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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

The general process includes information collection, pre-planning, detailed planning, and cell planning. In the cell planning, main concerns are frequency planning, TA planning, PCI planning, and PRACH planning.

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

There are several new frequency band options for LTE, some of which are available now or should be within the next few years. These include the 700MHz, AWS (Advanced Wireless Services) and 2.6GHz bands, as well as the re-use of existing GSM 900MHz and 1800MHz bands. In addition, due to poor harmonization, there are other spectrum bands available, including: 850MHz, 1500MHz, 1700MHz and 1900MHz.

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

Application scenario: Adapt to situations with integrated operator frequency resources and consecutive frequency bands. If the frequency point bandwidth is wide (>=10MHz), it can be used as the initial network construction mode of the urban or densely-populated urban areas. Basically satisfy the phase one capacity requirements. Use relatively narrow frequency point bandwidth (<=10MHz) to implement wide coverage of suburban and rural areas; thus reducing the initial network construction cost.

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LTE Cell Planning

Application scenario:

Adapt to situations that the operator frequency resources are rich or frequency bands dispersed and bandwidth is narrow. The system capacity is dependent on the bandwidth of single frequency point. If the bandwidth of frequency point is wide (>=5MHz), it can be used on initial network construction of dense or common urban. If the bandwidth of frequency point is narrow (<5MHz), it can be used on coverage of suburban and rural areas.

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LTE Cell Planning

ICIC is a technology that mitigates inter-cell interference together with the scheduling and power control technologies. ICIC is applied at the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. ICIC restricts highly interfering CEUs within the orthogonal bands at the edge of cells or schedules the CEUs in neighboring cells at different points of time. In this way, ICIC mitigates inter-cell interference, increases the CEU throughput, and improves the system coverage. This document provides the details on ICIC.

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

TA: Similar to the location area and routing area in 2G/3G networks, the tracking area (TA) is used for paging. TA planning aims to reduce location update signaling caused by location changes in the LTE system. TA list : A list of TAIs that identify the tracking areas that the UE can enter without performing a tracking area updating procedure. The TAIs in a TAI list assigned by an MME to a UE pertain to the same MME area. In LTE system, if an UE changes the TAs in the TAI list, TA update wont be triggered.

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LTE Cell Planning

In the Los Angles, there are several independent density area that connected by the main road (like island) . The UE may go across the different area through this road.

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

In this scenario, users are average distributed in each area

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

A TA coverage should be proper setting according to the capability of EPC When the suburban area and urban area are covered discontinuously, an independent TA is used for the suburban area.

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LTE Cell Planning

LTE can be operated on different frequency band, we can plan the TA based on both frequency band or geographical area A TA should be planned for a continuous geographical area to prevent segmental networking of eNBs in each TA. The mountain or river in the planned area can be used as the border of a TA to reduce the overlapping depth of different cells in two TAs. In this way, fewer location updates are performed on the edge of a TA.

The LAC planning in the existing 2G/3G networks can serve as a reference for planning TAs.

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

PCI: Physical Cell ID, is used to generate scrambling code to identify the different cell

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LTE Cell Planning

Differences between a scrambling code and a PCI: The scrambling code ranges from 0 to 511 whereas the PCI ranges from 0 to 503. In addition, the protocols do not have specific requirements for scrambling code planning. Therefore, only the reuse distance needs to be ensured in scrambling code planning. For PCI planning, however, 3GPP protocols require that the value of PCI/3 should be 0, 1, or 2 in each eNB.

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

The random access procedure is used in various scenarios, including initial access, handover, or re-establishment. Like other 3GPP systems the random access procedure provides a method for contention and non-contention based access. The PRACH (Physical Random Access Channel) includes RA (Random Access) preambles generated from ZC (Zadoff-Chu) sequences.

There are five preamble formats defined which four of them are for FDD

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LTE Cell Planning

PRACH configuration is defined by the following parameters


Root sequence, setting in the eNodeB Ncs: Automatically setting based on the cell radius configuration PRACh frequency offset: Scheduled by eNodeB High speed flag: Indicate whether the cell is for high speed

All the parameters all carried by Sib2

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LTE Cell Planning

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LTE Cell Planning

There are 64 available preamble sequences in each cell. The 64 preamble sequences are first generated from a root Zadoff-Chu sequence using cyclic shift. If less than 64 preamble sequences are generated, the remaining are generated from the root Zadoff-Chu sequence corresponding to the logical index.

The preamble sequences are generated from the cyclic shift.

root Zadoff-Chu sequence through the

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LTE Cell Planning

Here is an example for the root sequence planning, suppose the cell radius is 10km

The Ncs value is determined by the cell radius. If the cell radius is 10 km, the Ncs value is 76 The value of 839/76 is rounded down to 11, that is, each index can generate 11 preamble sequences. In this case, six root sequence indexes are required to generate 64 preamble sequences. The number of available root sequence indexes is 139 (0, 6, 12828) The available root sequence indexes are assigned to cells. The assignment principles are similar to those for PCIs.

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LTE Cell Planning

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