This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
9.1 INTRODUCTION The most common type of plate girder is an I-shaped section built up from two flange plates and one web plate, as shown in Figs. 9.1 and 9.2. The moment-resisting capacities of plate girders lie somewhere between those of deep standard rolled wide-flange shapes and those of trusses. Plate girders can be welded (Figs. 9.2 to 9.5), riveted, or bolted (Fig. 9.6). Riveted plate girders are practically obsolete. Very few bolted plate girders are designed nowadays. Therefore, we cover only the design
Figure 9.1 Plate girder in a multistory building
Design of Plate Girders
Figure 9.2 Welded plate girder
Figure 9.3 Plate girder with cover plates
Figure 9.4 Builtup girder with T sections
Figure 9.5 Welded box girder
Figure 9.6 Riveted or bolted plate girder
of welded plate girders in this book. Plate girders are used in both buildings and bridges. In buildings, when large column-free spaces are designed to be used as an assembly hall, for example, the plate girder is often the economical solution. In such cases, the designer must choose between a plate girder and a truss. Plate girders, in general, have the following advantages over trusses:
Design of Plate Girders
1. Connections are less critical for plate girders than for trusses, particularly statically determinate trusses. In a statically determinate truss, one poor connection may cause the collapse of the truss. 2. Fabrication cost of plate girders is less than that of trusses. 3. Plate girders can be erected more rapidly and more cheaply than trusses. 4. Depth of a plate girder is less than the height of a comparable truss. Consequently, plate girders need less vertical clearance than trusses. This makes them very attractive for multilevel highway bridges. 5. Plate girders generally vibrate less than trusses under moving loads. 6. Painting of plate girders is easier than painting of trusses. This means less maintenance cost for plate girders. In contrast, plate girders in general are heavier than trusses, especially for very long spans. Plate girders basically carry the loads by bending. The bending moment is mostly carried by flange plates. In order to reduce the girder weight and possibly achieve maximum economy, hybrid plate girders are sometimes used. In a hybrid girder, flange plates are made of higherstrength steel than that of the web. Or, in a tee-built-up plate girder, as shown in Fig. 9.4, the two T sections are made of higher-strength steel than the connecting web plate. Design of hybrid plate girders is also covered in this chapter. Allowable bending stress for hybrid girders is limited to 0.60Fy (ASD F1).
Figure 9.Design of Plate Girders 4 9.2 POSTBUCKLING BEHAVIOR OF THE WEB PLATE In addition to flange plates and a web plate.7 Analogy between a truss and a stiffened plate girder . A relatively thin web plate strengthened by stiffeners often yields the lightest plate girder. Thin web plates are susceptible to unstable behavior. A web plate is needed to unify the two flange plates and to carry the shear. the two flange plates basically carry the bending moment. As mentioned in the previous section. Thick web plates make the girder unnecessarily heavy. a plate girder often consists of intermediate and bearing stiffeners.
due to the lack of sufficient experiment results.7(a).7(a) is subjected to a concentrated load applied at its midspan. It will then be able to carry additional loads. 9. a redistribution of stresses occurs. In this truss. The postbuckling strength of the web plate may be three or four times its initial buckling strength. the web panels between adjacent vertical stiffeners buckle due to diagonal compression resulting from shear. and shaded portions of the web behave like tension diagonals in the truss of Fig. will not result in its failure. the plate girder behaves like the Pratt truss shown in Fig. bounded on all sides by the transverse stiffeners of flanges. .7(b).5 Design of Plate Girders Stiffened plate girders are designed on the basis of the ultimate strength concept. Hybrid girders cannot be designed on the basis of tension-field action. As shown in Fig. If the plate girder has properly designed stiffeners. acquire a feel for the behavior of plate girders under increasing load. The postbuckling behavior of the plate girder is analogous to the behavior of this truss.7(a). after the web panels buckle in shear. 9. the vertical members are in compression and the diagonals are in tension. The Pratt truss of Fig. Consequently. As the magnitude of the load on the girder is increased. after the shear instability of the web takes place. the stiffeners behave like axially compressed members. A stiffened plate girder has considerable postbuckling strength. In fact. She/he should. For the designer of plate girders the detailed knowledge of the theoretical development is not essential. however. 9. the instability of the web plate panels. designs on the basis of tension-field action can yield better economy. This truss-like behavior is called tension-field action in the literature. 9. For a theoretical presentation of the subject the reader should refer to Salmon and Johnson (1996).
2) (9. Totally automated optimum design of stiffened plate girders is rather complicated due to the highly nonlinear nature of the problem. however. is often within the range 1/15 to 1/10. when they need to carry large column loads in high-rise buildings). we must initially choose a value for the depth h of the web plate. 1987) present algorithms for minimum weight design of simply supported steel homogeneous and hybrid plate girders. Adeli and Chompooming (1989) present minimum weight . However. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 15 L 10 (9. with the aid of the interactive program (to be discussed in Sec. Very shallow girders with 1/25 < h/L < 1/15 are used as continuous plate girders. we should design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios and find the total weight of the plate girder for each case. Of course.3 PROPORTIONING OF THE WEB PLATE At the outset. experience shows that the ratio of the depth of the web plate h to span length L varies from 1/25 to 1/6. repetitive manual design of plate girders is quite cumbersome and timeconsuming. As a general guideline. Abuyounes and Adeli (1986. the final design can be achieved quickly.1) Deeper girders are generally used when the loads are heavy (for example. By drawing the total weight versus h/L ratio. we can obtain an economical (practical approximate optimum or minimum weight) solution for our design.Design of Plate Girders 6 9. 9. In design of plate girders. 1 h 1 ≤ ≤ 25 L 6 This ratio.12).
however. Adeli and Mak (1990) present minimum weight design of plate girder bridges subjected to moving loads. our approach is interactive design. The web plate should carry all the shearing force. In calculating the shear strength of the web. Figure 9. which is presented in Sec. 9. The web thickness is chosen based on the following two criteria: 1. the depth of the web plate will be known. The web plate should have sufficient buckling strength to prevent vertical buckling of the compression flange into the web. After the h/L ratio has been selected.7 Design of Plate Girders design of continuous prismatic and nonprismatic plate girders. In this book.8 Squeezing of the web due to bending of the girder during tensionfield action . it is assumed that the shear stress distribution is uniform throughout the web depth.12. 2. The next step is to choose the web thickness.
9 During the postbuckling behavior of the web plate. as shown in Fig. 9. according to ASD G1. the compressive force F1. acting on the top compression flange and the tension force F2 acting in the bottom tension flange create compressive forces F3 on the web plate. To satisfy this requirement. This plate should have sufficient buckling strength to resist the compressive forces F3. the web depth-thickness ratio should not be greater than α1. which is a decreasing function of the yield stress of the compression flange Fyf.8.Design of Plate Girders 8 Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Fyf Figure 9. . This figure shows a portion of the plate girder located between two neighboring sections. Due to the deflected shape of the girder. the bending curvature of the plate girder produces compressive forces in the web plate.
To satisfy the second criterion.6) where . we should have tw ≥ V hFv (9. h 2. α2 is much larger than α1. 9.9.000 ≤ α1 = tw [ F yf ( F yf + 16. 9.40 F y for 380 h > tw Fy (9.5 times the distance between flanges – the limiting ratio α1 is increased to α2. This equation is derived from a stability analysis of the web plate.3) The variation of α1 with Fyf is shown in Fig.4) The variable α2 is also shown in Fig.000 ≤α2 = tw F yf when a ≤ 1.9 Design of Plate Girders h 14. taking into account the effect of residual stresses but without including the transverse stiffeners.9.5h (9. For closely spaced stiffeners – that is.89 ≤ 0. Note that the difference between α1 and α2 increases with an increase in the yield stress. Fv = Fy C v 2. For high-strength steel.5)]1 / 2 (9. when spacing of the transverse stiffeners a is not greater than 1.5) where V is the shear force and Fv is the allowable shear stress given in ASD F4.
Design of Plate Girders
45,000k v Cv = Fy (h / t w ) 2
when Cv ≤ 0.8
190 k v h / t w Fy 5.34 ( a / h) 2 4.00 5.34 + ( a / h) 2 4.00 +
(9.7) when Cv > 0.8
when a/h < 1.0 (kv > 9.34) (9.8) when a/h ≥ 1.0
Note that Cv is the ratio of shear stress at buckling to the shear yield stress (Salmon and Johnson, 1996). For hybrid girders, Fy in Eqs. (9.6) and (9.7) is the yield stress of the web steel. We can increase the allowable shear stress by relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate, provided that the following conditions are met (ASD F5 and G3): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The plate girder is not a hybrid one Intermediate stiffeners are provided Cv ≤ 1.0 a/h ≤ [260/(h/tw)]2 a/h ≤ 3.0
(9.9) (9.10) (9.11)
The last two conditions are somewhat arbitrarily chosen limits on the panel aspect ratio a/h to facilitate handling during fabrication and erection. When the effect of tension-field action is taken into account, the allowable shear stress is given by (ASD G3)
Design of Plate Girders
Fy & # 1 − Cv ≤ 0.40 F y $C v + 2 2 1/ 2 ! 2.89 % 1.15(1 + a / h ) "
Note that the second term within the brackets is the tension-field contribution. One may select the web thickness based on the first criterion [Eqs. (9.3) and (9.4)] and then check for the second criteron [Eq. (9.5)]. In this case the maximum computed shear stress (fv)max must be less than the allowable shear stress Fv. ( f v ) max = Vmax ≤ Fv ht w
After preliminary proportioning of the web plate, we may check if intermediate stiffeners are needed. According to ASD F5, intermediate stiffeners are not required if h < 260 tw
and the maximum shear stress in the web is less than the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6). Equation (9.6) can be specialized for the case of no stiffeners. For very large a/h, Eq. (9.8) yields k = 5.34. Substituting this value of k into Eq. (9.7) and the resulting values into Eq. (9.6), we finally find the following equation for the allowable shear stress when intermediate stiffeners are not needed:
Design of Plate Girders
83,150 (h / t w ) 2 Fv =
152 F y h / tw 0.40 F y
548 Fy <
h 548 ≤ tw Fy (9.15)
h 380 ≤ tw Fy
It should be noted that plate girders with intermediate stiffeners are generally lighter than plate girders without intermediate stiffeners. To prevent the undesirable consequences of corrosion, an absolute minimum web thickness is usually specified in practice. A minimum thickness of 3/8 in. is recommended for bridge plate girders. For plate girders used in buildings which are not exposed to the harsh corrosive environment, a smaller absolute minimum web thickness of ¼ in. is suggested.
9.4 PROPORTIONING OF THE FLANGES
9.4.1 Preliminary Calculation of Flange Area
The aim is to select a flange plate of area sufficient to carry the maximum bending moment Mmax. Required S = M max Fb
In this equation, S is the elastic section modulus with respect to the major axis and Fb is the allowable bending stress given in the ASD F1 and
1 in the text).16) and (9. . The moment of inertia of the section with respect to the major axis is 1 2 I = 12 t w h 3 + 2b f t f (h / 2 + t f / 2) 2 + 12 bf t3 f 1 I ≈ 12 t w h 3 + 2 A f ( h / 2) 2 (9.2 Preliminary Selection of the Flange Plate In order to avoid local flange buckling.19) In this equation.18) By equating Eqs. Aw = tw h is the web area.18) and solving for Af. 9.13 Design of Plate Girders discussed in Chapter 5.17) where bf is the width of the flange plate. the width-thickness ratio of the flange plate is limited by ASD B5 (Table 5. The elastic section modulus is then approximately equal to S = t h2 I I ≈ = w + Af h d /2 h/2 6 (9.4. (9. and Af = bf tf = area of the flange. Af = bf t f ≈ M max t w h M max Aw − = − Fb h Fb h 6 6 (9. We can find an approximate relation for the section modulus. we find an equation for the preliminary estimate of the area of the flange. tf is the thickness of the flange plate.
this design would result in very thin and wide flange plates. . However..20) kc = (h / t w ) 1 0. the designer may wish to choose a flange thickness larger than that obtained by Eq.46 (9.22) into Eq. (9.23). we find the required flange width bf from Eq. and use it as the trial design thickness of the flange plate. M max t w h )# ! * * Fh − 6 ' '! + b (" 1/ 2 # & Fy / k c Af ! =$ ! $ 190 " % 1/ 2 (9. (9. (9. in many cases. Therefore.19). we set bf = 190 Fy / k c tf (9. We may round this thickness to a commercially available size.19) and solving for tf.Design of Plate Girders 14 bf tf ≤ 190 Fy / k c 4.05 h tw h tw > 70 (9. After selecting the thickness of the flange plate.23) This equation roughly gives the minimum flange thickness required to prevent the local buckling of the flange plate. we obtain & Fy / k c tf =$ $ 190 % .22) Substituting Eq. as a fraction of 1/16 in. (9.21) ≤ 70 To find the minimum flange thickness required. for example.
0 − 0.4. Aw is the web area. & # A . the allowable bending stress Fb must be reduced according to ASD F1. to take into account the possibility of lateral torsional buckling. ASD G2 requires that the allowable bending stress in the compression flange to be reduced to F’b when the web depth-thickness ratio exceeds 970 / F y .24) In this equation. 5. (9. When h/tw < 970 / F y . Re is the hybrid beam coefficient given by . no reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. When this happens the bending stress distribution over the depth of the girder will no longer be linear. we can calculate the exact value of the moment of inertia of the section from Eq.5. The result will be a reduction in the bending stress capacity of the web and transfer of additional stresses to the compression flange.17) and check if the available section modulus is at least equal to Mmax /Fb. a thin web plate may deflect laterally on its compression side.15 Design of Plate Girders At this point. h 760 ) ' ! R when h > 970 F ' b ≤ Fb $1.0005 w * − e tw Af * $ Fy Fb ' + tw (! % " (9. Instead of performing a rather complicated nonlinear analysis to find the increased maximum stress in the flange. 9. Note that when the compression flange does not have sufficient lateral support.3 Reduction of the Allowable Bending Stress In regions of large bending moments. as discussed in Sec.
a more complicated analysis is required. For nonhybrid girders.26) 9. This equation is intended to account for the effect on the strength of a hybrid girder with a web of low yield strength. we should check if the computed bending stress is less than the reduced allowable bending stress.0.0 ! ! " (9. and Fb is the allowable bending stress after the lateral-torsional buckling has been considered.25) where Fyw is the web yield stress. fb = M max S < Fb' (9. If reduction of the allowable bending stress is necessary. when it is assumed that the entire member is made of the grade of the steel used in the flanges.0.25) is applicable only when the area and grade of steel in both flanges are the same.60Fyw /Fb ≤ 1. Equation (9. A ) $ 2* 6 + w ' $ * Af ' + ( % ( )! # ! ! ≤ 1 . Re = 1.Design of Plate Girders 16 & A $12 + w 3α − α 3 Af $ Re = $ . When the design of plate girder is based on tension-field action. They are designed based on the following requirements: 1. the gross area of each intermediate stiffener or the total area of a pair of .5 INTERMEDIATE STIFFENERS Intermediate stiffeners are provided to stiffen the web plate against buckling and to resist compressive forces transmitted from the web during tension-field action. α= 0. Otherwise.
Design of Plate Girders
stiffeners, when they are used in pairs, should be at least equal to (ASD G4)
&a #, F yw ), f v a2 / h2 1 * '* Dht w (1 − C v ) $ − 2 2 1 / 2 !* '* 2 % h (1 + a / h ) "+ f ys (+ Fv
) ' ' (
where fv is the greatest computed shear stress in the panel under consideration, Fys is the yield stress of the stiffener, and 2.4 for single plate stiffeners 1.0 for stiffeners used in pairs 1.8 for single angle stiffeners
During tension-field action the intermediate stiffeners behave as short struts. The required area by Eq. (9.27) ensures sufficient compression capacity of the stiffeners. Due to eccentric transfer of load with respect to the web, single-sided stiffeners are subject to considerable bending moment in addition to axial load and consequently are substantially less efficient than double-sided stiffeners. This consideration is reflected in Eq. (9.27) by the variable D. 2. The moment of inertia of a single intermediate stiffener or a pair of intermediate stiffeners (Ist) with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffener(s) (axis X-X in Fig. 9.10) should be at least equal to (ASD G4) I st = (h / 50) 4 (9.28)
Design of Plate Girders
Plan of portion of a plate girder with a pair of stiffeners
where h, the depth of the web plate, is in inches. This requirement is intended to provide adequate lateral support for the web plate and prevent it from deflecting out of its plane when web buckling takes place. 3. Each stiffener should be checked for the buckling requirement of ASD B5. Stiffeners are free on one edge and consequently considered as unstiffened elements. Denoting the width and thickness of the stiffener by bs and ts, respectively, we should have bs 95 ≤ ts Fy
4. When intermediate stiffeners are required, their spacing should be such that a. The computed shear stress in the web does not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6) or Eq. (9.12), whichever is applicable. b. a / h ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] 2 c. a / h ≤ 3.0
Design of Plate Girders
, fv f b ≤ Fb = * * 0.825 − 0.375 F v +
) ' ' F y ≤ 0.60 F y (
The last requirement should be met only when the design of the web plate is based on tension-field action. In this case, due to large shear stresses in the web, the maximum tensile stress which acts at an angle to the girder axis could be considerably larger than the maximum tensile stress parallel to the girder axis. In lieu of a lengthy analysis for finding the maximum tensile stress based on the combined shear and tension stresses, ASD G5 requires that Eq. (9.30) be satisfied, in which fb is the maximum bending tensile stress due to moment in the plane of the girder web. According to ASD Commentary G5, the interaction equation (9.30) need not be checked in the following two cases. 1. fv ≤ 0.60Fv and fb ≤ Fb 2. fv ≤ Fv and fb ≤ 0.75Fb The two end panels adjacent to the supports are designed without the advantage of tension-field action. They are expected to act as anchor panels for the neighboring panels with tension-field action. For these two panels, the computed shear stress should not exceed the allowable shear stress given by Eq. (9.6).
9.6 BEARING STIFFENERS
According to ASD K1.8, bearing stiffeners should always be provided in pairs at the ends of plate girders and, if required, at points of application of concentrated loads. These bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates, and their length should be close
shall not exceed the allowable axial compressive stress Fa. For end bearing stiffeners.31) where Abs is the cross-sectional area of each bearing stiffener. the compressive stress in the bearing stiffener. the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 12 times the thickness of the web (Fig.11 Equivalent cross-sectional areas for column design of bearing stiffeners .11). the effective area becomes 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 25t w (9. Thus. 9. Figure 9. 9.32) If the bearing stiffener is subjected to a concentrated load (or reaction) of magnitude P. They are designed as columns with a cross-sectional area which includes a centrally located strip of the web. fcb. For an interior bearing stiffener the width of the central strip of the web is taken as 25 times the thickness of the web (Fig. Therefore.11).Design of Plate Girders 20 to the depth of the web plate in order to have close bearing with the flange plates. the effective area for checking the axial compressive stresses is 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w (9.
. Buckling of the web will conceivably occur about a horizontal axis parallel to the plane of the web. As a result. Since the allowable axial compressive stress Fa depends on the radius of gyration.75. So it is customarily assumed that the hypothetical column consisting of the web and stiffeners will possibly buckle about the same axis. r. the radius of gyration r is calculated about the horizontal axis in the plane of the web.21 Design of Plate Girders f cb = P ≤ Fa Aeff (9.1 Connection of Flange to Web Flange and web plates are connected to each other by fillet welds.33) Evaluation of the allowable axial stress requires determination of the slenderness ration KL/r.7. Figure 9. 9. which is perpendicular to the previously mentioned axis. the effective length factor K is taken as low as 0. the bearing stiffeners must be designed by the trialand-error procedure. otherwise each stiffener will buckle about its own axis.12 shows a disassembled portion of the plate girder between two neighboring sections.7 DESIGN OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 9. Flange-to-web fillet welds are designed to transmit horizontal shear due to the variation of the bending moment over the girder and the direct pressure due to applied distributed load. Because the bearing stiffeners are connected to the web.
2). the horizontal (longitudinal) shear per unit length of the fillet weld is q1 = VQ VA f (h + t f ) = I 2I (9.Design of Plate Girders 22 Figure 9.12 Connection of flange to web From elementary beam theory (Sec. The direct pressure due to applied load creates vertical shear q 2 per unit length of the fillet weld. The resultant design force per unit length of the weld is . which is in practice assumed to be roughly equal to the intensity of the distributed load w. 5.34) where Q is the first moment of the flange area about the neutral axis and V is the shear force at the section under consideration.
23 Design of Plate Girders q = (q 12 + q 2 )1 / 2 2 (9.36). we obtain the following equation for the size of the continuous fillet weld: &V 2 A 2 # f 2 2 + + ( h t ) w $ ! f 2 $ 4I ! % " ww = 1. the allowable strength of the fillet weld will be q a = (0.707)(2 ww ) Fv (for SMAW) (9.35) and equating the resulting equation to Eq. intermittent fillet welds are sometimes used.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9. (9.35) If we denote the size of the fillet weld by ww and the allowable shear stress of the weld electrode by Fv. 9.13 Intermittent flange-to-web fillet weld . noting that there are two lines of fillet welds on each side of the web plate. (9.36) Substituting for value of q 1 . as shown in Fig.37) (for SMAW) Instead of continuous flange-to-web weld. and q 2 = w into Eq.13. (9. from Eq. If we denote the length Figure 9.36).
respectively. When the tension-field action is the design basis [Eq.40) .36). L1. (9. the designer can find the third parameter from Eq. we obtain &V 2 A 2 # f (h + t f ) 2 + w 2 ! $ 2 4I ! L1 ww $ " =% a1 1. at least equal to .7.38) Substituting for q and qa form Eqs. the connection of the intermediate stiffeners to the web plate should be designed for a total shear transfer. (9. the following relation holds between these two variables: L1qa = a1q (9. a conservative formula is provided by the ASD code for the amount of shear to be transferred between the web and stiffeners.35) and (9. a minimum amount of welding is used.39) (for SMAW) By choosing two of the three parameters a1. According to ASD G4.414 Fv 1/ 2 (9.2 Connection of Intermediate Stiffeners to the Web The magnitude of the shear transfer between the web and stiffeners is in general very small. and ww. 9. however.Design of Plate Girders 24 of each portion of the fillet weld by L1 and the spacing of the intermittent weld by a1. in Kips per linear inch of single stiffener or a pair of stiffeners. (9. As a result.12)]. Fy ) f vs = h* ' * 340 ' ( + 3/ 2 fv Fv (9.39).
9. If intermediate stiffeners are used in pairs. either alternated on the sides of the web plate (Fig.14) or placed on one side of the web (Fig.40). 9. we find that the required continuous weld size is ww = f vs / 4 f vs = 0. noting there are four lines of fillet weld at each stiffener-web connection.15) Figure 9. (9. welds in stiffeners which are required to transmit a concentrated load or reaction should be designed for the larger of the corresponding load (or reaction) and the shear given by Eq.14 Horizontal section of a plate girder with alternated stiffeners Figure 9.41) When single stiffeners are used.25 Design of Plate Girders where Fy is the yield stress of the web steel in ksi.15 Horizontal section of a plate girder with stiffeners placed on one side . respectively. and fv and Fv are the maximum computed shear stress and the allowable shear stress in the adjacent panels. Furthermore.707 Fv 2.828 Fv (for SMAW) (9.
707 Fv 1.43) Similarly.Design of Plate Girders 26 possibly for a better look.44) Figure 9. for the case of single stiffeners. Denoting the weld length by L1 and the spacing by a1. we find that the required size of the fillet weld for the case of double stiffeners is ww = a1 f vs 2.828 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9. 9. two lines of fillet welds are available at each stiffener-web connection and the required weld size will be ww = f vs / 2 f vs = 0. we obtain ww = a1 f vs 1.42) We may also use an intermittent weld for the stiffener-web connections.414 L1 Fv (for SMAW) (9.16. as shown in Fig.414 Fv (for SMAW) (9.16 Connection of stiffeners to web by intermittent welds .
The girder has a span of L = 150 ft.8. (a1 − L1 ) ≤ 16t w and 10 in. such welding increases the chance of fatigue or brittle failure. Welding of the stiffeners to the tension flange is not necessary (Fig. (9. In fact. Moreover. The distance between the point of termination of the stiffener-to-web weld and the near toe of the web-to-flange weld should not be smaller than four times the web thickness or greater than six times the web thickness.16). Intermediate stiffeners not transmitting a concentrated load or reaction can be stopped short of the tension flange (ASD G4) (Fig.17 is covered in this section. 9. 9.1 Problem Description Design of the doubly symmetric plate girder shown in Fig. 9.16). 9.27 Design of Plate Girders The clear distance between welds should not be greater than 16 times the web thickness or greater than 10 inches (ASD G4).8 DESIGN OF A SIMPLE HOMOGENEOUS PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.45) Welding of the stiffeners to the compression flange keeps them normal to the web and consequently makes them more stable. The loading on the girder consists of a uniform load of w = 4 K/ft and a concentrated load of P = 500 Kips applied at a distance of 100 ft from . such welding causes the stiffeners to resist any uplift tendency due to torsion and thus provides restraint against torsional buckling of the compression flange.
at the point of application of concentrated load. Lateral support is provided at supports. Since the compression flange carries a uniform load. use E70 electrodes with an allowable shear stress of 21 ksi. 9.17) are RA = (4)(150)(75) + (500)(50) = 466.8. and at point D located at a distance of 50 ft from the left support A. Use A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi for the flange and web plates as well as the double stiffeners. Bending moment over the girder: For 0 ft < x < 100 ft: .33 Kips The shear diagram is shown in Fig.Design of Plate Girders 28 the left support.67 = 633.18.67 Kips 150 RB = (4)(150) + 500 − 466. assume that it is restrained against rotation.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Reactions at support A and B (Fig. 9. For welds. Figure 9.17 9.
Therefore.x1 = A <0 dx w ∴ There is no maximum between C and B.67 = R A − wx1 = 0 .x1 = A = = 116.4(100)(50) = 26667 K-ft The bending moment diagram is shown in Fig.18 Shear diagram M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 R dM ( x) 466. the maximum bending moment over the girder is at point C under the concentrated load.67 ft > 100 ft dx w 4 ∴ There is no maximum between A and C.67(100) . Mmax = Mc = 466. For 100 ft < x < 150 ft: M ( x) = R A x − wx 2 2 − P ( x − 100) R −P dM ( x) = R A − wx1 − P = 0 . . 9.19.29 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.
5)] 322 For closely spaced stiffeners.5 in.4) yield values close to each other. Eqs. In other words. from Eq.Design of Plate Girders 30 Figure 9. (9.47 in.3 .45 in. . we choose the following depth for the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in. when a ≤ 1.3) and (9.0 . or PL150 in. for the web plate. that is.8. 1/ 2 t w [36(36 + 16. (9.3 36 It is seen that for A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. (9.2).4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 333.x0. the minimum thickness of the web plate cannot be substantially reduced by closely spacing stiffeners. Try tw = 0.19 Bending moment diagram 9. 12 12 From Eq. tw 333.000 ≤ = 322.3 Selection of the Web Plate Referring to Eq. (9.5 d.3): h 150 14.t w ≥ = 0.t w ≥ = 0.5 in.
67 tw Fy ∴ Allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq.22). can be computed approximately from Eq. say.667)(12) 75 − = 94.60Fy = 22 ksi. (9.4 Selection of Flange Plates Because the allowable bending stress in the flange plates must be reduced. (9. (9. The required flange area.31 Design of Plate Girders h = 300 . Af. check if reduction of the allowable bending stress is required.8. 970 h = 300 > = 161.46 for h > 70 tw .2 Tentatively assuming the allowable bending stress to be Fb = 0.2 (20)(150) 6 The minimum flange thickness in order to prevent flange local buckling is obtained from Eq. we may decrease Fb = 0.60Fy = 22 ksi somewhat. kc = 4.19). tw Aw = 75 in. 9.05 (h / t w ) 0.24). Af = bf t f = (26. to Fb = 20 ksi.17 in.
20 kc = 4.Design of Plate Girders 32 Figure 9.5 in. 9. The girder section is shown in Fig.34 in. Try PL38 in. Af = 95 in.05 = 0.17)! ! $ 190 ! $ " % = 2.294 (300) 0.46 1/ 2 # & 36 ! $ 0 .x2.20.17): .2. (9. for each flange. 294 $ tf = (94. From Eq.
5)(150) 3 + 2(38)(2.5 Find the allowable bending stress Fb (Sec. 9.396 = = 16.4 S= I 1.33 Design of Plate Girders 1 2 I = 12 (0.3 h / 2 +t f 75 + 2. This ratio for region DC is equal to M1/M2 = MD/MC = -18. (12 + 150 / 95)1 / 2 For region AD and CB of the girder the ratio of the smaller to larger end moments.333.245.20) 3 & 6t f b 3 # f + ht w rT = $ ! 12 ( 6 t b + ht ) $ ! f f w % " 1/ 2 # & 6t f b 3 f rT ≈ $ ! 12 ( 6 t b ht ) + ! $ f w f " % rT = 1/ 2 = bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f )1 / 2 (9. so we find the allowable bending stress for this region.5) 3 = 1.069. 5. is zero (Figs. M1/M2.25) 2 + 12 (38)(2. rT = radius of gyration of the flange plus one-sixth of the web area about the y-axis (Fig.245.667 = -0.687 Region DC is the critical region. 9.5).5/26.46) 38 = 10.19).6 in.31 in.396 in. .5)(75 + 1.17 and 9.
102.069.0005* ' * * + 95 ( + 0. (9.75 + 1.74 1/ 2 1/ 2 = 57.Design of Plate Girders 34 Cb = 1. 000 C 3 1 .3(M1/M2)2 = 1. 102.5 % 760 )# ' '! 21.000)(1.000C b ) * ' * ' F y + ( 1/ 2 & (510.31 + ( 1/ 2 & 2 F y ( Lu / rT ) 2 # &2 (36)(58.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( . 000 ( 1 .687)+0. 510.05(-0. 530 . 17 ) $ ! b % " % " Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress F’b from Eq.17 < 2.6 S O.K.39 ksi 21.39 ksi 16. & .0 − 0.17) # =$ ! 36 " % & (102.17) # =$ ! 36 " % 1/ 2 = 128. 75 ) .3(-0.55 (" The maximum bending stress in the girder is fb = M max (26. 510.05(M1/M2)+0.58 L u = unbraced length = AD = DC = CB = 50 ft .55 ksi 3 1 .687)2 = 1. 150 − Fb' = $1.000C b ) L (50)(12) ' < u = = 58.55 = 20.24).667)(12) = = 19.000C b ) * ' * ' Fy + ( 1/ 2 .30 . 530 .2) 2 # Fb = $ − ! Fy = $ − ! (36) = 21.75+1.2 < * * ' rT Fy 10.000)(1.91 ksi < 20. .
8. a.22 ksi 75 Aw Substitute for Fv = fv = 6.35 Design of Plate Girders 9.22 ksi in Eq. (9.14)].8): .8 36 Fy From Eq. Cv = 2.000 kv = = From Eq.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.34 45. (9.5)(300) 2 = 36 > 9. 2.22) = = 0.89 Fv (2.000 (36)(0. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required [Eq. Find the location of the first stiffener from each end. h 150 = = 300 > 260 t w 0 .67 = = 6. At the left end fv = R A 466.5 < 0.6) and solve for Cv.89)(6.7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. (9. (9.5 ∴ Stiffeners are required.
41(150) = 61.8 36 Fy Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.345(150) = 51. 5.345 in. At the right end fv = RB 633. Tentatively. Figure 9.34 45.89)(8.41 amax = 0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 50 in.3 in.678)(300) 2 = 48.33 = = 8. b.678 < 0.34 ) =* ' + 36 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. 5. from the left end A.8 in.89 Fv (2.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( .34 ) =* ' + 48.21 Equivalent areas for bearing stiffeners at A and C .44) = = 0.000 1/ 2 a . 5.34 ) ' =* ' h * + kv − 4 ( 1/ 2 .44 ksi 75 Aw 2. 5.Design of Plate Girders 36 a .81 − 4 ( = 0. amax = 0.000 1/ 2 Cv = kv = = (36)(0.81 > 9.
so the latter need not be checked. Spacing of the stiffeners between points E and C (Fig. 7 Intermediate stiffeners between E and C: 2PL6.22 Final design Tentatively. 9.6 in. Bearing stiffeners at A. 2 2 amax = 112. and C: 2PL18 in. a. from the left end B. Find the spacing of remaining stiffeners. Equation (9. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance of 40 in. x /16 in. x 12 ft 6 in. Web: PL150 in.10) a ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 /(300)] (150) = 112. x ½ in. 3.5 in. From Eq. 3 Figure 9. We choose to use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first stiffener away from the left end) and point C (at the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and F (at the location of the first stiffener away from the right end) (Fig. x 2½ in. x 1 /16 in. 9 Intermediate stiffeners between C and F: 2PL7 in.22). x 12 ft 4 in.10) controls over Eq. B.22) . x 12 ft 4 in. 9.6 in. x /16 in. (9. (9.37 Design of Plate Girders Flanges: 2PL38 in.11).
02 ksi O.Design of Plate Girders 38 Vmax = maximum shear 50 50 ( w) = 466.67 − 12 (4) = 450. 45 45 Vmax = R A − 12 ( w) = 466.90 2 (a / h) (0.67 = = 6.7 ) " = 2.7) 2 = Cv = 45.207 36 & $0.67 Kips fv = Vmax 451.58 + 7.000)(14.62 ksi > f v = 6. to 45 in.89 % 1.15(1 + 0. (Fig. 9.207 < 0. .90) = 0. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end A from 50 in.22).3 are satisfied.0 + 5.7 < 1 h 150 k v = 4 .0 + = 14.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 (45.8 (36)(300) 2 Because all five conditions mentioned in Sec.34 5. we can take advantage of the tension-field action and use Eq.00 ksi 75 Aw Try a = 105 in.34 = 4 . Fv = # 1 − 0. 9.0 Kips = R A − 12 fv = Vmax 450 = = 6.207 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2. (9.02 ksi 75 Aw a 105 = = 0 .67 − 12 (4) = 451.04 = 9.K.12) for calculating the allowable shear stress.
33 − 12 (4) = 616. Spacing of the stiffeners between points C and F (Fig.8 (36)(300) 2 Cv = 45.0 + 5. and change the spacing of the first stiffener away from end B from 40 in.66 Kips fv = Vmax 616.39 Design of Plate Girders Note that the contribution of the tension-field action is substantial in this example.733) 2 ( a / h) = (45.22 ksi Aw 75 a 110 = = 0.0 Kips fv = Vmax 620 = = 8. (9.733 < 1 h 150 k v = 4.000k v Fy (h / t w ) 2 From Eq.27 ksi Aw 75 Try a = 110 in.33 − 12 (4) = 620. b.22). 9.000)(13.34 = 4.22) 40 40 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633.93) = 0. 50 50 Vmax = R B − 12 ( w) = 633. to 50 in.12): .193 < 0.0 + = 13. 9.34 5. (Fig.66 = = 8.93 2 (0.
396 I O.18 and 9. where the bending is slightly smaller than the maximum value but the shear force is larger than that at point C (Figs.825 − 0.Design of Plate Girders 40 Fv = # 1 − 0. 9.193 + 2 1/ 2 ! 2.78 ) .22 ksi O. The critical section for this check is either at point C.375 9. . fv = VC 433.825 − 0.K.45 ' (36) = 21.40 + 7.22.44 ksi 1.89 % 1.733 ) " = 2. where the bending moment has the largest value and the shear force is considerable.30)].K. (9. 4.667)(12)(75) = = 19. ' ' F y = * 0. Check combined shear and bending in the web.15(1 + 0. Let us first check the combined shear and bending at point C under the concentrated load [Eq.245. or somewhere close to but to the right of this point.45 ksi > f v = 8.375 F v + ) 5.78 ksi Aw 75 The allowable bending tensile stress in the web [Eq.33 = = 5.19). (9. fv Fb = * * 0.193 36 & $0. Spacing of the stiffeners over the girder span is shown in Fig.27 ksi < Fb = 21.44 ksi ( + ( The maximum bending tensile stress in the web (at the junction of web and flange): fb = M C y (26. 9.05 = 9.30)]: .
47) will yield the minimum thickness required for the intermediate stiffeners. 9.207) $0. For region EC. Whenever fb/Fb is close to one. Select the intermediate stiffeners.78 in. (9. and between C and F is a = 110 in. such a check may be necessary. (9.62 ( % = 5. we do not need to check the other locations to the right of point C.8 ts 36 Substituting for bs = 15. (9. From Eq.41 Design of Plate Girders Note that if this condition is not satisfied.27).56 in. a. 6. which is a function of aspect ratio a/h. (9. the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners is normally reduced. Also.90 is considerably less than one.7 2 (150)(0.8ts in Eq.7 ) "+ 9.7 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0.47) .56 / 2 = 2. (Fig. 5.02 ) 1 0 .22).29): bs 95 ≤ = 15. because fb/Fb = 0.2 bs t s = 5. Spacing of the stiffeners between E and C is a = 105 in.5)(1 − 0. The cross-sectional area of a pair of stiffeners is found by Eq.2 From Eq. (9.27): Ast = & #.
7/16 in. 9. = 12 ft 4 in.94 / 15.78 / 15.2 bs t s = 7. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C). x 7/16 in.8)1 / 2 = 0. 4 I st = 12 4 4 O.28). h ) . For region CF. x 7/16 in. = 6.193) $0.89 in. . 8. h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4(0. From Eq.733 − ' 2 1 / 2 !* 2 (1 + 0. .5)(1 − 0.7 in.5) 3 = 89. b. 4 > 81 in. + 50 ( + 50 ( 1 7 (16 ) (6.2 bs = 15. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C (excluding C).8t s Minimum t s = (3.22) and their length h1 can be four times the web thickness shorter than the depth of the web. Try 2PL6½ in.5 in. 9.5) = 148 in.Design of Plate Girders 42 t s = (2.45 ( % = 7.5 × 2 + 0.419 in.K.27): Ast = & #. 150 ) 4 * ' =* ' = 81 in. Use 2PL6½ in.8)1 / 2 = 0.733 ) "+ 9.733 2 (150)(0. Intermediate stiffeners need not be extended to the tension flange (Fig.22 ) 1 0.89 / 2 = 3.94 in. Check the moment of inertia requirement (Eq. (9.
14 in.43 Design of Plate Girders Use 2PL7 in.375 in.22). 9.67 Kips. x 13/16 in. Abs = 21.8 tbs 36 Fy t bs ≥ 18 18.2 b. because these plates are larger than those used in region EC. and the thickness of the web is 0.375) + 12(0. x 9/16 in. Check buckling (width-thickness ratio). From Eq. Moment of inertia check is not needed.5 in.2 . Bearing Stiffeners Bearing stiffeners should extend roughly to the edges of the flange plates. bbs 95 95 ≤ = = 15.8 16 Try 2PL18 in.31): 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(21.2 = 1. we choose a width of bbs = 18 in. for the left support. 1. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F (excluding C).75 in. Bearing stiffeners at the left support a.8. 15. for the three pairs of bearing stiffeners (Fig. Check axial compressive stress due to reaction RA = 466.5) 2 = 45.. Noting that the width of the flange plates is 38 in. (9. Length of stiffeners: h1 = h − 4t w = 12 ft 4 in. 9.6. = in.
KL 0.75(150) = = 10.96 ) 1 .699 ( % % = 21.96 10. 10. 9.26 in.1 > KL r F.S.699 Allowable axial stress: & 1 .11 ksi Actual axial stress: .96 ) 2 # .26 r . 10. 2π 2 E ) ' Cc = * * Fy ' + ( 1/ 2 & 2π 2 (29.06 / 45. = factor of safety = = 5 3( KL / r ) ( KL / r ) 3 + − 3 3 8C c 8C c 3 5 3 .06 in. 36 ) & (KL / r )2 # Fa = $1 − ' ' !* ! F y / F.1 ( 8 + 126.1 ( " ! + 1.96 ) + * '− * ' 3 8 + 126.000) # =$ ! 36 % " 1/ 2 = 126.Design of Plate Girders 44 Moment of inertia of the equivalent area about the x-axis (Fig.1 ( = 1.5) 19 16 3 = 4812.21): 1 I ≈ 12 ( ) (36.75 = 10. = $1 − * 2C c2 " $ ! $ 2 + 126.S.4 Radius of gyration about the x-axis: r = I / Aeff = 4812. 10.
. 9. and the effective area (Fig. for the bearing stiffeners at the left support.33 Kips Try 2PL18 in.45 Design of Plate Girders fa = R A 466.75 O. x 12 ft 6 in. 2. for the bearing stiffeners at the right support. x 13/16 in.K.84 ksi < Fa = 21. fa = RB 633. 3. Use 2PL18 in.67 = = 10. however.21) is larger than that of the end .20 ksi < 21. The bearing stiffener. say ¼ in. Bearing stiffeners at the concentrated load Because the axial load for these stiffeners. less than the depth of the web plate. P = 500 Kips. the same as for the left support.11 ksi 45. Sometimes the height of the bearing stiffeners is chosen slightly. x 13/16 in. Use 2PL18 in. should be in contact with the flange receiving the concentrated load.33 = = 13.11 ksi Aeff 45.K. is less than RB. Bearing stiffeners at the right support Reaction at the right support: RB = 633. x 12 ft 6 in.75 Aeff O. x 13/16 in.
4) # 2 ( 150 2 .414(21) a1 1/ 2 = 0.48) The minimum length of a segment of intermittent weld is larger of four times the weld size (4ww = 1. flange plate is 5/16 in.33 Kips We use intermittent SMAW welds. 2 & (633.5 in.8. we can use the same 2PL18 in. Vmax = RB = 633.7 Web-to-Flange Fillet Weld We design the web-to-flange connection based on the maximum shear over the girder length.33) 2 (95) 2 . The relation between the width of the fillet weld ww. (Sec. (ASD J2b).1246 Minimum weld size for a 2.) and 1. Try ww = 5/16 in.3.5-in.245.5 and ASD Table J2.5 in. x 13/16 in. for bearing stiffeners at the location of the concentrated load. (9. 5 ) + + ! $ * ' 2 + 12 ( " ! $ 4(1. L1min = 1. we obtain a1 = 2.25 in. 8.Design of Plate Girders 46 bearing stiffeners.39).51L1 (9. . 9.396) L1 ww % = 1. and the spacing a1 is given by Eq. Substituting this value into the previous equation.4). x 12 ft 6 in. the length of weld segment L1.
47 Design of Plate Girders The maximum longitudinal spacing of the intermittent weld is the smaller of 24 times the thickness of the thinner plate and 12 in. (ASD D2). From Eq. Fy ) f vs = h* * 340 ' ' + ( 3/ 2 fv .43): . (9.62 ( We use intermittent welds. 36 ) = (150)* ' Fv + 340 ( 3/ 2 . 9.8. 6. long.04 in. 4 in.5 in. a max = 12 in.23 ksi + 9.8. Use 5/16-in. (9. weld. weld.02 ksi.40): Fv = 9. we obtain a1 = 10.62 ksi . long. From Eq. 4 in. For segment EC (Fig.02 ) * ' = 3. Try 5/16-in. spacing.48).22) f v = 6. Thickness of the thinner plate = 0. Stiffener-to-Web Fillet Weld 1. From Eq. 10-in. (9. 9.
5 ksi + 9. fillet weld with a spacing of 10 in.90 in. 8.49) we obtain L1 = 2. Minimum length of the weld segment = 4ww or 1.-thick plate is 3/16 in.50) L1 ww 4. long. (9.-thick plate is ¼ in. spacing. = 1.23 = = = 0. 36 ) f vs = (150)* ' + 340 ( . 9.22 ksi. 3.5 in. weld.828(21) (9.05439 a1 2.828 Fv 2.50 = = 0.45 ( (9.5 in.5 in.5 in. For segment CF (Fig. = 24(16 Try a 3/16-in.49) The minimum weld size for a ½-in.828(21) The minimum weld size for a 9/16-in.0 in. The maximum weld spacing is 7 ) = 10.0757 a1 2.22) f v = 8. From Eq. a max = 24t s or 12 in.45 ksi 3/ 2 .Design of Plate Girders 48 L1 ww f vs 3. . 10-in. 2. Use 3/16-in. a max = 12 in. Fv = 9. L1min = 1.22 ) * ' = 4.
Total strength of four lines of weld = 4(150)(4. 12-in. 4 in.707(16 = 4. weld.8.64 K/in. 9. Use continuous welds on both sides of each stiffener plate. fillet weld = 0.49 Design of Plate Girders Try a ¼-in. Bearing stiffeners We use 2PL18 in. Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0. x 13/16 in. for each pair of bearing stiffeners. 3.50) we obtain L1 = 3. From Eq. x 12 ft 6 in. long.49) = 96.50) = 675 Kips O.K. (9. weld continuously on both sides of all bearing stiffeners.63 in.89 Kips .490 Kips/ft3 95 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0. spacing.33 Kips and > hf vs = (150)(4.9. Use 5/16-in. Minimum weld size: 5/16 in. 5 )(21) Shear strength of 5/16-in.64) = 2784 Kips O.K. Try ww = 5/16 in. Use ¼-in. intermittent fillet weld with a spacing of a1 = 12 in. > Vmax = 633.
49/123) = 9. 2. Selection of the Web Plate .73 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 135.26 + 9.73 = 145.0 Kips Note that the weight of the stiffeners is 6.1 Problem Description Design of the same plate girder described in Sec. 3.9.5)( 16 )(148.8.1 is desired except that 1. 9.28 Kips 12 12 Weight of the flange and web plates = 135.18 and 9. Single intermediate stiffeners are used.19).49) = 38. 9. 9.Design of Plate Girders 50 .7 percent of the total weight of the plate girder. The yield stress of steel used in the flange is 50 ksi (the yield stress of the web plate and stiffeners is the same. The shear and bending moment diagrams are the same as before (Figs.5 Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = ( 150 )( 0 )(150)(0. 9. 36 ksi).26 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 7 )(150) + 11(2)(6.9 DESIGN OF A HYBRID GIRDER BASED ON THE ASD CODE 9.9.2. The compression flange is laterally supported throughout its length.0)](0.0) = [3(2)(18)( 19 16 9 + 5(2)(7)( 16 )(148.
e.9. (9. For the selected web plate. x 9/16 in. tw 3 970 Fy = 970 50 = 137.8 . when a ≤ 1.5d.000 150 ≤ = 242. 9. Note that spacing of the intermediate stiffeners a should not be greater than 1.3): h 14.67 .2 Aw = (150)(16 h = 266.51 Design of Plate Girders Depth of the girder web: h = L/12 = 150 in.8 For closely spaced stiffeners.375 in.5d.67 tw The allowable bending stress must be reduced according to Eq. From Eq.. taking into account the reduction of the .t w ≥ = 0.18 < 9 ) = 84. we find an approximate relation for the area of one flange plate for hybrid girders.53 in. (9.t w ≥ = 0. from Eq. tw 282.8 50 Try tw = 9/16 in.3 Selection of Flange Plates First. we have h 800 = = 266. for the web plate. 1/ 2 t w [50(50 + 16.5)] 242. (9. i.62 in. or PL150 in.8 .24).4): h 2000 150 ≤ = 282.
60 Fyw / Fb = 0. (9.Design of Plate Girders 52 allowable bending stress according to Eq. This equation at the limit can be written as (neglecting the term in the bracket) Fb' = 6 A f + βAw 6 A f + Aw Fb (9.52) (9.893)(84.893 Af = (26.72) − 0.18): S= M max h = (6 A f + Aw ) 6 Fb' (9.51) and (9.6(36) / 30 = 0.375) − = 58.53) Combining Eqs.667)(12) (0.51) where β = 1. .72) 3 = 0.72 < 1. (9.0 β = 1. we obtain Af = M max βAw − Fb h 6 (9.24). (9.5(0.5α 3 From Eq.60)(50)(150) 6 Minimum flange thickness is found from Eq.22).55 in.5(0.2 (0.53) and solving Af.5α − 0. (9.54) In this example: α = 0.
46 1/ 2 # & 50 / 0.893(1.31 tf =$ (58. (9.55)! ! $ 190 " % = 1.05 4.406) = 0. for each flange plate.375 = = 1.7 in.363 I = = 11.67) 0.0 Af Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.056.406 60. Af = 60 in. x 2 in.0 Properties of the section: 2 1 9 (30) (2) 3 + 2(60) (75 + 1) 2 = 851.406 .363 in.20): bf tf = 30 = 15.980 6 + 1.53 Design of Plate Girders kc = 4.24): Aw 84.98 in.310 0.60Fyf = 0.0 = 2 190 F yf / k c = 190 50 / 0. Try PL30 in. (9.4 I = 12 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 S= 851.46 (h / t ) (266.3 75 + 2 h / 2 +t f Allowable bending stress Fb = 0.60(50) = 30 ksi We find the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.31 = 15.2 Check Eq.05 = = 0.
Try PL31 in.125)(75 + 17 16 Check Eq.Design of Plate Girders 54 & # . (9.94 ksi > 26.375 ) Fb' = (30) $1.0 O.0 − (0.980) + 60. Aw 84.125) 3 + 2(31) (2.667)(12) = = 28.7 N.125) = 65.375 = = 1.281) = 0.281 .281 A f (31)(2.76 ksi S 11.76 ksi fb = M max (26.3 75 + 17 8 2 1 9 I = 12 )2 (16 ) (150) 3 + 12 (31) (2. A f = (31)(2. (9. 4 S= 920.875 in.2 = 920.492.935. for each flange.24).20): bf tf = 31 = 14.K.893(1.492.8 in.125) Re = 6 + βAw / A f 6 + Aw / A f = 6 + 0.67 − 138. 84.0 ( % " = 26.1 in. x 21/8 in.G. Calculate the reduced allowable bending stress from Eq.59 < 21 8 190 F yf / k c = 15.76 )! (0.8 = 11.056.981 6 + 1.0005)* '(266.
9.02 ksi fb = M max (26.81 ksi < Fb' S 11.875 ( % " = 27.0005)* '(266. (9. 84.5(h + 2tf) = 1. Also.375 . and we must use Eq.10): a max ≤ [260 /( h / t w )] h = [260 / 266. Use PL31 in.K.40 F y = 14.40 ksi Aw Aw 84.4 Intermediate Stiffeners Intermediate stiffeners are required.6) for the allowable shear stress. 1.667)(12) = = 26. (governs) 2 2 For hybrid girders. We use uniform spacing between A and C and between C and B (Fig. (9.67 − 138.935.60 in.17).4 in.67 = = = 5.76)! (0.2 9. Spacing of the stiffeners between A and C.0 − (0.1 O.981) + 65. 9. for each flange. and their spacing should not be greater than amax = 1.67] (150) = 142.5d = 1. the design cannot be based on tension-field action.53 ksi < 0. from Eq.55 Design of Plate Girders & # .375 ) Fb' = (30) $1. Af = 65. fv = Vmax R A 466.25) = 231.875 in.5(150 + 4. x 21/8 in.
89 Fv ( 2.000 2.23).33 = = = 7.67) 2 = 34.000 Cv = k= Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.444)(266.603)(266. 5.30 > 9.375 2.40 ksi Aw Aw 84. 2.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 .67) 2 = 25.89 Fv ( 2.89)(5. fv = Vmax R B 633.8 36 Fy = (36)(0. between A and C (Fig.000 . 9. (9.53) = = 0. 5. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and B. Use a = 75 in.34 45.444 < 0.40 F y = 14. (9.26 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0.8): a .7): Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45.89)(7.501(150) = 75.34 ) =* ' + 25.51) = = 0.26 > 9.603 < 0.Design of Plate Girders 56 From Eq.501 amax = 0.6): Cv = From Eq.000 (36)(0.8 36 Fy k= = From Eq.51 ksi < 0.34 45.2 in. (9.
no stress reduction due to interaction of simultaneous bending and shear stresses is necessary. Selection of intermediate stiffeners. (9. Use a = 60 in.30)] is not required for hybrid girders. In other words.42(150) = 63 in. 9. 5. The moment of inertia of a single stiffener with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners is approximately equal to I st ≈ 1 t b3 3 s s (9.34 ) =* ' + 34.34 ) =* ' h + k − 4( 1/ 2 . 5.55) .29). (9. First. We can find an approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the stiffeners. between C and B (Fig. Selection of the size of the intermediate stiffeners in hybrid girders is based upon Eqs. let us consider the case of single stiffeners. 3.57 Design of Plate Girders a . Note that because the design of hybrid girders in not based on tension-field action.30 − 4 ( 1/ 2 = 0. the combined shear and bending check [Eq.42 amax = 0.23).28) and (9.
we must multiply the right-hand side of Eqs. B.55) and (9.55) yields I st = 285. Web: PL150 in.375 (9. (9.57) In the case of double stiffeners. (on one side) 9 Bearing stiffeners at A. x /16 in. Figure 9.56) Finally. x /16 in.56) by 2. x 12 ft 3 /4 in. (9.56) and solving for ts.29) into Eq.000865h( F y ) 0. and the resulting equation for the minimum thickness is t s = 0. (9. x 12 ft 6 in. 9 3 Intermediate stiffeners: PL7.5 in.28) and (9. we obtain the following approximate formula for the minimum required thickness of the intermediate stiffeners: t s = 0. x 1 in. and C: 2PL15 in. (9.58) Flanges: 2PL31 in.792 4 ts ( Fy ) 3 / 2 (9.375 (9.000727 h( F y ) 0.23 Final design of the hybrid plate girder . equating Eqs.Design of Plate Girders 58 Substituting for bs from the limiting case of Eq. x 21/8 in.
9. O. = 12 ft 33/4 in.90 in. for stiffeners on one side. Try ts = 9/16 in.3 in.5 in. 9 ). < 88. the minimum stiffener thickness is t s = 0. + 50 ( + 50 ( Length of intermediate stiffeners: . 150 ) 4 4 Required I st = * ' = * ' = 81 in. Furnished I st = t s * bs + w ' 3 + 2( 3 1. x 12 ft 3¾ in.59 Design of Plate Girders If we assume single stiffeners.3 in. From Eq.5 in. (9.50 in. 4 4 3 9.75 in. 9 ) = * ' * 7.000865(150)(36) 0. 4 3 + 16 ( + 32 ( . h) .5 + ' = 88. for stiffeners on one side.5 Bearing Stiffeners .9) h1 = h − 4t w = 150 − 4* ' = 147. t ) 1 .K. x 9/16 in. Try PL7.375 = 0. x 9/16 in. + 16 ( Use PL7.29): bs ≤ 95t s Fy = 95(9 / 16) 36 = 8.
07 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 110.6 and therefore will not be repeated here.07 Kips Weight of the web plates = htwLγ = 2(150)( 19 16 Weight of the flange and web plates = 67. (9. x 12 ft 6 in. 9. For stiffener-to-web fillet welds. needs to be used.07 = 118.40) will not apply and only the minimum amount of welding.6.49)/144 = 67. The answer: Use 2PL15 in. for bearing stiffeners at each support and at the location of the concentrated load. Eq. 8. 9.49)/144 = 43.9.3. Connections The procedure for design of web-to-flange fillet welds is the same as for nonhybrid plate girders. 9. however.75)](0.5)(147.39 Kips .2b and covered in Sec.Design of Plate Girders 60 The procedure for design of bearing stiffeners is the same for the nonhybrid girder example of Sec.7 Girder Weight Weight of the flange plates = 2Af L γ = 2(65.25 Kips )(0.9.8.25 + 43.32 + 8. x 1 in.49/123) = 8. This portion of the design is left as an exercise for the student.875)(150)(0. as given in ASD J2.07 = 110.32 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 9 = [2(3)(1)(15)(150) + (24)( 16 )(7.
75 in. Consider bending only.10 ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS ACCORDING TO THE ASD CODE Example 1 A simply supported hybrid steel plate girder consists of two WT18x115 sections with yield stress of 50 ksi and a 100 in.61 Design of Plate Girders 9. What is the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder? The compression flange is embedded in a concrete floor deck.24 . x 0. The length of the span is 150 ft. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi as shown in Fig. 9.24. Figure 9.
26 in.760 in.95 67.8 in.739 in.4.5 in.3 50 + 17.18 0.01) 2 ] + 12 (0. Properties of a WT18x115 section are t f = 1.8(50 + 17. A = 33. I x = 934 in.95 Allowable bending stress: Fb = 0.75)(100) 3 t w = 0. 2 Moment of inertia of the built-up section: 1 I x = 2[934 + 33.60(50) = 30 ksi 970 970 h 2(66. . 9. 4 = 340.69) = = 177.739 = = 5014.75 tw Fy 50 ∴ Reduction of allowable bending stress in the compression flange is necessary (see Sec.60 F yf = 0.Design of Plate Girders 62 Solution The centroidal axis of the top WT section is specified by the axis x in Fig.95 − 4.24.3).8 > = = 137. 4 Section modulus of the built-up section: Sx = Ix 340. 9.
490)/144 = 0. h 760 ) '! R Fb' = Fb $1.47)(1.952 12 + 2(101.2 Aw = (100)( 3 ) + 2(33.26 = 0.72 &12 + ( Aw / A f ) 3α − α 3 # Re = $ ! 12 + 2( Aw / A f ) $ ! % " &12 + (101.26) = 20.1) /( 20.75 30 ( " % wo = weight of the girder per unit length = 2(0.75 in.72 − 0.1 in.0005* − '* * ' ! (0.115) + (100)(0.60Fyw /Fb = 36/50 = 0.0 − 0.75) = 101.72 3 # =$ ! = 0.1 ) . 133.8 − 20.0 − 0.49 K/ft Maximum moment acting on the girder is (Fig.75)(0.75 ( + 0.2 4 α= 0.38 760 ) # ' = 30$1.75) % " ( ) ( ) # & A .63 Design of Plate Girders A f = (16.23 + 0. 9.0005 w * − e Af * $ Fb ' + tw (! " % & .1 / 20.25) M max = ( wmax + wo ) L2 = Fb' S x 8 .75) 3 × 0.952) = 25.84 ksi + 20. 101.
assuming that the beam must carry a uniformly distributed load of 3. Choose the minimum number of uniformly spaced stiffeners using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi. Figure 9.84 Kips/ft Since uniformly spaced stiffeners are provided. .49 = 3.25): W = 3.35 Kips/ft (150) 2 (12) Example 2 Find the spacing of the intermediate stiffeners in the previous example.5) − 0.84)(5014. 9.35 K/ft in addition to its own weight. the maximum uniformly distributed load that can be supported by this girder is wmax = 8 Fb' S x L 2 − wo = 8(25.25 Solution The design load intensity (Fig. the spacing of stiffeners must be based on the maximum shear along the beam.49 = 3.35 + 0.Design of Plate Girders 64 Therefore.
8) 2 = 5. (9.5 in.89)(2.34 ( 1/ 2 4 .10) and (9.11). a .40 F y = 14. Fv = Cv = Fy C v 2. (9.89 = fv 2. ) =* ' + 5.34 ( 1/ 2 = 2.98(2)(66. (9.85 ksi < 0.65 Design of Plate Girders Vmax = wL (3.34 45.84)(150) = = 288 Kips 2 2 The maximum shear stress in the girder is fv = Vmax 288 = = 2.8).85) = = 0. (9.1 ft . we can calculate the maximum spacing from Eq. Fy C v (h / t w ) 2 45. 4 ) =* ' h + k − 5.229)(177.80 Fy 36 Calculate k from Eq.98 Spacing of the stiffeners is also limited by Eqs.229 < 0. = 33.69) = 397.7).4 ksi Aw 101.000 k= = Now.1 We set this maximum shear stress to allowable shear stress given by Eq.6) and solve for Cv.98h = 2.79 < 9. a max = 2.79 − 5.89 f v (2.000 (36)(0.
26 if the bending tensile stress in the web is 27.22 in.8 ' (133. Example 3 Determine the allowable shear capacity (Kips) of the homogeneous plate girder interior panel shown in fig.Design of Plate Girders 66 and . the governing limit is amax = 23.77 ft + ( w ( + 2 2 a max Therefore. 260 ) =* *h/t ' ' h = * 177.1 in. 260 ) . Use a= (150)(12) = 257. 9. What percentage of the shear capacity of the panel comes from the beam action prior to the web buckling and what percentage is the share of the tension-field action after the shear buckling of the web? Yield stress of the steel is 50 ksi . 7 Use six intermediate stiffeners and two pairs of bearing stiffeners at the supports.38) = 285.77 ft.5 ksi. = 23.
34 + = 8. Find Cv from Eq.26 Solution a = 9 ft = 108 in.7): Cv = 45.77 2 (a / h) (1.5 in.34 + 4 4 = 5.67 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. (9.000k = = 0.08 > 1 h 2000 h = 200 < = 283 tw F yf Find k from Eq. a = 1.8 2 Fy (h / t w ) 50(200) 2 .8): k = 5.000(8.08) 2 h = 100 in. (9.197 < 0.77) 45. t w = 0.
375 F v + Solve for fv: f v = 0.55 F y ( .164 F y $C v + 2 ! 2. 15 1 ( a / h ) + " % = 0.51 ksi Shear capacity of the plate girder = fv Aw = (8.232 F y = 11.068 F y / f v = 0. fv Fb = * * 0.) # Fy & 1 − Cv ! = 0.7 Kips Percentage of the shear capacity from the beam action .51)(100)(0.89 ( = 40 percent Percentage of the shear capacity from the tension-field action = 100 – 40 = 60 percent ) ' ' F y = 27.733(11.Design of Plate Girders 68 Find the allowable shear stress from Eq.825 − 0.61 ksi < 0.5) = 425. (All of the five conditions given in Sec. C ) = * v F y Aw ' /( f v Aw ) = 0.3 for relying on the postbuckling behavior and tension-field action of the web plate are met.89 $ 1 .61) = 8.40 F y Fv = Allowable bending stress: .12). (9.51 = 0.068(50) / 8.068 F y + 0. 9.4 + 2.5 ksi = 0.733Fv = 0.
2 and LRFD Appendix F2.5 h h = tw .10.000 F yf for a > 220.127.116.11 LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS 9.69 Design of Plate Girders 9. the plate girder is designed as a beam as presented in section 5.11.60) for a ≤ 1.5 h (9.1 Introduction In this section we cover the load and resistance factor design of plate girders with tension-field action according to the LRFD code (AISC. when the design is without the tension-field action. In particular. the design shear strength and the transverse stiffeners will be based on the provisions of LRFD F2 covered in section 5.59) If this requirement is not satisfied.2 Web Buckling Strength The following requirement must be satisfied in order to maintain sufficient web buckling strength (LRFD Appendix G1): 14.5)]1 / 2 2. 1998). Design of plate girders according to the LRFD code can be based on tension-field action if h 970 > = λr tw F yf (9. 9.000 [ F yf ( F yf + 16.
62) . Limit state of tension-flange yield. Note that these equations are similar to Eq.61) Coefficient Re in Eq.3) and (9.4) for the ASD code. 1.9 is used for the resistance factor φb.3 Flexural Design The limit states to be considered in the design are tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. It is equal to 1 for nonhybrid girders and is given by Re = 12 + a r (3m − m 3 ) ≤ 1. (9.Design of Plate Girders 70 where h is the clear distance between flanges for welded plate girders.61) is the hybrid girder factor. At the present time a constant value of 0. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit state of tension-flange yield is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = Re S xt F yt (9. the design flexural strength will be φb Mn. 9.0 12 + 2a r (9. If we denote the nominal flexural strength of the girder by Mn and the bending resistance factor by φb. The nominal flexural strength should be taken as the smaller value obtained from the limit states of the tension-flange yield and compression flange buckling. (9.11.
24) of the ASD code covered in Sec. and web local buckling (WLB).3 and Fyt is the yield stress of the tension flange in ksi. They are lateral-torsional buckling (LTB). there exist three limit states of buckling.64) where hc is twice the distance from the neutral axis to the inside face of the compression flange and Fcr is the critical compression flange stress to be discussed later in this section. The nominal flexural strength based on the limit states of compression-flange buckling is given by (LRFD Appendix G2) M n = R PG Re S xc Fcr (9. 2.71 Design of Plate Girders for hybrid girders where ar is the ratio of the web area to the compression flange area (a r = Aw / A f ≤ 10) and m is the ratio of the web yield stress to the flange yield stress (m = Fyw/Fyf) or to Fcr. 9. flange local buckling (FLB). In general. Limit states of compression-flange buckling. Note that Eq. Sxt is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the tension flange in in. (9.3. The coefficient RPG takes care of the reduction of the allowable bending stress resulting from the lateral displacement of the web plate on its compression side and is determined by ar 1200 + 300a r . In Eq. (9. the limit state of WLB does .63) where Sxc is the section modulus of the girder corresponding to the compression flange in in.4.0 * tw Fcr ' + ( R PG = 1 − (9.64) corresponds to Eq.h ) * c − 970 ' ≤ 1.3. (9.6). Because the design is based on the postbuckling behavior of the web plate.
λp.63). λr.67) λr = (9. Evaluation of critical stress Fcr. λp. and a plate girder coefficient CPG. we must evaluate the critical Fcr corresponding to the limit states of LTB and FLB and use the lower value in Eq. For the limit state of LTB: λ= Lu rT 300 F yf 756 F yf (9. (9. 3.10.1 for beams. a. λp and λr are the limiting slenderness parameters as defined in section 5.Design of Plate Girders 72 not apply.65) λ2 The quantities λ. and CPG are specified for two limit states of LTB and FLB separately. and λr.68) C PG = 286. F yf Fcr = & 1 . The critical stress Fcr is given as a function of slenderness parameters λ. However.66) λp = (9. λ − λp C b F yf $1 − * 2* $ + λr − λ p % C PG )# ' ! ≤ F yf '! (" for λ ≤ λP for λP <λ ≤ λr for λ > λr (9.000C b (9.69) .
72) kc = (9.11.763 (9. 9.4 Preliminary Proportioning of the Flange Plate Equations (9.70) λp = (9. b. (5.75) Note that the governing slenderness parameters will be the ones that render the lower value of the critical stress Fcr.35 ≤ k c ≤ 0.61) and (9.0 (9. Cb is the same as that defined by Eq.71) λr = (9. We will derive an approximate but explicit .73 Design of Plate Girders In these equations.74) (9.35). For the limit state of FLB: λ= bf 2t f 65 F yf 230 F yf / k c 4 h / tw 0.73) C PG = 26200k c C b = 1.63) cannot be used directly for the design of the flange plate.
79) After finding the area of the flange we still have to select two different design parameters: width and thickness of the flange.18) into Eq.77) Substituting for Mn from Eq.76) Now.78) we finally find the following formula for the flange area of a doubly symmetric girder: Af = (3m − m 3 ) Aw Mu − φ b hF yf 12 (9.Design of Plate Girders 74 equation for the flange area for the common case of doubly symmetric girders and based on the limit state of tension-flange yield. (9. (9. (9. (9. In the case of doubly symmetric sections Eqs.77) into the following equation and solving for Af M u = φb M n (9.76) and simplify: 1 M n = 12 hF yf [12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw ] (9. substitute for approximate value of Sx from Eq. let us find bounds on bf and tf for a given Af for the case when the critical . For some guidance in selecting the flange design parameters.61) and (9.62) can be wrttien in the following form: 12 A f + (3m − m 3 ) Aw 2(6 A f + Aw ) Mn = S x F yf (9.
13.80) Substituting for rT from Eq. and (9. For the limit state of LTB. and a compromise must be made.65). the requirement of Eqs.67)]: Lu 300 ≤ rT F yf (9. we must have [Eqs. . (9.66). (9. (9.82) often cannot be met simultaneously. For the economical design of plate girders. 9. we must have [Eqs. (9. we obtain the following bound on bf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: bf ≥ Lu 2 F yf (6 + Aw / A f ) 300 (9.81) For the limit state of FLB. and (9.82) Note that for a given required Af.71)]: bf 2t f ≤ 65 F yf Substituting for bf = Af /tf into this equation and solving for tf. In Sec. (9.75 Design of Plate Girders stress Fcr is equal to the yield stress Fyf (its maximum value). we find the following bound on tf in order to have Fcr = Fyf: .65).46) into this equation. the values of critical stress Fcr obtained from the limit states of LTB and FLB should be close to each other. Af ) ' tf ≥* * 130 ' + ( 1/ 2 (F ) yf 1/ 4 (9. (9. an iterative scheme is used for achieving this goal in the applet for interactive design of plate girders.81) and (9.70).
5 Shear Design without Tension Field Action If the nominal shear strength is denoted by Vn.84) The web plate buckling coefficient kv shall be taken as 5 whenever 2 a > 3 or [260 /( h / t w )] h (9. where φv = 0.83) h kv ≤ 234 tw F yw for kv h > 234 tw F yw kv = 5 + 5 ( a / h) 2 (9.6 Aw F yw *187 * F yw + for Aw (26400k v ) (h / t w ) 2 ) h ' 't ( w 187 kv F yw < (9.9 is the shear resistance factor. the design shear strength is φvVn.2) kv h ≤ 187 tw F yw 0.6 Aw F yw for Vn = .85) . kv 0.Design of Plate Girders 76 9. The nominal shear strength for design without tension field action is given by (LRFD Appendix F2.11.
77 Design of Plate Girders 9.6 Aw F yw Vn = for & # 1 − Cv 0.6. In these cases. (9.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.86) shall not be used for hybrid girders or for endpanels in nonhybrid girders.000k v (h / t w ) 2 F yw for h 234 k v > tw F yw (or Cv ≤ 0.8) 187 k v (h / t w ) F yw Cv = for ≤ (or 1.11. where the resistance factor φv is 0. It is given by 187 k v F yw h 234 k v ≤ tw F yw (9. Shear Design with Tension Field Action The design shear strength with tension field action is φvVn.84) Equation (9.86) 0.9. The nominal shear strength is given by (LRFD Appendix G3) h 187 k v ≤ tw F yw (9.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 " $ ! % for h 187 k v > tw F yw where Cv is the ratio of the critical web stress according to linear buckling theory to the shear yield stress of the web steel. as well as when relation .8) The parameter kv is defined by Eq.0 ≥ Cv > 0.87) 44.
the tension-field action is not allowed.6φ v Aw F yw C v (9. the gross area of each transverse stiffener or a pair of stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix G4) . their design should be based on the following requirements: 1.88) 9. (9. Vu is the required shear based on the factored loads.F ) & V 2 # * yw ' ≥0 Ast = $0.6 Aw F yw C v (9. When transverse stiffeners are required. and Cv must be evaluated for kv = 5. For design based on tension-field action.15ht w D (1 − C v ) u − 18t w !* ' φ vV n % "+ F ys ( (9.89) In Eq.90.85) holds.90) (9.91) .11.Design of Plate Girders 78 (9.7.90). Transverse Stiffeners Transverse stiffeners are not required in the following two cases: h 418 ≤ tw F yw or Vu ≤ 0. φv is 0. and the following equation shall apply: Vn = 0.
Vu is the required factored shear at the location of the stiffener.9.92) where & 2. 2.8 Combined Bending and Shear For plate girders with transverse stiffeners.11. depending on the values of the required shear Vu (0.5. an interaction check may be necessary as specified by the following equation (see the last two paragraphs of Sec.5 # − 2 ! ≥ 0 . The moment of inertia of a single stiffener of a pair of stiffeners with respect to an axis in the plane of the web and perpendicular to the plane of the stiffeners should be at least equal to (LRFD Appendix F2. 9. 9.6φVn ≤ Vu ≤ φVn) and required moment Mu (0.625 u ≤ 1.375 φM n φV n (9. .75φMn ≤ Mu ≤ φMn).5 j=$ 2 % (a / h) " (9.93) 9.5 for an explanation): Mu V + 0.3) 3 I st = at w j (9.79 Design of Plate Girders The coefficient D is the same as that defined in Sec.94) In this expression φ = 0.
9. Assume that the distributed and concentrated loads are resolved into dead and live loads as follows: Intensity of distributed dead load: wD = 3 K/ft Intensity of distributed live load: wL = 1 K/ft Concentrated dead load: PD = 400 Kips Concentrated live load: PL = 100 Kips Using the load factors given in Sec.Design of Plate Girders 80 9. (2.6(100) = 640 Kips 9.28. we find the design factored distributed and concentrated loads are as follows: w = 1.6 w L = 1.1 Problem Description We design the same example of Sec.2(400) + 1.2 K/ft P = 1. Eq.2(3) + 1. DESIGN OF A SIMPLE PLATE GIRDER BASED ON THE LRFD CODE 9. but only for one load combination: dead plus live load. 2.12. respectively. Maximum design bending moment and shear are .12.7.27 and 9.2 Shear and Bending Moment Diagrams Shear and bending moment diagrams for the factored loads are shown in Figs.2 PD + 1.6(1) = 5. 9.6 PL = 1.2).12.8 on the basis of the LRFD code.2w D + 1.
12.67 Kips 9.60) Figure 9.81 Design of Plate Girders M max = M u = 34.28 Bending moment diagram .27 Shear diagram Figure 9. 12 12 From Eq.3 Selection of the Web Plate Select the depth of the girder web: h= L (150)(12) = = 150 in. (9.3 K-ft = 412. Vmax = Vu = 816.333.000 K-in.
50 in.3 for a > 1.5h for a ≤ 1.4.000 − = 72. (9. Selection of the Flange Plates 1.95) Lu = unbraced length = 50ft = 600 in. (9.0 333.2 0. 2 9.47 in.79).0 in. x 0.5h tw ≥ 150 h = = 0. or PL150 in.12. 322 322 Try tw = 0.96) . For the critical stress Fcr to be equal to the yield stress.9(150)(36) 12 (9. h tw = 300. Preliminary selection of the flange plates. from Eq. (9.Design of Plate Girders 82 h ≤ tw 322.5 in.3) = 45. for the web plate. Aw = 75 in.3 in. m=1 Af = (3 − 1)(75) 412.81): bf ≥ 600 300 2(36)(6 + 75 / 72. We find an approximate flange area from Eq.
838 = = 13. (9. based on Eq.5)(150) 3 + 12 (40)(2) 3 + 2(80)(75 + 1) 2 = 1. 2.2 1 2 I x = 12 (0.97) To begin with.87 rT 10. try tf = 2 in.95).83 in. (9. (9.97). Check for the limit state of compression-flange buckling: a.1 in. the nominal flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of tension-flange yield is always greater than or equal to the flexural strength on the basis of the limit state of compression-flange buckling. Af = 80 in.4 Sx = I x 1. Lateral torsional buckling λ= Lu 600 = = 55. based on Eq.74 in.82): t f ≥ (72.. [12 + 2(75) /(80)]1 / 2 For doubly symmetric girders.0 . only the latter needs to be checked. Then. (9.838 in.829.064. try bf = 40 in.3 / 130)1 / 2 (36)1 / 4 = 1. Therefore.83 Design of Plate Girders and from Eq.3 77 77 bf (12 + 2 Aw / A f ) 1/ 2 rT = = 40 = 10.74 300 F yf = λp = 300 36 = 50.064.
9 ft-K = 603.5) 2 = 32. The moment gradient coefficient Cb is found from Eq.0 − 50.3) 2.00 (" = 38.5) − 1 2 MB = moment at center line of the unbraced segment (5.5(34.551.1 ft-K = 603.00 )# = (1.551.5) 2 = 27. the middle segment of the girder (segment DC in Fig.33(75) − 1 2 MC = moment at three-quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.7 ft-K = 603.Design of Plate Girders 84 From the LTB point of view.624. 9.5M max 12.17) is the critical segment.10 λr = 756 F yf = 756 36 = 126.333.3) + 3(27. (5.885.0 λ p < λ < λr & 1 .624.9) + 4(30.333.1) = 1.07 ksi > F yf = 36 ksi . λ − λp Fcr = C b F yf $1 − * * $ % 2 + λr − λ p )# '! '! (" & 1 .35).5M max + 3M A + 4 M B + 3M C 12.5) − 1 2 Cb = = 2.2)(75) 2 = 30.2)(62.87 − 50. 55.2)(87.5(34.885.33(62. MA = moment at quarter point of the unbraced segment (5.7) + 3(32.10)(36) $1 − * '! % 2 + 126.33(87.
912)(13. Flange local buckling λ= bf 2t f = 40 = 10 2( 2) = 65 36 = 10..K.633 K-in.h * c − 970 ' * tw Fcr ' ( + . and PL40 in. We choose the second trial flange plate on the basis of the following estimate of the new required flange area: . The value of φb Mn is within 1% of Mu = 412. x 2.00) = 408. the governing critical stress is Fcr = 36 ksi.1)(36.83 > λ = 10 λp = 65 F yf Fcr = F yf = 36 ksi Therefore.9(0.0 in.000 K-in. 75 / 80 970 ) * ' =1− 300 − * ' = 0.85 Design of Plate Girders ∴ Fcr = 36 ksi.912 1200 + 300(75 / 80) + 36 ( ar 1200 + 300a r R PG = 1 − φ b M n = φ b R PG S x Fcr = 0. we would have to increase the area of the flange.829. is acceptable for the flange plate. b. ) . If the section were not O.
0679 (300) 2 (36) 0.6(0.98) also to possibly reduce the area of the flange when φb Mn is larger than Mu. 9.98) We can use Eq.000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = (44. Check Eq. Check Eq. (9.2 tw F yw 36 Cv = 44. (9.67 tw F yw 36 b.6φ v Aw F yw C v = 0.0679) = 99 Kips This value is smaller than the maximum shear in segments AC and CB of the plate girder (Fig. ∴ Intermediate transverse stiffeners are required. Check if intermediate stiffeners are required.90) (with kv = 5): 234 k v 234 5 h = 300 > = = 87.000)(5) = 0.Design of Plate Girders 86 New A f = (old A f )( M u / φ b M n ) (9.89): h 418 418 = 300 > = = 69. a. 9. 2.9)(75)(36)(0. . Find the location of the first stiffener away from each end.5 Intermediate Stiffeners 1.27).12. (9.
87 Design of Plate Girders a. Tentatively. .4 in.47 From Eq.84): a / h = [5 /( k v − 5)]1 / 2 = [5 /( 25. (9.4138)(36) / 44.443h = 0.6(0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 45 in.4138 < 0.9)(75)(36)] = 0. At the right end: a max = 55.33 Kips = φ vVn = 0.47)]1 / 2 = 0.88): C v = Vu /[0.87): k v = (h / t w ) 2 C v F yw / 44. At the left end: Vu = 603. b.000 = 30.33 /[0. (9. from the right end B.7 in. (9.000 = (300) 2 (0. place the first intermediate stiffener at a distance 50 in.443(150) = 66.443 a max = 0.8 From Eq. Tentatively.6φ v Aw F yw ] = 603.9V n Kips From Eq. from the left end A.
22): Try a = 105 in..000(15. the coefficient kv shall be taken as 5. We limit the aspect ratio a/h to these values. similar to Fig.75(150) = 112.20 36 = 152. a. 260 ) ' =* ≤* ' = 0.20 2 ( 0 . As in the example of Sec. Whenever the aspect ratio a/h is greater than 3 or [260/(h/tw)]2. 9. we use uniform spacing between point E (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the left end) and point C (the location of the concentrated load) and also between point C and point F (at the location of the first intermediate stiffener from the right end). a .000k v (h / t w ) F yw 2 = 44.7. From Eq. (9.87): Cv = 44.75 < 3 ' * h + h / tw ( + 300 ( 2 2 a max = 0.206 (300) 2 (36) From Eq. a/h = 0.84): kv = 5 + 5 5 =5+ = 15. 260 ) .8. 9. 9.75h = 0.5 in. Spacing of the stiffeners between point E and C (Fig.20) = 0.Design of Plate Girders 88 3. Find the spacing of the remaining stiffeners.7 ) 2 ( a / h) = 234 15.22.1 < h = 300 tw 234 k v F yw From Eq. (9. (9.86): .
0) = 1125 Kips 45 45 Vu = R A − 12 w = 603.83 Kips < φ vVu O. 9.33 − 12 (5.22). Similar to case a.6)(0.K. Vu = 556. M u = 412. .67 Kips Vn = 1230 Kips Since Vu is less than 0.206 + = 1250 Kips 2 1/ 2 ! 1.9(1250.000 K-in.6 Aw F yw $C v + ! 1.15(1 + a 2 / h 2 )1 / 2 ! $ % " & # 1 − 0.2) = 583. b. Vn = 1230. 9.2 Kips.487 K-in..6φVn = (0. C v = 0. to be satisfactory.15(1 + 0..89 Design of Plate Girders & # 1 − Cv Vn = 0. we find a = 110 in.7 ) " % φ vVn = 0. a very small distance to the right of point C).0 Kips. Check shear and bending interaction. an interaction check is not necessary. We perform the interaction check at point C under concentrated load where the bending moment is the largest (actually. Note that the spacing of the stiffeners in this example is the same as that for the example of Sec. 9.8 designed according to the ASD code and shown in Fig.22.6(75)(36) $0. Vu = 795 Kips 4.194. M n = 465.9)(1230) = 664.206 = 0. Spacing of the stiffeners between C and F (Fig.
(9. 4 bs 95 ≤ = 15. Region EC: a = 105 in.07 in.5 2 (0.7.99) a/h = 0.100) (9.7) 2 ( a / h) (9. 2 bs t s = 0. The .99) is minimal. bs and ts should be selected based on Eqs.Design of Plate Girders 90 5.101).100) and (9.5 2 .8 ts 36 (9. (9.5 −2= − 2 = 3..0)(150)(0.15(1.206 From Eq. (9. (9. (9.5) 3 (3.91): 583. Therefore.93): j= 2 . 2 From Eq. C v = 0.83 #. From Eq.5)(1 − 0.92): 3 1 I st = 12 t s (2bs + t w ) 3 ≥ at w j = (105)(0. Select intermediate stiffeners.10 ≥ 0. 36 ) & Ast = $0.5) 2 !* ' 1125 % "+ 36 ( = 0.206) − 18(0.69 in.14 in.10) = 40.101) The area requirement of Eq. a.
for all bearing stiffeners.. 9. To satisfy the buckling requirement we must have .K. x 3/8 in.9 is similar to the design according to the ASD code covered in section 9. x 3/8 in. (9.375)(11 + 0. 1.5 in. From Eq. Use 2PL5.5) 3 = 47.101) is ts = 3/8 in.12.5 in. Region CF: a = 110 in. for intermediate stiffeners from E to C. x 3/8 in. We design the support bearing stiffeners based on the larger shear at support B.. for intermediate stiffeners from C to F. (9.5 in.91 Design of Plate Girders minimum thickness to satisfy Eqs. RB = 816.100): 1 I st = 12 (0. and the thickness of the web is 0. a/h = 0. we choose a width of bbs = 19 in. 4 O. Use 2PL5.733 The answer is the same as for region EC.101): bs ≤ 5. (9.92 in.6. Noting that the width of the flange plate is 40 in. b. From Eq. Bearing stiffeners at supports. Try 2PL5.53 in.67 Kips. 4 ≥ 40.5 in.100) and (9.69 in.6 Bearing Stiffeners Design of bearing stiffeners according to LRFD K1.
85 KL . 2 1 5 I = 12 ( 4 )(19 + 19 + 0.000π 2 + 2 2 ) ' ' ( 1/ 2 = 0.17 Kips O.50)(35. x 1¼ in. F y ) * ' λc = 2 ' r * +π E ( 1/ 2 . 95 Try 2PL19 in.50 in.75 in.50 = 10. KL (0..85 in.5 LRFD E2 Fcr = (0.20 in. for the bearing stiffeners at the left and right supports. Use 2PL19 in.80 ksi Pn = Aeff Fcr = (50.9 Kips φ c Pn = 0.116 )(36) = 35.31) 2 Aeff = 2 Abs + 12t w = 2(23. Bearing stiffeners at concentrated load.80) = 1807. 36 = 10.K.116 < 1.37* * 29.75)(150) = = 10.4 in.85(1807.9) = 1536.Design of Plate Girders 92 t bs ≥ Fy 95 bbs = 36 (19) = 1. x 1¼ in. Abs = 23. 2.5) 3 = 5944. . 4 r = I/Aeff = 5944. x 12 ft 6 in.2 The effective area for finding the axial compressive load capacity is found from Eq.37 r 10.4 / 50.75) + 12(0.658 0.658 λc ) F y = (0.7 Kips > R B = 816.5) 2 = 50. (9.
output window and control window (Fig. .8 Kips Total weight of the plate girder = 120.7 Girder Weight γ = specific gravity of steel = 0.13 WEB-BASED INTERACTIVE DESIGN OF PLATE GIRDERS The applet presented in this section is for interactive design of homogeneous and hybrid plate girders according to the ASD and LRFD codes.8 Kips Comparing the weight of this design based on the LRFD code with the corresponding one based on the ASD code presented in section 9.3 = 120. x 1¼ in.29).7 Kips 75 )(150)(0.8.0 Kips Weight of the stiffeners 3 = [(3)(2)(19)( 5 )(150) + (16)(2)(5.12.49/123) 4 = 8. 9.93 Design of Plate Girders Buckling requirement governs.8 = 128. This applet consists of three windows: input window. 9.49) = 38.49) = 81.5)( 8 )(148)](0. x 12 ft 6 in. at the location of concentrated load.0 + 8.3 Kips Weight of the web plate = Aw Lγ = 2( 144 Weight of the flange and web plates = 81.490 Kips/ft3 80 Weight of the flange plates = 2Af Lγ = 2( 144 )(150)(0.7 + 38. we observe that the former is about 11 percent lighter than the latter. 9. Use 2PL19 in. Therefore.
To design a hybrid girder. this applet requires minimum amount of design entry to perform a design.29).30a). if the user selects a steel type for flange plates with lower strength than that of the web.30b. the user can perform redesigns repeatedly simply by changing only one or several of the input values. for example. . 5. thickness. However. Width. Span length. The user can enter the corresponding input for the design of plate girders in those panels. To begin the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of flange and web plates only.11). the applet warns the user with a pop-up message shown in Fig. Stiffeners panel. The girder may have either full lateral support or intermediate lateral supports. the user needs to select the steel types of flange plates and web plate properly. lateral supports (similar to applet for design of beams described in Sec. Flange & Web panel. and steel type of flange plates and thickness and steel type of the web plate are set in the flange & web panel (9.Design of Plate Girders 94 The input window consists of Configuration panel. and distributed and concentrated loads are set in the configuration panel (Fig. 9. and Welds Panel.31. 9. The loading on the girder may consist of a uniformly distributed load plus a specified number of concentrated loads. 9. respectively. Alphabets “A” and “B” are reserved for the left and right supports. The concentrated loads are named alphabetically from left. The applet displays the first design results as shown in Fig. Like other applets presented in the previous chapters. For impractical values.
29 .95 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.
Design of Plate Girders 96 (a) Initial screen before running the applet (in this stage.30 . the user can choose the steel types only) (b) After running the applet Figure 9.
the entire span for girder without any concentrated loads defined as “From A to B” (Fig. the place of the 1st stiffener. 9. The applet handles this situation by adding selection lists as the user enters the concentrated loads. bearing stiffeners at each concentrated load are designed differently from those at supports and intermediate stiffeners are designed for each segment (defined as a portion of the girder between two concentrated loads or a support and a concentrated load). and the number of the intermediate stiffeners are set in the stiffeners panel (Fig.32). Figure 9. and thickness. width. By default. As the user enters additional concentrated loads the applet creates additional segments.97 Design of Plate Girders Steel type of bearing and intermediate stiffeners. i. But the user can change and make them the same throughout the length of the girder after the first design presented by the applet. Initially. 9.32a). Numbers of bearing stiffeners and segments depend on the number of concentrated loads given in the input panel.31 . the applet provides only one segment selection.e. For example. thickness and width of bearing stiffeners.
Design of Plate Girders 98 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.32 .
Intermediate stiffeners may or may not be provided and single or double plates may be used as intermediate stiffeners.99 Design of Plate Girders in Fig. all input components related to intermediate stiffeners are deactivated (Fig. If the user chooses to design a plate girder without intermediate stiffeners.33 Figure 9. Depending on the selection made by the user. 9. sections. and welds panels in the output window.34). the applet has added a second segment and the two segments are denoted as “From A to C” and “From C to B”.33.34 . 9. The same scheme is used for the bearing stiffeners as well as other panels such as welds panel in the input window. the applet displays the required input items for the selected segment. and elevation. Figure 9. This scheme saves screen space by using the same screen area for all different segments.
Design of Plate Girders 100 (a) Before running the applet (b) After running the applet Figure 9.35 .
continuous fillet welds are used for connecting bearing stiffeners to web as required by the ASD and LRFD codes. length and spacing of the welds connecting flange to web. The last panel in the input window is the welds panel for electrode type. .35b. But.101 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. 9.32a).35a). 9. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. 9. size of the weld connecting bearing stiffeners to web. length. 9. and whether double or single intermediate stiffeners are used only (Fig. whether intermediate stiffeners are provided or not.35). and size.36 At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the steel types of stiffeners. The applet displays design results as shown in Fig. At the beginning of the design of a plate girder the user needs to specify the electrode type and whether intermittent or continuous welds are used only (Fig.32b. and spacing of the weld connecting intermediate stiffeners to web (9. The user can choose intermittent or continuous fillet welds for flange-to-web and intermediate stiffener-to-web connections. and size.
Sections panel. Similarly. BMD panel displays the bending moment diagram for the given loadings and shows the magnitude and location of the maximum bending moment (Fig. Welds panel. supports. 9.29 and 9. 9. SFD panel shows the shear force diagram along with maximum shear force and magnitude of shear force at supports and concentrated loads (Fig.37 The output window consists of loadings panel. 9. and the web depth-to-span ratio. this option is placed separately from the flange & web panel in the input window so that the user can design the plate girder with several different values of the web depth-to-span ratios easily. and points of lateral support similar to the applet for design of beams (Fig.37). ASD and LRFD. Since the web depth-to-span ratio is a key design factor in design of plate girders.29).39). Loadings panel displays the loadings. . They are the method of design.Design of Plate Girders 102 The user can select the two primary design parameters in the control window placed in the upper right corner of the screen (Figs. 9. 9. and Girder Weight Panel (Fig. Elevation panel. Figure 9.38). SFD (shear force diagram) panel. BMD (bending moment diagram) panel.36).
38 Elevation and sections panels display the elevation and the sections of the plate girder. Welds panel displays the design results of the weld along with minimum and maximum code requirements (Fig. 9. and displays the various weight components as well as the total weight of Figure 9. 9.40 and 9. respectively as shown in Figs. the user can easily perform a redesign without trying improper values.39 .43).41) and a section within any segment (Fig. The girder weight panel is the last panel in the output window. 9.42).103 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. 9.41. Knowing the minimum and maximum requirements. It can display the section at support or at the location of a concentrated load (Fig.
37 to 9.8. The example data used in Figs. The hybrid girder presented in section 9.Design of Plate Girders 104 the plate girder (Fig.44). 9.29 to 9.41 . Figure 9.36 are the same as those of the example problem solved in section 9. 9.45 to 9.40 Figure 9. 9. The results shown in Figs. The results are presented in Figs.44 are for the same problem also.49. 9.9 also has been solved by the applet.
42 Figure 9.44 .105 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9.43 Figure 9.
45 Figure 9.47 .Design of Plate Girders 106 Figure 9.46 Figure 9.
as indicated on the figure.107 Design of Plate Girders Figure 9. Double plates are used for intermediate stiffeners. Use A36 steel . as shown in Fig. 9.49 9.14 PROBLEMS 9.1 Design a simply supported welded hybrid plate girder subjected to a distributed load of intensity 3.48 Figure 9. and F.50. E. The girder has lateral supports at the two ends and at points D.5 K/ft including the girder weight and a concentrated load of 400 Kips at a distance of 50 ft from the left support.
plate is selected for the web. check the adequacy of this preliminary design.x1. Use E70 electrode and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) for connecting various plates. 9.50 9.Design of Plate Girders 108 with yield stress of 36 ksi for the web plate and stiffeners and A572 steel with yield stress of 60 ksi for the flange plate. Using A36 steel with yield stress of 36 ksi and considering the bending stresses in the flange only. and a 40 in. Figure 9. The girder is laterally supported at the supports and at the midspan.3 Design the intermittent web-to-flange fillet weld for the hybrid girder designed in Sec.5 in. a 180 in. Based on a preliminary design. using submerged arc welding (SAW) and E70 electrode.75 in. Use the minimum weld size and minimum length for the intermittent fillet segments.x0. plate is selected for each flange. . 9.9 of the book.2 A simply supported welded plate girder has a span of 200 ft and is subjected to a uniform load of 4 Kips/ft including its own weight.
10. using a.10.6 Design the intermediate stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.50 in. 9. plate with yield stress of 36 ksi. single stiffeners b. double stiffeners .109 Design of Plate Girders 9. 9.10. assuming that the plate girder consists of two WT12x52 with yield stress of 60 ksi and a 100 in. 9. 9. x 0.5 Design the bearing stiffeners in Example 1 of Sec.4 Solve Example 1 of section 9.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?