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Exercises

E1.1 E1.2 E1.3 Charge = Current × Time = (2 A) × (10 s) = 20 C

i (t ) =

dq (t ) d = (0.01sin(200t) = 0.01 × 200cos(200t ) = 2cos(200t ) A dt dt

Because i2 has a positive value, positive charge moves in the same direction as the reference. Thus, positive charge moves downward in element C. Because i3 has a negative value, positive charge moves in the opposite direction to the reference. Thus positive charge moves upward in element E.

E1.4

Energy = Charge × Voltage = (2 C) × (20 V) = 40 J Because vab is positive, the positive terminal is a and the negative terminal is b. Thus the charge moves from the negative terminal to the positive terminal, and energy is removed from the circuit element.

E1.5

the current enters the positive reference, and we have the passive reference configuration. (a) pa (t ) = v a (t )ia (t ) = 20t 2

iab enters terminal a. Furthermore, vab is positive at terminal a. Thus

E1.6

20t 3 w a = ∫ pa (t )dt = ∫ 20t dt = 3 0 0

2

10

10

10

=

0

20t 3 = 6667 J 3

(b) Notice that the references are opposite to the passive sign convention. Thus we have:

**pb (t ) = −v b (t )ib (t ) = 20t − 200
**

w b = ∫ pb (t )dt = ∫ (20t − 200)dt = 10t 2 − 200t

0 0 10 10 10 0

= −1000 J

1

but v1 = 25 V.25 × 1000 = 15.vc . 6 = 1.8 E1.12 E1.12 × 10 −6 × L π (1.13 P =V 2 R P =V 2 R ⇒ ⇒ R =V 2 / P = 144 Ω ⇒ I = V / R = 120 / 144 = 0. Finally. Go clockwise around the loop consisting of elements A. Also. Then ps = -vsis = -160 W (the minus sign is due to the fact that the references for vs and is are opposite to the passive sign configuration). we have PR = v 2i2 = ( −25) × ( −1) = 25 W and Ps = v 1i1 = (25) × ( −1) = −25 W. and C: -3 .833 A V = PR = 0. and G are in series.(-10) + ve = 0 ⇒ ve = -2 V E1.15 . B.5 +vc = 0 ⇒ vc = 8 V Then go clockwise around the loop composed of elements C. we have: 9.6 × 10 − 3 )2 / 4 A . Then. elements E.2 m E1. D and E: . By KVL we have vs = vR = 80 V. so we have v2 = -25 V. Also we have PR = v R iR = 160 W.8 mA E1.8 / 1000 = 15.v2 = 0. we have -v1 .14 Using KCL at the top node of the circuit. 2 E1. Using A = πd 2 / 4 and ⇒ L = 17.7 (a) Sum of currents leaving = Sum of currents entering ia = 1 + 3 = 4 A (b) 2 = 1 + 3 + ib ⇒ ib = -2 A ⇒ (c) 0 = 1 + ic + 4 + 3 E1. elements A and B are in series.8 V I = V / R = 15.10 E1. The resistance of a wire is given by R = ρL substituting values.E1.9 ic = -8 A Elements A and B are in series. F. Next we have i1 = i2 = v2/R = -1 A. At the top node we have iR = is = 2A. By Ohm’s law we have vR = RiR = 80 V. using KVL going clockwise. we have i1 = i2.11 Elements E and F are in parallel.

9* P1.9 m/s (c) The energy density of the battery is 172.Answers for Selected Problems P1.6 × 10 5 coulombs Energy = 4.536 × 10 6 joules P1. 3 .22* P1.. Energy = 500 kWh P = 694.20* (a) 30 W (b) 30 W (c) 60 W absorbed absorbed supplied P1. Q =9 C P1.14* i (t ) = 2 + 2t A Q = 2 coulombs (a) h = 17. from a to b). P1.6 km (b) v = 587. (b) P = 50 W taken from element A.384% of the energy density of gasoline.64% P1.4 W Reduction = 8. Electrons move from b to a.12* P1.17* Q = 3.e. (c) P = 50 W delivered to element A.27* I = 5.24* Q = 50 C .787 A (a) P = 50 W taken from element A.7* Electrons are moving in the reference direction (i.8 × 10 3 J/kg which is about 0.

41* P1.42* P1. 19% reduction in power (a) Not contradictory. (b) A 2-A current source in series with a 3-A current source is contradictory.36* P1. Elements A and B are in series.52* P1. id = 4 A . v b = −5 V. ia = −2 A. (e) A 5-V voltage source in parallel with a short circuit is contradictory.P1.34* P1. ic = 1 A if = −3 A v a = −5 V. (c) Not contradictory. 4 . (d) A 2-A current source in series with an open circuit is contradictory.58* P1. ic = 1 A .62* R = 100 Ω. v c = 10 V. ic = 1 A v b = −6 V PA = −20 W PC = 4 W ib = −2 A vc = 4 V PB = 12 W PD = 4 W ie = 5 A i g = −7 A P1.37* Elements E and F are in series.

(e) 1.) PR = 3(ix ) 2 = 0.667 V (b) ix = 0. (d) First.5556 A (c) Pvoltage − source = −10ix = −5. (b) 7. P1.69* v x = 17. (k) 6. (n) 9. (This represents power delivered by the voltage source. we have vR = −IsR = −6 V. PR = 20 W. one on each of the top corners and one along the bottom of the circuit.63 W (absorbed) P1. (c) The circuit has three nodes.64* P1. (c) 16.5 V (a) v x = 10 / 6 = 1.P1. (h) 3. we must find the voltage vI across the current source. (m) 13. Thus.1 (a) 4.556 W. (i) 5. the voltage source is delivering energy.70* The circuit contains a voltage-controlled current source. (o) 14.926 W (absorbed) Pcontrolled − source = 5v x ix = 4. (f) 2. T1. we have PV = −VsIs = −30 W. (g) 8. (b) Because Is enters the negative reference for Vs.2 (a) The current Is = 3 A circulates clockwise through the elements entering the resistance at the negative reference for vR. v s = 15 V Practice Test T1. the current source delivers power. (l) 11. Pvoltage −source = 20 W. We choose the reference shown: 5 . (j) 15. Thus.63* iR = 2A Pcurrent −source = −40 W. Because the result is negative. The voltage source absorbs power. (d) 18. The resistor absorbs power.

4 the problem and solving we find v1 = 8 V. Because the result is negative we know that energy is supplied by this current source. Because the result is positive.33 W. the power the entire circuit. we have − v I +Vs + v R = 0 . we could compute the power delivered to the resistor as PR = I s2R = 18 W. T1. Then. T1. going around the circuit counterclockwise.3 (a) The currents flowing downward through the resistances are vab/R1 and vab/R2. (a) Applying KVL. (b) The power for current source I1 is PI 1 = v ab I1 = −8 × 3 = −24 W . because we must have a total power of zero for Then. we have R2 = v 2 / i = 4 / 2 = 2 Ω. the KCL equation for node a (or node b) is I2 = I1 + Substituting the values given in the question and solving yields vab = −8 V. we have PI = −P V − PR = 30 − 18 = 12 W. we know that energy is absorbed by this current source. The (c) The power absorbed by R1 is PR 1 = v ab v ab v ab + R1 R2 2 power absorbed by R2 is PR 2 = v ab / R2 = ( −8) 2 / 6 = 10. The power for current source I2 is PI 2 = −v ab I 2 = 8 × 1 = 8 W . Because the result is positive. 6 . we have i = v1 / R1 = 8 / 4 = 2 A.67 W. we have −Vs + v 1 + v 2 = 0. Substituting values given in (b) Then applying Ohm's law. which yields v I =Vs + v R = 10 − 6 = 4 V.for the current source is PI = I sv I = 12 W. Then. 2 / R1 = ( −8)2 / 12 = 5. Next. (c) Again applying Ohm's law. Alternatively. the current source is absorbing energy.

Thus.3 × 15 = −3 A. Finally. KCL yields i sc = i x − av x = 1. we have −Vs + v x = 0.5 − 0.5 A.T1. 7 . v x = Vs = 15 V. Next Ohm's law gives ix = v x / R = 15 / 10 = 1.5 Applying KVL.

Electrical Engineering Principles & Applications, 5th, Hambley Solution Manual Chapter 1

Electrical Engineering Principles & Applications, 5th, Hambley Solution Manual Chapter 1

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