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Summary Paper Staci Thomas EDIT 5370 In this paper I will summarize what I have learned through EDIT

5370, Distance Education, challenges I have encountered, and how the information presented in the course will be useful in the future. The paper begins with a summary of Modules 6-10 and concludes with a summary of the class. Module 6 In Module 6 I learned about and compared two systematic design processes for instructional design. The two instructional design (ID) models I chose were the Dick and Carey Model, as described in the textbook, and the ADDIE Model, in which I learned about from one of the resources listed on Blackboard. The steps to each model are similar, although one model has twice as many steps as the other. There are ten steps to the Dick and Carey ID Model: Identification of the instructional goal, Instructional analysis of the goal, analysis of what learners already know, identification of performance objectives, develop assessment instruments, develop instructional strategy, prepare instructional materials, formative evaluation of instruction, revise instruction, summative evaluation. The ADDIE Model gets its name from its five steps: Analysis of learning needs; Design objectives and sequence; Develop the instruction; Implement the instruction; and Evaluate the design. Both methods are sequential processes that generally follow the same pattern. Both begin with identifying a goal and assessing the learners previous knowledge. The last step of each involves an evaluation of the design. Although sequential, both can

occur in loops and cycles and each step can be visited during any portion of the instruction. One particular difference is the inclusion of the development of the assessment instruments in the Dick and Carey model. This step is placed before the instructional strategy is developed. The ADDIE model is not explicit about evaluation until the last step. Strengths of each model include the Dick and Carey Models inclusion of the assessment development at the beginning provides an objective to reach, and the ADDIE Models concise steps in an acronym form that may be easier to remember when designing instruction. There are some aspects of the Dick and Carey model that are absent in the ADDIE model such as identification of the instructional goal, what learners know (specifically), and development of assessment instruments. These aspects could be incorporated as part of the steps of the ADDIE model, but are not explicitly identified. I would like to use the steps in the Dick and Carey Instructional Design Model to construct instructional activities; however, I will use the ADDIE acronym to help me recall the basic outline. Also in Module 6, I was tasked with outlining a course that could be taught through distance education. I currently teach a General Chemistry course and used the following outline as an example: a. Unit 1 i. ii. Matter (Module 1) Measuring Matter (Module 2)

a.

Unit 2 i. ii. Atoms (Module 3) Periodic Properties (Module 4)

b.

Unit 3 i. Compounds (Module 5) 1. 2. 3. ii. Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Nomenclature

Reactions (Module 6)

a.

Unit 4 i. ii. Gases (Module 7) Thermochemistry (Module 8)

The course would have the following assignments: Students will periodically add to a KWL chart on a wiki set up for the course. Pairs of students will work together using an interactive whiteboard to come up with and draw Lewis structures of C2H4O2 and share their whiteboard presentation with the class. Use digital flashcards for students to self-assess their ability to name and write chemical formulas Students discuss on a discussion board how the properties of electronegativity, ionization energy, and atomic number relate to chemical binding characteristics. Module 7 In Module 7, I was asked to analyze a case study of a student considering a distance education course. Using the text and other resources, I was able to provide her with advice to increase her chances of success in the course. The case of Tracey Nirldon provides an example of a students perspective of distance education. In her distance education experience, she will be presented with learning

opportunities and challenges that are different than what an on-campus student may encounter. The technical expectations, assignments and due dates, and the use of course management tools can be novel to a student new to distance education. There are steps Tracey can take to increase her chances of success and assistance that her instructor can provide to help her get started. Before Tracey begins her class she should set goals for the course. She will want to break up the goals in manageable chunks, such as working on parts of a lesson daily, as opposed to trying to complete a lesson at once (WorldWideLearn, 2013). Once the goals are set, it is important that she stick to the plan outlined by the goals. If she sets apart a specific time each day to work on coursework, over time it will become habit and part of her daily routine (Pace University, 2000). The time of day that she chooses should be a time in which she would be most focused on her studies. An advantage Tracey will have with the flexible schedule of distance education is that she can set her daily study time so that it fits uniquely to her personal schedule (Gatlin, 2013). Tracey should also be proactive about her participation in the class. Because she will not be in direct, face-to-face contact with her instructor and other students, she may feel disconnected from the course. She will have to make an extra effort to participate in discussion boards and email contact (Pace University, 2000). She can stay focused on her work and be more accountable if she discusses her work with peers and asks her instructor questions when she needs understanding (WorldWideLearn, 2013). Communication is a critical part of distance education (Simonson, 2008). She should not be too intimidated to ask her instructor questions. The method of

communication requires that Tracey be comfortable to express her ideas, thoughts, and feelings in writing. Writing assistance may be needed before starting a distance education program (Illinois Online Network, 2010). Traceys instructor should be aware of ways in which he or she can promote successful learning outcomes for Tracey and other distance education students. Some characteristics of a typical distance education student are that they tend to be motivated, have an internal locus of control (belief that consequences stem from ones own behaviors and actions), can learn from a variety of content types and activities, and are self-directed (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2007). With these characteristics in mind, an instructor can plan a course that is unique to the needs of a distance education student. Distance learners are usually busy with full-time jobs and families who may complete assignments at odd times of the day, so the syllabus and directions provided to the student should be thorough and detailed. The instructor can also be more flexible with student obligations considering the time management challenges of a distance education student. The self-directed nature of the student does not necessarily mean that the student prefers self-directed learning. Students still want straightforward directions from the instructor and then self direct the methods of carrying out the instructors directions (Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2007). Distance education is not the ideal learning environment for all students (Simonson, 2008). However, by knowing the characteristics of a typical distance education student and applying tips for success in distance education courses, Tracey can increase her chances of having a productive learning experience. Likewise, if her

instructor is aware of these qualities, the unique educational needs of Tracey as a distance learner can be met. Module 8 In Module 8 I was asked to look at the teachers perspective of a distance education course. As I work to achieve my Ph.D. there is a significant likelihood that I will have the opportunity to design and instruct a course in the distance education format. I developed a course introduction and developed a schedule with assignments to be completed through in a non-traditional, distance setting. I decided to use a course that I helped with some years ago. Although I teach a chemistry class and used a General Chemistry outline in Module 6, I decided that this course would be more suited to distance delivery. The course is designed to be a distance education version of a course that was developed for the East Texas Regional Collaborative for Excellence in Science Teachings chemistry education grant. The course, titled Analyzing Student Work in Chemistry Education, focuses on misconceptions in teaching and learning chemistry. The six-week course specifically addresses the topics of misconceptions in general, preconceptions and school-made misconceptions, diagnosing misconceptions, common misconceptions in chemistry, laboratory investigations, and evaluation. Students participating in the course will be in-service chemistry teachers. Preservice teachers may find the course useful; however, some classroom experience will be necessary for reflection. Although the content focuses on chemistry, teachers of other science courses or middle school teachers may find the board topics of the course useful to teaching science.

The course will be formatted on Blackboard. Students will have access through the university website. Course Schedule and Assignments Week 1 Preconceptions Students do not come to class as blank slates. This week you will be looking at the power of student preconceptions. Complete the following activities: View the PowerPoint slides titled The Power of Preconceptions Watch the video, Minds of Our Own (linked on Blackboard). Complete the Blackboard quiz over the video. Think about a time in your own life when you realized that you had a misconception about an idea or natural process. Speculate on what might have led to these preconceptions. What events occurred to change your ideas? Share your experience on the discussion board and respond to at least 2 other classmates. Week 2 School-made misconceptions Some misconceptions come from an experience an individual has often from a teacher, textbook, etc. This week you will consider ways in which misconceptions can be made from school-related activities. You should also explore how important language is to communicating the correct information. Complete the following activities: View the PowerPoint slides titled School-Made Misconceptions Discussion question You have been assigned a partner for this weeks assignment. See the document attached to this weeks module titled Module 2 Partners. By day 3 of the module you should have contacted your partner through email or Blackboard and set an appointment to meet via Skype. Through Skype have a conversation about school-made misconceptions you have experienced either as a student or a teacher. Write a 300 word paper about your conversation. Include a screen shot of your Skype meeting. Week 3 Diagnosing misconceptions This week you will be playing the role of Dr. Teacher. You will explore how a teacher acts as a doctor identifying student misconceptions and planning remedy strategies. Complete the following activities: View the PowerPoint slides titled Misconceptions

On the discussion board, make an analogy of how a teacher is like a doctor. Comment on at least two other classmates post. Read the links about action research. Create an action research project involving diagnosing the misconceptions students may have before, during, or after a chemistry lesson. Submit an outline for the project.

Week 4 Abstract concepts and limitations of models Science is full of abstract concepts, particularly in chemistry. Concepts such as atomic structure, chemical bonding, and kinetic molecular theory are not concrete and tangible. Misconceptions about these abstract concepts are easily formed. This weeks lesson explores strategies for accurately teaching these concepts. Complete the following activities: View the PowerPoint slides titled Misconceptions in Chemistry Consider a chemistry concept that you teach. Identify how this concept fits into the chemistry triangle. Use the interactive whiteboard, ShowMe to create a whiteboard presentation showing how you could teach the concept using the chemical triangle. Post your whiteboard presentation on the discussion board in Blackboard. Comment on at least 2 other students whiteboard presentation. Week 5 Laboratory Processes An integral part of a science class is the laboratory experience. Understanding comes with experience and the real-world applications of chemical processes are demonstrated with hands-on science. This week you will explore ways to make laboratory experiences more meaningful. Complete the following activities: View the PowerPoint slides titled Learning in the Laboratory On the discussion board describe a lab you have used in the past that have helped students understand a concept. Comment on at least two other classmates post on what you like about the lab described and what could be improved. Just as in Module 2, you will be assigned a partner. See the document attached to this weeks module titled Module 5 Partners. By day 3 of the module set up a Google Docs Word document in which both you and your partner have access. Choose one lab that either of you use in your classroom. Collaborate on rewriting the lab so that it follows an inquiry method. Week 6 Evaluation Strategies Checking for understanding is the culminating event of the learning experience. In this lesson you will learn about assessments and what thinking

processes they are targeted to assess. You will use this knowledge to compare assessment tools. View the PowerPoint slides titled Evaluation Strategies On the discussion board, compare Blooms Taxonomy to assessment questions. Comment on at least two other classmates post. Go to the Survey Monkey site posted. For each question in the survey, comment on whether the question effectively measures a students knowledge and why. Also include what you could do to improve the question. Module 9 In Module 9 I continued to take the perspective of a leader and manager of a distance education course. I developed an outline of a policy document to guide the practice of distance education based on a scenario I create. The scenario I used was based on my collaborative experiences (same as course in Module 8), and the outline organized around the four subsystems is below: Regulatory Subsystem Online classes should meet the requirements designated by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) to ensure accreditation status. Online classes should outline and follow Student Learning Objectives (SLO) according to Texas Higher Education Board. Online classes should follow the Universitys policies on distance education courses to provide students with consistency of format between the courses they take as part of a degree program. Course Subsystem Online courses will be carried out on Blackboard course management format.

Instructors of online course should make contact information available to the student and have two hours per week scheduled for office hours in which they can be reached by the student. Online courses will be evaluated by the students each semester via an online survey to promote quality instruction. Student Subsystem Students in online classes will receive the same support services as on-campus students and be integrated into the same services as residential students. Students will have clear instruction on the use of online technologies such as the course management system (Blackboard), library services, and other software applications. Contact information will be easily accessible to students through online systems. Logistical Subsystem Technology available and used for online classes will be updated periodically to reflect the latest version. Support staff will be hired to meet the needs of distance education formats. Instructors of online courses will be trained on topics separate from teaching in a traditional setting and specific to distance education such as the unique characteristics of a distance education student, pedagogies that promote higher-order thinking skills and critical thinking skills in the distance education format, and the use of Web 2.0 technologies. Accessibility Issues

Standard assistive technologies will be made available to those students with disabilities according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Counselors will be made available to assist disabled students in identifying and obtaining required adaptive software. Course designers will use resources available online to ensure the accessibility of course materials. Module 10 In Module 10, I learned about copyright violations. I was tasked with developing six scenarios which could be considered in a workshop. I was also asked to use the Four Factor Test to determine the correct response for the scenarios. 1. Valerie is a reading teacher taking an online graduate class in science education.

She wants to demonstrate how to use childrens literature in a science lesson. She uses a story in her state adopted textbook for an example. She scans in the story for reference, then uploads her lesson to a course discussion board for peer review. Did Valerie violate copyright laws? Four Factor Test: The purpose and character of the use of the story is for education and is distributed to teachers who may or may not have access to the materials. The nature of the work is creative and whole passages are copied. She may not have had to include the entire story, though. She could have just included a passage representing a relevant point. Asking permission from the copyright holder would be best. There is a strong chance that many of her peers have access to the same materials since it is state adopted materials, but because they could use her resource without buying the book, it is not fair use.

2.

Greta is a biology student who is tasked to explain the process of photosynthesis

in a wiki set up by her biology teacher. She has found an image from a search site that illustrates the Calvin Cycle. She wants to use it to discuss the dark reactions in photosynthesis, but doesnt see anything written that says that the image is protected by copyright. If she includes the image, will she be violating copyright laws? Four Factor Test: The purpose and character of the use of the story is for education and student explanation. The nature of the work is factual information but creative work in creating the illustration. One image used is from a website. The student could reference the source in her wiki submission. Since the image was found from a search engine, it probably does not have a market-impact on the creator of the image. However, copyright protection should be checked.

3.

Mark is teaching an online physics class. He is having a difficult time explaining

quantum mechanics, but he finds a YouTube video that makes the subject understandable. He decides that he could not do a better job than the video, so he copies the link to the video and assigns the students to view it. Did Mark violate copyright laws? Four Factor Test: The purpose and character of the use of the story is for education and to explain a concept. The nature of the work is creative work with factual information. No more than 10% or 3 minutes may be used. Asking permission from the creator of the video would be best if Mark plans to use this for more than 2 years.

Since he was freely able to access the video online, the video likely does not infringe on the authors revenue system.

4.

Walter has designated a few required textbooks for a research course he

teaches. Just before the beginning of the course he has learned that students are having difficulty accessing one of the textbooks. He decides to scan PDF versions from his own copy of that textbook. When a weekly assignment calls for a reading from that textbook, he posts a copy of the assigned chapter. Does this practice violate copyright laws? Four Factor Test: The purpose and character of the use is for educational reference material. The work is non-fiction materials. Copying a few passages or a chapter of a textbook may be fair, but mo more than 10% or 1000 words may be used. The test of spontaneity allows him to make these copies available this semester, but he will need to make sure the textbook is better accessible in subsequent semesters.

5.

Bob teaches an online statistics course. One of his students, Suzi, has sent him

an email asking a question about an assignment. Bob thinks that the question is very relevant and that other students may have the same question. He wants to be fair and make sure that there is no misunderstanding, so he forwards his answer to Suzi (including her original email) to the rest of the class. Does Bob have to ask Suzis permission to pass her email along? Four Factor Test: The purpose of the use is educational, but it is a question from a student addressed only to the instructor. The author of the original email retains

ownership of the intellectual property that message contains. However, the instructor could save the message, print it, and forward to a limited number of individuals without the students permission. Because it was sent to the whole class, it is a violation of the individuals license.

6.

Tom and Gayles project for their chemistry class was to grow crystals. They s et

up the growing crystals at Toms house and took pictures regularly to document the growth. When they were finished with the project, they decided to upload the pictures to the chemistry classs website. They thought that watching a montage of pictures did not seem very exciting so they uploaded a song Gayle had on her iPod to go along with the pictures. Did any part of the couples project on the website violate copyright laws? Four Factor Test: The purpose and character of use is educational and it is the product of a project. The pictures taken are the property of the students and may be used. The music may need permission or no more than 10% or 30 may be used. Gayle had purchased the music, but electronic distribution of the music infringes on the authors potential revenue stream.

Summary In this class I have learned about the definition of distance education, the history and theory of distance education, asynchronous and synchronous communication tools used in distance education, distance education from the student and the teachers

perspective, managing a distance education course, and copyright issues to consider. I have enjoyed the course and look forward to putting its applications into place.

References Gatlin, S. (2013). How to Succeed as an Online Student. About.com. Retrieved November 5, 2013. Illinois Online Network. (2010). What Makes a Successful Online Student? Retrieved November 5, 2013. Pace University. (2000). Study Guide: Five Steps to Success in Online Learning. Retrieved November 5, 2013. Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., Zvacek, S. (2008) T eaching and Learning at a Distance Foundations of Distance Education, 4th ed. Pearson: Worcester Polytechnic Institute. (2007). Characteristics of Distance Learning Students. Retrieved November 5, 2013. WorldWideLearn. (2013). 7 Success Strategies for Distance Learners. Retrieved November 5, 2013.