# Home

Search

Collections

Journals

About

Contact us

My IOPscience

A consistent beam element formulation considering shear lag effect

This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article. 2010 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 10 012211 (http://iopscience.iop.org/1757-899X/10/1/012211) View the table of contents for this issue, or go to the journal homepage for more

Download details: IP Address: 89.122.75.79 The article was downloaded on 06/09/2010 at 17:01

Please note that terms and conditions apply.

they can only handle shear lag problems for a particular simple geometry and cannot be easily extended to structures with complex geometry. The classical theory of beam and thin-walled members was unable to reflect the shear lag phenomenon since it was based on the assumption of cross section remains plane after deformation. Japan. the formulations of most analytical and/or semi-empirical methods involved many simplified assumptions. Nihon University. Introduction of basis warping function in the finite element was used to explain the shear lag phenomenon [4].1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
A Consistent Beam Element Formulation Considering Shear Lag Effect
E Nouchi1. Koriyama. This paper presents general solutions for beam elements which are derived analytically by considering the effect of shear lag phenomenon. 1Nakagawara.ce. Present paper addresses a consistent beam element formulation considering shear lag phenomenon to deal with the difficulties.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf. However. Graduate School of Engineering. to evaluate the local buckling of each member element. 2 Department of Architecture. the shear lag phenomenon was investigated in box-girders using finite elements [2]. Buntara S Gan1. E-mail: buntara@arch. Introduction In studying and evaluating the ultimate strength of steel frame structures. it is apparent that the behavior of steel frame structures at failure is fully controlled by consecutive local buckling failures of its members. Japan. This is due to the short of fundamental theories which can include the effect of shear lag directly in the formulation [5].3and K Sugiyama2
1
Department of Architecture. Fukushima. As a result. Later. The mass and stiffness matrices which can be obtained from the general solution of displacements can be assembled for general frame analysis by using finite element procedure. A combination of finite element and transfer matrix techniques are proposed by [3].ac.jp
Abstract. 1Nakagawara. Nihon University. the stress and deformation at section should be considered properly by taking into account the effect of shear lag phenomenon. Therefore. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10. The energy approach has been proven to be a simple and practical method in shear lag analysis [1]. all of these approaches are mainly suitable for a particular type of cross section and static analysis. 963-8642. College of Engineering.
3
To whom any correspondence should be addressed. When the shear lag phenomenon is to be considered for solving dynamic analysis.
1. the mass property has to be introduced and/or approximated.nihon-u. especially thin-walled beam. Koriyama. The effect of shear lag results in a distribution of direct stresses in the cross section which is different from that predicted by the classical theory of beam. M Kurata1. Fukushima.
1
c 2010 Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd
. 963-8642. thus it is not applicable for general applications. Hence.

y and dx dx dx z directions and γ xy . Assuming elastic material following the Hooke’s law. f = f ( x. A =
∫
A
A
A
2
.2) + = γ0 + ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂W ∂U ∂W ∂V = + = 0 . the shear strain γ xy can be related to the shear stress τ xy from the relationship τ xy = Gγ xy . γ xz = + =0 ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂z
du dβ dv . W = W ( x . the following axial force and bending moment can be obtained. General solution for beam with solid cross section considering shear lag In this section. strain and displacement relationships can be given as. Here. εz = =0 . y ) = 0 (2. hence the function f from equation (2.
N = ∫ σ x dA = EAε +
A
(2. ε z are normal strains in x. some fundamental equations of an elastic beam with solid cross section lying on a right-handed axes coordinates convention considering shear lag will be derived. ε =
which are obtained from the assumption that the cross section remain straight after deformation
[ ]
from equations (2.
εx =
εy =
∂V =0 ∂y
∂U ∂f = ε + yκ + .
y ∂ E (τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA ∫ ∫ A 0 G ∂x y ∂ E (τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA M = ∫ yσ x dA = EIκ + ∫ y ∫ A G A 0 ∂x dA . u = u ( x ) and β = β ( x) in which. y ) which is defined as a 2nd order or higher function in y direction. G
Substituting the function f into equation (2.1) that the displacement U and V are independent of z axis and y-z plane.3)
where.κ = and γ xy y =0 = γ 0 = + β . Hence. y ) .2) can be obtained as. U = u + yβ + f (2. ε x .1a) V = V ( x.5a) (2.
εx =
1 y ∂ ∂U (τ xy − τ 0 ) dy = ε + yκ + ∫ ∂x G 0 ∂x E y ∂ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dy σ x = Eε + Eyκ + ∫ G 0 ∂x
(2. the normal strain and stress equations are then given as. S = ∫ ydA = 0 I = ∫ y 2 dA . U = U ( x.
f =
1 y (τ xy − τ 0 ) dy G ∫0
(2.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
2. ∂x ∂x ∂W .WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf.1b) where. y-z and x-z planes.1a) and (2. γ xz are engineering shear strains on x-y.4b)
where. ∂z
γ xy =
γ yz
∂V ∂U ∂f (2. y ) = v ( x ) = v . G is the shear modulus of elasticity and γ 0 is given by γ 0 =
τ0 .2). E is the normal modulus of elasticity By integrating the normal stress σ x for the entire cross sectional area.4a) (2. ε y . The transversal displacements of the arbitrary point in the y and z direction are expressed by V and W. respectively. It can be noted
where.5b)
where. Displacement at any arbitrary point on the cross section beam with member axis in the x direction is given by U. respectively. γ yz . Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10. The following assumptions are made for the arbitrary point at the cross section of a plane beam in deriving equations.

X is the body force.
σx =
y ∂ E (τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA − y E ∫ ∫ A 0 GA ∂x GI
Here. first moment of areas from 0 and or y to e of the cross bI bI
section are defined by S =
∫ ybdy . M ′ − Q + m − ρIβ && = 0 N ′ + q x − ρAu y
(2. the shear stress τ xy in the equation (2.9)
&& = where.
M = M (0) + Q (0) x − ∫
∫ (q
x 0
y
&&dx &&) dxdx + ∫ ρIβ − ρAv
x 0
(2.10)
The solution of member forces can be obtained by integrating the equations (2.11)
Defining difference of shear stresses in the following form.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
By substitution of ε and κ from equations (2.5b) into (2. Q′ + q − ρAv && = 0 .
N M + y + στ A I
y
(2. e is defined as a distance to the outermost fiber of cross section where τ xy y =e = 0 .
∂σ x ∂τ xy ∂τ xz && = 0 with τ = Gγ = 0 + + + X − ρU xz xz ∂x ∂y ∂z
By integration.
e
e
0
y
Substituting equation (2. S
y
e
0
= ∫ ybdy and S = ∫ ybdy .
where.12)
QS QS 0 and τ 0 = . ∂t 2
[ ]
Dynamic governing differential equations for the analysis of a beam by considering first order solution of normal stress σ x which correspond to displacement u. U
b = b( y ) is width of cross section as a function of y. Here.
dx
&&) dx .8) can be given as.v and deflection β are given by. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10.
y E &&)∫ ∫ SdydA (− q y + ρAv A 0 GbI y E &&)∫ y ∫ SdydA (− q y + ρAv M = EIκ − A 0 GbI
N = EAε −
(2. q x = ∫AXdA = XA . Q = Q (0) − ∫ (q y − ρAv &&) dx N = N (0) − ∫ (q x − ρAu
x x 0 0 x 0
&& = 0 .
τ xy =
1 e ⎛ ∂σ x && ⎞ + X − ρU ⎟ bdy ⎜ ∫ b y ⎝ ∂x ⎠
(2.
∂ 2U is the acceleration with t in time.4b).13)
3
. results in the following normal stress equation.5a) and (2.7) ∂x G ∂x
(2.5b).8)
The dynamic equilibrium equation at an arbitrary point can be given as follow. q y = ∫AYdA and m = ∫A yXdA = 0 . Q = ∫Aτ xy dA .
τ xy − τ 0 =
where. ρ is the material density.6)
στ = −
∫ y∫
A
0
∂ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dydA + E ∫0y ∂ (τ xy − τ 0 ) dy (2.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf.5a) and (2.12) into equations (2.
( )′ = d ( ) . σ τ is the effect of shear lag in the normal stress which is given as follow.10) to reach the following equations. resulted in. τ xy =
QS QS0 Q QS − = (S − S0 ) = − bI bI bI bI
(2.

3 . Rectangular section cantilever beam example.1. the effect of shear lag must be considered in engineering design. β and v of a beam considering shear lag phenomenon can be obtained as. i.
y du N 1 &&)∫ ∫ SdydA ( = + − q y + ρAv A 0 dx EA GAbI y dβ M 1 &&)∫ y ∫ SdydA (− q y + ρAv κ= = + 2 A 0 dx EI GbI
ε=
(2.15b) EI GA x x M k k x x &&)dxdx − β (0) x + v(0) v = −∫ ∫ dxdx + 0 Q(0) x + 1 ∫ ∫ (− q y + ρAv (2.05 0.
E = 205000 N/mm2
P = 1000 N
q = 10 N/mm
100 mm 50 mm
-50
500 mm
500 mm
y ( mm )
x ( mm )
0 0. k0 = 0 and k1 = 0 − k1 .00 0.06 0. mass matrix. stiffness matrix and loading vector.12
Considering shear lag effect Classical beam theory
σx ( MPa )
25
25
Rectangular beam deflection ( concentrated load )
Rectangular beam deflection ( distributed load )
50 Normal stress distribution
50 Function f(y)
Figure 1. of a beam element considering shear lag effect which connecting beam’s nodal displacements with displacements along the member axis can be derived explicitly by using the displacements given in equations (2.08 0.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
from where. k1 = 2 ∫A y ∫0 SdydA . are subjected to concentrated load P at the free end and subjected to distributed load q are considered. the values of normal and bending shear lag coefficients k0 = 0. It is also shown that the difference between stresses computed by the present method and the classical beam theory is quite significant.e. ε and κ can be obtained as follow. ∫ A ∫0 bI bI bI bI It can be shown that for a solid rectangular beam section with dimension of b × h . i. 2. k0 = 1.04 0.05 0
0
y ( mm ) 0. k1 = 0.0 .2 computed are u = ∫0
x
(
)
(
)
agree with the common shear lag coefficients reported elsewhere. Cantilever beam example Cantilever beams.5 and k1 = 1. It is noted that the transverse vertical displacement v result for both cases are different with the classical beam theory.02 0 100 200 300
x ( mm )
400 500
-25 -20 0
-25
20
0
-0.1 -0.15c) 0 0 EI GA GA 0 0 A 1 S A S A y y where.01 100 200 300 400 500
0.04 0.10 0.11) which are based on the linear first order approximation. the dynamic governing equations.02
0. k 0 = SdydA .00 0. the displacements u.
4
.14)
Finally.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf.
k x N && dx + u (0) (2. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10.06
Considering shear lag effect Classical beam theory
v ( mm )
0.15).03 0.e.1
v ( mm )
0. shown in figure 1.15a) dx + 0 ∫0 − q y + ρAv EA GA k x xM && dx + β (0) β = ∫0 dx + 1 ∫0 − q y + ρAv (2. By using the equations in (2.05 f(×10-5 )
-50
0.

U = u + yβ z + zβ y + f .3a) ) V = V cos θ + W sin θ = vc cos θ + wc sin θ + rς φ (3. z directions and U .
γ xs
) ) ∂V ∂U = + ∂x ∂s
(3. rς = ( z − z c )sin θ + ( y − y c )cosθ and rS = ( z − z c )cosθ − ( y − y c )sin θ . The displacements of the point P ( x.
) ) ) ∂U ∂V ∂U εx = and γ xs = + ∂x ∂x (1 − ς r )∂s
(3. Axis s is defined along the center line of the thickness t of the curvature thin-walled beam. from where axis n which is drawn normal to this curvature line is defined as t ( s ) which is a function of s. Here. y .4)
5
.W in the x.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf.
The strain and displacement relationships are given as follow. z ) can be assumed as follow. s. The transversal displacements vc . the displacement u in the x direction is referred to a point where s=0.
z
) ) )
ς
t
z
o x. s. In figure 2. z ) on the cross section of thin-walled beam are given by U . y. This point O will become the origin of the y and z coordinates axes. z directions are originated at point C which is the shear center of the cross section. the displacements can then be expressed in terms of x. wc in the y. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10.
The following assumptions can be assumed for any arbitrary point at the cross section of the thinwalled beam.3c)
where. ς directions.2) From figure 2. Cross section of a thin-walled beam. Displacements at any arbitrary point P ( x. General solution for thin-walled beam considering shear lag In this section.1)
where.V . point O is the centroid of a thin-walled beam cross section and lying along the x coordinate axis. U
θ
yc
y
rs wc
rς
s
) p.W in the x. the radius curvature of the thin-walled beam cross section is given by r = r ( s ) . V = vc − ( z − zc )φ and W = wc + ( y − yc )φ (3. the fundamental equations of an elastic plane thin-walled beam either open or close section which lying on a right-handed x. z Cartesian and an auxiliary ς .1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
3. y. s coordinate systems by considering shear lag will be derived. U ) V
c
zc
W
V
vc
s=0
) −W
s
p′
y
Figure 2. y.3b) ) W = −V sin θ + W cosθ = −vc sin θ + wc cosθ + rsφ (3.V . ) U = U = u + yβ z + zβ y + f (3. ς coordinates system.

the shear stress τ xs can be solved as.11) 1 − ς r )ds − ∫ X (1 − ς r )ds + ρ ∫ U xs 0 ∂x 0 0 where. ) ) The body force X = X ( x) and applied moment per unit length terms are m x .
A
The dynamic equilibrium equation of any arbitrary point on the cross section is given as below. A = ∫ dA . γ y = using u =
dvc dw dφ s and ω = ∫0 rς (1 − ς r )ds are defined. F = −
s 1 (γ xs − (γ y cosθ + γ z sin θ ))(1 − ς r )dsdA . g 4 = gω (θ ) .3a) can be solved as follow.9) into equation (3. A ∫A
) U = U = u + yβ z + zβ y + ωχ + F
(3. the function f in equation (3.4).6)
where.5)
Accordingly. γ z = c + β y . I yω = ∫ yωdA = 0 and
2 2
A
A
A
A
A
I zω = ∫ zωdA = 0 . + βzc . Q2 ′ = Q′ ′ where. = ∫ zdA = 0 .1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
By substituting equation (3.12)
6
.10)
Substitution of equation (3.0.
A
S ω = ∫ ωdA = 0 . g 3 = g z (θ ). S z = ∫ ydA = 0 .
~Q τ xs = ∑ g i i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ′ ′ ′ ~ ~ ~ ′ = − χ ′. the normal stress σ x for an elastic material following Hooke’s law can be obtained by. ς ) ( (3.
In which.7)
Hence.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf. m y . g1 = g . m z = 0 . χ = − dx dx dx
f ( s ) = ∫ (γ xs − (γ y cosθ + γ z sin θ ))(1 − ς r )ds + ωχ + f (0)
s
0
(3. I yz = ∫ yzdA . I y = ∫ z dA . the internal forces and section properties are given as follow: N =
M z = ∫ yσ x dA . the
τ xs = − ∫
s
first order approximation of shear stress can be given as.
i =1
4
(3. τ xs ( x. M y = ∫ zσ x dA .10).0. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10.
) s s& ∂σ x & (1 − ς r )ds + τ ( x. A ∫A ∫0
The normal strain is then given by. ς ) is the indeterminate shear stress. Q4 = Tω . Q3 = Qz .
′ + Eωχ ′ + EF ′ (3. g 2 = g y (θ ).
σx =
I M − I yz M z N I y M z − I yz M y M y+ z y + z+ ωω 2 2 A I y I z − I yz I y I z − I yz Iω
A x
(3. S y
A A A
A A
∫ σ dA . Q1 y . the average normal displacement of the thin-walled beam which can be expressed by
1 ) UdA is given as.
′ + ωχ ′ + F ′ ε x = u′ + yβ z′ + zβ y
(3.9)
where. M ω = ∫ ωσ x dA . I z = ∫ y dA .
) ) ∂τ xς ∂σ x ∂τ xs & & + + + X − ρU =0 ∂x (1 − ς r )∂s ∂ς
(3.8) σ x = Eε x = Eu′ + Eyβ z′ + Ezβ y The first order solution of normal stress σ x in terms of axial force and moments of the beam can be
expressed by.

a2 = a y (θ ) . G (θ ) = θ g ˆ (θ ) = 1 G (θ )dA . all the functions in equation (3.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf.14e) wc GA ˆ = M − E (k Q′ + k Q′ + k T ′ − k χ ′) and are defined by M z z 22 y 23 z 24 ω 21 G
′ = −β z + vc
ˆ = M − E (k Q′ + k Q′ + k T ′ − k χ ′) .14b) (3.15)
7
. S A ∫A
a3 = az (θ ) . τ y = [τ xs ]dφ =0. ∫ 0 0 A A ˆ (θ ) = 1 S (θ )dA .
1 N (k12Q′y + k13Qz′ + k14Tω′ − k11χ ′) − EA GA ˆ I −M ˆ I ˆ I −M ˆ I M M y yz y z z yz ′ = β z′ = z y β . τ z = Gγ z = G (wc
Furthermore.14a) (3.14d) GA 1 ′ = −β y + (k12Qy + k22Qz ) (3. a4 = aω (θ ) . g11 = g 21 z 22 z y 12 y
∫
A
( m .
~ (0) C (θ ) − C ~ (π 2) S (θ ) − S ˆ (θ ) − g ˆ (θ ) − g ˆ (θ ) .
) θe S y (θ ) = ∫ z (1 − ς r )rdθ
θ
. y 2 2 I y I z − I yz I y I z − I yz 1 Mω (k42Q′y + k43Qz′ + k44Tω′ ) χ′ = − EI ω 1 − k 41 GIω GIω − k 41
u′ =
(3.14c)
(
) (
)
ˆ ˆ and M where. ~ ~ k jk = λ j ak dA ( j .θ =
Herewith. a1 = a (θ ) .θ =0 = g y y z z z xs y y z z =0 .13)
Herewith. g 2 (θ ) = .12) are given explicitly as:
~=G g
dx
dx
dx
dx
2
) θe S z (θ ) = ∫ y (1 − ς r )rdθ
θ
. 4 ) and k mn = Ag mn
here. a3 = a z (θ ) . λ2 = y . C . S (θ ) = ∫ sin θ (1 − ς r )rdθ . ai = Gi (θ ) − G i i2 i3 ~ (0) = g ~ (π 2) = g ~ ( 0) = g ~ (π 2) = 0 .3. g ~ =g ~ ( 0) . a2 = a y (θ ) . all the functions in equation (3. g i i 12 13 42 43 i ∫0 ~i (1 − ς r )rdθ .n=1. g ~ =g ~ (π 2) .8) can be solved as. df =0. F ′ in the equation (3. g ~ =g ~ (π 2) . τ = [τ ]dφ df ~ ~ π = g (π 2)Q + g (π 2)Q . λ3 = z . ~ ~ (0) . 2 )
(3.
(
)
(
)
(
)
The differential governing equations of x-derivative displacements can also be given as.
) 1 Sω (θ ) = Iω
θ ∫θ ω (1 − ς r )rdθ
e
. λ4 = ω . λ1 = 1 . 2Ω = ∫ rτ (1 − ς r )rdθ . Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10. 2.k =1. 2 2 I y I z − I yz I y I z − I yz ∫ (1 − ς r )rdθ ~ (0)Q + g ~ (0)Q . =0 .13) are given explicitly as: a1 = a (θ ) .
F′ =
1 4 ∑ aiQi′ G i=1
(3. g 4 (θ ) = Sω .
′ + β y ) and τ y = Gγ y = G (vc ′ + β z ). G A ∫A θ θ ˆ (θ ) = 1 C (θ )dA C (θ ) = ∫ cos θ (1 − ς r )rdθ . M z y
1 (k11Qy + k21Qz ) (3. a4 = aω (θ ) . g 3 (θ ) = .1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
) ) ) ) ) I y S z − I yz S y I z S y − I yz S z 2Ω . M y y 32 y 33 z 34 ω 31 G
The shear lag coefficients are then can be given as follow.

16)
(
yc c
zc
c
pc
)
where. the displacements become U = U . M ω can be determined from the first order approximation of the dynamic governing equation. Qy . M y . Hence. y = (r − ς ) sin θ and z = −(r − ς ) cosθ . a solution for pipe beam shown in figure 3 is derived by following the same procedures for obtaining the general solution of thin-walled beam. V = v cosθ and W = −v sin θ
(4. εθ = −W ⎟ ⎟ and γ xθ = ∂x + (r − ς ) ∂θ (r − ς ) ⎜ ∂x ⎝ ∂θ ⎠
f (θ ) = ∫ (γ xθ − γ cosθ )(r − ς )dθ
0
Hence the function f from equation (4. thus the general solution of the x-derivative twist χ . I
A s
pc
=
∫ (rς
A
2
&& . ς )
y
) −W
θ
dy
dz
y
(r − ς )dθ
Figure 3.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf.
⎛ ⎞ d 2M ω GJ GJ ⎜ ⎟ k Mω 1 + − m ωω 2 ⎜ ⎟ (GIω − kmω ) ⎠ dx EIω (1 − kmω GIω ) ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ GJ GJ &&′) ′ + ρIω χ ′ ⎜ ⎟(mω ( kmω yQ′ =− y + k mω z Qz ) − ⎜1 + k mωω (GIω − kmω ) (GIω − kmω ) ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ && && + S w && + I φ −m +ρ S v
x
(3. y coordinate system can be expressed in terms of rotational angles β x = φ . Thin-walled circular beam
The displacements of the centroid cross section of the pipe beam and the x. Qz . + rs2 dA φ
)
From the above equation. s .
U = u + yβ + f . the bimoment M ω can be solved from. which is defined by φ ′ =
be solved. Pipe beam example considering shear lag To examine a close section example of thin-walled beam. 4. β z = β . β y = 0 . equation (4. β z as follow. S zc =
∫ (rς cos θ − r sin θ ) dA . V = v and W = 0 (4. The general solution of the χ can then be used to derive the element mass and stiffness matrices in the finite element procedure. φ = 0 .3)
The strain and displacement relationships for pipe beam can further be expressed as. M z . V = v and W = 0 .
θ
(4.
ς
) U =U ) V
W
z
dφ = − χ .1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
Since the internal forces N .1) where.1) yields to the following
equations. can dx
s
x
ς
θ
) W
r
P
) V
s
z
θ
V
) U =U
s
y
P ( x. the right hand side of the second order differential equation are known values.2) (4.4)
8
. β y .1) can be solved for.
) ) ) ) ∂V 1 ⎛ ∂V ) ⎞ 1 ∂U ∂U ⎜ εx = . By assuming w = 0 .
) ) ) U = U = u + yβ + f . Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10. S yc =
∫ (− rς sin θ − r
A
s
cos θ ) dA .

∂τ ∂τ xθ ∂σ x && = 0 + xς + X − ρU + ∂ς ∂x (r − ς )∂θ
(4. σ τ = 0 . the shear stress τ xθ in the equation (4.
τ xθ = −
where.7)
The dynamic equilibrium equation at an arbitrary point can be given as follow.6a) (4.
E rk n Q′ G (4. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10.8)
By integration.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
Substitution of equation (4.
From which. β and v of the pipe beam considering shear lag phenomenon can be obtained as. k n = ∫ g (θ ) dA and k m = ∫ yg (θ ) dA are given.6b)
(4.5a) (4.
Finally.5b)
E θ (τ ′xθ − τ 0′ cosθ )(r − ς )dθ dA G ∫A ∫0 θ E (τ ′ − τ 0′ cosθ )(r − ς )dθ ⎞ M = ∫ yσ x dA = EIβ ′ + ∫ (r − ς )sin θ ⎛ ⎜ ⎟dA ∫ A ⎝ 0 xθ ⎠ G A For pipe beam section.11a) (4.8) yields to.11c)
9
. S = ∫ yt (r − ς )dθ and θ tI tI
Q θ yt (r − ς )dθ + τ xθ (0) tI ∫0
(4.
∂U 1 θ ′ = u′ + yβ ′ + ∫ (τ ′ xθ − τ 0 cos θ )(r − ς )dθ ∂x G 0 E θ ′ σ x = Eε x = Eu′ + Eyβ ′ + ∫ (τ ′ xθ − τ 0 cos θ )(r − ς )dθ G 0
εx =
(4. the following equations can be obtained as. the displacements u. the following axial force and bending moment can be obtained. from τ xθ (π 2) = 0 condition.
By integrating the normal stress σ x for the entire cross sectional area. due to symmetric geometry of the cross section in y axis.3) results in the following normal strain and stress equations. 0 A I tr tI A N = ∫ σ x dA = EAu ′ +
A
N rk x &&)dx + u (0) dx + n ∫ (q y − ρAv 0 EA GA 0 x M k x &&)dx + β (0) β =∫ dx + m ∫ (q y − ρAv 0 EI GA 0 x x M k k x x &&)dxdx − β (0) x + v(0) v = −∫ ∫ dxdx + τ Q (0) x − m ∫ ∫ (q y − ρAv 0 0 EI GA GA 0 0 u=∫
x
(4.9)
S0 = ∫
π 2
0
yt (r − ς )dθ are denoted.10) EQ ′ EQ′I M = ∫ yσ x dA =EIβ ′ + yg (θ )dA = EIβ ′ + km A Gt ∫A GA 1 θ 1 A where.9) resulted in τ xθ =
π 2 QS QS 0 and τ 0 = at [τ xθ ]θ =0 in which.11b) (4. g (θ ) = ∫ (S − S 0 cos θ )(r − ς )dθ . the first order solution of normal stress σ x becomes. the equation (4.2) into equation (4. N M σx = + y A I N = ∫ σ x dA = EAu′ +
A
(4.WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf.

WCCM/APCOM 2010 IOP Conf. the effect of shear lag must be considered in engineering design.00 0. References [1] Hadji-Argyris J and Cox H L 1944 Diffusion of load into stiffened panels of varying section Br.05 50 100 150 200 250
v ( mm )
0. are subjected to concentrated load P at the free end and subjected to distributed load q are considered.
kτ ≈ 2. Math. College of Eng. and Struct.
t
0 0.05 50 100
x ( mm )
150 200 250
x ( mm )
0 0. Eng.10 0. The shear lag phenomenon is now can be considered directly for solving dynamic problems in which the mass and stiffness matrices can be derived consistently. and Struct. Div. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 10 (2010) 012211
IOP Publishing doi:10.15 0.0 . 4 268-78 [2] Malcolm D J and Redwood R G 1970 Sehar Lag in stiffened box-girders J. Papers of Research Annual Meeting Nihon Univ. Res.15 0. 4 607-12 [4] Prokić A 1996 New warping function for thin-walled beams I: Theory J. Council Reports.30 Considering shear lag effect Classical beam theory
Pipe beam deflection ( concentrated load )
Pipe beam deflection ( distributed load )
Figure 4. strains and stresses of solid.1088/1757-899X/10/1/012211
where. Cantilever beam example Cantilever beams. k m = 0 . Mem. 5.20 0.00 0. Struct. It is noted that the transverse vertical displacement v results for both cases are different with the classical beam theory. Struct. the shear lag coefficients in the displacement solutions can be obtained as k n = 0 .25 0.
4. ASCE 122 ST12 1437-42 Prokić A 1996 New warping function for thin-walled beams II: Finite element method and applications J. Thus.20 0.1. Struct. Engineer 53 439-48 [3] Tesar A 1996 Shear lag in the behavior of thinwalled box bridges Comp. Conclusions Based on the classical beam theory where the effect of shear lag is included in the formulations of displacements.10
0. tI
Thus.25 0. 1969 Reissner E 1946 Analysis of shear lag in box beams by the principle of minimum potential energy Q.30 Considering shear lag effect Classical beam theory
v ( mm )
r
0. Eng. Aeron. 80 1011-24 [5] Kurata M 2009 General solution of beam considering shear lag phenomenon (in Japanese) Summaries of Tech. ASCE 122 ST12 1443-52 Prokić A 2002 New finite element for analysis of shear lag Comp.0 and k m ≈ 2. kτ =
AS 0 and k m = k m + kτ . Pipe beam section cantilever beam example. ASCE 96 ST7 1403-15 Moffatt K R and Dowling P J 1975 Shear lag in steel box-girder bridges Struct. thin-walled and pipe beam consistently without using any kind of stress approximation functions. 2009 1-2
10
. shown in figure 4. Appl.