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Research Log for Multi-Genre Project: ARAL, N., KANDIR, A., AYHAN, A., & YAAR, M. (2010).

THE INFLUENCE OF PROJECT-BASED CURRICULA ON SIXYEAR-OLD PRESCHOOLERS' CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 38(8), 10731079. doi:10.2224/sbp.2010.38.8.1073

This article follows a study of 28 pre-school aged children that were either taught by Project Based Learning, or they were not. The children attended a half day program and were given both pre-tests and post-tests. The pre-school children were tested over their knowledge of colors, shapes, direction, position, letters, numbers, and social awareness. Each of the children were taught one day a week, for twelve weeks. This article was not a good article. I am turning this one in, on the off chance that I need to know the benefits of PBLs for pre-school age children. Other than that, the article does not touch on the subject of writing and may be switched out with another article, next week. Menu, Quilt, Recipe, Poem: benefits of PBL for preschoolers. Newspaper Article/ Brochure: PBL descriptions and definitions

The results revealed that all children improved their scores between the time of pre-test and post-test, but there was a small difference in favor of the experimental group in their post-test scores, (Aral, 1073). In the program, learning processes were taken into account and each project had a planning, beginning, implementation, closing, and evaluation stage, (Aral, 1075). Project work normally involves activities such as counting, measuring, asking questions about the topic, classifying, ranking, comparing, problem solving, and commenting about events, (Aral, 1076).

Ba, G., & Beyhan, . (2010). Effects of multiple intelligences supported project-based learning on students' achievement levels and attitudes towards English lesson. International Electronic Journal Of Elementary Education, 2(3), 365-385.

You must use different learning modules in your classroom to help the students with different needs in your classroom. You can individualize learning by using multiple intelligences, which supports project based learning ideas. Students must do the activities by themselves in ways that imitate real life situations. William Heard Kilpatrick advocated for project based learning and said it should include four main components: purposing, planning, executing, and judging.There is not a lot of research to be able to state with certainty that project based learning is a better alternative to teaching than other methods. This is something to consider when thinking about my own instructional techniques. The younger the learner, the more physical activity they require and the more they need to use all five senses to decode their world.In the study, both groups did a pre test and pre-attitude test. They also did a post test and a post attitude test. The students were from Turkey, around 11 years old, in fifth grade, and were 50 students from two different classes in the same school. This was conducted during the 20092010 school year over a period of four weeks. The students were also in homogenous groups. All of the students families had similar socio-economic backgrounds. Researchers provided all the materials and developed all of the activities. Limitations: small sample size, limited to the number of fifth graders, etc. Recipe for good PBLs including all the outcomes. Acrostic Poem: benefits of PBL Brochure: What is PBL? Quilt: What is PBL? (I can only add one square in this article.) Diary: Implementing a PBL Crossword: PBL vocabulary TV ads: sell PBL by benefits Bumper sticker: multiple intelligence logo with a PBL logo Top 10 List: Benefits of PBL Tagzedo: defining PBLs

On the results of these studies, it can be said that project based learning method not only has more positive effects on students academic achievement levels and attitudes towards the lesson, it has also more positive effects on students academic risk taking, problem solving and creative thinking skills, (page 379).

Collaborative learning allows students to bounce ideas off each other, voice their own opinions, and negotiate solutions- all skills that will be necessary in the workplace, (page 379). The most important thing in research was the experimental group students had more fun when they were learning and they did, touched, saw, and spoke about the things they learnt and they also had the change of socialsation and cooperation which are more important for them in these ages, (page 379) [spelling of socialsation is correct above to the actual article.]

BRISK, M., HODGSON-DRYSDALE, T., & O'CONNOR, C. (2011). A Study of a Collaborative Instructional Project Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistic Theory: Report Writing in Elementary Grades. Journal Of Education, 191(1), 1-12.

This article follows seven teachers and seven teachers ranging from K-5 and one science teacher. They wanted to teach students how to do report writing within a project and teach them how to write in the process. These teachers considered report writing a genre in the classroom and wanted to teach the students how to do research effectively, by summarizing in their written notes and synthesizing information into paraphrases. The students came from multiple backgrounds. Three students spoke Vietnamese as their first language, three spoke Spanish, and one spoke English. (This drastically changed the way that the teachers taught in their classroom.) The entire unit progress lasted between three and six weeks. As the teachers started their units, they came into multiple challenges. They found that in the products of their research, students had not grouped by subtopics. The students many times listed information as it came to mind, and not into a uniformed paragraph. Students also wrote their reports but inserted themselves into their project. One teacher expressed concern because her students were asked to create a report so early in the year. To overcome that obstacle, she had her students create a poster, which took off some of the pressure. List/Recipe: 7 ways/things elementary aged children are taught. Crossword: I can add the words linguistic register, adjectival, lexical ties, text connectives, theme, rheme, audience, voice, modals Brochure: 11 challenges that you might face while trying to teach report writing 2 advantages/good outcomes of the study

Quotes: Writing today is not a frill for the few but an essential skill for the many, (Brisk,1). Teaching the structure of reports and writing collaborative reports also helps develop reading comprehension, and recall of factual information, which can then be transferred to other topics, (Brisk, 2). Students succeeded due to careful scaffolding by teachers through shared writing, questions, or deconstructing text with the support of graphic organizers, (Brisk, 9). In a report, topic development is very demanding because it requires knowledge of the topic and knowledge of language to adequately express meaning, (Brisk, 10).

Chun-Ming, H., Gwo-Jen, H., & Iwen, H. (2012). A Project-based Digital Storytelling Approach for Improving Students' Learning Motivation, Problem-Solving Competence and Learning Achievement. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 15(4), 368-379.

This article describes a research study in which one group completed a PBL with minimal technology, while the experimental group was allowed to use Photo Story to develop movies for storytelling. Over 16 weeks, students were given a pre and post test that measured learning motivation, problem solving competence, and content achievement. A web-based search engine, Meta-Analyzer was used to help students gather their research and then compile it into Microsofts Photo Story where they made headlines, and told a story through pictures. The optimal timing for this type of project is upper elementary. The results of the experiment showed that students improved on learning motivation, attitude, problem-solving capability and learning achievements. Collaborative learning involves five elements: active trust, face-to-face interaction, individual performance, interpersonal and group skills, and group process. This is related to Blooms Taxonomy in which students are asked to analyze, evaluate, and create. Situated Cognition Theory is the emphasis that learning takes place in real life situations. It is challenging to connect the new content with their prior knowledge, and digital storytelling may allow students to connect more by providing real world scenarios for them to process. This is for science, and it may be a far fetch to say this could help with writing and language arts. Menu: how to incorporate writing into a digital storytelling PBL Recipe: proposed 5 elements for collaborative learning (369). Tagzedo: goals of digital storytelling in PBLs and writing Bumper Sticker: Digital storytelling logo with PBL logo Quilt: Using digital storytelling in PBLs with writing, (I can add at least one square.) Acrostic Poem: Digital Storyt with writing terms

The study aims to propose a project-based digital storytelling approach, which combines project-based learning and digital storytelling strategies to conduct learning activities for elementary school students, (page 369). Nevertheless, researchers have pointed out several problems encountered while applying the project-based learning approach in classrooms, including the difficulties in promoting students learning motivation, having students concentrate on the learning tasks, helping the students connect to the new content with their prior knowledge, and conducting the cooperative learning activities efficiently, (page 369).

From the experimental results, it was found that this innovative approach improved the learning motivation, attitude, problem solving capability and learning achievements of the students, (page 376).

Hallerman, Sara & Larmar, John. (2011). PBL In the Elementary Grades: Step by Step Guidance, Tools and Tips for Standards-Focused K-5 Projects. Buck Institute for Education: Novato, California. **Counts as two resources because it is a book. The Role of the Teacher in PBL: (page 16) While reading, the role of the teacher sounds like a project manager. They are not the center of attention but they still hold a major role in the project. I can do a job resume as a product manager, describing skills and interests needed for the job. Teaching Calendar over a months period of time: (page 149-150). This shows exactly how to use a PBL, especially in literature. Top ten list: which websites children can use to enhance their writing, (listed below.) 7 steps for facilitating inquiry in a project: (page 92). This is a list of seven things that have to do with literature throughout the project. How literacy can be taught within a project Quilt: This way, each square has a different idea but they all have a coherent theme. PBL Brochure: I could use the information from this book to help me make my brochure on PBL. (This idea does not necessarily include literature, so I am still not sure.) Menu: I could have three different types of food, (appetizer, entre, dessert,) with different types of integration into literacy programs. I could have smaller descriptions about different items explaining what each program would look like. Game Rules: What is expected to be in a PBL, (page 14).

Notes:

How PBL Can fit in an Elementary Schools Literacy Program: (page 14) 1. Fully Integrated PBL: Although mostly covering social studies and science issues, math and literacy can still be involved during the block of time set aside for math and literacy. 2. Partially integrated PBL: Projects occur during the block of science or social studies but include some literacy and math when appropriate for research skills. 3. Separate PBLs: Projects only occur during separate times of the day and do not connect with your math or literacy lessons. How Literacy can be taught within the Project: 1. Readers and Writers workshops connect to project work. (page 14) 2. Students read and gain knowledge needed for the project. (page 14) 3. Students write to describe learning experiences, create products, and reflect on project work. (page 14)

4. Use newspapers, pamphlets, diagrams and websites to model literacy strategies in science and math-focused projects, (page 53). 5. Use the same structure that you use for your literature circles as the structure for your project, (page 53). 6. Write reviews of the books they read to help other students when they are looking for books, (page 57). 7. Have students organize their data into spreadsheets and graphs with descriptions, (page 56). 8. Use Cornell Notes to have students organize their information. 9. Start Research Notebooks: have students write down their main question and any other question they may have in the notebook. They can also hold notes, important quotes, and websites. 10. Have students reflect on their research every week. Have they answered any new questions? What have they contributed to their project? Students should write those answers down and come up with some new questions, as well. How has their thinking changed? Using Technology: 1. Gloster.com: design posters to post online or print 2. Storybird.com: a whole group can work together to create a story book by adding images and text. 3. VoiceThread.com: Students can add voice to their writing, (similar to a Prezi). 4. wordle.net: students can create word clouds with their writing 5. Kidblog.org: students can create digital portfolios, (similar to weebly.) 6. kidsvid.4teachers.org: students can write scripts and record newscasts. Online Sources for Text Set Materials: Very good list, but all about reading, and not writing. Material Resources as Text Sets: 1. Early on in the project, allow students teams to informally browse through the text set to arouse their curiosity about the topic and record initial questions for further inquiry. 2. Place text sets at student tables for silent reading and reflection over pre-writing. 3. Allow students to browse through the materials after finishing independent work. Then have students brainstorm about being there or notes. 4. Assist students in finding a just right text from the set to use during the application phase in a Readers Workshop. (page 71). Quotes: For teachers using the partially integrate or separate PBL model, a Science or Social Studiesfocused project can provide a double dose of literacy while building content knowledge that influences reading comprehension, (Hallerman ,52). Project Based Learning is a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning important knowledge and 21st century skills through an extended, student-influenced inquiry

process structured around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products and learning tasks, (Hallerman, 5). The business world tells us that successful employees, managers, entrepreneurs, and leaders in the 21st century economy do not only need to knowledge and basic skills like the kind taught in school. They also need to know how to learn new knowledge and skills; to acquire, evaluate, and use information from a variety of sources; to work in teams; to solve problems and think critically; to manage complex tasks; and to communicate with a variety of others using a variety of media, (Hallerman, 9). Reflection helps students retain what they learn, because they go over it one more time in their minds, connecting it to what they already know and to other topics and ideas, (Hallerman, 114).

Read, S. (2010). A Model for Scaffolding Writing Instruction: IMSCI. Reading Teacher, 64(1), 47-52. doi:10.1598/RT.64.1.5 This article explains exactly how to use the IMSCI method in a classroom and how to implement it with any grade level. The I stands for inquiry. Starting out, students were asked to explore a certain genre for a week by read-alouds of model texts, and then asked students to create a writing piece in this genre. The M stands for modeling. The teacher will model for her students how to write a piece in that genre. The teacher should model the whole process of brainstorming topics, prewriting with graphic organizers, draft, revise, and then editing. The S stands for shared writing. The teacher and the students will co-write a text in the genre and all students made decisions about what to write. The C stands for collaborative writing. Two students are paired up to come up with a piece of writing that is in that genre. The final I stands for independent writing. Students will be asked to create a rough draft in the text genre. They then will revise and edit the draft and create a final product. Diary: What the scaffolding writing might look like over a period of several days/months. Menu: 5 course dinner of scaffolding writing in PBLs. Poem: That incorporates all these products. Recipe: ingredients for scaffolding in a PBL.

Quotes: Social Learning Theory suggests that students learn best when learning is situated in a context in which they interact with each other and the teacher, in meaningful, purposeful ways, (Read, 1). Genres of writing do not develop in a vacuum; they are socially constructed to suit the particular purposes of the writer and the particular needs of an audience, (Read, 1). Through inquiry, we can build students background knowledge of genres. Then, through modeling, shared writing, and collaborative writing, we support students as they approximate the expectations and conventions of the chosen genre, (Read, 6).

Spires, H. A., Hervey, L. G., Morris, G., & Stelpflug, C. (2012). Energizing Project-Based Inquiry: Middle-Grade Students Read, Write, and Create Videos. Journal Of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 55(6), 483-493. doi:10.1002/JAAL.00058 This article outlines how a teacher could use digital storytelling or other videos to tell a story in Project Based Learning. The students were all in middle school and the article mostly outlines writing in PBLs as a research technique and a way to organize your research. There are advantages of using digital videos in the classroom as well as in PBLs. The article does not list all the websites and apps that students can use to help them write, although it did give me many ideas as to other apps that students can use to help their writing in PBLs. Recipe: 6 advantages of using digital literacy Menu: 5 steps to creating a digital PBL, (plus great information about each step). Acrostic Poem, or game rules: The 3 criteria for a compelling question Brochure or Childrens Book: 6-7 steps on how students can plan and gather information. Brochure, Diary entries: Evaluation Processes: (more of a summary, not a list.) Top ten list, menu, recipe, quilt: Technology resources for digital literacy, (10+) Diary entries: Challenges for teachers while doing digital writing.

Arguments for literacy pedagogies that embrace visual and multimodal representations are well established in academic literacy contexts, suggesting that multimodal texts, (i.e. print, video, still images, audio, music) offer students unique ways to both create and convey meaning, (Spires, 484). Obviously, reading and writing are central to a students intellectual development; these processes are segmented through project-based inquiry as students use a variety of online tools as well as digital video to create products of learning, (Spires, 485). However, the Horizon Report asserted that there is a skills gap between understanding how to use tools for media creation and how to create meaningful content in connection with schoollearning outcomes, (Spires, 485). Capturing video footage requires being able to use a camera; whereas creating a video production requires a range of skills, including critical analysis about audience, advance planning of different scenes, script writing abilities, deliberate choices about content, and considerations about copyright, (Spires, 487).

Wang, C., Ke, Y., Wu, J., & Hsu, W. (2012). Collaborative Action Research on Technology Integration for Science Learning. Journal Of Science Education & Technology, 21(1), 125-132. doi:10.1007/s10956-011-9289-0 This article follows one sub-teacher as she teaches one sixth grade class for the entire semester using project based inquiry, power points, and blogs. The students used the blogs to communicate with each other and investigate the resources authenticity that they found. The article was intended to show how technology could be used in a PBL, but it also had a lot of writing techniques and strategies used within it. Many students did not participate in the blogging, and then were questioned about it at the end. Most students did not participate in the blog because their internet access was restricted while they were at home. The teacher, then, scheduled all the kids into the computer labs they had in the school. The article also talks a lot about challenges that the teacher dealt with. For example, the students did not know digital literacy and did not know that copy and paste was plagiarism. Some students did not know how to use power-points and other students only knew how to use technology for presenting projects, and not how to use them to do research and come up with their own writings for PBLs. The article does mention the problem that I keep finding all the writing in the PBLs are in the research aspect of it. The PBLs are not necessarily to discover any new findings about their own writing and presenting their writing, they are writing about something and then presenting that. Somehow, writing has become on the back burner of PBLs. Challenges that any teacher may have teaching writing in PBLs to sixth grade students. Crossword: I could add the use of the words differentiation, constructivism, facilitate, and self-reflection. Letter to Parents: Asking if their child could use the computer at home for longer periods of time if it was for school work and providing the parents with a copy of the assignment. Diary entry: What was it like to teach these students? What challenges did I face and how did the kids react to it? Newspaper Article: Retelling the information gathered about how technology can be used to support writing in a PBL.

Quotes: Students can use blogs to publish their own writings, discuss topics of interest, peer review each others work and collaborate on projects, (Wang, 126). The blog became a space for further discussion in and beyond the class, which might deepen their understanding of the concepts in their textbook, (Wang, 129).

Further research should focus on how to break the culture of copy-and-paste by teaching the skills of note-taking and synthesis through inquiry projects (Wang, 132). The teachers of the study were very surprised about the students redoing their work without complaints. This was because students in traditional classrooms did not normally revise their assignment, (Wang, 130).

Winter. (2006). Instructor, 115(5), 4-7.

Although this is a professional article found through the school library, the format of this article was different. This was more of a collection of ways in which writing, math and science could work together in a project based learning environment. The best part is the idea of having a continuous mailbox in your room for your students to put different items as they go through different PBLs. There are ideas such as writing letters to a certain person during the time, writing compliment letters to classmates and as a general turn-in spot. I wish there were more ideas than those, but I may have to read over her lessons again to fully understand how writing can be more incorporated. The article ranges from kindergarten through middle school age students and is compiled like a lesson plan. The authors wrote the supply list and basic directions on how to complete the idea. Quick Lesson Plan Ideas: I could write a quick lesson plan for a week. I could demonstrate how to use writing into the PBLs, in any age range. Game Rules: I could write a game using synonyms and writing in the language arts for a connection to the PBL. Discuss the importance of how writing in PBLs are mostly secondary aspects to completing the project. Quotes: Whether youre doing a lesson on the history of the Pony Express, or teaching your students how to address envelopes, a class mailbox is a creative way to keep kids writing throughout the year, (Winter, 2). The article presents information on several classroom activities that elementary school teachers can employ during the winter season, (Winter, 1).