# Chapter 4 Tolerancing

Topics Exercises

Tolerancing: Topics
Summary 4.1) Tolerancing and Interchangeability 4.2) Tolerancing Standards 4.3) Tolerance Types 4.4) General Definitions 4.5) Inch Tolerances 4.6) Metric Tolerances 4.7) Selecting Tolerances 4.8) Tolerance Accumulation 4.9) Formatting Tolerances

Tolerancing: Exercises
Exercise 4-1: Inch tolerance definitions Exercise 4-2: Types of fit Exercise 4-3: Determining fit type Exercise 4-4: Limits and fits Exercise 4-5: Milling jack assembly tolerances Exercise 4-6: Millimeter tolerance definitions Exercise 4-7: Metric fit designation Exercise 4-8: Systems Exercise 4-9: Metric limits and fits Exercise 4-10: Tolerance accumulation Exercise 4-11: Over dimensioning

Summary  What will we learn in Chapter 4? → We will learn about tolerancing and how important this technique is to mass production. Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only . it is allowed to vary within a range of values or limits.  Key points → If a feature’s size is toleranced. → Tolerancing enables an engineer to design interchangeable or replacement parts.

1) Tolerancing for Interchangeability Copyright ©2010 by K.Tolerancing 4. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Tolerancing / Interchangeability  Tolerancing is dimensioning for interchangeability. Plantenberg Restricted use only .  What is interchangeability? An interchangeable part is simply a mass produced part (a replacement part). Copyright ©2010 by K.

994 Copyright ©2010 by K. but a range of values. Plantenberg Restricted use only . 1.005 1.Tolerancing / Interchangeability  How is a feature on an interchangeable part dimensioned? → The feature is not dimensioned using a single value.00 → .

Plantenberg Restricted use only .994 = . → You can choose a tolerance that specifies a large or small variation.005 .Tolerancing / Interchangeability  A tolerance is the amount of size variation permitted.994 Tolerance = 1.005 Size limits = .011 Copyright ©2010 by K. 1..

Copyright ©2010 by K.Tolerancing / Interchangeability  Why do we want a part’s size to be controlled by two limits? It is necessary because it is impossible to manufacture parts without some variation. The stated limits are a form of quality control. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

→ Choose a tolerance that is not unnecessarily accurate or excessively inaccurate. Copyright ©2010 by K. → Specify a tolerance with whatever degree of accuracy that is required for the design to work properly. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Tolerancing / Interchangeability  Choosing a tolerance for your design.

Tolerancing / Interchangeability  Choosing the correct tolerance for a particular application depends on: → → → → the design intent (end use) of the part cost how it is manufactured experience Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Plantenberg Restricted use only .2) Tolerancing Standards Copyright ©2010 by K.Tolerancing 4.

Tolerancing Standards
 Standards are needed to;
→ make it possible to manufacture parts at different times and in different places that still assemble properly.

→ establish dimensional limits for parts that are to be interchangeable.

Tolerancing Standards
 The two most common standards agencies are;
→ American National Standards Institute (ANSI) / (ASME) → International Standards Organization (ISO).

Tolerancing

4.3) Tolerance Types

Tolerance Types  The tolerancing methods presented are: → Limit dimensions → Plus or minus tolerances → Page or block tolerances Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → For example.1. Limit Dimensions  Limits are the maximum and minimum size that a part can obtain and still pass inspection. the diameter of a shaft might be specified as follows.

Copyright ©2010 by K. the low limit precedes the high limit. When both limits are placed on one line. Plantenberg Restricted use only .1. Limit Dimension Order  The high limit is placed above the low limit.

2. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K. Plus or Minus Tolerances  Plus or minus tolerances give a basic size and the variation that can occur around that basic size.

Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .3. Page or Block Tolerances  A page tolerance is actually a general note that applies to all dimensions not covered by some other tolerancing type.

4) Shaft-Hole Assembly Copyright ©2010 by K.Tolerancing 4. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Plantenberg Restricted use only .  Both the shaft and the hole are allowed to vary between a maximum and minimum diameter. Copyright ©2010 by K.Shaft-Hole Assembly  Used to illustrate concepts and definitions.

Tolerancing 4.5) Inch Tolerances Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

 Basic Size: The basic size is the size from which the limits are calculated. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K.Inch Tolerances Definitions  Limits: The limits are the maximum and minimum size that the part is allowed to be. → It is common for both the hole and the shaft and is usually the closest fraction.

Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Inch Tolerances Definitions  Tolerance: The tolerance is the total amount a specific dimension is permitted to vary.

Exercise 4-2 Inch tolerance definitions Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Shaft Limits .47 ..49 .04 Copyright ©2010 by K.51 Basic Size . Plantenberg Restricted use only Hole .Skip to next part of the exercise Exercise 4-2  Fill in the following table.50 .01 ..5 or 1/2 Tolerance .

Inch Tolerances Definitions  Maximum Material Condition (MMC): The MMC is the size of the part when it consists of the most material. Copyright ©2010 by K.  Least Material Condition (LMC): The LMC is the size of the part when it consists of the least material. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Exercise 4-2
 Fill in the following table.

MMC LMC

Shaft .51 .47

Hole .49 .50

Inch Tolerances Definitions
 Maximum Clearance: The maximum amount of space that can exist between the hole and the shaft.
→ Max. Clearance = LMChole – LMCshaft

Inch Tolerances Definitions
 Minimum Clearance (Allowance): The minimum amount of space that can exist between the hole and the shaft.
→ Min. Clearance = MMChole – MMCshaft

50 . Max.51 = -. Plantenberg Restricted use only .49 ..02 .03 ..47 = .Exercise 4-2  Fill in the following table. Clearance Copyright ©2010 by K. Clearance Min.

Clearance Copyright ©2010 by K.51 = -.02 . Plantenberg Restricted use only ..50 .03 .49 . Clearance Min..Exercise 4-2  What does a negative clearance mean? Max.47 = .

Types of Fits  There are four major types of fits. → → → → Clearance Fit Interference Fit Transition Fit Line Fit Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Min. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Types of Fits  What is a clearance fit? There is always a space. Clearance > 0 Copyright ©2010 by K.

Types of Fits  What is an interference fit? There is never a space. Clearance  0 Copyright ©2010 by K. Max. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Types of Fits  What is a transition fit? Depending on the sizes of the shaft and hole there could be a space or no space. Max. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Clearance < 0 Copyright ©2010 by K. Clearance > 0 Min.

Clearance = 0 Copyright ©2010 by K. Clearance > 0 Min. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Types of Fits  What is a line fit? There is a space or a contact (hole dia = shaft dia) Max.

Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-3 Types of fits Copyright ©2010 by K.

list some examples of clearance and interference fits. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-3  From everyday life. Fit Clearance Example Lock and Key Door and Door frame Coin and Coin slot Pin in a bicycle chain Hinge pin Interference Wooden peg and hammer toy Copyright ©2010 by K.

Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-4 Determining fit type Copyright ©2010 by K.

750 . Plantenberg Restricted use only ..250 Hole Limits 1.503 .505 .5 .25 Type of fit Clearance Interference Transition Line Copyright ©2010 by K.375 . Shaft Limits 1.1.Exercise 4-4  Determine the basic size and type of fit given the limits for the shaft and hole.378 .500 ..371 ..498 .751 ..75 .1.247 .373 ..747 .250 .375 .755 .255 Basic Size 1..

Plantenberg Restricted use only .ANSI Standard Limits and Fits  The following fit types and classes are in accordance with the ANSI B4.1-1967 (R1994) standard. Copyright ©2010 by K.

• See table 4-2 for a more detailed description. → Intended to provide running performance with suitable lubrication. → RC9 (loosest) – RC1 (tightest) Copyright ©2010 by K.ANSI Standard Limits and Fits  RC: Running or Sliding Clearance fit. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

LN). LT.ANSI Standard Limits and Fits  Locational fits (LC. • See table 4-3 for a more detailed description. • LC = Locational clearance fits • LT = Locational transition fits • LN = Locational interference fits Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → Locational fits are intended to determine only the location of the mating parts.

• See table 4-4 for a more detailed description.ANSI Standard Limits and Fits  FN: Force Fits. → FN1 – FN5 (tightest) Copyright ©2010 by K. → Force fits provide a constant bore pressure throughout the range of sizes. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-5 Limits and fits Copyright ©2010 by K.

Copyright ©2010 by K. → Use the ANSI limits and fit tables given in Appendix A. Plantenberg Restricted use only .50 inches and a fit of RC8.Exercise 4-5  Given a basic size of . calculate the limits for both the hole and the shaft.

5 Fit = RC8 .Page A-2 Basic size = .

5 0 -5.8 → Standard Limits Shaft = -3. → Standard Limits Hole = +2.50 inches and a fit of RC8.Exercise 4-5  Given a basic size of . calculate the limits forare both What thethe units? hole and the shaft. Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only . See page A-1.1  These are the values that we add/subtract from the basic size to obtain the limits.

50 .4949 Copyright ©2010 by K..50 . → Hole Limts = .Exercise 4-5  Given a basic size of .0028 = . calculate the limits for both the hole and the shaft.50 inches and a fit of RC8.4965 . Plantenberg Restricted use only .5000 .0035 = .0 = .0051 = .50 + .5028 → Shaft Limits = ..50 .

Exercise 4-6 Milling Jack assembly tolerances Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

→ Each of these parts is toleranced to ensure proper fit and function.Exercise 4-6  Consider the Milling Jack assembly shown. Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → Notice that there are many parts that fit into or around other parts.

Determine the limits for both parts.The V-Anvil fits into the Sliding Screw with a RC4 fit. The basic size is . .375 (3/8).

3739 .The V-Anvil fits into the Sliding Screw with a RC4 fit.3759 ...3745 . The basic size is .375 (3/8).3750 . What are the limits? .

625 (5/8). . Determine the limits for both parts. The basic size is .The Sliding Screw fits into the Base with a RC5 fit.

What are the limits? .The Sliding Screw fits into the Base with a RC5 fit..6231 .626 .625 (5/8). The basic size is ..6238 .625 .

Tolerancing 4. Plantenberg Restricted use only .6) Metric Tolerances Copyright ©2010 by K.

MMC and LMC have the same definition as in the inch tolerance section. Tolerance. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Basic Size.Metric Tolerances Definitions  Limits. Copyright ©2010 by K.

Exercise 4-7 Millimeter tolerance definitions Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

1 – 2.2 .2 Basic Size 2 Tolerance 0. Shaft Limits 2.0 0.8 – 2.Skip to next part of the exercise Exercise 4-7  Fill in the following table. Plantenberg Restricted use only Hole 1.1 Copyright ©2010 by K.

Metric Tolerances Definitions  Upper deviation: The upper deviation is the difference between the basic size and the permitted maximum size of the part. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → UD = |basic size – Dmax| Copyright ©2010 by K.

Metric Tolerances Definitions  Lower deviation: The lower deviation is the difference between the basic size and the minimum permitted size of the part. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → LD = |basic size – Dmin| Copyright ©2010 by K.

→ A letter in the fit specification represents the fundamental deviation. → The fundamental deviation is the smaller of the UD and the LD.Metric Tolerances Definitions  Fundamental deviation: The fundamental deviation is the closest deviation to the basic size. Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11 Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

1 Hole 0 0.Exercise 4-7  Fill in the following table. Plantenberg Restricted use only Shaft 0.2 0 . UD LD FD Copyright ©2010 by K.2 0.1 0.

Exercise 4-7  Fill in the following table. Type of fit Interference Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11 Copyright ©2010 by K.Metric Tolerances Definitions  International tolerance grade number (IT#): The IT#’s are a set of tolerances that vary according to the basic size and provide the same relative level of accuracy within a given grade. → A smaller number provides a smaller tolerance. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → The number in the fit specification represents the IT#.

Metric Tolerances Definitions  Tolerance zone: The fundamental deviation in combination with the IT# defines the tolerance zone. → The IT# establishes the magnitude of the tolerance zone or the amount that the dimension can vary. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11 Copyright ©2010 by K. → The fundamental deviation establishes the position of the tolerance zone with respect to the basic size.

ANSI Standard Limits and Fits  The following fit types are in accordance with the ANSI B4. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K.2-1978 (R1994) standard.

Plantenberg Restricted use only S7/h6 U7/h6 Medium drive Force . H7/h6 H7/k6 or H7/n6 H7/p6 H7/h6 K7/h6 or N7/h6 P7/h6 Shaft Basis C11/h11 Fit Loose running Locational clearance Locational transition Locational interference H7/s6 H7/u6 Copyright ©2010 by K.Available Metric Fits Hole Basis H11/c11 The difference between Hole H9/d9 D9/h9 Free running and Shaft Basis Fits will be H8/f7 Close running discussed inF8/h7 an upcoming H7/g6 G7/h6 Sliding section.

Plantenberg Restricted use only .  Remember! → IT# = the amount that the dimension can vary (tolerance zone size). → Fundamental deviation (letter) = establishes the position of the tolerance zone with respect to the basic size.Tolerance Designation  A Metric fit is specified by stating the fundamental deviation and the IT#. • Hole = upper case • Shaft = lower case Copyright ©2010 by K.

Plantenberg Restricted use only .  When specifying the fit: →The hole = upper case letter →The shaft = lower case letter Ex: Metric Fit = H11/c11 Copyright ©2010 by K.Tolerance Designation  Fits are specified by using the: →fundamental deviation (letter) →IT# (International Tolerance Grade #).

Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-8 Metric fit designation Copyright ©2010 by K.

Basic size Hole Tolerance Zone Shaft Tolerance Zone Fundamental Deviation IT# .Fill in the appropriate name for the fit component.

the basic hole system and the basic shaft system. Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Basic Hole / Basic Shaft Systems  Metric limits and fits are divided into two different systems.

or another standard tool. if you want to tolerance a shaft based on a hole produced by a standard drill. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → For example. Copyright ©2010 by K. reamer. broach.Basic Hole / Basic Shaft Systems  Basic hole system: The basic hole system is used when you want the basic size to be attached to the hole dimension.

Copyright ©2010 by K.Basic Hole / Basic Shaft Systems  Basic shaft system: The basic shaft system is used when you want the basic size to be attached to the shaft dimension. → For example. if you want to tolerance a hole based on the size of a purchased a standard drill rod. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

000 39.949 Interference Shaft Copyright ©2010 by K.021 60.000 . Plantenberg Restricted use only .000 .002 .022 Type of Fit System Clearance Transition Hole Hole 60.924 .9.030 39.Exercise 4-9  Identify the type of fit and the system used to determine the limits of the following shaft and hole pairs Shaft 9.60.40.987 Hole 10.60.10.39.984 .972 .

Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-10 Metric limits and fits Copyright ©2010 by K.

Exercise 4-10  Find the limits. Copyright ©2010 by K. tolerance. and type of system for a n30 H11/c11 fit. type of fit. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → Use the tolerance tables given in Appendix A.

Page A-8 .

890 Hole 30.000 . Limits Tolerance 0. and type of system for a n30 H11/c11 fit.13 Hole System Clearance – Loose Running Fit Shaft 29.29.760 . type of fit. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-10  Find the limits.130 Copyright ©2010 by K. tolerance.30.13 0.

tolerance. type of fit.Exercise 4-10  Find the limits. Copyright ©2010 by K. → Use the tolerance tables given in Appendix A. Plantenberg Restricted use only . and type of system for a n30 P7/h6 fit.

Page A-11 .

013 0. tolerance. Limits Tolerance 0.30.Exercise 4-10  Find the limits.986 Copyright ©2010 by K. and type of system for a n30 P7/h6 fit.987 . type of fit.000 Hole 29.021 Shaft System Locational Interference Fit Shaft 29. Plantenberg Restricted use only .965 – 29.

Tolerancing 4. Plantenberg Restricted use only .7) Selecting Tolerances Copyright ©2010 by K.

Selecting Tolerances  Tolerances will govern the method of manufacturing. → When the tolerances are reduced. → Specify as generous a tolerance as possible without interfering with the function of the part. the cost of manufacturing rises very rapidly. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K.

bearing load. humidity. temperature. lubrication.Selecting Tolerances  Choosing the most appropriate tolerance depends on many factors such as. and material.  Experience also plays a significant role. speed. Plantenberg Restricted use only . → → → → → → → length of engagement. Copyright ©2010 by K.

Tolerancing 4.8) Tolerance Accumulation Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K.Tolerance Accumulation  The tolerance between two features of a part depends on the number of controlling dimensions.

Tolerance Accumulation  The distance could be controlled by a single dimension or multiple dimensions. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K.

Tolerance Accumulation  The maximum variation between two features is equal to the sum of the tolerances placed on the controlling dimensions. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K.

the tolerance accumulation increases. Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Tolerance Accumulation  As the number of controlling dimensions increases.

Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K. it has an implied tolerance.Tolerance Accumulation  Remember. even if the dimension does not have a stated tolerance.

Exercise 4-11 Tolerance Accumulation Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Exercise 4-11  What is the tolerance accumulation for the distance between surface A and B for the following three dimensioning methods? Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

3 .70  0.

.

.

.

70  0.2 .

.

8 .1 69.9 40.109.

1 .70  0.

Exercise 4-11  If the accuracy of the distance between surface A and B is important. which dimensioning method should be used? Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Plantenberg Restricted use only .Exercise 4-12 Over dimensioning Copyright ©2010 by K.

explain why this object is dimensioned incorrectly.Assuming that the diameter dimensions are correct. .

98 – 3. 2.01 This part is over dimensioned.1.98 + . Formatting tolerances will be discussed next. The dimensions are inconsistent.01+1.00 = 3.97 2. .00 1.99 = 2. 2. The decimal places don’t match.

9) Formatting Tolerances Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .Tolerancing 4.

The person reading the print has to have access to the standard fit tables.Formatting Metric Tolerances  Tolerances from standardized fit tables are listed on drawings as. Copyright ©2010 by K. Plantenberg Restricted use only .

Formatting Metric Tolerances  Unilateral tolerances → A single zero without a plus or minus sign. Plantenberg Restricted use only . Copyright ©2010 by K.

Formatting Metric Tolerances
 Bilateral tolerances

→ Both the plus and minus values have the same number of decimal places.

Formatting Metric Tolerances
 Limit dimensions

→ Both values should have the same number of decimal places.

Formatting Metric Tolerances
 Using Basic dimensions with the tolerance

→ The number of decimal places in the basic dimension does not have to match the number of decimal places in the tolerance.