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A. Kwanta Panthongprasert Albert Laurence School of Communication Arts Department of Advertising 2010
• Basic Concepts of Brand Positioning • Target Market
– Segmentation bases – Criteria
• Positioning Guidelines
– Defining and communicating the competitive frame of reference – Choosing and establishing points of parity and points of difference
• Defining and Establishing Brand Mantras
– Core brand associations – Brand mantras
• Keller, Kevin L. (2003), Strategic Brand Management: Building, Measuring, and Managing Brand Equity (second ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. • Aaker, David A. (2002), Building Strong Brands. New York: Free Pr. • Aaker, David A., Joachimsthaler E. (2002), Brand Leadership. New York: Free Pr. • Haig M., (2005), Brand Failures: the truth about the 100 biggest branding mistakes of all time. London: Kogan.
Brand Positioning Positioning: identifying and establishing points of parity and points of difference to establish the right brand identity and brand image. .
“no reason why not” .Basic Concept Unique. meaningful points of difference provide a competitive advantage and “reason why” consumers should buy the brand.
• Position = Location (finding proper location of the product in the consumer’s minds) .• Brand Positioning: is at the heart of marketing strategy. It is the ‘act of designing the company’s offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the target customer’s minds.
How it is different? And why consumers should purchase and use it? .
So. How the brand is different from them? . Who the main competitors are? 3. Who the target consumer is? 2. marketers need to know… 1. How the brand is similar to these competitors? 4.
• Market Segmentation: divided the market into distinct groups of homogeneous consumers who have similar needs and consumer behavior.Target Market • Market: is the set of all actual and potential buyers who have sufficient interest in. income for. . and access to a product.
Segmentation Bases • Descriptive or customer-oriented: what kind of person or organization the customer is • Behavioral or product-oriented: how the customer thinks of or uses the brand or product .
Descriptive or customer-oriented Who? Consumers VS Business Buyers .
Consumer Segmentation Bases • Behavioral – – – – – – – – – – User status Usage rate Usage location Brand loyalty Benefit sought Income Age Sex Race Family • Psychographic – Value. opinions. and attitudes – Activities and lifestyle • Demographic • Geographic • International • regional .
Business-to-business Segmentation Bases • Nature of good – Kind – Where used – Type of buy • Demographic – SIC code – Number of employees – Number of production workers – Annual sales volume – Number of establishments • Buying condition – Purchase location – Who buys – Type of buy .
Behavioral or product-oriented How? **Depend on each product category** .
EX: Toothpaste 1. The sociables: seeking brightness of teeth 3. The worriers: seeking decay prevention 4. The independent segment: seeking low price . The sensory segment: seeking flavor and product appearance 2.
Who the main competitors are? .
How the brand is similar to these competitors? How the brand is different from them? • Points of parity: associations that are not unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands. • Points of difference: attributes or benefits that consumers strongly associate with a brand and they believe that they could not find from a competitive brand .
carbonated drink. general beverage – Ex: Kellogg’s Corn Flakes – cereal.Positioning Guidelines • Designing and communicating the competitive frame of reference – To determine category membership – Which products does the brand complete? – Different categories will lead to different points of parity and points of difference – Ex: PDA – smart phone. snack. palm – Ex: Coca cola – soft drink. laptop. morning meal .
Positioning Guidelines • Choosing points of difference – Desirability criteria • Relevance • Distinctiveness • Believability – Deliverability criteria • Feasibility • Communicability • Sustainability .
Positioning Guidelines • Establishing Points of Parity and Points of Difference – Separate the attributes – Leverage equity of another entity – Redefine the relationship .
Positioning Guidelines • Updating positioning over time – Laddering: how to deepen the meaning of the brand to tap into core brand associations or more abstract considerations – Reacting: how to respond to competitive challenges that threaten an existing positioning • Do nothing • Go on the defensive • Go on the offensive .
Exercise • Pick 2 big brands in the same category • Evaluate the positioning of each brand. – Who are the target markets? • Who and how? – What are their main points of parity and points of difference? • Both performance and imagery – Have they defined their positioning correctly? – How might it be improved? .
Defining and Establishing Brand Mantras .
Core Brand Associations Core Brand Associations: are those abstract associations that characterize the 5 to 10 most important aspects or dimensions of a brand. . They can serve as the basis of brand positioning in terms of how they create points of parity and points of difference.
• Group brand associations into related categories with descriptive labels .How do we know core brand associations? • Create mental map: all salient brand associations and responses for a particular target market.
MTV mental map trendsetter popular changing mainstream trusting leader MTV original Real and genuine For me Fun and entertaining young Hip and cool Irreverent and rebellious interactive informative music lifestyle Live and immediate connected .Ex.
trusting. reality • Community – Share experience • Personality – Irrelevant. hip.Ex. MTV core brand associations • Music – What’s hot and what’s new • Interactivity – Connected and participatory • Credibility – Expert. for everyone • Originality – Genuine. creative • Fluidity – Always changing and evolving . immediate • Accessibility – Relevant. cool • Spontaneity – Up to the minute.
Folks and Fun” .Brand Mantras Heart & Soul Core brand promise Similar to brand essence 3 – 5 words that captures spirit of the brand Ex: McDonald’s brand philosophy: “Food.
entertainment – Descriptive modifier: further clarifies its nature ex: Nike – athletic (not just typical performance) ex: Disney -.family – Emotional modifier: provide another qualifier. benefits the brand provides ex: Nike – performance ex: Disney -.fun .Designing Brand Mantra • What the brand is and what is not!!! – Brand function: nature of product. how exactly does the brand provide benefits and in what ways? ex: Nike – Authentic ex: Disney -.
Implementing Brand Mantra • Communicate: a good brand mantra should both define the category of business to set the brand boundaries and clarify what is unique about the brand • Simplify: an effective bran mantra should be memorable. vivid • Inspire: the brand mantra should also stake out ground that is personally meaningful and relevant to as many employees and possible . short.