LAPORAN LENGKAP PRAKTIKUM

TEKNIK PENGOLAHAN PANGAN
(323 G5 403)

NUR RAHMAYANTI
G 411 10 262

PROGRAM STUDI KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN
JURUSAN TEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN
FAKULTAS PERTANIAN
UNIVERSITAS HASANUDDIN
MAKASSAR
2013
i

STP Mengetahui : Dosen Pembimbing Praktikum INGE SCORPI TULLIZA. STP..Msi 19771105 200501 2 001 Tanggal Pengesahan : Mei 2013 ii . STP FILDZAH WAHYUDDIN.HALAMAN PENGESAHAN JUDUL NAMA STAMBUK JURUSAN KELOMPOK : LAPORAN LENGKAP PRAKTIKUM TEKNIK PENGOLAHAN PANGAN (323 G5 403) : NUR RAHMAYANTI : G 411 10 262 : KETEKNIKAN PERTANIAN : V (LIMA) Laporan Lengkap ini Disusun Sebagai Salah Satu Syarat Untuk Melulusi Praktikum Mata Kuliah Teknik Pengolahan Pangan (323 G5 403) Pada Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Hasanuddin Makassar 2013 Menyetujui : Asisten I Asisten II ANNISA RISDIANDIKA PUTRI.

MAN 2 MODEL MAKASSAR (2007-2010) 5. Pendidikan Sekolah Menengah Pertama. Pendidikan Sekolah Menengah Atas. merupakan anak sulung dari tiga bersaudara dari pasangan Bapak H. Mulyati. Perguruan Tinggi pada Universitas Hasanuddin.BIODATA PENULIS NUR RAHMAYANTI lahir di Kabupaten Gowa pada hari Sabtu tanggal 12 Januari 1991. Madrasah I’DADIYAH PUTRI PONPES DDIAD MANGKOSO BARRU (2003-2004) 3. Pendidikan formal yang telah dilalui adalah: 1. Jurusan Teknologi Pertanian. Fakultas Pertanian. Pendidikan Sekolah Dasar di SD INPRES PARIGI (1997-2003) 2. Pendidikan Dasar Pesantren. Madrasah Tsanawiyah Putri PONPES DDI-AD MANGKOSO BARRU (2004-2007) 4. Program Studi Keteknikan Pertanian. Dudding dan Ibu Hj.2014) iii . pada tahun (2010 .

LEMBAR PERSEMBAHAN PUISI AIR Gemericik Riuh Air Jernih Mendendang Jiwa Segar Membasuh Wajah Bumi Yang Lelah Dalam Terik Matahari Nan Menyengat Bening Mengalir Tanpa Keruh Menghidupkan Semua Yang Berjiwa Namun Dengan Berjalannya Waktu Kebersihannya Tak Lagi Mudah Didapat Air Kian Tak Berdaya Dalam Derasnya Derita Alam Buatan Manusia Yang Tak Berjiwa iv .

penulis mengucapkan terima kasih. Laporan lengkap ini disusun sebagai salah satu syarat untuk mengikuti ujian praktikum Teknik Pengolahan Pangan. Makassar. kami mengharapkan saran dan kritik dari semua pembaca guna kesempurnaan laporan ini. Oleh karena itu. Penulis menyadari bahwa dalam laporan ini terdapat banyak kekurangan dan kesalahan. baik dalam pengetikan maupun kata-kata yang tidak sesuai. Mei 2013 Penulis v . Mereka telah membimbing penulis tanpa mengenal lelah walaupun penulis sering mengecewakan mereka.KATA PENGANTAR Puji syukur penulis panjatkan atas kehadirat Tuhan Yang Maha Esa atas selesainya Laporan Lengkap Praktikum Teknik Pengolahan Pangan ini. Penulis mengucapkan terima kasih kepada kedua asisten Teknik Pengolahan Pangan yang telah membimbing dalam melaksanakan praktikum Teknik Pengolahan Pangan. Semoga Laporan Lengkap ini bermanfaat bagi penyusun dan bagi pembaca. Penulis juga mengucapkan terima kasih kepada semua pihak yang telah membantu dalam menyelesaikan Laporan Lengkap ini. Atas perhatiannya.

....................................................... iii LEMBAR PERSEMBAHAN ................................................ PENDAHULUAN 1..... 1 1...........................................................................................................................................................................1 Tekstur ................................. 3 2...................................1 Latar Belakang .................................... 2 II............................................... xvi PENETRATION I.................. 11 2................................................................................................................................................. vi DAFTAR TABEL ...................................................... xii DAFTAR GAMBAR ............................................................................... 6 2.......................4 Deformasi ........................................................................................................ i HALAMAN PENGESAHAN .....................................................DAFTAR ISI HALAMAN JUDUL ................................................. 13 III...... v DAFTAR ISI ................................... xiii DAFTAR LAMPIRAN .......3 Texture Profil Analyser (TPA) ................... METODOLOGI PRAKTIKUM 3....5 Probe ....2 Alat Dan Bahan ....................................................................................................2 Tujuan dan Kegunaan .............. 17 3............ iv KATA PENGANTAR ................................. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA 2....................................... 5 2....................................................................... ii BIODATA PENULIS ............................................... 17 vi ....................................................................................2 Alat Texture Analyser .................................................................................6 Buah .............................................. 8 2.....1 Waktu Dan Tempat .......................................................

............................................... 19 4......... 39 2............................2 Bending ...............1 Kesimpulan ..................3 Prosedur Kerja ...........................................................................................1 Latar Belakang ..... 24 DAFTAR PUSTAKA .... 18 IV...................................... 49 3....................................2 Saran ....................... 17 3.......................................... 25 LAMPIRAN ............................................................2 Pembahasan ............................................ 41 2....................................................... 23 5......................... 38 II.................4 Deformasi .......... 40 2....................................... HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN 4.......... TINJAUAN PUSTAKA 2.................................................................................................... 41 2......... PENDAHULUAN 1...................................................2 Tujuan dan Kegunaan .................................................................................................... 49 3.............................. METODOLOGI PRAKTIKUM 3................................................................. 26 BENDING I....1 Waktu Dan Tempat ......................................................................................... 37 1................... PENUTUP 5..............................................................................................5 Buah ....................1 Hasil ................. 43 III........... 19 V...............................................3.......................................4 Rumus Yang Digunakan .......................................................................................................................................................................3 Probe ..........................................2 Alat dan Bahan ....................................3 Prosedur Kerja .1 Tekstur ............................ 49 vii ...................................

.................................................2 Alat dan Bahan ...3 Jenis – jenis ekstrusi .................................. HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN 4.............................................. 70 III...2 Pembahasan ...........................6 Agar ...................................2 Tujuan dan Kegunaan .............2 Nilai nutrisi produk pangan ekstrusi ............................................ 64 II.................................................................................4 Deformasi ......................................................................................................................1 Kesimpulan .................1 Latar Belakang.....5 Probe Compression Plates ............................3 Prosedur Kerja .................... METODOLOGI PRAKTIKUM 3............................................. 72 3...................................................................................................................................................... 65 2...................................................................agar ...... 54 5.............................. 50 IV....... 68 2... 69 2....................................................... 63 1........ 57 BACK EXTRUSION I............................................... 56 LAMPIRAN .........................................................................................2 Saran .............4 Rumus Yang Digunakan ....................... 72 viii ......................................................... PENUTUP 5............................................................................................................................................. 52 4......1 Waktu Dan Tempat ........3................................. 52 V..................... 55 DAFTAR PUSTAKA ....... 72 3..................................1 Ekstrusi .........................1 Hasil ...................................... TINJAUAN PUSTAKA 2............................................ 66 2......... 66 2.................. PENDAHULUAN 1.......................

.........................................................................4 Rumus Yang Digunakan .....................................................................2 Pembahasan .........................................................................................1 Hasil ...............................................................1 Latar Belakang . 92 III...................................................................................3.......................................................................... 91 2.................................................................. PENUTUP 5...............................................2 Bulk Density ...............3 Deformasi ..................................... 89 2...... PENDAHULUAN 1.................4 Rumus Yang Digunakan ......................................... HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN 4.................................... 97 3..............................................1 Kompresi .............. METODOLOGI PRAKTIKUM 3......................2 Tujuan dan Kegunaan ......................................................................................2 Saran ..................................................................................................5 Bahan ................... 86 1........ 79 LAMPIRAN ...... 97 3.................................................................................................. 90 2.. 78 5....... 75 4......................................................... 97 3......................................................................................4 Probe Compression Platens ............1 Waktu Dan Tempat ... 73 IV............. 78 DAFTAR PUSTAKA ..............................1 Kesimpulan .. 75 V. 80 COMPRESSION I................... 88 2..........................................................................3 Prosedur Kerja ............................................................... 87 II..............................................2 Alat dan Bahan ............. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA 2........................ 98 ix .

...........1 Waktu Dan Tempat ....5 Bahan ......................................... 115 2.................................................................................................. 102 5....................................... TINJAUAN PUSTAKA 2......... 117 III..IV.....1 Tekstur .........................3 Prosedur Kerja ......................................................... 123 IV..................................................2 Pembahasan .................... 114 2...2 Tegangan Geser (Shearing Stress) ....................................................................1 Kesimpulan ..................... 122 3........................ PENDAHULUAN 1............................... 103 DAFTAR PUSTAKA ..................................1 Latar Belakang ....... 116 2... 122 3..................................................... 113 2.......................................................... HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN 4.................................................................................................... METODOLOGI PRAKTIKUM 3...................................................3 Deformasi ................... 112 II.................................................... 100 4.........................2 Alat dan Bahan .......................................1 Hasil..............................................................................................................4 Probe Warner Bratzler Blade ........................................................................ PENUTUP 5...........................................2 Tujuan dan Kegunaan ..4 Rumus Yang Digunakan ..................................... 105 SHEAR I.................................................................................... 100 V. 111 1..........................................2 Saran ..................... 104 LAMPIRAN ........................................... HASIL DAN PEMBAHASAN x ...................................................... 122 3....

................................................................. 124 4........ 129 LAMPIRAN . 128 DAFTAR PUSTAKA ................................. 124 V......................................................................................... 130 KARTU KONTROL ..................2 Saran ................................ 127 5................................1 Kesimpulan ..............................................................................................1 Hasil.............................. xix xi ..............................4............................ PENUTUP 5...................................................................................................................................................2 Pembahasan .......................................................

........................... 80 9.........................DAFTAR TABEL No.................... Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Back Extrusion ... Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Shear .............. Teks Halaman 1.......... 100 10.......................... 19 4...... Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Bending ....................................TX Plus ............................................. 130 xii .......................................................... Tabel Hasil Dalam Pengujian dengan Metode Bending ....... 57 7....... 75 8........ 52 6.......................... Tabel Hasil Pengamatan Tekstur Buah dengan Alat Texture Analyser TA.................................................. Tabel Hasil Perhitungan dalam Pengujian dengan Metode Shear .............................................................................................................................. Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Compression ................... Tabel Hasil Perhitungan dalam Pengujian dengan Metode Back Extrusion ..................................................................................................................................... 26 5...................... Tabel Hasil Perhitungan dalam Pengujian dengan Metode Compression ........................................ 7 3.............. Tabel Hasil Pengamatan Pengujian Tekstur Buah .. 124 12................................. 105 11.......... 4 2................................................Parameter Tekstur dan Definisinya ...................................... Tabel Parameter . Tabel Parameter Tekstur dan Penentuan Nilai Parameter Dari Grafik Hasil Keluaran TPA .......................

............. Gambar Gambas .......... Gambar Grafik Manggis Ujung .......... Gambar Grafik Kiwi Kupas ....... 35 22................................................................................................................ 31 10.. Gambar Pisang Ambon ..................................................................... Gambar Grafik Kiwi Tengah ................... 41 26.......................................................................................... Gambar Buah manggis ......... 32 12................. Gambar Buah Naga ........... 33 16............ Gambar Foto Manggis Tengah... Gambar Cylinder Probe .......................................................................................................................................................................... 33 15....................... Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Ujung .................... 34 19.............................. Gambar Mentimun Jepang ..................XT Plus ........................................................................................ 34 17......................................................................... Gambar Buah kiwi ............................................................................................... Pangkal .................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 7...... 16 8........... Gambar Grafik Manggis Tengah ............................................ 12 5...... 33 14.............................................. 12 4................................................ Gambar Spherical Probe ....................................................... 34 18............... 44 27....................................................................................... Ujung................................... 14 6............................................ 46 28................ Gambar Grafik Manggis Kupas ............. 31 9................................... 32 11.... Gambar Stress tergantung pada kedua Angkatan dan daerah ........................... Gambar Foto Buah Naga Tengah.................... Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Pangkal .....................................DAFTAR GAMBAR No........................... 5 2.......... 10 3.......... buah kiwi dan buah naga .... Ujung. 47 xiii .......................... Pangkal . Teks Halaman 1...... Gambar Foto daging buah Manggis........................ Gambar Alat Texture Analyser TA............................................................... 35 21............................. Gambar Grafik Kiwi Ujung .................................. 40 25........................ Gambar Uji Bending Mentimun ............................... Ujung................ Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Kupas .... Gambar Three Point Bending ................... 35 20........................................................ Gambar Foto Kiwi Tengah... 32 13.............. Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Tengah ... Pangkal .... Gambar Grafik Manggis Pangkal .... Gambar Grafik Kiwi Pangkal . 36 24............... 36 23..................

....................................................................................................... matang kupas dan matang kulit .................. Gambar Alga Merah ..................... Gambar Pare ............................ Gambar Grafik Pare ............................... Gambar Probe Compression Plates ............................................... 93 50..... Gambar Grafik agar – agar 1750 ml ......................... 84 44...................... 95 53......... 108 58................................... Gambar Grafik agar – agar 1050 ml ........................... 71 40... 108 56................................... Gambar Telur Bebek ......................................................29... Gambar Grafik Bakso .......................................................................... Gambar Brownies Kukus dan Brownies Panggang ..................................... 92 49... Gambar Foto agar – agar 2100 ml ... Gambar Pisang ambon mengkal kupas......................................................................................... Gambar Grafik Gambas ..................... 94 52...................................................... Gambar Telur Puyuh ....................................................................................... Gambar Grafik Brownies Kukus ....................................................................................................... 93 51.......... 83 42......................... Gambar Grafik Pisang ambon mengkal kupas... 108 55............. 48 30.......................................................................................................................................................... 60 33................ Gambar Grafik agar – agar 1400 ml ...................................... 96 54........ 83 41............................................................. Gambar Pare ............................................................. 84 46................................................ Gambar Grafik Brownies Panggang .... 62 38.... matang kupas dan matang kulit .... 109 xiv .......................................... 85 48..................................................................... Gambar Foto agar – agar 1050 ml .............................. Gambar Grafik Telur Puyuh ......................... Gambar Probe CompressionPlatens ................................... 60 32.................. 61 35........... 60 31..................... Gambar Mentimun Jepang ............................... 85 47....................... 84 43................................................................................................ 108 57.. Gambar Grafik Mentimun Jepang ................... Gambar Foto agar – agar 1400 ml ............................................................................... Gambar Gambas ............. 61 36............................... 61 34................................. Gambar Bakso Tekstur Kasar dan Bakso Tekstur Halus ..... 62 37........................................ Gambar Foto agar – agar 1750 ml ............... Gambar Grafik Telur Bebek ............. 84 45......................................................................................................... Gambar Tahu .......................................................................................... 70 39.. Gambar Grafik agar – agar 2100 ml .....

. Gambar Foto Bakso ...................................................................................................... 110 65............... Gambar Foto Kepala Ikan Kakap Merah ..... 132 74................................................................................. 133 76......... Gambar Grafik Tahu ............................................................................................................................................................... 110 64.................................. Gambar Foto Telur Puyuh ....................................................... Gambar Batang Mengalami Tegangan Geser ............. 133 78................................................. 132 72.......... 109 61...................................................... Gambar Grafik Kepala Ikan Kakap Merah ......................... 132 73.......................................................................................... Gambar Grafik Kepala Ikan Bandeng ............ 132 71... Gambar Foto Badan Ikan Kakap Merah .......................................................... Gambar Foto Brownies Panggang ................ 134 xv ......... 133 75........................................ 121 69............................................................................................................................................ 134 80................................................................................. 133 77............ 110 66.....................................59.... Gambar Ikan Bandeng dan Ikan Kakap Merah .................... Gambar Probe Warner Bratzler Blade ............ Gambar Grafik Ekor Ikan Kakap Merah ........................... Gambar Foto Ekor Ikan Bandeng ................................................................................... 110 63......... Gambar Foto Ekor Ikan Kakap Merah .. 109 62..... Gambar Grafik Badan Ikan Kakap Merah .. Gambar Grafik Ekor Ikan Bandeng .................. 109 60............. Gambar Grafik Badan Ikan Bandeng ........................... Gambar Foto Kepala Ikan Bandeng .......................................... Gambar Foto Brownies Kukus .. Gambar Foto Telur Bebek ................. Gambar Foto Badan Ikan Bandeng ........... 117 68............... Gambar Foto Tahu ....... 114 67..... 131 70.... 134 79.................

..................................... Gambar Foto Kiwi Tengah................... 32 7...... Gambar Foto daging buah Manggis.......................... Tabel Hasil Pengamatan Pengujian Tekstur Buah ............ Pangkal .. matang kupas dan matang kulit .................................................................................................... Gambar Grafik Pare .............................................................................................................................. 34 14................. 33 11.................................................... 61 25............................................................. Perhitungan Data Primer Hasil Pengamatan ........................................... Gambar Gambas ....... Gambar Pisang ambon mengkal kupas............... Pangkal .. Gambar Grafik Kiwi Ujung .................. Gambar Grafik Pisang ambon mengkal kupas............................................................... 31 5................. 61 xvi ........ Gambar Grafik Manggis Tengah ............................ Gambar Grafik Kiwi Kupas . 36 18. 26 3.......... Gambar Grafik Mentimun Jepang ....... 60 24.................................................................. buah kiwi dan buah naga ...... 57 21................................... 32 8.. Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Tengah .................... Ujung......................... Perhitungan Data Primer Hasil Pengamatan ................................................................................ Gambar Grafik Manggis Pangkal ........................................................................................................................ Gambar Foto Manggis Tengah..................................... 32 6.......... 34 12........ Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Kupas ...................................................... Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Pangkal .......... Gambar Grafik Kiwi Tengah .................................................DAFTAR LAMPIRAN No..................................... 35 17... 34 13.............................................................. 31 4........ Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Bending ................ Gambar Grafik Manggis Kupas ......................................... Teks Halaman 1................. Gambar Grafik Kiwi Pangkal ................. 57 20...... Ujung........................................... Gambar Foto Buah Naga Tengah. Gambar Grafik Buah Naga Ujung ............... 36 19.................................................................................. 33 9.... Pangkal ......... 33 10.................... 26 2........................... Gambar Grafik Gambas ..................... matang kupas dan matang kulit .................... 35 15............................................................................................. 35 16............................... Ujung. 60 23..... Gambar Grafik Manggis Ujung ...................... 60 22......... 61 26......................

........................................................ 85 39........... Gambar Foto Brownies Kukus ...................................................... 108 43........ Gambar Grafik Telur Bebek ..... 130 54.................................. 84 34......................................... Gambar Grafik Kepala Ikan Bandeng ................................................. 84 35.. 85 38........ 62 29........................................ 80 31....... 130 55. 109 49................... 131 xvii .............................................. 80 30..................................... Gambar Foto agar – agar 1750 ml .............................................................................................. Gambar Foto Tahu ................................... Gambar Grafik agar – agar 2100 ml .. Gambar Foto Telur Puyuh ...... 109 46. Gambar Grafik Brownies Panggang .... 110 52... Gambar Grafik Telur Puyuh ........... 62 28............................................. 84 36...................................................................................................... Gambar Pare ............................ Perhitungan Data Primer Hasil Pengamatan .............................. Gambar Grafik Tahu ....... Gambar Foto agar – agar 2100 ml .................. 108 45............................................... Gambar Grafik Brownies Kukus ................. Gambar Grafik Bakso .......................... 109 48...... 83 32............... 109 47.. Gambar Grafik agar – agar 1050 ml ................................................................... 108 42.............. 108 44...................... 105 41........................................................... Perhitungan Data Primer Hasil Pengamatan ................................................................................................................. 83 33.......... 84 37.......................................................................................................... 110 53.............................................................................. Gambar Foto Bakso ............ Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Shear .............................................................. Gambar Foto Telur Bebek .......................... Gambar Foto agar – agar 1050 ml ....................................... Gambar Grafik agar – agar 1400 ml ..................................................................................................27......................................... Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Compression ........................ Gambar Foto agar – agar 1400 ml ........................ Gambar Grafik agar – agar 1750 ml ......................................................................... 105 40.... Gambar Mentimun Jepang ............................................................. Gambar Foto Brownies Panggang ..................... 110 51............................. 110 50................................................................. Perhitungan Data Primer Hasil Pengamatan ..................................................... Tabel Hasil pengamatan praktikum Texture Analyser dengan metode Back Extrusion ........................................................................

........... Gambar Grafik Ekor Ikan Bandeng ................................................................................................... 133 64.............56........................................................................... Gambar Foto Kepala Ikan Bandeng ............................. Gambar Foto Ekor Ikan Kakap Merah ........... 134 66... 132 58.......................... Gambar Grafik Badan Ikan Bandeng ............................ 133 63................ Gambar Foto Kepala Ikan Kakap Merah .......................................... 132 57.......................................... Gambar Foto Badan Ikan Kakap Merah .............. Gambar Grafik Ekor Ikan Kakap Merah ...................... 133 61............................................. 133 62............................................. 134 xviii ...................... Gambar Foto Ekor Ikan Bandeng ............................ Gambar Grafik Kepala Ikan Kakap Merah .. 132 60.......... Gambar Foto Badan Ikan Bandeng .......................... 134 65.................. 132 59............... Gambar Grafik Badan Ikan Kakap Merah .......................

KARTU KONTROL xix .