel.37 The output window consists of loadings panel. 9. Figure 9. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. 9. 9. SFD (shear force diagram) panel. They are the method of design. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders. Welds panel. 9. Elevation panel. .29 and 9. ASD and LRFD. and the web depth-to-span ratio. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. Similarly. Sections panel.37).29).36). supports.38). SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig.39).
and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9. 9. 9.41) and a section within any segment (Fig. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig. 9. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig. respectively as shown in Figs. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements. 9.39 . the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.41.43).42). The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window.103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.40 and 9.38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder.
41 .45 to 9.8. 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9.40 Figure 9. The results are presented in Figs. Figure 9.44 are for the same problem also.49. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.9 also has been solved by the applet.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig.37 to 9.44). 9. 9. 9. The results shown in Figs. The example data used in Figs.29 to 9.
105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.43 Figure 9.44 .42 Figure 9.
45 Figure 9.46 Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.47 .
Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners.49 9.48 Figure 9. E.14 PROBLEMS 9.50. as indicated on the figure.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D. Use A36 steel .5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3. and F. as shown in Fig. 9.
50 9. a 180 in. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode. and a 40 in. plate is selected for each flange. plate is selected for the web. 9. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan.x1.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec. Figure 9.x0.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.5 in. .75 in. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. Based on a preliminary design. check the adequacy of this preliminary design.9 of the book. 9.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only.
10. 9. 9.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.109 Design of Plate Girders 9. using a. double stiffeners . assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in. x 0. single stiffeners b.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.10. 9.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec. 9.50 in.10. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi.
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