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# Project 4.2.

## 1 Self-Propelled Vehicle Design

Purpose
In order to understand change and make change work toward the creation and improvement of designs, it is crucial that the relationships of distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration are clearly understood. Using some of these words interchangeably may result in time lost through redesign or rebuild, or worse, a failure that occurs when a design reaches the public.

Equipment
Instructor-designated materials for the vehicles Stopwatch Marking device to trail vehicle String or masonry line

Procedure
In this activity your team of two to three will design a self-powered car. You will gather data to determine distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. Design Statement Your team should design a vehicle that can provide its own power. You will utilize a potential energy source other than battery. Your goal is also for the vehicle to travel in a straight path and to travel far and fast. The vehicle should also be able to accurately mark the path it takes. Design Process 1. Copy the problem statement, constraints, and additional information form the instructor in your engineering notebook. Also, review the data being collected in the final test to help guide your design. 2. In your engineering notebook, complete three brainstorming sketches that include labels, descriptions, and signatures. 3. Complete a design matrix that includes a minimum of five criteria. 4. Develop a detailed or 3D electronic design sketch for instructor approval that will guide the creation of your vehicle prototype. 5. Build, test, and redesign your prototype as needed to best meet the testing parameters as outlined below.
Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2011 POE Unit 4 Lesson 4.2 Project 4.2.1 Self-Propelled Vehicle Design Page 1

Final Test Data Collection Use this section to collect data for the evaluation of your vehicle prototype. In order to test the car, it is necessary for the vehicle to mark its path. To prepare for the test: Mark a straight line based on the distance that you expect the vehicle to travel. To test the vehicle: Someone should be prepared with a stopwatch to time the car. Prepare the vehicle so that it can trace its path of travel using a marking device. Test the vehicle and record the time that it travels. Follow the steps below to gather data from the test and determine values for distance, displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration. As you record the information below, sketch the reference points, paths, and values you measure and evaluate. Distance (D) is the total length of the path an object takes. 6. Measure the total distance of the path marked by the vehicles path. If the path is very irregular, place a string along the path and place the string beside a tape measure to obtain the distance. Record the distance below and indicate whether the quantity is scalar or vector.

Displacement (x or y) is the change from initial to final position, including magnitude and direction. 7. Measure the vehicles change between the initial and final position of the vehicle, ignoring the vehicles path. Consider the value to be positive if the final position on your sketch is right of the initial position and negative if the final position is left of the initial position. Record this value below and indicate whether the quantity is scalar or vector.

Speed (s) is the change from initial to final position (d) divided by the time (t) elapsed, and only includes magnitude.

d t
Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2011 POE Unit 4 Lesson 4.2 Project 4.2.1 Self-Propelled Vehicle Design Page 2

8. Calculate the average speed of the vehicle from its initial to final position. Record this value below and indicate whether the quantity is scalar or vector.

Velocity (V) is the displacement (d) divided by the time (t) elapsed and direction of an object.

d t

9. Calculate the average velocity of the vehicle from its initial to final position. Consider the value to be positive if the final position on your sketch is right of the initial position and negative if the final position is left of the initial position. Record this value below and indicate whether the quantity is scalar or vector.

Acceleration (a) is the change in velocity between the initial (Vi) and final position (Vf) divided by the time (t) elapsed and the direction of an object.

Vf Vi t

10. Calculate the average acceleration of the vehicle from its initial to final position. Consider the value to be positive if the final position on your sketch is right of the initial position and negative if the final position is left of the initial position. Record this value below and indicate whether the quantity is scalar or vector.

Conclusion
1. If you were to travel to a city in a nearby state, how would distance and displacement compare?

2. How can two vehicles going to the same location arrive at the same time when one takes primary roads and another takes less traveled roads to decrease the distance? Explain your answer in terms of distance, displacement, speed, and velocity.

Project Lead The Way, Inc. Copyright 2011 POE Unit 4 Lesson 4.2 Project 4.2.1 Self-Propelled Vehicle Design Page 3